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Sample records for allowed beta transitions

  1. Lorentz violation in neutron and allowed nuclear beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Noordmans, J P; Timmermans, R G E

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the weak interaction violates Lorentz, and in particular rotational, invariance in neutron and allowed nuclear beta decay. A broad class of Lorentz-violating effects is considered, in which the standard propagator of the W-boson acquires an additional Lorentz-violating tensor. The general decay rate for allowed beta decay that incorporates such a modified propagator is derived. The resulting Lorentz-violating signals are discussed for the different types of beta-decay transitions, Fermi, Gamow-Teller, and mixed. We study the implications of our formalism for dedicated beta-decay experiments. We give a short overview of the few relevant experiments that have been performed or are ongoing.

  2. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  3. Intercombination and allowed transitions in OIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on large-scale ab initio multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for important multiplets including the UV 0.01 multiplet, 2s22p2PJ-2s2p24PJ', in OIV. The resulting transition probabilities should be accurate to ±5%-10% for intersystem lines and 1% or better for permitted lines. We present new calculations of line emission coefficients using these transition probabilities and collisional rate coefficients published by Zhang, Graziani, ampersand Pradhan in 1994. We readdress the use of these lines as diagnostics of electron densities, paying particular attention to uncertainties in density determinations. We find (1) the absolute uncertainties in derived densities are difficult to assess, but are at least ±40%, controlled by uncertainties in collision strengths; (2) our new calculations bring observed and computed line ratios into better agreement (earlier papers yielding systematically different densities make the agreement worse); (3) there is additional evidence for strong blends in the 1404.8 emission feature, as argued by other authors, and/or evidence for inaccurate laboratory wavelengths; and (4) the computed branching ratios are in good agreement with observed ratios to within observational uncertainties of ±7%. We determine electron densities in a variety of solar features from HRTS data from the first and second flights of this instrument. The derived electron densities vary remarkably little between quiet Sun network and active regions, but resonance line intensities vary dramatically, and we discuss reasons for this. We discuss how new high-quality data from the SUMER instrument to be flown on Solar and Heliosphereic Observatory (SOHO) could be used to address outstanding problems concerning blends and heating of the solar transition region. copyright 1996 The American Astronomical Society

  4. Nuclear Zemach Moments and Finite-Size Corrections to Allowed Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X B; Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    The finite-size correction to $\\beta$-decay plays an important role in determining the expected antineutrino spectra from reactors at a level that is important for the reactor-neutrino anomaly. Here we express the leading-order finite-size correction to allowed $\\beta$-decay in terms of Zemach moments. We calculate the Zemach moments within a Hartree-Fock model using a Skyrme-like energy density functional. We find that the Zemach moments are increased relative to predictions based on the simple assumption of identical uniform nuclear-charge and weak-transition densities. However, for allowed ground-state to ground-state transitions in medium and heavy nuclei, the detailed nuclear structure calculations do not change the finite-size corrections significantly from the simple model predictions, and are only 10-15% larger than the latter even though the densities differ significantly.

  5. Super-allowed Fermi beta-decay revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, D H

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of J suppi=0 sup +->0 sup + super-allowed Fermi transitions is limited with respect to the precision of its outcome in terms of the Fermi coupling constant neither by the accuracy of the experimental input data nor by the confidence with which the radiative corrections can be applied but rather by knowledge of the nuclear mismatch: the subversion of isospin symmetry along the multiplets. Theoretical estimates of this mismatch differ considerably from to their direct nuclide-by-nuclide application results in an apparent clear violation of the hypothesis of conservation of the vector current and evident inconsistency with unitary of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This paper pursues and elaborates the earlier suggestion that, in these unsatisfactory circumstances, the best procedure is to look to the experimental data themselves to determine and eliminate the mismatch by appropriate extrapolation to Z approx 0 where the mismatch falls away. This is done: (i) without any prior correction for misma...

  6. Allowed and forbidden transitions in artificial hydrogen and helium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Austing, David Guy; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Hirayama, Yoshiro; Tarucha, Seigo

    2002-09-19

    The strength of radiative transitions in atoms is governed by selection rules that depend on the occupation of atomic orbitals with electrons. Experiments have shown similar electron occupation of the quantized energy levels in semiconductor quantum dots--often described as artificial atoms. But unlike real atoms, the confinement potential of quantum dots is anisotropic, and the electrons can easily couple with phonons of the material. Here we report electrical pump-and-probe experiments that probe the allowed and 'forbidden' transitions between energy levels under phonon emission in quantum dots with one or two electrons (artificial hydrogen and helium atoms). The forbidden transitions are in fact allowed by higher-order processes where electrons flip their spin. We find that the relaxation time is about 200 micro s for forbidden transitions, 4 to 5 orders of magnitude longer than for allowed transitions. This indicates that the spin degree of freedom is well separated from the orbital degree of freedom, and that the total spin in the quantum dots is an excellent quantum number. This is an encouraging result for potential applications of quantum dots as basic entities for spin-based quantum information storage.

  7. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei (UC)

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  8. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for bound-bound transitions in Fe XV is presented. The allowed electric dipole (E1) transitions were obtained from the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method which is based on the close coupling approximation. A total of 507 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 0 ≤ J ≤ 10 are found. They agree within 1% with the available observed energies. These energy levels yield a total of 27,812 E1, same-spin multiplets and intercombination transitions. The A values are in good agreement with those compiled by NIST and other existing values for most transitions. Forbidden transitions are obtained from a set of 20 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 5f using the relativistic code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS) in the Breit-Pauli approximation. From a set of 123 fine structure levels, a total of 6962 S and A values are presented for forbidden electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions. The energies from SS calculations agree with observed energies to within 1-3%. A values for E2, M1 transitions agree very well with the available values for most transitions while those for M2 transitions show variable agreement. The large set of transition parameters presented should be applicable for both diagnostics and spectral modeling in the X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical regions of astrophysical plasmas.

  9. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative transitions for photo-excitations and de-excitations in Fe XXII are studied in the relativistic Breit-Pauli approximation. A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for electric dipole (E1), same spin multiplicity and intercombination, fine structure transitions is presented. These are obtained from the first calculations in the close coupling approximation using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method for this ion, all existing theoretical results having been obtained from various other atomic structure calculations. The present work obtains a set of 771 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 1/2 ≤ J ≤ 17/2, only 52 of which have been observed. The f, S, and A values are reported for 70,372 allowed E1 transitions, exceeding by far those published previously. The calculated fine structure levels have been identified spectroscopically using a procedure based on quantum defect analysis. The energies agree with the available observed energies to within less than one to a few percent. The A values for E1 transitions are in good agreement with other existing values for most transitions. Using the atomic structure code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS), S and A values are also presented for 38,215 forbidden transitions of the types electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) among 274 fine structure levels formed from 25 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 4f. Some of these levels lie above the ionization limit and hence can form autoionizing lines. Such lines for 1s-2p Kα transitions have been observed in experiments. The energies from the SS calculations agree with observed energies within a few percent. The A values for E2 and M1 transitions agree very well with the available values. The atomic parameters for both allowed and forbidden transitions should be applicable for diagnostics as well as complete

  10. Pressure phase lines and enthalpies for the. cap alpha. -. beta. and. beta. -liquid transitions in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abey, A.

    1984-10-31

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transition temperatures in Be was measured in a gas pressure system. Differential thermal analysis was used in the pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 GPa. For the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. transition, dT/dP = 43 +- 7 K/GPa; for the ..beta..-liquid transition, dT/dP = 35 +- 7 K/GPa. Although it is possible that large systematic errors may arise from experimental procedures, our results are seriously at odds with those of other investigators. Transition enthalpies for the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transitions were 1.9 +- 0.2 and 2.2 +- 0.2 kcal/g.m., respectively, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa.

  11. Oscillator Strengths of Allowed and Intercombination Transitions in Neutral Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    We have calculated oscillator strengths and transition probabilities of electric-dipole allowed and intercombination transitions from fine-structure levels of the ground 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 4) configuration to the levels belonging to configurations 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 3)4s, 3s(sup 2) 3p(sup 3)5s, 3(sup 2)3p(sup 3)3d, 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 3)4d of neutral sulfur. Extensive configuration-interaction wave functions are used to represent these levels. The relativistic corrections have been included through the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The results are compared with previous theoretical calculations and with measurements.

  12. Minimally allowed beta beata 0_nu rates from approximate flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay ({beta}{beta}0{nu}) is the only realistic probe of Majorana neutrinos. In the standard scenario, dominated by light neutrino exchange, the process amplitude is proportional to m{sub ee} , the e - e element of the Majorana mass matrix. This is expected to hold true for small {beta}{beta}{nu} rates ({Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}}), even in the presence of new physics. Naively, current data allows for vanishing m{sub ee} , but this should be protected by an appropriate flavor symmetry. All such symmetries lead to mass matrices inconsistent with oscillation phenomenology. Hence, Majorana neutrinos imply nonzero {Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}}. I perform a spurion analysis to break all possible abelian symmetries that guarantee {Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}} = 0 and search for minimally allowed m{sub ee} values. Specifically, I survey 259 broken structures to yield m{sub ee} values and current phenomenological constraints under a variety of scenarios. This analysis also extracts predictions for both neutrino oscillation parameters and kinematic quantities. Assuming reasonable tuning levels, I find that m{sub ee} > 4 x 10{sup -6} eV at 99% confidence. Bounds below this value would indicate the Dirac neutrino nature or the existence of new light (eV-MeV scale) degrees of freedom that can potentially be probed elsewhere. This limit can be raised by improvements in neutrino parameter measurements, particularly of the reactor mixing angle, depending on the best fit parameter values. Such improvements will also significantly constrain the available model space and aid in future constructions.

  13. Bootstrap transition to high beta equilibrium in helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown theoretically and computationally that helical magnetic field, produced by continuous winding helical coils and without the toroidal coil, can sustain MHD stable high beta plasma. Pressure driven toroidal current (bootstrap current) cancels the external magnetic field and reduces the MHD potential energy, depending on the plasma beta values. Ramp-up of heating power input induces bootstrap transition to higher beta plasmas with flat-top pressure profiles. Helical pitch parameter dependence of MHD stability is analyzed. (author)

  14. Shape of 3- → 2+ beta transition of 154Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the choice of wrong end-point energy in the shape analysis is demonstrated in the case of the 3- → 2+ beta transition of 154Eu. The perfect correlation between Wsub(o) and D is studied. The present analysis yields Y = 1 125 +- 0.22 for an end-point energy of 1844 +- 2 KeV. The highly K-forbidden beta transition is well fitted into modified Bsub(ij) approximation. (author)

  15. Oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions in neutral sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 50311 (United States)

    2006-06-28

    A B-spline box-based multi-channel method for treating Rydberg series is applied for systematic calculations of transition probabilities in neutral sulfur for energy levels up to n = 12. Extensive configuration-interaction wavefunctions in close-coupling form are used to represent the atomic levels. Special attention is paid to the treatment of inner-core and core-valence correlations at the same level of accuracy for all states. Non-orthogonal sets of one-electron radial functions are used to account for the strong term dependence of these orbitals. Relativistic effects are included through correction terms of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The agreement in the length and velocity gauges of the transition data and the accuracy of the binding energies are used to estimate the accuracy of our results, which are also compared with previous theoretical predictions, experimental measurements, and values predicted from astrophysical data.

  16. Shrinking light to allow forbidden transitions on the atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Nicholas; Kaminer, Ido; Zhen, Bo; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-07-01

    The diversity of light-matter interactions accessible to a system is limited by the small size of an atom relative to the wavelength of the light it emits, as well as by the small value of the fine-structure constant. We developed a general theory of light-matter interactions with two-dimensional systems supporting plasmons. These plasmons effectively make the fine-structure constant larger and bridge the size gap between atom and light. This theory reveals that conventionally forbidden light-matter interactions—such as extremely high-order multipolar transitions, two-plasmon spontaneous emission, and singlet-triplet phosphorescence processes—can occur on very short time scales comparable to those of conventionally fast transitions. Our findings may lead to new platforms for spectroscopy, sensing, and broadband light generation, a potential testing ground for quantum electrodynamics (QED) in the ultrastrong coupling regime, and the ability to take advantage of the full electronic spectrum of an emitter.

  17. Beta relaxation of nonpolymeric liquids close to the glass transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric beta relaxation in a pyridine-toluene solution is studied close to the glass transition. Loss peak frequency and maximum loss both exhibit thermal hysteresis. An annealing-state-independent parameter involving loss and loss peak frequency is identified. This parameter has a simple...

  18. Phase-integral method allowing nearlying transition points

    CERN Document Server

    Fröman, Nanny

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of the phase-integral method developed by the present au­ thors has been shown both analytically and numerically in many publica­ tions. With the inclusion of supplementary quantities, closely related to new Stokes constants and obtained with the aid of comparison equation technique, important classes of problems in which transition points may approach each other become accessible to accurate analytical treatment. The exposition in this monograph is of a mathematical nature but has important physical applications, some examples of which are found in the adjoined papers. Thus, we would like to emphasize that, although we aim at mathematical rigor, our treatment is made primarily with physical needs in mind. To introduce the reader into the background of this book, we start by de­ scribing the phase-integral approximation of arbitrary order generated from an unspecified base function. This is done in Chapter 1, which is reprinted, after minor changes, from a review article. Chapter 2 is the re...

  19. Perturbative description of nuclear double beta decay transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bes, D. R.; Civitarese, O.; Scoccola, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    A consistent treatment of intrinsic and collective coordinates is applied to the calculation of matrix elements describing nuclear double beta decay transitions. The method, which was developed for the case of nuclear rotations, is adapted to include isospin and number of particles degrees of freedom. It is shown that the uncertainties found in most models, in dealing with these decay modes, are largely due to the mixing of physical and spurious effects in the treatment of isospin dependent i...

  20. First-forbidden transitions and stellar $\\beta$-decay rates of Zn and Ge isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Stoica, Sabin; Iftikhar, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    First-forbidden (FF) charge-changing transitions become relatively important for nuclei as their proton number increases. This is because the strength of allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions decreases with increasing Z. The FF transitions play an important role in reducing the half-lives as against those calculated from taking the GT transitions alone into account. In this paper we calculate allowed GT as well as $0^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{-}$ and $0^{+} \\rightarrow 2^{-}$ transitions for neutron-rich Zn and Ge isotopes. Two different pn-QRPA models were used with a schematic separable interaction to calculate GT and FF transitions. Half-lives calculated after inclusion of FF transitions were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Our calculations were also compared to previous QRPA calculations and were found to be in better agreement with measured data. Stellar $\\beta$-decay rates were calculated for these nuclei including allowed GT and unique FF transitions for astrophysical applications. $^{86,88...

  1. Search for $\\beta$-transitions with the lowest decay energy for a determination of the neutrino mass

    CERN Multimedia

    From a variety of $\\beta$-transitions only those with decay energies of a few keV and smaller are considered suitable for a determination of the neutrino mass on a sub-eV level. The decay energy of a transition can be very small, if, e.g., in an allowed $\\beta$-decay or electron-capture transition, a nuclear excited state of the daughter nuclide is populated whose energy is very close to the mass difference of the transition nuclides. Investigation of these transitions can also be useful for the assessment of a validity of the current $\\beta$-decay theory in the region of vanishingly small decay energies. The authors of this proposal have found several such $\\beta$-transitions whose decay energies are expected to be extremely small. In order to assess the suitability of these $\\beta$-transitions for the determination of the neutrino mass, measurements of the mass differences of the transition nuclides must be carried out with a sub-keV uncertainty. Presently, only high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry...

  2. Systematic study of the single-state dominance in 2 nu beta beta decay transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Civitarese, O

    1999-01-01

    The single-state-dominance hypothesis (SSDH) states that the decay rates of the two-neutrino double-beta decay are governed by a virtual two-step transition connecting the initial and final ground states through the first 1 sup + state, 1 sup + sub 1 , of the intermediate odd-odd nucleus, for those odd-odd nuclei where the 1 sup + sub 1 state is the ground state. To investigate the validity of the SSDH we have performed a systematical theoretical analysis of all known double-beta-decay transitions where the SSDH conditions are fulfilled. The calculations are based on the quasiparticle randon-phase approximation (QRPA) and the results have been obtained by using realistic single-particle bases and realistic interactions. We have studied the double beta sup - decays of sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Mo, sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 Pd, sup 1 sup 1 sup 4 Cd, sup 1 sup 1 sup 6 Cd and sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te and the double electron-capture transitions in sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Cd and sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Ce. The analysis shows that the SSDH is real...

  3. Amino acid preference against beta sheet through allowing backbone hydration enabled by the presence of cation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharley, John N

    2016-01-01

    It is known that steric blocking by peptide sidechains of hydrogen bonding, HB, between water and peptide groups, PGs, in beta sheets accords with an amino acid intrinsic beta sheet preference. The present observations with Quantum Molecular Dynamics, QMD, simulation with quantum mechanical treatment of every water molecule solvating a beta sheet that would be transient in nature suggest that this steric blocking is not applicable in a hydrophobic region unless a cation is present, so that the amino acid beta sheet preference due to this steric blocking is only effective in the presence of a cation. We observed backbone hydration in a polyalanine and to a lesser extent polyvaline alpha helix without a cation being present, but a cation could increase the strength of these HBs. Parallel beta sheets have a greater tendency than antiparallel beta sheets of equivalent small size to retain regular structure in solvated QMD, and a 4 strand 4 inter-PG HB chain parallel beta sheet was used. Stability was reinforced b...

  4. Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions in excited He atoms induced by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections σ and the corresponding Maxwellian rate coefficients have been calculated for spin-allowed and spin-forbidden n-n' transitions between excited states with the principal quantum number, n, n'=2,3 and 4 in He induced by electron impact. Calculations have been performed using the Coulomb-Born approximation with exchange (CBE) in the partial wave representation with orthogonalized wavefunctions of the initial and final states for the incident electron energies from threshold up to 2000 eV for spin-allowed transitions (ΔS=0) and up to 200 eV for spin-forbidden (intercombination, ΔS=1) transitions where the corresponding cross sections are still relatively large. The fitting parameters for σ and of spin-allowed transitions have been calculated as well. The results are compared with experimental data and other calculations available. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Atomic data from the Iron Project. LIII. Relativistic allowed and forbidden transition probabilities for Fe XVII

    CERN Document Server

    Nahar, S N; Chen, G X; Pradhan, A K; Nahar, Sultana N.; Eissner, Werner; Chen, Guo-Xin; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive set of fine structure levels and corresponding transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XVII is presented. A total of 490 bound energy levels of Fe XVII of total angular momenta 0 <= J <= 7 of even and odd parities with 2 <= n <= 10, 0 <= l <= 8, 0 <= L <= 8, and singlet and triplet multiplicities, are obtained. They translate to over 2.6 x 10^4 allowed (E1) transitions that are of dipole and intercombination type, and about 3000 forbidden transitions that include electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), electric octopole (E3), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) type representing the most detailed calculations to date for the ion. Oscillator strengths f, line strengths S, and coefficients A of spontaneous emission for the E1 type transitions are obtained in the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix approximation. A valus for the forbidden transitions are obtained from atomic structure calculations using codes SUPERSTRUCTURE and GRASP. The energy le...

  6. SU(4) breaking, allowed transitions and total muon capture rates in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J

    1973-01-01

    The authors study muon capture rates in light nuclei and show that one can evaluate them in a model-independent way by correcting the Primakoff closure approximation to the first order in the neutrino energy dependence. In this framework the interplay between the existence of allowed transitions and SU(4) breaking is analyzed. In the correction to the first order in the neutrino energy dependence by a sum rule, Majorana and SU(4) breaking potentials are taken into account. The method is also applied to single multipolar transitions, in particular for the dipole transitions. General considerations are illustrated for /sup 6/Li and /sup 12/C by explicit calculations. The stability of the results varying the mean neutrino energy allows the use of capture rates as a very sensitive tool to investigate the configuration mixing of the target because we connect the corrective term to spectroscopic information using directly the matrix elements of the effective potentials. (10 refs).

  7. Efficient photoionization for barium ion trapping using a dipole-allowed resonant two-photon transition

    OpenAIRE

    Leschhorn G.; Hasegawa T.; Schaetz T.

    2011-01-01

    Two efficient and isotope-selective resonant two-photon ionization techniques for loading barium ions into radio-frequency (RF)-traps are demonstrated. The scheme of using a strong dipole-allowed transition at \\lambda=553 nm as a first step towards ionization is compared to the established technique of using a weak intercombination line (\\lambda=413 nm). An increase of two orders of magnitude in the ionization efficiency is found favoring the transition at 553 nm. This technique can be implem...

  8. Kinetics of (beta)(right arrow)(delta) Solid-Solid Phase Transition of HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weese, R K

    2000-09-01

    of activation found in this work relates to the disruption of the intermolecular interactions with in the crystal lattice of {beta} phase HMX and is much larger (100X) than that of simple conformational changes. The evidence of a straightforward one step mechanism is not supported by this research. Solid-solid phase transition kinetics is very complexed. There are many factors that contribute to an overall reaction mechanism. The initial assumptions that were chosen to allow simple manipulation of the HMX phase transition data prove to be too limiting. The rate constant by definition should in fact be constant, however, our data reflects it is not (refer to k vs time plot in Appendix 2). The assumption of a first order, simple single step reaction is a good starting point for the study of HMX phase transition kinetics, but further analysis should be done with other reaction orders and multiple step mechanisms. Understanding the kinetics of {beta} phase HMX will clearly help the custodian understand the limitations of storage and use of this compound.

  9. Allowed and spin-forbidden electric dipole transitions in Ca I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy levels, transition probabilities, and lifetimes have been determined for all levels of the Ca I spectrum up to 3d4p 1F3o using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with lowest-order relativistic effects included through the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The mixing of singlet and triplet configuration states was found to be considerably stronger in 4s5p 1,3P1o levels than in 4s4p 1,3P1o levels. The near degeneracy of the nonrelativistic 3d4p 3Fo and 1Do term energies, differing by only 39.59 cm-1 resulted in highly mixed Breit-Pauli levels for 3d4p 3F2o and 1D2o. Some intercombination transitions from these levels have transition probabilities of magnitude similar to weaker spin-allowed transitions. The ''fine-tuned'' transition probability for the 4s4p 3P1o-4s4d 1D2 transition was found to be 1.53x103 s-1, in agreement with a quenching rate observed in a doppler cooling experiment [Binnewies et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123002 (2001)

  10. Precision spectroscopy technique for dipole allowed transitions in laser cooled ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Amy; Groom, William; Seymour-Smith, Nicolas; Keller, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for the precise measurement of electric dipole allowed transitions in trapped ions. By applying a probe and a cooling laser in quick succession, the full transition can be probed without causing distortion from heating the ion. In addition, two probes can be utilised to measure a dispersion-like signal, which is well suited to stabilising the laser to the transition. We have fully characterised the parameters for the measurement and find that it is possible to measure the transition frequency to better than 100kHz with an interrogation time of 30s. The long-term stability of the spectroscopy signal is determined by employing two independent ion trap systems. The first ion trap is used to stabilise the spectroscopy laser. The second ion trap is then employed to measure the stability by continuously probing the transition at two frequencies. From the Allan variance a frequency instability of better than 10$^{-10}$ is obtained for an interrogation time of 1000s.

  11. Allowed transitions and intercombination lines in C III and C II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock results in the Breit-Pauli approximation are reported for the 2s 1So→2s2p 3P1 intercombination line in C III and the 2s22p 2P-2s2p34P multiplet in C II. Length and velocity forms of the oscillator strengths of related allowed transitions are also reported. The latter are used as a check on accuracy along with term energy separation and spin-orbit splitting. The predicted transition rate of 103±3 s-1 for the intercombination line in C III lies outside the experimental error bars whereas the decay rates for C II are near the lower experimental limits. (orig.)

  12. Efficient photoionization for barium ion trapping using a dipole-allowed resonant two-photon transition

    CERN Document Server

    Leschhorn, G; Schaetz, T

    2011-01-01

    Two efficient and isotope-selective resonant two-photon ionization techniques for loading barium ions into radio-frequency (RF)-traps are demonstrated. The scheme of using a strong dipole-allowed transition at \\lambda=553 nm as a first step towards ionization is compared to the established technique of using a weak intercombination line (\\lambda=413 nm). An increase of two orders of magnitude in the ionization efficiency is found favoring the transition at 553 nm. This technique can be implemented using commercial all-solid-state laser systems and is expected to be advantageous compared to other narrowband photoionization schemes of barium in cases where highest efficiency and isotope-selectivity are required.

  13. Electric field allowed molecular transitions for one and two photon excitation microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Partha Pratim; Diaspro, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    We propose an excitation technique for observing single and two photon excitation in those molecules for which such transitions are forbidden by the selection rules. This is possible by the application of an external electric field that perturbs the molecular orbitals, thereby resulting in a significant shift of energy levels. Such a shift of energy levels may bring those levels in resonance with the radiation field which is normally forbidden by selection rules. Further, parity of the these states may significantly improve the emission process. The external electric field results in the mixing of excited (short lifetime) and metastable states (long lifetime), thus reducing the lifetime of metastable (or near metastable) states. This may provide an effective channel for allowing transition from the metastable states. An application of electric field may result in the excitation of poorly excitable biomolecules. This excitation technique may find applications in single- and multi-photon fluorescence microscopy, bioimaging and optical devices.

  14. Electron Impact Excitation of Forbidden and Allowed Transitions in O(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix method is used to investigate the electron impact excitation of forbidden and allowed transitions in singly ionized oxygen. The relativistic effects have been incorporated in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to obtain accurate target description and to represent the scattering functions. The 47 fine-structure levels of the 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3), 2s2p(sup 4), 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3s, 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3p and 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 2)3d configurations have been included in the scattering calculation. A calculation with 62 levels in the close-coupling expansion using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method with orthogonal radial functions has also been carried out to check electron correlation, relativistic and channel coupling effects. The present results are in good agreement with the previous 16-level BPRM calculation by Montenegro et a1 (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1863-77) for the forbidden transitions, but differ from the 21-level BPRM calculation by McLaughlin and Bell (1998 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 4317-29). Our cross sections for the first forbidden (sup 4)S(sup o)-(sup 2)D(sup o)and resonance (sup 4)S(sup o)-2s(sup 2)p(sup 4) (sup 4)P transitions are in reasonably good agreement with the electron energy-loss and merged-beams experiment.

  15. Transparent wide band gap crystals follow indirect allowed transition and bipolaron hopping mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroz A. Mir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we carried out structural, optical and dielectric studies on micro-crystals of Oxypeucedanin (C16H14O5, isolated from the roots of plant Prangos pabularia (Mir et al. (2014 [3,4]. The obtained trend in frequency exponent (s with frequency (ω indicates that the universal dynamic response is followed by this compound. From optical absorption spectroscopy, the optical band gap (Eg was estimated around 3.76 eV and system is showing indirect allowed transition. Using Eg in certain relation of s, a close value of s (as much close obtained by fitting ac conductivity was obtained. This method was further used for other similar systems and again same trend was obtained. So a general conclusion was made that the high transmitting wide band insulators or semiconductors may follow bipolaron hopping transport mechanism.

  16. Microscopic study of muon-capture transitions in nuclei involved in double-beta-decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M

    2003-01-01

    Total and partial ordinary muon-capture (OMC) rates to 1 sup + and 2 sup - states are calculated in the framework of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) for several nuclei involved in double-beta-decay processes. The aim is to obtain information on intermediate states involved in double-beta-decay transitions having these nuclei as either daughter or parent nuclei. It is found that the OMC observables, just like the 2 nu beta beta-decay amplitudes, strongly depend on the particle-particle part of the proton-neutron interaction. First experiments measuring the partial OMC rates for nuclei involved in double beta decays have recently been performed.

  17. Signatures of transition region explosive events in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Zhang, M.; Tian, H.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Transition-region (TR) explosive events (EEs) are small-scale dynamic phenomena often observed in the far and extreme ultraviolet (FUV/EUV) spectral lines formed in the solar transition region. In this contribution, we investigate the relationship between the peak emission of hydrogen Ly-beta profiles and the emission of C II (103.7nm) and O VI (103.2nm) lines to search for signatures of explosive events in Ly-beta profiles. Two rasters made by the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) instrument on board SOHO in a quiet-Sun region and an equatorial coronal hole were selected for our study. Explosive events were identified from profiles of C II and O VI, respectively. We compared Ly-beta profiles during EEs with those averaged in the entire quiet-Sun and coronal-hole regions. We find that the central part of Ly-beta profiles reverses more and the distance of the two peaks becomes larger during EEs, both in the coronal hole and in the quiet Sun. The average Ly-beta profile of the EEs detected by C II has an obviously stronger blue peak. During EEs, there is a clear correlation between the increased peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and the enhanced wing emission of the C II and O VI lines. The correlation is more pronounced for the Ly-beta peaks and C II wings, and less significant for the Ly-beta blue peak and O VI blue wing. We also find that the Ly-beta profiles are more reversed in the coronal hole than in the quiet Sun. We suggest that the jets produced by EEs emit Doppler-shifted Ly-beta photons, causing enhanced emission at positions of the peaks of Ly-beta profiles. The more-reversed Ly-beta profiles confirm the presence of a higher opacity in the coronal hole than in the quiet Sun. The finding that EEs modify the Ly-beta line profile in QS and CHs implies that one should be careful in the modeling and interpretation of relevant observational data.

  18. Signatures of transition region explosive events in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, M; Tian, H; Chen, Y

    2010-01-01

    We search for signatures of transition region explosive events (EEs) in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles. Two rasters made by the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) instrument on board SOHO in a quiet-Sun region and an equatorial coronal hole are selected for our study. Transition region explosive events are identified from profiles of C II 1037 Angstrom and O VI 1032 Angstrom, respectively. We compare Ly-beta profiles during EEs with those averaged in the entire quiet-Sun and coronal-hole regions. The relationship between the peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and the wing emission of C II and O VI during EEs is investigated. We find that the central part of Ly-beta profiles becomes more reversed and the distance of the two peaks becomes larger during EEs, both in the coronal hole and in the quiet Sun. The average Ly-beta profile of the EEs detected by C II has an obvious stronger blue peak. During EEs, there is a clear correlation between the increased peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and ...

  19. IL-1 beta and TGF beta 2 synergistically induce endothelial to mesenchymal transition in an NF kappa B-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleszewska, Monika; Moonen, Jan-Renier A. J.; Huijkman, Nicolette; van de Sluis, Bart; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to fibrotic diseases. The main inducer of EndMT is TGF beta signaling. TGF beta 2 is the dominant isoform in the physiological embryonic EndMT, but its role in the pathological EndMT in the context of inflammatory co-stimulation is not known.

  20. Preliminary study of feasibility of an experiment looking for excited state double beta transitions in Tin

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Soumik; Raina, P K; Singh, A K; Rath, P K; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Laubenstein, M; Belli, P; Bernabei, R

    2015-01-01

    A first attempt to study the feasibility of an experiment to search for double beta decay in $^{124}$Sn and $^{112}$Sn was carried out by using ultra-low background HPGe detector (244 cm$^{3}$) inside the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN (Italy). A small sample of natural Sn was examined for 2367.5 h. The radioactive contamination of the sample has been estimated. The data has also been considered to calculate the present sensitivity for the proposed search; half-life limits $\\sim$ $10^{17} - 10^{18}$ years for $\\beta^{+}$EC and EC-EC processes in $^{112}$Sn and $\\sim$ $10^{18}$ years for $\\beta^{-}\\beta^{-}$ transition in $^{124}$Sn were measured. In the last section of the paper the enhancement of the sensitivity for a proposed experiment with larger mass to reach theoretically estimated values of half-lives is discussed.

  1. Precise calculations of astrophysically important allowed and forbidden transitions of Xe VIII

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Anal; Roy, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports astrophysically important transition line parameters for Xe VIII. The relativistic coupled-cluster method is employed here to calculate the E1, E2, and M1 transition line parameters with a high accuracy. The E1 oscillator strengths and probabilities of E2 and M1 transitions are determined using theoretical amplitudes and experimental energy values. The calculated branching ratios and the lifetimes are supplement to the transition parameters. The accurate presentations of these calculated data are crucial for the density estimations in several stellar and inter-stellar mediums.

  2. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  3. The determination of allowed outage time using the evaluation of transition risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he objectives of this study are to propose a new evaluation method for transition risk and to determine the AOT using the new method. We review and compare the evaluation methods of transition risk which was previously studied. We also identify important assumptions used in previous studies for the evaluation of transition risk. We select general items required for the development of evaluation method for the transition risk. Based on the items selected, we propose a new evaluation method for transition risk. The new evaluation method for the transition risk is based on following assumptions; 1)For the same time span, the risk occurred from the failure to the completion of component repair during power operation is the same as the total risk including the risk occurred from power operation to specific shutdown/low power operation and the risk from specific shutdown/low power operation to power operation. 2)Shutdown operation and the repair of components are initiated just after the identification of the failure of components. The evaluation of the transition risk is performed to incorporate the characteristics of shutdown operation into Ulchin Units 3 and 4 Level 1 internal PSA for power operation. The application results of the new method to the HPSIS and the LPSIS for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 show that the AOT of HPSIS is properly determined and the AOT of LPSIS can be greatly increased. In this study, the main factors affecting the determination of AOT using the evaluation for transition risk are identified as the time of shutdown operation, the consideration of the change on common cause failure probability, and the risk of shutdown operation. It is expected that the evaluation method for the transition risk proposed in this study will be used for the determination of AOT and for the decision, in the case of the components unavailable, whether power operation is continuously performed or shutdown operation is initiated

  4. Meson-Exchange Enhancement of First-Forbidden $\\beta$-Transitions in the Lead Region

    CERN Multimedia

    Delaure, B J P; Severijns, N

    2002-01-01

    Both on-line and off-line low temperature nuclear orientation is used to measure the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter for the first-forbidden g.s. $\\rightarrow$~g.s. $\\beta$-transitions of $^{205}$Hg, $^{207,209}$Tl, $^{209}$Pb and $^{213}$Bi. From this, the ratio of the rank-zero and the rank-one strengths in these decays can be deduced, with the rank of a $\\beta$-transition being defined as the total angular momentum of the lepton system. Combining this result with the experimental ${ft}$-values yields for the first time a purely experimental determination of the rank-zero contribution in these $\\Delta$ J = 0 first-forbidden transitions. This provides an independent check of the large enhancement (of about 100% over the impulse approximation) of the rank-zero matrix element of $\\gamma_{5} $, caused by meson exchange currents (MEC), which was recently obtained from a comparison of calculated first-forbidden $\\beta$-decay rates with experimentally observed values for nuclei in the lead region (A = 205-212). Measur...

  5. Double-beta transition Q-value and direct mass measurements with TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrinoless double-beta transitions are difficult to observe due to their long half-lives. In case of neutrinoless double-electron capture, a resonant enhancement of the decay rate by several orders of magnitude occurs if the energy levels of initial and final state are degenerate in energy. In order to search for nuclides undergoing a resonantly-enhanced double-electron capture the Q-values of the transitions in 106Cd, 108Cd, and 184Os were determined by the double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP with a precision better than 1 keV. The double-beta decay Q-value of 110Pd was investigated as well. The recent results are presented.

  6. Evidence for the virtual beta-gamma transition in 59Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, M; Żylicz, J

    2015-01-01

    A novel theory of radiative electron capture in second forbidden non-unique transition, is applied to reanalyze experimental data obtained previously for the decay of 59Ni. The measured gamma spectrum is shown to be distorted at the high-energy end, presenting the first direct evidence for the virtual beta-gamma transition through the excited state in 59Co. The complete theoretical predictions, including both the direct and the virtual decay channels, as well as the interference between them, reproduce very well the experimental spectrum. The virtual nuclear component amounts to about 4% of the total gamma intensity.

  7. Child Home Care Allowance: Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pajunen, Anni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I study the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 19-44 in Finland. I use register data from the Finnish Census Panel (FCP) on 254 465 women who had a second or third child during 1993 to 2007. I apply discrete-time event-history analysis to examine whether women using the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of three have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing – ...

  8. Stark profiles of forbidden and allowed transitions in a dense, laser produced helium plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'akobi, B.; George, E. V.; Bekefi, G.; Hawryluk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Comparisons of experimental and theoretical Stark profiles of the allowed 2(1)P-3(1)D helium line at 6678 A and of the forbidden 2(1)P-3(1)P component at 6632 A in a dense plasma were carried out. The plasma was produced by optical breakdown of helium by means of a repetitive, high power CO2 laser. The allowed line shows good agreement with conventional theory, but discrepancies are found around the centre of the forbidden component. When normally neglected ion motions are taken into consideration, the observed discrepancies are partially removed. Tables of the Stark profiles for the pair of lines are given.

  9. Multipolar correlations and deformation effect on nuclear transition matrix elements of double-$\\beta $ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, R; Rath, P K; Raina, P K; Hirsch, J G

    2009-01-01

    The two neutrino and neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{94,96}$Zr, $^{98,100}$Mo, $^{104}$Ru, $^{110}$Pd, $^{128,130}$Te and $^{150}$Nd isotopes for the $0^{+}\\to 0^{+}$ transition is studied within the PHFB framework along with an effective two-body interaction consisting of pairing, quadrupole-quadrupole and hexadecapole-hexadecapole correlations. It is found that the effect of hexadecapolar correlations can be assimilated substantially as a renormalization of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. The effect of deformation on nuclear transition matrix elements is investigated by varying the strength of quadrupolar correlations in the parent and daughter nuclei independently. The variation of the nuclear transition matrix elements as a function of the difference in deformation parameters of parent and daughter nuclei reveals that in general, the former tend to be maximum for equal deformation and they decrease as the difference in deformation parameters increases, exhibiting a very similar trend for the $...

  10. Number-projected beta transition probabilities within a neutron–proton pairing framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle-number fluctuations effects on the beta transition probabilities are studied in the neutron–proton pairing framework. The Hamiltonian of the system has been considered in its most general form and has been diagonalized by means of the linearization method. However, since the generalized Bogoliubov–Valatin transformation obtained in this way leads to a quasi-particle Hamiltonian which is still nondiagonal, a rediagonalization has been performed. The corresponding wave functions have been projected on both the good neutron and proton numbers using a recently proposed method. Expressions of the beta transition probabilities which strictly conserve the particle-number have then been established. As a first step, the model has been numerically tested within the framework of the schematic one-level model. As a second step, nuclei such as N = Z has been studied using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of the Woods–Saxon deformed mean field. It has thus been shown the necessity of: (i) including the isovector pairing correlations, (ii) performing a rediagonalization of the Hamiltonian, (iii) performing a particle-number projection, (iv) carefully choice the pairing-strength values, when calculating the transition probabilities. (author)

  11. Research of TGF-beta1 Inducing Lung Adencarcinoma PC9 Cells to Mesenchymal Cells Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Heyong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective It has been proven that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) not only correlated with embryonic development but also could promote tumor invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) has been identified as the main inducer of tumor EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on EMT and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in lung adencarcinoma PC9 cells. Methods Cultured PC9 cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF...

  12. SOX4 Mediates TGF-beta-Induced Expression of Mesenchymal Markers during Mammary Cell Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, Stephin J.; Lourenco, Ana Rita; van Boxtel, Ruben; Coffer, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial to mensenchymal transition program regulates various aspects of embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, but aberrant activation of this pathway in cancer contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. TGF-beta potently induces an epithelial to mensenchymal transition in cancer

  13. Theoretical uncertainties in the nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double beta decay: The transition operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menéndez, Javier [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-12-30

    We explore the theoretical uncertainties related to the transition operator of neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay. The transition operator used in standard calculations is a product of one-body currents, that can be obtained phenomenologically as in Tomoda [1] or Šimkovic et al. [2]. However, corrections to the operator are hard to obtain in the phenomenological approach. Instead, we calculate the 0νββ decay operator in the framework of chiral effective theory (EFT), which gives a systematic order-by-order expansion of the transition currents. At leading orders in chiral EFT we reproduce the standard one-body currents of Refs. [1] and [2]. Corrections appear as two-body (2b) currents predicted by chiral EFT. We compute the effects of the leading 2b currents to the nuclear matrix elements of 0νββ decay for several transition candidates. The 2b current contributions are related to the quenching of Gamow-Teller transitions found in nuclear structure calculations.

  14. Allowed and forbidden d-d transitions in poly(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane complexes of nickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Marie-Christine; Michaud, Annie; Bain, Cheryl; Zargarian, Davit; Reber, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Absorption spectra of four nickel(II) complexes with poly(pyrazolyl)methane ligands are presented in the NIR-VIS-UV region and the band system corresponding to the lowest-energy spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions is analyzed. A quantitative theoretical model involving coupled electronic states provides precise energies for the lowest-energy triplet and singlet excited states and allows comparisons between complexes with a variable number of nitrogen and oxygen ligator atoms. Singlet energies between 12,840 and 13,000 cm(-1) are determined for heteroleptic complexes. These energies are in an intermediate range between those for homoleptic complexes with either nitrogen or oxygen ligator atoms with singlet states at approximately 12,000 and 14,000 cm(-1), respectively. The new theoretical approach is compared to the traditional ligand-field parameters obtained from the maxima of the broad, spin-allowed absorption bands.

  15. Chiral two-body currents in nuclei: Gamow-Teller transitions and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez, J.; Gazit, D.; Schwenk, A.

    2011-01-01

    We show that chiral effective field theory (EFT) two-body currents provide important contributions to the quenching of low-momentum-transfer Gamow-Teller transitions, and use chiral EFT to predict the momentum-transfer dependence that is probed in neutrinoless double-beta decay. We then calculate for the first time the neutrinoless double-beta decay operator based on chiral EFT currents and study the nuclear matrix elements at successive orders. The contributions from chiral two-body currents...

  16. Relativistic Calculation Of K$\\beta$ Hypersatellite Energies and Transition Probabilities for Selected Atoms with 13<=Z<=80

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, A M; Santos, J P; Indelicato, P J; Parente, F; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Energies and transition probabilities of K$\\beta$ hypersatellite lines are computed using the Dirac-Fock model for several values of $Z$ throughout the periodic table. The influence of the Breit interaction on the energy shifts from the corresponding diagram lines and on the K$\\beta\\_{1}^{\\rm h}$/K$\\beta\\_{3}^{\\rm h}$ intensity ratio is evaluated. The widths of the double-K hole levels are calculated for Al and Sc. The results are compared to experiment and to other theoretical calculations.

  17. Atomic screening effects on electron-neutrino angular correlation and β-decay asymmetry in allowed transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic screening effects on the electron-neutrino angular correlation coefficient a0 and the β asymmetry coefficient A0, in allowed transitions, are studied. It has long been known that the dominant screening effect on the spectrum is the replacement, in the factor which represents the phase space of the β particle, of W, the energy with which the β particle emerges, by W-V0, the energy with which it is born; V0 is the energy of interaction of the β particle at the origin with the potential generated there by the atomic electrons. [One also replaces the momentum p=p(W) by p'=p(W-V0).] One might well expect a similar result for screening effects on a0 and A0, which include the influence of the nuclear Coulomb potential---and this intuitive expectation is shown to be the case. One need merely replace the velocity of emergence v=v(W) in the correlation functions by the velocity at birth, v'=v(W-V0). As for the case of the spectrum, the effect can be obtained by using a static approximation, with the atomic electrons unaffected by the β particle, and with the screening potential treated to second order; the effect of virtual or real excitation of the atomic electrons is negligible. The screening effect is of order 10-4 for most superallowed and mirror image transitions (presently, both theory and experiment for superallowed transitions---with implications for electro-weak theory and the standard model---give ft values accurate to about one part in 103); it can be as large as 20% for some pure Gamow-Teller transitions, for which the nuclear matrix element does not enter into the analysis of a0 and A0

  18. Stability of the $\\beta$-equilibrated dense matter and core-crust transition in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Atta, Debasis

    2014-01-01

    The stability of the $\\beta$-equilibrated dense nuclear matter is analyzed with respect to the thermodynamic stability conditions. Based on the density dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, the effects of the symmetry energy is investigated on the proton fraction in neutron stars and the location of the inner edge of their crusts and core-crust transition density and pressure. The high-density behavior of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter satisfies the constraints from the observed flow data of heavy-ion collisions. The neutron star properties studied using $\\beta$-equilibrated neutron star matter obtained from this effective interaction for a pure hadronic model agree with the recent observations of the massive compact stars. The density, pressure and proton fraction at the inner edge separating the liquid core from the solid crust of neutron stars are determined to be $\\rho_t$=0.094 fm$^{-3}$, P$_t$= 0.5037 MeV fm$^{-3}$ and x$_{p(t)}$=0.0309, respectively.

  19. Effect of graphene oxide on the conformational transitions of amyloid beta peptide: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Lokesh; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between nanomaterials (NMs) and amyloid proteins are central to the nanotechnology-based diagnostics and therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Graphene oxide (GO) and its derivatives have shown to modulate the aggregation pattern of disease causing amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. However, the mechanism is still not well understood. Using molecular dynamics simulations, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) having carbon:oxygen ratio of 4:1 and 10:1, respectively, on the conformational transitions (alpha-helix to beta-sheet) and the dynamics of the peptide was investigated. GO and rGO decreased the beta-strand propensity of amino acid residues in Aβ. The peptide displayed different modes of adsorption on GO and rGO. The adsorption on GO was dominated by electrostatic interactions, whereas on rGO, both van der Waals and electrostatic interactions contributed in the adsorption of the peptide. Our study revealed that the slight increase in the hydrophobic patches on rGO made it more effective inhibitor of conformational transitions in the peptide. Alpha helix-beta sheet transition in Aβ peptide could be one of the plausible mechanism by which graphene oxide may inhibit amyloid fibrillation.

  20. Radiative decay rates for W I, W II and W III allowed and forbidden transitions of interest for spectroscopic diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Quinet, Pascal; Vinogradoff, V; Palmeri, P; Biémont, Emile

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden lines in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized tungsten are discussed in the present paper. For the electric dipole transitions, recommended values are proposed from a critical evaluation of the data available in the literature. For the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions, for which no data have been published so far, a new set of radiative rates has been obtained using a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach inc...

  1. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  2. Research of TGF-beta1 Inducing Lung Adencarcinoma PC9 Cells to Mesenchymal Cells Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng CHEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT not only correlated with embryonic development but also could promote tumor invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 has been identified as the main inducer of tumor EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on EMT and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in lung adencarcinoma PC9 cells. Methods Cultured PC9 cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 48 h. The morphological changes were observed under phase-contrast microscopy; EMT relative marker protein changes were assessed by Western blot and immunoflurescence staining. In addition, the expression of AKT and P-AKT were also measured by Western blot. Results The data showed that TGF-β1 could induce PC9 morphological alteration from epithelial to mesenchymal and upregulate the expression of mesenchymal maker protein Fibronectin. Obviously, the expression of P-AKT was downregulated by TGF-β1 treatment for 48 h. Conclusion TGF-β1 might induce EMT of PC9 cells , accompanied by the changes of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  3. Meson-exchange enhancement of the first forbidden $0^{+} \\leftrightarrow 0^{-} \\beta$-transitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the standard model of the weak interaction, it has been suggested by Kubodera, Delorme and Rho, that pion exchange should have a large effect on the rank-zero time-like component of the axial current A$_{0}$. The best case for the study of A$ _{0}$ is $0^{-} \\leftrightarrow 0^{+} \\beta$-decay since in this process only rank zero matrix elements of the time-like and space-like components of the axial current contribute to the transition rate. $0^{-} \\leftrightarrow 0^{+}$ decays have been studied in the vicinity of doubly closed-shell nuclei such as $^{16}$O, $^{96}$Zr, and $^{208}$Pb where s$_{1/2} \\leftrightarrow$ p$_{1/2}$ matrix elements were involved. In these cases, the meson-exchange correction to the one-body axial-charge density is significant. ISOLDE offers the possibility to perform sensitive measurements of the $0^{-} \\leftrightarrow 0^{+}$ pseudoscalar decay in nuclei where the p$_{3/2} \\rightarrow$ d$_{3/2}$ matrix elements are involved. We therefore propose a search of the $^{38}...

  4. On the alpha --> beta transition of carbon-coated highly oriented PVDF ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jijun; Li, Huihui; Liu, Jichun; Duan, Yongxin; Jiang, Shidong; Yan, Shouke

    2003-02-12

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is one of the polymers which exhibit pronounced polymorphic crystalline forms, depending on crystallization conditions. Four different crystalline modifications, i.e., alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, have been reported so far. Among them, even though the alpha-form is the most common one, the beta-phase is the one that has attracted the widest interest due to its extensive piezo- and pyroelectric applications. During the past few decades, a substantial amount of work has been done in attempts to characterize these crystal modifications and transformations among them. It was well documented that the alpha-form PVDF can be easily obtained through melt crystallization of the PVDF at atmospheric pressure. Its beta-counterpart can, however, only be directly obtained by growth from solution, molecular epitaxy on the surface of potassium bromide, melt crystallization at high pressures, or by applying with a strong electric field. Transformation from its alpha-phase to beta-phase has been achieved by mechanical deformation, while the retransformation could be conducted through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. In the present work, the recrystallization behavior of carbon-coated melt-drawn oriented PVDF ultrathin films at atmospheric pressure was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The results indicate that through vacuum evaporating a thin carbon layer on the surface of highly oriented alpha-PVDF ultrathin film, not only has its high orientation been preserved after a complete melting and recrystallization process, but an alpha --> beta transition of PVDF has also been achieved through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. This technique can be successfully used for preparing highly oriented beta-PVDF ultrathin films, especially patterned microstructures of PVDF with its highly oriented polar beta-phase and nonoriented nonpolar alpha-phase.

  5. X-ray study of the critical behavior of V(2)H near the beta(,2)-beta(,2) phase transition in a defective near-surface volume and in the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkler, Johann

    We have observed two length scales in the critical x-ray diffuse scattering (CDS) from a VH0.525 crystal above the beta1-beta 2 phase transition where a sharp Lorentzian profile in the CDS was superimposed on a broader one. While no sharp component appeared in transmission geometry with high-energy x-rays, no broad component was detected in an experiment confined to a near-surface volume. Based on HERDA- and SNMS-measurements, the decay of the mosaic spread with increasing penetration, a larger d-spacing in the skin layer than in the bulk, and the above x-ray experiments, we conclude that the sharp component arises in the presence of a "defective" near-surface volume, while the broad component is associated with the pure bulk. For the defective skin layer, we observed a continuous phase transition allowing us to extract a tricritical exponent beta below TC, and tricritical exponents nu1 and gamma 1 for small reduced temperatures t = T/ TC -- 1. For larger t, the exponents nu and gamma are altered within the experimental range of t. Furthermore, the CDS of the defective skin layer is very anisotropic . The bulk, however, displays a strong discontinuous phase transition. This is not associated with a crossing of a two-phase region, nor with the small concentration H/V gradient within the upper 200 A, nor with a local (near-surface) ternary phase diagram due to an oxygen gradient in this region. The bulk displays an almost isotropic diffuse intensity above TC. In this work, we discuss the scaling and crossover behavior in the skin layer, the change of the order of the phase transition from the bulk to the skin layer associated with a change in the sign of the fourth order term in the Landau free energy expansion and the change of the correlation length with temperature, crystallographic direction and penetration. Furthermore, we qualitatively simulate the short-range order via Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss and the Chepulskii-Bugaev RING approximations, taking into account the

  6. Radiative decay rates for W I, W II and W III allowed and forbidden transitions of interest for spectroscopic diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden lines in neutral, singly ionized and doubly ionized tungsten are discussed in the present paper. For the electric dipole transitions, recommended values are proposed from a critical evaluation of the data available in the literature. For the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions, for which no data have been published so far, a new set of radiative rates has been obtained using a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach including core-polarization effects. The tables summarizing the compiled data are expected to be useful for plasma modelling in fusion reactors.

  7. Random Phase Approximation For allowed and Parity Non-conserving Electric Dipole Transition Amplitudes and its connection with Many-Body Perturbation Theory and Coupled Cluster Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gopakumar, G; Das, B P; Chaudhuri, R K; Mukherjee, D; Hirao, K; Gopakumar, Geetha; Sur, Chirajib; Das, Bhanu Pratap; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2005-01-01

    The connections between the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) and its all order generalisation, the Coupled- Cluster Theory (CCT) have been explored. Explicit expressions have been derived for the electric dipole amplitudes for allowed and forbidden transitions induced by the parity non-conserving neutral weak interaction. The Goldstone diagrams associated with the RPA terms in both cases are shown to arise in MBPT and CCT and the numerical verification of this relationship is made for the allowed electric dipole transitions.

  8. Electric-dipole allowed and intercombination transitions among the 3d5, 3d44s and 3d44p levels of Fe IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscillator strengths and transition rates for the electric-dipole (E1) allowed and intercombination transitions among 3d5, 3d44s and 3d44p levels of Fe IV are calculated using the CIV3 code of Hibbert and coworkers. Using the Hartree-Fock functions up to 3d orbitals we have also optimized 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p and 5d orbitals of which 4s and 4p are taken to be spectroscopic and the remaining orbitals represent corrections to the spectroscopic orbitals or the correlation effects. The J-dependent levels of 108 LS states are included in the calculation and the relativistic effects are accounted for via the Breit-Pauli operator. Configurations are chosen in two steps: (a) two promotions were allowed from the 3p, 3d, 4s and 4p subshells, using all the orbitals; and (b) selective promotions from the 3s subshell are included, but only to the 3s and 4s orbitals. The ab initio fine-structure levels are then fine tuned to reproduce observed energy levels as closely as possible, and the resulting wavefunctions are used to calculate oscillator strengths and transition rates for all possible E1 transitions. For many of these transitions, the present results show good agreement between the length and velocity forms while for some transitions, some large disagreements are found with other available results. The complete list of weighted oscillator strengths, transition rates, and line strengths for transitions among the fine structure levels of the three lowest configurations are presented in ascending order of wavelength.

  9. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  10. Chiral two-body currents in nuclei: Gamow-Teller transitions and neutrinoless double-beta decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, J; Gazit, D; Schwenk, A

    2011-08-01

    We show that chiral effective field theory (EFT) two-body currents provide important contributions to the quenching of low-momentum-transfer Gamow-Teller transitions, and use chiral EFT to predict the momentum-transfer dependence that is probed in neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay. We then calculate for the first time the 0νββ decay operator based on chiral EFT currents and study the nuclear matrix elements at successive orders. The contributions from chiral two-body currents are significant and should be included in all calculations. PMID:21902315

  11. Direct mass measurements of cadmium and palladium isotopes and their double-beta transition Q-values

    OpenAIRE

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch.E.(Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, 55128, Germany); Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W; Renisch, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Q-value of the double-electron capture in Cd-108 has been determined to be (272.04 +/- 0.55) keV in a direct measurement with the double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. Based on this result a resonant enhancement of the decay rate of Cd-108 is excluded. We have confirmed the double-beta transition Q-values of Cd-106 and Pd-110 recently measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometers SHIPTRAP and ISOLTRAP, respectively. Furthermore, the atomic masses of the involved nuclides C...

  12. Relaxation-allowed nuclear magnetic resonance transitions by interference between the quadrupolar coupling and the paramagnetic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wen; Jerschow, Alexej

    2007-02-14

    Of the various ways in which nuclear spin systems can relax to their ground states, the processes involving an interference between different relaxation mechanisms, such as dipole-dipole coupling and chemical shift anisotropy, have become of great interest lately. The authors show here that the interference between the quadrupolar coupling and the paramagnetic interaction (cross-correlated relaxation) gives rise to nuclear spin transitions that would remain forbidden otherwise. In addition, frequency shifts arise. These would be reminiscent of residual anisotropic interactions when there are none. While interesting from a fundamental point of view, these processes may become relevant in magnetic resonance imaging experiments which involve quadrupolar spins, such as (23)Na, in the presence of contrast agents. Geometrical constraints in paramagnetic molecule structures may likewise be derived from these interference effects.

  13. Electric-dipole allowed (E1) and forbidden (E2, M1 and M2) transition probabilities of 4f for N+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying systematically enlarged multi-configuration Dirac–Fock wavefunction, the transitions for electric-dipole allowed (E1) and forbidden (E2, M1 and M2) lines are studied among 4f pair coupling and low-lying configurations for singly ionized nitrogen. Most important effects of relativity, electron correlation, the rearrangement of electron density, Breit interaction, and quantum electrodynamic effects are included in the computation. Then, allowed (E1) and forbidden (E2, M1 and M2) transition probabilities of 4f for N+ are obtained and compared with experimental results. Good agreement with available experimental results is found and most of the data of 4f are presented for the first time. (atomic and molecular physics)

  14. Reinvestigation of the beta-decay of {sup 110}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.C.; Dendooven, P.; Hankonen, S.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Nieminen, A.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    The beta-decay of the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo, separated by the IGISOL on-line mass separator from other fission products, has been investigated by using beta-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence techniques. The decay scheme of {sup 110}Mo has been revised, including 3 new excited states and 7 new {gamma} transitions in {sup 110}Tc. The {beta}-feedings were measured and log ft values and B(GT) values were deduced based on a Q{sub {beta}}-value from systematics. Three excited 1{sup +} states in {sup 110}Tc fed by spin-flip allowed-unhindered beta transitions were identified. The deduced beta-decay strengths are compared with the Gamow-Teller strength distribution obtained from a macroscopic-microscopic calculation. The role of the asymptotic quantum numbers in the context of the allowed beta-decay is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Semi-emprical and ab initio study of lanthanide and transition metal ions doped in hexagonol beta-NaYF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ge

    Lanthanide and transition metal doped hexagonal beta-NaYF4 nanocrystals have a wide variety of applications in bioimaging, solar concentrators, display panel technology, photodynamic therapy, and security printing. This dissertation research employed two complementary approaches to characterizing the photoactive properties of lanthanides and transition metals doped in beta-NaYF 4. One approach was a semi-empirical method, based on Judd-Ofelt theory, used to calculate the optical transition intensity parameters for Er 3+ doped in beta-phase NaYF4:Yb3+ from measured emission intensity ratios and the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The second approach was based on first-principles density functional theory, investigating the effect of doping on the electronic structure of the materials of interest. In this latter approach, models of beta-NaYF4 with different numbers of atoms in supercells were built, where supercells were reproduced through translational symmetry creating periodic boundary conditions. The models were tested for convergence of local structure and energy as a function of supercell size. First, a converged model for the un-doped "parent" structure of the host material was developed using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional. Then, a systematic investigation of the optimized geometry and electronic structure of the doped beta-NaYF4: Ln3+ nanocrystals, was conducted using both spin-polarized DFT and non-collinear-spin DFT. For transition metal doping, the relationship between site symmetry and spin state with different doping concentrations was also demonstrated.

  16. Liver cancer-derived hepatitis C virus core proteins shift TGF-beta responses from tumor suppression to epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Battaglia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and associated liver cirrhosis represent a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development. TGF-beta is an important driver of liver fibrogenesis and cancer; however, its actual impact in human cancer progression is still poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HCC-derived HCV core natural variants on cancer progression through their impact on TGF-beta signaling. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide evidence that HCC-derived core protein expression in primary human or mouse hepatocyte alleviates TGF-beta responses in terms or growth inhibition or apoptosis. Instead, in these hepatocytes TGF-beta was still able to induce an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process that contributes to the promotion of cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, we demonstrate that different thresholds of Smad3 activation dictate the TGF-beta responses in hepatic cells and that HCV core protein, by decreasing Smad3 activation, may switch TGF-beta growth inhibitory effects to tumor promoting responses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data illustrate the capacity of hepatocytes to develop EMT and plasticity under TGF-beta, emphasize the role of HCV core protein in the dynamic of these effects and provide evidence for a paradigm whereby a viral protein implicated in oncogenesis is capable to shift TGF-beta responses from cytostatic effects to EMT development.

  17. Direct mass measurements of cadmium and palladium isotopes and their double-beta transition $Q$-values

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Blaum, K; Block, M; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W; Renisch, D

    2012-01-01

    The $Q$-value of the double-electron capture in $^{108}$Cd has been determined to be (272.04 $\\pm$ 0.55) keV in a direct measurement with the double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. Based on this result a resonant enhancement of the decay rate of $^{108}$Cd is excluded. We have confirmed the double-beta transition $Q$-values of $^{106}$Cd and $^{110}$Pd recently measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometers SHIPTRAP and ISOLTRAP, respectively. Furthermore, the atomic masses of the involved nuclides ($^{106, 108, 110}$Cd, $^{106, 108, 110}$Pd) have been directly linked to the atomic mass standard.

  18. The Orbit and Transit Prospects for $\\beta$ Pictoris b constrained with One Milliarcsecond Astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jason J; Pueyo, Laurent; Kalas, Paul; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; De Rosa, Robert J; Ammons, S Mark; Arriaga, Pauline; Bailey, Vanessa P; Barman, Travis S; Bulger, Joanna; Burrows, Adam S; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine H; Chilcote, Jeffrey K; Cotten, Tara; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Follette, Katherine B; Doyon, René; Duchêne, Gaspard; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M; Larkin, James E; Macintosh, Bruce; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Nielsen, Eric L; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David W; Patel, Rahul; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D; Poyneer, Lisa A; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Savransky, Dmitry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vasisht, Gautam; Vega, David; Wallace, J Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Wolff, Schuyler G

    2016-01-01

    A principal scientific goal of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is obtaining milliarcsecond astrometry to constrain exoplanet orbits. However, astrometry of directly imaged exoplanets is subject to biases, systematic errors, and speckle noise. Here we describe an analytical procedure to forward model the signal of an exoplanet that accounts for both the observing strategy (angular and spectral differential imaging) and the data reduction method (Karhunen-Lo\\`eve Image Projection algorithm). We use this forward model to measure the position of an exoplanet in a Bayesian framework employing Gaussian processes and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to account for correlated noise. In the case of GPI data on $\\beta$ Pic b, this technique, which we call Bayesian KLIP-FM Astrometry (BKA), outperforms previous techniques and yields 1$\\sigma$-errors at or below the one milliarcsecond level. We validate BKA by fitting a Keplerian orbit to twelve GPI observations along with previous astrometry from other instruments. The st...

  19. Optical properties of beta-iron silicide, ruthenium silicide and osmium silicide: Semiconducting transition metal silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Anthony Glen

    2001-09-01

    Various optical techniques were used to study the semiconducting transition metal silicides of β- FeSi2, Ru2Si3, and OsSi2. The Raman spectra of ion beam synthesized (IBS) β-FeSi 2 were shown to provide evidence of a net tensile stress in these IBS materials. Possible origins of the observed stress were suggested and a simple model was proposed in order to calculate a value of the observed stress. A correlation between the tensile stress, the nature of the band gap, and the resulting light emitting properties of IBS β-FeSi2 was suggested. The photoreflectance (PR) spectra of IBS β- FeSi2 reveals a direct gap at 0.815 eV and were shown to agree with the band gap value obtained by photoluminescence (PL) once the adjustments for the temperature difference and trap related recombination effects were made. This provides very convincing evidence for intrinsic light emission from IBS β- FeSi2. Furthermore, a model was developed that helps to clarify the variety of inconsistent results obtained by optical absorption measurements. When the results of PL and PR were inserted into this model, a good agreement was obtained with our measured optical absorption results. We also obtained PR spectra of β-FeSi 2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These spectra reveal the multiple direct transitions near the fundamental absorption edge of β-FeSi 2 that were predicted by theory. We suggest an order of these critical point transitions following the trends reported in the theoretical investigations. Doping these β-FeSi2 thin films with small amounts of chromium was shown to have a measurable effect on the interband optical spectra. We also report on the effects of alloying β- FeSi2 with cobalt. A decrease in the critical point transitions nearest the fundamental absorption edge was observed as the cobalt concentration increased. Finally, Raman spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational properties of β-FeSi2. The measured Raman spectra agreed very well with the

  20. Novel Insights Into The Mode of Inhibition of Class A SHV-1 Beta-Lactamases Revealed by Boronic Acid Transition State Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Ke; J Sampson; C Ori; F Prati; S Drawz; C Bethel; R Bonomo; F van den Akker

    2011-12-31

    Boronic acid transition state inhibitors (BATSIs) are potent class A and C {beta}-lactamase inactivators and are of particular interest due to their reversible nature mimicking the transition state. Here, we present structural and kinetic data describing the inhibition of the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase, a clinically important enzyme found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, by BATSI compounds possessing the R1 side chains of ceftazidime and cefoperazone and designed variants of the latter, compounds 1 and 2. The ceftazidime and cefoperazone BATSI compounds inhibit the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase with micromolar affinity that is considerably weaker than their inhibition of other {beta}-lactamases. The solved crystal structures of these two BATSIs in complex with SHV-1 reveal a possible reason for SHV-1's relative resistance to inhibition, as the BATSIs adopt a deacylation transition state conformation compared to the usual acylation transition state conformation when complexed to other {beta}-lactamases. Active-site comparison suggests that these conformational differences might be attributed to a subtle shift of residue A237 in SHV-1. The ceftazidime BATSI structure revealed that the carboxyl-dimethyl moiety is positioned in SHV-1's carboxyl binding pocket. In contrast, the cefoperazone BATSI has its R1 group pointing away from the active site such that its phenol moiety moves residue Y105 from the active site via end-on stacking interactions. To work toward improving the affinity of the cefoperazone BATSI, we synthesized two variants in which either one or two extra carbons were added to the phenol linker. Both variants yielded improved affinity against SHV-1, possibly as a consequence of releasing the strain of its interaction with the unusual Y105 conformation.

  1. Refinement of the gross theory of nuclear {beta}-decay, and hindrance of the first-forbidden transition of rank 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Hidehiko [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tachibana, Takahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1997-03-01

    Recently the gross theory of nuclear {beta}-decay was refined for odd-odd nuclei. In this refinement, the effect of the selection rule of {beta}-transitions from the ground states of odd-odd nuclei to those of even-even nuclei was taken into account based on a statistical consideration. The transitions to the first 2{sup +} excited states in even-even nuclei were also taken into account according to the selection rule approximately. In that study, it was found that the transitions between 1{sup -} ground states of the odd-odd nuclei and 0{sup +} ground states of even-even nuclei, belonging to the first-forbidden transitions of rank 1, are strongly hindered. A reduction factor was introduced for the transitions to the ground states of even-even nuclei to take into account this hindrance. It was also found that the strength functions of the Gamow-Teller transitions obtained from the conventional gross theory are underestimated by a factor of about 3. In order to improve this underestimation, the Lorentz-type function was adopted for the one-particle strength function in the model instead of the hyperbolic-secant-type function. In the present study we have newly analyzed the experimental ft-values of odd-A nuclei, and found that the first-forbidden transitions of rank 1 are also considerably hindered between the ground states. Following the above refinement we have calculated the {beta}-ray spectra of some odd-odd short-lived fission products with the use of the refined gross theory. These results are compared not only with the experiments by Rudstam et al. but also with the conventional gross theory. (author)

  2. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  3. Sources of beta diversity in estuarine benthic macro-invertebrate communities in the Baltic Sea - North Sea transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula

    regimes (ca 100 km). Contributions of beta to total diversity were high among regions, but minor between sediment types. Thus controlling for the two environmental factors, salinity and sediment type, there was still an unexplained high beta among stations within regions. A significant distance...... regions. The study indicates control of beta diversity by both environmental factors and factors related to invertebrate biology, operating at different spatial scales.......Identification of sources of beta diversity, the change of diversity, is important to understand regulation of overall diversity. Additive partitioning of diversity (species richness and expH) compared to random, was performed on a quantitative benthic macro-invertebrate collection of > 400 species...

  4. Large scale evaluation of beta-decay rates of r-process nuclei with the inclusion of first-forbidden transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Marketin, T; Martínez-Pinedo, G

    2015-01-01

    R-process nucleosynthesis models rely, by necessity, on nuclear structure models for input. Particularly important are beta-decay half-lives of neutron rich nuclei. At present only a single systematic calculation exists that provides values for all relevant nuclei making it difficult to test the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis models to this input. Additionally, even though there are indications that their contribution may be significant, the impact of first-forbidden transitions on decay rates has not been systematically studied within a consistent model. We use a fully self-consistent covariant density functional theory (CDFT) framework to provide a table of $\\beta$-decay half-lives and $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities, including first-forbidden transitions. We observe a significant contribution of the first-forbidden transitions to the total decay rate in nuclei far from the valley of stability. The experimental half-lives are in general well reproduced, both for even-even, odd-A and odd-odd n...

  5. A magnetic boundary layer creating a quasi-cylindrical substructure within a propagating flux rope leading to a plasma beta transition

    CERN Document Server

    Savani, Neel P; Shiota, D; Linton, M G; Kusano, K; Lugaz, N; Rouillard, A P

    2013-01-01

    We present a 2.5D MHD simulation of a magnetic flux rope (FR) propagating in the heliosphere and investigate the cause of the observed sharp plasma beta transition. Specifically, we consider a strong internal magnetic field and an explosive fast start, such that the plasma beta is significantly lower in the FR than the sheath region that is formed ahead. This leads to an unusual FR morphology in the first stage of propagation, while the more traditional view (e.g. from space weather simulations like Enlil) of a `pancake' shaped FR is observed as it approaches 1 AU. We investigate how an equipartition line, defined by a magnetic Weber number, surrounding a core region of a propagating FR can demarcate a boundary layer where there is a sharp transition in the plasma beta. The substructure affects the distribution of toroidal flux, with the majority of the flux remaining in a small core region which maintains a quasi-cylindrical structure. Quantitatively, we investigate a locus of points where the kinetic energy...

  6. [The effect of vitamin- and beta-carotene-enriched products on the vitamin A allowance and the concentration of different carotenoids of the blood serum in victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushina, L M; Taranova, A G; Pokrovskaia, G R; Shatniuk, L N; Spirichev, V B

    1996-01-01

    The results of clinical trials of efficiency of foods enriched by vitamins and beta-carotene in people suffered from Chernobyl's accident are presented. The level of beta-carotene in clinical diets was the same during trial. Daily consumption of enriched food supplying ingestion of 4-5 mg of beta-carotene increased the level of beta-carotene in serum by 2-4 times. The concentration of total carotenoides in serum was increased by 1.6 times practically at the expense of beta-carotene.

  7. Beta decay properties from a statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work assumes that any intrinsic structure in the nuclei involved is not important. Only spin, parity, and energy are considered. Quantities such as half-life, average beta energy, or average gamma energy can be obtained by integrals over the beta strength function weighted by kinematic and other factors. The beta strength function is proportional to the level density multiplied by a reduced transition probability. Delayed neutron emission is calculated by assuming that the daughter is a compound nucleus which then statistically decays as in the Hauser-Feshbach approach. Using the ENDF/B-V fission product file which contains 877 nuclei, energy-dependent reduced transition probabilities were found for allowed 0+ → 1+ transitions (50 cases) and for other allowed transitions (over 600 cases), corresponding to log ft values of 4.3 and 5.6 respectively. No dependence on either transition energy or on mass was found. A reduced transition probability corresponding to log ft of 7.1 was used for first forbidden transitions. Some results are presented and discussed

  8. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE, an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1. We found that ELE (40 µg/ml blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1, potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer.

  9. Protective spin-labeled fluorenes maintain amyloid beta peptide in small oligomers and limit transitions in secondary structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Robin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine; Ly, Sonny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical and Life Science Directorate; Hilt, Silvia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine; Petrlova, Jitka [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine; Maezawa, Izumi [Univ. of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States). MIND Inst. and Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Kálai, Tamás [Univ. of Pecs (Hungary). Inst. of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry; Hideg, Kálmán [Univ. of Pecs (Hungary). Inst. of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry; Jin, Lee-Way [Univ. of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States). MIND Inst. and Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Laurence, Ted A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine; Voss, John C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques comprised of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Soluble oligomers of the Aβ peptide underlie a cascade of neuronal loss and dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease. Single particle analyses of Aβ oligomers in solution by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were used to provide real-time descriptions of how spin-labeled fluorenes (SLFs; bi-functional small molecules that block the toxicity of Aβ) prevent and disrupt oligomeric assemblies of Aβ in solution. The FCS results, combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, demonstrate SLFs can inhibit the growth of Aβ oligomers and disrupt existing oligomers while retaining Aβ in a largely disordered state. Furthermore, while the ability of SLF to block Aβ toxicity correlates with a reduction in oligomer size, our results suggest the conformation of Aβ within the oligomer determines the toxicity of the species. Attenuation of Aβ toxicity, which has been associated primarily with the soluble oligomeric form, can be achieved through redistribution of the peptides into smaller oligomers and arrest of the fractional increase in beta secondary structure.

  10. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K. (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  11. A Distributed Activation Energy Model of Thermodynamically Inhibited Nucleation and Growth Reactions and its Application to the beta-delta Phase Transition of HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Weeks, B L

    2004-06-18

    Detailed and global models are presented for thermodynamically inhibited nucleation-growth reactions and applied to the {beta}-{delta} Phase Transition of HMX (nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine). The detailed model contains separate kinetic parameters for the nucleation process, including an activation energy distribution resulting from a distribution of defect energies, and for movement of the resulting reaction interface within a single particle. A thermodynamic inhibition term is added to both processes so that the rates go to zero at the transition temperature. The global model adds the thermodynamic inhibition term to the extended Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth formalism for single particles or powders. Model parameters are calibrated from differential scanning calorimetry data. The activation energy for nucleation (333 kJ/mol) is substantially higher than that for growth (29.3 kJ/mol). Use of a small activation energy distribution ({approx}400 J/mol) for the defects improves the fit to a powered sample for both the early and late stages of the transition. The effective overall activation energy for the global model (208.8 kJ/mol) is in between that of nucleation and growth. Comparison of the two models with experiment indicates the thermodynamic inhibition term is more important than the energy distribution feature for this transition. Based on the applicability of the Prout-Tompkins kinetics approach to a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, both models should have equally broad applicability for thermodynamically constrained reactions.

  12. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  13. Exocometary gas structure, origin and physical properties around $\\beta$ Pictoris through ALMA CO multi-transition observations

    CERN Document Server

    Matrà, L; Wyatt, M C; Kral, Q; Wilner, D J; Panić, O; Hughes, A M; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Hales, A; Augereau, J -C; Greaves, J; Roberge, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations unveiled the structure of CO gas in the 23 Myr-old $\\beta$ Pictoris planetary system, a component that has been discovered in many similarly young debris disks. We here present ALMA CO J=2-1 observations, at an improved spectro-spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to previous CO J=3-2 observations. We find that 1) the CO clump is radially broad, favouring the resonant migration over the giant impact scenario for its dynamical origin, 2) the CO disk is vertically tilted compared to the main dust disk, at an angle consistent with the scattered light warp. We then use position-velocity diagrams to trace Keplerian radii in the orbital plane of the disk. Assuming a perfectly edge-on geometry, this shows a CO scale height increasing with radius as $R^{0.75}$, and an electron density (derived from CO line ratios through NLTE analysis) in agreement with thermodynamical models. Furthermore, we show how observations of optically thin line ratios can solve the primordial versus secondary ...

  14. Long distance nu_e -> nu_mu transitions and CP-violation with high intensity beta-beams

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The recent experimental determinations of a large theta_13 angle have opened the way to a determination of the mass hierarchy and of the CP-violating phase. Experiments based on horn produced (anti-)neutrino conventional beams are presently under development. The event rates are marginal for a definitive search, since they require very intense beams and extremely large detector masses. Zucchelli has proposed a method in which pure (anti-)nu_e beams are generated by the beta-decay of relativistic radio-nuclides stored in a high energy storage ring pointing towards a far away neutrino detector. Since they have a much smaller transverse momentum distribution, the neutrino flux will be much more narrowly concentrated than with a horn. The isomeric doublet Li-8 (anti-nu_e, tau_1/2=0.84s) and B-8 (nu_e, tau_1/2=0.77s) has been studied. Neutrino and antineutrino beams are produced with an average transverse momentum of about 6.5 MeV/c. Radioactive ions may be generated with a dedicated table-top storage ring to supp...

  15. Decay law of allowed and forbidden transitions inβ--decay half-lives%β-衰变中容许跃迁和禁戒跃迁的衰变规律∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍庆; 谢娟; 张小平; 支启军

    2016-01-01

    β-decay half-lives are not only important parameters for studying the structures and decay properties of the exotic nucleus far from stability, but also basic parameters for understanding the astrophysical phenomenon. Astrophysicists need exact data ofβ-decay half-lives as input to build nucleosynthesis models for understanding the elements abundances of our universe and solar system. For nuclei far from stability, experimental synthesis and further measurements on their half-lives are rather difficult due to the rarity and radioactivity of target material for synthesizing these nuclei. In theoretical respect, although there are many models such as finite-range droplet model plus quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA), microscopic density functional theory plus QRPA, Hatree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory plus QRPA, and shell model etc., it is still a challenge to calculate β-decay half-lives in a reliable way for nuclei far from the β-stable line, partly because of the intrinsic complexity of nuclear multi-body problem. In empirical respect, Sargent made an empirical study of β-decay half-lives in 1933 and discovered a law which is consistent with the Fermi β-decay theory proposed one year later. From then on, there have been a few parametric models based on some of real physical behaviors, which describe complex quantum many-body systems, such as the Kratz–Herrmann formula and the gross theory. Recently, Zhang et al. discovered an exponential law describing β-decay half-lives and the nucleon number (Z, N ) of parent nuclei far from the stable line. A formula is proposed to calculate the β-decay half-lives of nuclei far from stability, which can describe experimental data reasonably well. However, the differences between allowed transitions and forbidden transitions are not fully considered in this formula. Zhang et al. used a set of parameters to describe both allowed transitions and forbidden transitions. In this paper, we consider the different

  16. Double Resonance Sub-Doppler Study of the Allowed and DeltaK = -3 Forbidden Q(3, 3) Transitions to the nu2 Vibrational State of 14NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichoux; Khelkhal; Rusinek; Legrand; Herlemont; Urban

    1998-11-01

    The IR-IR sub-Doppler double resonance and standard saturation sideband spectroscopy have been used to measure the allowed and Deltak = -3 forbidden transitions to the nu2 vibrational level of 14NH3. The IR-IR double resonance technique has made it possible to observe quadrupole hyperfine structures which correspond to the sums as well as differences of the -3Q(3, 3) and Q(3, 3) hyperfine components. The "sum" and "difference" double resonance frequencies have been measured with accuracy better than 30 and 5 kHz, respectively. In addition to this, the hyperfine structure of the allowed Q(3, 3) transition has been independently measured using the "standard" saturation sideband spectroscopy with accuracy better than 15 kHz. A simultaneous analysis of all measured data provides an improved set of effective nuclear quadrupole and spin-rotation parameters for the excited nu2 vibrational state and frequencies of the "pure" rotation-vibration transitions deperturbed from the hyperfine effects at the experimental sample pressure of about 3 mTorr, including a very precise zero pressure value of the "forbidden" spacing between energies of the nu2 ||s, J = 3, K = 3> and ||s, J = 3, K = 0> pure rotational levels of 2883.6795(19) MHz [0.096189194(63) cm-1]. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Long Non-Coding RNA MALAT1 Mediates Transforming Growth Factor Beta1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yang

    Full Text Available To study the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA MALAT1 in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells.ARPE-19 cells were cultured and exposed to TGF-β1. The EMT of APRE-19 cells is confirmed by morphological change, as well as the increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA and fibronectin, and the down-regulation of E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of lncRNA MALAT1 in RPE cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Knockdown of MALAT1 was achieved by transfecting a small interfering RNA (SiRNA. The effect of inhibition of MALAT1 on EMT, migration, proliferation, and TGFβ signalings were observed. MALAT1 expression was also detected in primary RPE cells incubated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR vitreous samples.The expression of MALAT1 is significantly increased in RPE cells incubated with TGFβ1. MALAT1 silencing attenuates TGFβ1-induced EMT, migration, and proliferation of RPE cells, at least partially through activating Smad2/3 signaling. MALAT1 is also significantly increased in primary RPE cells incubated with PVR vitreous samples.LncRNA MALAT1 is involved in TGFβ1-induced EMT of human RPE cells and provides new understandings for the pathogenesis of PVR.

  18. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Theoretical studies on the catalysis of the reverse water-gas shift reaction using first-row transition metal beta-diketiminato complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Munjanja, Lloyd; Cundari, Thomas R; Wilson, Angela K

    2010-06-01

    The reverse water-gas shift reaction CO(2) + H(2) --> H(2)O + CO has been investigated using a set of homogeneous catalyst models L'M(I) (L' = beta-diketiminate, C(3)N(2)H(5)(-); M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn). The thermodynamics of prototypical reaction pathways were simulated at two levels of theory: B3LYP/6-311+G(d) and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ. The modeled catalytic reaction has been considered in the following steps: coordination of CO(2) by the catalyst to generate a carbon dioxide complex, L'M(CO(2)); scission of L'M(CO(2)) to yield L'M(CO) and L'M(O); L'M(O) hydrogenation to form L'M(H(2)O). The final products, H(2)O and CO, were obtained from the dissociation of L'M(H(2)O) and L'M(CO). All of the reactants, intermediates, and products were modeled, where different possible conformers and multiplicities were identified and considered as potential minima. The reaction enthalpy DeltaH, of all steps for each catalyst as a function of transition metal have been determined. The Mn and Fe catalysts show more thermodynamically accessible pathways than the other catalyst models studied. The overall reaction enthalpy has been determined not only by B3LYP/6-311+G(d) and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ but also via a more rigorous ab initio electron-correlation-based approach, the correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA). PMID:20462216

  20. First forbidden stellar $\\beta$-decay rates for neutron-rich nickel isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2012-01-01

    In astrophysical environments, allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are important, particularly for $\\beta$-decay rates in presupernova evolution of massive stars, since they contribute to the fine-tuning of the lepton-to-baryon content of the stellar matter prior to and during the collapse of a heavy star. In environments where GT transitions are unfavored, first-forbidden transitions become important especially in medium heavy and heavy nuclei. Particularly in case of neutron-rich nuclei, first-forbidden transitions are favored primarily due to the phase-space amplification for these transitions. In this work the total $\\beta$-decay half-lives and the unique first-forbidden(U1F) $\\beta$-decay rates for a number of neutron-rich nickel isotopes, $^{72-78}$Ni, are calculated using the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory for the first time in stellar matter. For the calculation of the $\\beta$-decay half-lives both allowed and first-forbidden transitions were considered. Co...

  1. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  2. Beta decay of 252Cf on the way to scission from the exit point

    CERN Document Server

    Pomorski, K; Quentin, P

    2015-01-01

    Upon increasing significantly the nuclear elongation, the beta-decay energy grows. This paper investigates within a simple yet partly microscopic approach, the transition rate of the beta decay of the 252Cf nucleus on the way to scission from the exit point for a spontaneous fission process. A rather crude classical approximation is made for the corresponding damped collective motion assumed to be one dimensional. Given these assumptions, we only aim in this paper at providing the order of magnitudes of such a phenomenon. At each deformation the energy available for beta decay, is determined from such a dynamical treatment. Then, for a given elongation, transition rates for the allowed (Fermi) beta decay are calculated from pair correlated wave functions obtained within a macroscopic-microscopic approach and then integrated over the time corresponding to the whole descent from exit to scission. The results are presented as a function of the damping factor (inverse of the characteristic damping time) in use in...

  3. First-forbidden $\\mathbf{\\beta}$-decay rates, energy rates of $\\beta$-delayed neutrons and probability of $\\beta$-delayed neutron emissions for neutron-rich nickel isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Iftikhar, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    First-forbidden (FF) transitions can play an important role in decreasing the calculated half-lives specially in environments where allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are unfavored. Of special mention is the case of neutron-rich nuclei where, due to phase-space amplification, FF transitions are much favored. We calculate the allowed GT transitions in various pn-QRPA models for even-even neutron-rich isotopes of nickel. Here we also study the effect of deformation on the calculated GT strengths. The FF transitions for even-even neutron-rich isotopes of nickel are calculated assuming the nuclei to be spherical. Later we take into account deformation of nuclei and calculate GT + unique FF transitions, stellar $\\beta$-decay rates, energy rate of $\\beta$-delayed neutrons and probability of $\\beta$-delayed neutron emissions. The calculated half-lives are in excellent agreement with measured ones and might contribute in speeding-up of the $r$-matter flow.

  4. Systematic comparison of beta spectra calculations using improved analytical screening correction with experimental shape factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, X

    2016-03-01

    From a review of the available literature, a database of experimental shape factors from measured beta spectra was created in previous work. Classical assumptions applied in beta spectra calculations which avoid the determination of the electron and nuclear wave functions were tested by comparison with each measured spectrum present in the database. From this systematic comparison, it was demonstrated that the typical assumption λk=1 is inappropriate for all forbidden unique transitions. Moreover, the equally common ξ-approximation was also proved to be incorrect for about half of the listed first forbidden non-unique transitions and for all second non-unique ones. In present work, this study has been performed once again using an improved analytical screening correction. General results from previous study still remain the same. Except for allowed transitions, the mean energies in current nuclear databases are expected to be erroneous. Some selected beta spectra are also given to illustrate these results.

  5. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R

    2012-01-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  6. [Hemoglobin C -- beta-thalassemia disease and homozygous beta-thalassemia in a black African family (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, P; Fall, M; Oudart, J L

    1975-01-01

    The study of a Malian family has allowed to prove existence of two types of beta-thalassemia genes: the beta0 gene which suppresses the synthesis of the beta chain into cis position and the beta+ gene which slows down only partially this synthesis. The difference between this two genes has been possible owing to the hemoglobin C found in this family and induced by the betaC mutated gene. The segregation of the four genes betaA, betaC, beta0 thal, and beta+ thal. has allowed to compare all the possible phenotypes deriving from the combinations by two of these allelic genes. PMID:128735

  7. Lorentz violation in neutron decay and allowed nuclear beta decay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordmans, J. P.; Wilschut, H. W.; Timmermans, R. G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The search for violations of Lorentz invariance is nowadays motivated by attempts to unify the standard model of particle physics with general relativity. Such theories of "quantum gravity" predict Lorentz-violating signals that could be detected in low-energy precision experiments. In t

  8. Parameterization of the statistical rate function for select superallowed transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Towner, I S

    2014-01-01

    We present a parameterization of the statistical rate function, f, for 20 superallowed 0+-to-0+ nuclear beta transitions between T=1 analog states, and for 18 superallowed "mirror" transitions between analog T=1/2 states. All these transitions are of interest in the determination of V_{ud}. Although most of the transition Q_{EC} values have been measured, their precision will undoubtedly be improved in future. Our parameterization allows a user to easily calculate the corresponding new f value to high precision (+/-0.01%) without complicated computing.

  9. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  10. Increase in family allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In July 1989 the family allowance structure in Australia was changed from a 4-rate to a 2-rate structure. The new rates were increased to $A9 a week for the 1st 3 children and $A12 for each additional child. The Family Allowance Supplment rate for children 13-15 years old was raised from $A31 to $A34.10/week. PMID:12344544

  11. Data supporting beta-amyloid dimer structural transitions and protein–lipid interactions on asymmetric lipid bilayer surfaces using MD simulations on experimentally derived NMR protein structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Y. Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article supports the research article entitled “Maximally Asymmetric Transbilayer Distribution of Anionic Lipids Alters the Structure and interaction with Lipids of an Amyloidogenic Protein Dimer Bound to the Membrane Surface” [1]. We describe supporting data on the binding kinetics, time evolution of secondary structure, and residue-contact maps of a surface-absorbed beta-amyloid dimer protein on different membrane surfaces. We further demonstrate the sorting of annular and non-annular regions of the protein/lipid bilayer simulation systems, and the correlation of lipid-number mismatch and surface area per lipid mismatch of asymmetric lipid membranes.

  12. Data supporting beta-amyloid dimer structural transitions and protein–lipid interactions on asymmetric lipid bilayer surfaces using MD simulations on experimentally derived NMR protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sara Y.; Chou, George; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark W.; Compton, Campbell; Cheng, Kwan H.

    2016-01-01

    This data article supports the research article entitled “Maximally Asymmetric Transbilayer Distribution of Anionic Lipids Alters the Structure and interaction with Lipids of an Amyloidogenic Protein Dimer Bound to the Membrane Surface” [1]. We describe supporting data on the binding kinetics, time evolution of secondary structure, and residue-contact maps of a surface-absorbed beta-amyloid dimer protein on different membrane surfaces. We further demonstrate the sorting of annular and non-annular regions of the protein/lipid bilayer simulation systems, and the correlation of lipid-number mismatch and surface area per lipid mismatch of asymmetric lipid membranes. PMID:27054174

  13. Gas-phase chemistry of the yttrium-imido cation YNH{sup +} with alkenes: {Beta}-hydrogen activation by a d{sup 0} system via a multicentered transition state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranatunga, D.R.A.; Hill, Y.D.; Freiser, B.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1996-02-20

    The gas-phase chemistry of the yttrium-imido carbon cations with alkenes was studied by using Fourier transform mass spectrometry to explore the chemistry of transition metal ion complexes with low-valence metal centers. The YNH{sup +} species was synthesized by reacting Y{sup +}, generated by laser desorption, with ammonia. The dehydrogenation reaction is exothermic, yielding a lower limit for the imido bond energy of D{degree}(Y{sup +}-NH) > 101 kcal/mol. Due to the electron deficiency of the metal center upon binding to NH, the further reactivity of YNH{sup +} can only be explained by a reaction mechanism involving a multicentered transition state. YNH{sup +} reacts with ethene predominantly by dehydrogenation to produce YC{sub 2}H{sub 3}N{sup +}. Thus, instead of the metathesis reaction involving the cleavage of the 2-aza-1-metallacyclobutane intermediate, a {beta}-hydrogen transfers to the metal center and is then eliminated with a hydrogen from the remaining CH{sub 2} group to complete the reaction. All three linear butenes, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, and trans-2-butene, react very similarly with YNH{sup +}, yielding a variety of product ions with the predominant loss of NH{sub 3} resulting in the formation of YCH{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +}. Structural studies on this ion suggest that it is bent metallacyclopent-3-ene, not the butadiene isomer. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Beta-delayed gamma decay of 26P: Possible evidence of a proton halo

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bennett, M B; Liddick, S N; Bowe, A; Brown, B A; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Cooper, N; Irvine, D; McNeice, E; Montes, F; Naqvi, F; Ortez, R; Pain, S D; Pereira, J; Prokop, C J; Quaglia, J; Quinn, S J; Sakstrup, J; Santia, M; Schwartz, S B; Shanab, S; Simon, A; Spyrou, A; Thiagalingam, E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurements of $\\beta$ decay provide important nuclear structure information that can be used to probe isospin asymmetries and inform nuclear astrophysics studies. Purpose: To measure the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of $^{26}$P and compare the results with previous experimental results and shell-model calculations. Method: A $^{26}$P fast beam produced using nuclear fragmentation was implanted into a planar germanium detector. Its $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-ray emission was measured with an array of 16 high-purity germanium detectors. Positrons emitted in the decay were detected in coincidence to reduce the background. Results: The absolute intensities of $^{26}$P $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$-rays were determined. A total of six new $\\beta$-decay branches and 15 new $\\gamma$-ray lines have been observed for the first time in $^{26}$P $\\beta$-decay. A complete $\\beta$-decay scheme was built for the allowed transitions to bound excited states of $^{26}$Si. $ft$ values and Gamow-Teller strengths were a...

  15. Low-temperature formation of cubic beta-PbF(2): precursor-based synthesis and first-principles phase stability study

    OpenAIRE

    Erk, Christoph; Hammerschmidt, Lukas; Andrae, Dirk; Paulus, Beate; Schlecht, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    A precursor-based approach to the cubic beta-phase of PbF(2) was developed and allowed the preparation of this high-temperature phase well below the temperature for transition from the orthorhombic alpha- to the cubic beta-phase. The formation of beta-PbF(2) from the molecular precursors Pb[Se(C(6)H(2)(CF(3))(3))](2) and Pb(C(6)H(2)(CF(3))(3))(2) is facilitated by the presence of several short Pb center dot center dot center dot F contacts in these molecules. The cubic form of PbF(2) was obta...

  16. Recent progress report on DNA B-Z transition modulated by rare earth-amino acid complex and Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth dements have unique physical, magnetic, luminescent and catalytic properties. They have been successfully used as medicine and probes in luminescent resonance energy transfer (LRET) for bioassays, as well as reagents for diagnosis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this progress report, we will focus on recent progress on how rare earth amino complexes bind to DNA and change DNA structure, especially on DNA B-Z transition induced by rare earth amino acid complex and its potential impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  17. Vibrationally resolved ¹Lb (¹A')↔S0 (¹A') electronic spectra of benzimidazole and indene: Influence of Duschinsky and Herzberg-Teller effects on weak dipole-allowed transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Pang, Min; Li, Ming; Shen, Wei; He, Rongxing

    2015-12-01

    Geometrical optimizations of the ground and first excited states of benzimidazole and indene were performed using the density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension methods (TD-DFT), respectively. Their vibrationally resolved (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') absorption and fluorescence spectra were simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation including the Herzberg-Teller (HT) and Duschinsky effects. Calculated results revealed that, with the HT and Duschinsky effects getting involved, the simulated weak (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') electronic spectra of the two molecules excellently reproduce the experimental findings. Based on the experimental data and other theoretical results, we tentatively assigned most of the vibrational normal modes which emerged in the experimental spectra of the two molecules. The present theoretical insights are expected to help us understand the nature of electronic transitions in the vibrationally resolved absorption and fluorescence spectra of benzimidazole and its analogues.

  18. Vibrationally resolved ¹Lb (¹A')↔S0 (¹A') electronic spectra of benzimidazole and indene: Influence of Duschinsky and Herzberg-Teller effects on weak dipole-allowed transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Pang, Min; Li, Ming; Shen, Wei; He, Rongxing

    2015-12-01

    Geometrical optimizations of the ground and first excited states of benzimidazole and indene were performed using the density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension methods (TD-DFT), respectively. Their vibrationally resolved (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') absorption and fluorescence spectra were simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation including the Herzberg-Teller (HT) and Duschinsky effects. Calculated results revealed that, with the HT and Duschinsky effects getting involved, the simulated weak (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') electronic spectra of the two molecules excellently reproduce the experimental findings. Based on the experimental data and other theoretical results, we tentatively assigned most of the vibrational normal modes which emerged in the experimental spectra of the two molecules. The present theoretical insights are expected to help us understand the nature of electronic transitions in the vibrationally resolved absorption and fluorescence spectra of benzimidazole and its analogues. PMID:26143330

  19. Integrin beta 1 enhances the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in association with gefitinib resistance of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Lixia; Zhou, Caicun

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that integrinβ1 associates with gefitinib resistance. As epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) also induces gefitinib resistance in vitro, we wished to determine the relation of them in gefitinib resistance. In this study, we show that integrinβ1 induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in xenograft tumors and gefitinib-resistant NSCLC tumors acquired EMT phenotype. Furthermore, inhibition of integrinβ1 reverses EMT, meanwhile overexpression and activation of integrinβ1 aggravates EMT. Lastly, we further identified that integrinβ1 enhanced EMT via FAK-AKT signaling pathway. These findings highlight a novel relation of integrinβ1 and EMT in EGFR TKI resistant NSCLC. PMID:24440972

  20. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) isoform balance as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yuka; Hagiwara, Natsumi [Department of Bioscience, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Hyogo, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda 669-1337 Japan (Japan); Radisky, Derek C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32225 (United States); Hirai, Yohei, E-mail: y-hirai@kwansei.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Hyogo, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda 669-1337 Japan (Japan)

    2014-09-10

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program promotes cell invasion and metastasis, and is reversed through mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) after formation of distant metastases. Here, we show that an imbalance of gene products encoded by the transcriptional factor C/EBPβ, LAP (liver-enriched activating protein) and LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein), can regulate both EMT- and MET-like phenotypic changes in mouse mammary epithelial cells. By using tetracycline repressive LIP expression constructs, we found that SCp2 cells, a clonal epithelial line of COMMA1-D cells, expressed EMT markers, lost the ability to undergo alveolar-like morphogenesis in 3D Matrigel, and acquired properties of benign adenoma cells. Conversely, we found that inducible expression of LAP in SCg6 cells, a clonal fibroblastic line of COMMA1-D cells, began to express epithelial keratins with suppression of proliferation. The overexpression of the C/EBPβ gene products in these COMMA1-D derivatives was suppressed by long-term cultivation on tissue culture plastic, but gene expression was maintained in cells grown on Matrigel or exposed to proteasome inhibitors. Thus, imbalances of C/EBPβ gene products in mouse mammary epithelial cells, which are affected by contact with basement membrane, are defined as a potential regulator of metastatic potential. - Highlights: • We created a temporal imbalance of C/EBPβ gene products in the mammary model cells. • The temporal up-regulation of LIP protein induced EMT-like cell behaviors. • The temporal up-regulation of LAP protein induced MET-like cell behaviors. • Excess amount of C/EBPβ gene products were eliminated by proteasomal-degradation. • Basement membrane components attenuated proteasome-triggered protein elimination.

  1. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) isoform balance as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program promotes cell invasion and metastasis, and is reversed through mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) after formation of distant metastases. Here, we show that an imbalance of gene products encoded by the transcriptional factor C/EBPβ, LAP (liver-enriched activating protein) and LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein), can regulate both EMT- and MET-like phenotypic changes in mouse mammary epithelial cells. By using tetracycline repressive LIP expression constructs, we found that SCp2 cells, a clonal epithelial line of COMMA1-D cells, expressed EMT markers, lost the ability to undergo alveolar-like morphogenesis in 3D Matrigel, and acquired properties of benign adenoma cells. Conversely, we found that inducible expression of LAP in SCg6 cells, a clonal fibroblastic line of COMMA1-D cells, began to express epithelial keratins with suppression of proliferation. The overexpression of the C/EBPβ gene products in these COMMA1-D derivatives was suppressed by long-term cultivation on tissue culture plastic, but gene expression was maintained in cells grown on Matrigel or exposed to proteasome inhibitors. Thus, imbalances of C/EBPβ gene products in mouse mammary epithelial cells, which are affected by contact with basement membrane, are defined as a potential regulator of metastatic potential. - Highlights: • We created a temporal imbalance of C/EBPβ gene products in the mammary model cells. • The temporal up-regulation of LIP protein induced EMT-like cell behaviors. • The temporal up-regulation of LAP protein induced MET-like cell behaviors. • Excess amount of C/EBPβ gene products were eliminated by proteasomal-degradation. • Basement membrane components attenuated proteasome-triggered protein elimination

  2. MONDian dynamical modeling of NGC 288 with $\\beta \

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, X; Scarpa, R

    2016-01-01

    NGC 288 is a diffuse Galactic globular cluster, it is remarkable in that its low density results in internal accelerations being below the critical MOND $a_{0}$ acceleration throughout. This makes it an ideal testing ground for MONDian gravity, as the details of the largely unknown transition function between the Newtonian and modified regimes become unimportant. Further, exact analytical solutions exist for isothermal spherical equilibrium structures in MOND, allowing for arbitrary values of the anisotropy parameter, $\\beta$. In this paper we use observations of the velocity dispersion profile of NGC 288, which is in fact isothermal, as dynamical constraints on MONDian models for this cluster, where the remaining free parameters are adjusted to fit the observed surface brightness profile. We find the optimal fit requires $\\beta =0$, an isotropic solution with a total mass of $3.5 \\pm 1.1 \\times 10^{4} M_{\\odot}$.

  3. Structural and electronic properties of hetero-transition-metal Keggin anions: a DFT Study of alpha/beta-[XW12O40]n- (X = CrVI, VV, TiIV, FeIII, CoIII, NiIII, CoII, and ZnII) relative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Wu, Hai-Shun; Jiao, Haijun

    2007-01-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the electronic structures and the alpha/beta relative stability of Keggin-typed [XW(12)O(40)]n- anions with transition metal as heteroatom X (X = Cr(VI), V(V), Ti(IV), Fe(III), Co(III), Ni(III), Co(II) and Zn(II)). Nice agreement in geometries between computation and experiment has been obtained, and the higher stability of the alpha isomer over the beta one has been confirmed. Structural parameter analysis reveals that the {M(3)O(13)} triads in both alpha and beta isomers contract considerably with the increase of the negative anionic charge, while the overall size of both isomers shrinks only slightly. Fragment molecular orbital analysis shows that except alpha/beta-[TiW(12)O(40)]4-, the electronic structures of Keggin anions can be described by the insertion of the e and/or t2 orbital of XO4n- into the frontier orbitals of W(12)O(36) cage, and this leads to the specific redox property, which is different from that of the Keggin anions with main-group elements as heteroatoms. Energy decomposition analysis shows that the enhanced intrinsic stability of the alpha isomer in Td arrangement of W(12)O(36) shell and the larger deformation of the alpha over the beta isomer are two dominating factors and contribute oppositely to the alpha/beta relative stability. PMID:17201398

  4. Radiative lifetimes of spin forbidden a1Δ → X3Σ- and spin allowed A3Π → X3Σ- transitions and complete basis set extrapolated ab initio potential energy curves for the ground and excited states of CH-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Sathyamurthy, N

    2012-12-01

    The spin forbidden transition a(1)Δ → X(3)Σ(-) in CH(-) has been studied using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian for a large number of geometries. This transition acquires intensity through spin-orbit coupling with singlet and triplet Π states. The transition moment matrix including more than one singlet and triplet Π states was calculated at the multi-reference configuration interaction/aug-cc-pV6Z level of theory. The computed radiative lifetime of 5.63 s is in good agreement with the experimental (5.9 s) and other theoretical (6.14 s) results. Transition moment values of the spin allowed A(3)Π → X(3)Σ(-) transition have also been calculated at the same level of theory. Calculations show that the corresponding radiative lifetime is considerably low, 2.4 × 10(-7) s. Complete basis set extrapolated potential energy curves for the ground state of CH and the ground state and six low lying excited states (a(1)Δ, b(1)Σ(+), two (3)Π, and two (1)Π) of CH(-) are reported. These curves are then used to calculate the vibrational bound states for CH and CH(-). The computed electron affinity of CH supports the electron affinity bounds reported by Okumura et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 85, 1971 (1986)].

  5. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  6. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  7. The Tangle of Student Allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of student financial aid in Australia focuses on these issues: direct vs. indirect payment to students; inequality in living allowances given to secondary and postsecondary students; and distribution of expense allowances by state government and living allowances by the Commonwealth. (MSE)

  8. Nuclear structure of tellurium 133 via beta decay and shell model calculations in the doubly magic tin 132 region. [J,. pi. , transition probabilities, neutron and proton separation, g factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S.M.

    1979-08-01

    An experimental investigation of the level structure of /sup 133/Te was performed by spectroscopy of gamma-rays following the beta-decay of 2.7 min /sup 133/Sb. Multiscaled gamma-ray singles spectra and 2.5 x 10/sup 7/ gamma-gamma coincidence events were used in the assignment of 105 of the approximately 400 observed gamma-rays to /sup 133/Sb decay and in the construction of the /sup 133/Te level scheme with 29 excited levels. One hundred twenty-two gamma-rays were identified as originating in the decay of other isotopes of Sb or their daughter products. The remaining gamma-rays were associated with the decay of impurity atoms or have as yet not been identified. A new computer program based on the Lanczos tridiagonalization algorithm using an uncoupled m-scheme basis and vector manipulations was written. It was used to calculate energy levels, parities, spins, model wavefunctions, neutron and proton separation energies, and some electromagnetic transition probabilities for the following nuclei in the /sup 132/Sn region: /sup 128/Sn, /sup 129/Sn, /sup 130/Sn, /sup 131/Sn, /sup 130/Sb, /sup 131/Sb, /sup 132/Sb, /sup 133/Sb, /sup 132/Te, /sup 133/Te, /sup 134/Te, /sup 134/I, /sup 135/I, /sup 135/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe. The results are compared with experiment and the agreement is generally good. For non-magic nuclei: the lg/sub 7/2/, 2d/sub 5/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/, 1h/sub 11/2/, and 3s/sub 1/2/ orbitals are available to valence protons and the 2d/sub 5/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/, 1h/sub 11/2/, and 3s/sub 1/2/ orbitals are available to valence neutron holes. The present CDC7600 computer code can accommodate 59 single particle states and vectors comprised of 30,000 Slater determinants. The effective interaction used was that of Petrovich, McManus, and Madsen, a modification of the Kallio-Kolltveit realistic force. Single particle energies, effective charges and effective g-factors were determined from experimental data for nuclei in the /sup 132/Sn region. 116 references.

  9. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  10. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  11. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  12. Search for beta sup - and beta sup -beta sup - decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalyarov, A; Barabash, A; Briançon, C; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Hubert, F; Hubert, P; Kovalik, A; Lebedev, V I; Rukhadze, N I; Stekl, I; Umatov, V; Vylov, T D

    2002-01-01

    A sup 4 sup 8 CaCO sub 3 powder sample containing 20.18 g of sup 4 sup 8 Ca was measured for 797 h with a 400 cm sup 3 low-background HPGe detector. New limits on decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca were obtained. For single beta transitions to sup 4 sup 8 Sc the limits are equal to 0.71x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.82x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the ground state, excited 5 sup + and 4 sup + states, respectively. The new limits on double beta decay to excited states of sup 4 sup 8 Ti are equal to 0.47x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.90x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the first 2 sup + , second 2 sup + and first 0 sup + excited states, respectively. All limits are given at the 90% CL.

  13. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  14. Endloss from a slender high-beta plasma column contained in a linear solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear high-beta devices are potential fusion reactors in which a long narrow plasma is contained laterally by a vacuum magnetic field of a straight pulsed solenoid and is allowed to stream freely out at the magnet ends. The plasma is composed of a stationary central region plasma, and streaming plasma regions at each end. The present analysis determines a confinement time based on the lifetime of the central stationary plasma. This lifetime is a hybrid related to the acoustic transit time and cross-field diffusion time and differs significantly from existing theories. Its relevance to future plasma experiments and fusion reactor studies is given. (U.K.)

  15. An experimental investigation of double beta decay of 100Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New limits on half-lives for several double beta decay modes of 100Mo were obtained with a novel experimental system which included thin source films interleaved with a coaxial array of windowless silicon detectors. Segmentation and timing information allowed backgrounds originating in the films to be studied in some detail. Dummy films containing 96Mo were used to assess remaining backgrounds. With 0.1 mole years of 100Mo data collected, the lower half-life limits at 90% confidence were 2.7 /times/ 1018 years for decay via the two-neutrino mode, 5.2 /times/1019 years for decay with the emission of a Majoron, and 1.6 /times/ 1020 years and 2.2 /times/ 1021 years for neutrinoless 0+ → 2+ and 0+ → 0+ transitions, respectively. 50 refs., 38 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Beta decay rates of neutron-rich nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketin, Tomislav; Huther, Lutz; Petković, Jelena; Paar, Nils; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Heavy element nucleosynthesis models involve various properties of thousands of nuclei in order to simulate the intricate details of the process. By necessity, as most of these nuclei cannot be studied in a controlled environment, these models must rely on the nuclear structure models for input. Of all the properties, the beta-decay half-lives are one of the most important ones due to their direct impact on the resulting abundance distributions. In this study we present the results of a large-scale calculation based on the relativistic nuclear energy density functional, where both the allowed and the first-forbidden transitions are studied in more than 5000 neutron-rich nuclei. Aside from the astrophysical applications, the results of this calculation can also be employed in the modeling of the electron and antineutrino spectra from nuclear reactors.

  17. Structure of the two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ decay matrix elements within perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanik, Dusan; Faessler, Amand

    2015-01-01

    The two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ Gamow-Teller and Fermi transitions are studied within an exactly solvable model, which allows a violation of both spin-isospin SU(4) and isospin SU(2) symmetries, and is expressed with generators of the SO(8) group. It is found that this model reproduces the main features of realistic calculation within the quasiparticle random-phase approximation with isospin symmetry restoration concerning the dependence of the two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ decay matrix elements on isovector and isoscalar particle-particle interactions. By using perturbation theory an explicit dependence of the two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ decay matrix elements on the like-nucleon pairing, particle-particle T=0 and T=1, and particle-hole proton-neutron interactions is obtained. It is found that double-$\\beta$ decay matrix elements do not depend on the mean field part of Hamiltonian and that they are governed by a weak violation of both SU(2) and SU(4) symmetries by the particle-particle interaction of Hamiltonia...

  18. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U.......S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  19. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  20. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics...

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid A beta(1-40) Improves Differential Dementia Diagnosis in Patients with Intermediate P-tau(181P) Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaets, Sylvie; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed that the concentration of amyloid-beta(1-40) (A beta(1-40)) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects the total amount of A beta protein in the brain and thus allows a better interpretation of inter-individual differences in A beta quantity than the A beta(1-42) concentration. In this stud

  2. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase, a senile plaque component, affects the fibrillogenesis of amyloid-beta-peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A; Bronfman, F; Pérez, C A; Vicente, M; Garrido, J; Inestrosa, N C

    1995-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) colocalizes with amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) deposits present in the brain of Alzheimer's patients. Recent studies showed that A beta 1-40 can adopt two different conformational states in solution (an amyloidogenic conformer, A beta ac, and a non-amyloidogenic conformer, A beta nac) which have distinct abilities to form amyloid fibrils. We report here that AChE binds A beta nac and accelerates amyloid formation by the same peptide. No such effect was observed with A beta ac, the amyloidogenic conformer, suggesting that AChE acts as a 'pathological chaperone' inducing a conformational transition from A beta nac into A beta ac in vitro.

  4. Ionization by nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological description of ionization events is given that applies to both shaking transitions of the composite nucleus-atom system and the process in which the charged particles emitted in a nuclear decay transfer energy by a relatively slow ''direct collision'' final state interaction with atomic electrons. Specific areas covered include shakeoff in internal conversion, shakeoff in electron capture, shakeoff in beta decay, and inner electron ejection in alpha decay. (5 figs., 1 table)

  5. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of the barotropic lamellar gel/lamellar liquid crystal phase transition in fully hydrated dihexadecylphosphatidylethanolamine: a time-resolved x-ray diffraction study using pressure jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A; Hummel, B; Mencke, A; Caffrey, M

    1994-07-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the barotropic lamellar gel (L beta')/lamellar liquid crystal (L alpha) phase transition in fully hydrated 1,2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE) has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TRXRD). The phase transition was induced by pressure jumps of varying amplitudes in both the pressurization and depressurization directions at controlled temperature (78 degrees C). Both low- and wide-angle diffracted x rays were recorded simultaneously in live time using an x-ray-sensitive image intensifier coupled to a CCD camera and Super-VHS videotape recorder. Such an arrangement allowed for the direct and quantitative characterization of the long- (lamellar repeat spacing) and short-range order (chain packing) during a kinetic experiment. The image-processed live-time x-ray diffraction data were fitted using a nonlinear least-squares model, and the parameters of the fits were monitored continuously throughout the transition. The pressure-induced transitions from the L alpha to the L beta' phase and from the L beta' to the L alpha phase was two-state (no formation of intermediates apparent during the transition) to within the sensitivity limits of the method. The corresponding transit time (the time during which both phases coexist) associated with the long- and short-range order of the pressurization-induced L alpha-to-L beta' phase transition decreased to a limiting value of approximately 50 ms with increasing pressure jump amplitude. This limiting value was close to the response time of the detector/recording system. Thus, the intrinsic transit time of this transition in fully hydrated DHPE at 78 degrees C was less than or equal to 50 ms. In contrast, the depressurization-induced L beta'-to-L alpha phase transition was slower, taking approximately 1 s to complete, and occurred with no obvious dependence of the transit time on pressure jump amplitude. In the depressurization jump experiment, the lipid responded

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay and heavy sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental rate of neutrinoless double beta decay can be saturated by the exchange of virtual sterile neutrinos, that mix with the ordinary neutrinos and are heavier than 200 MeV. Interestingly, this hypothesis is subject only to marginal experimental constraints, because of the new nuclear matrix elements. This possibility is analyzed in the context of the Type I seesaw model, performing also exploratory investigations of the implications for heavy neutrino mass spectra, rare decays of mesons as well as neutrino-decay search, LHC, and lepton flavor violation. The heavy sterile neutrinos can saturate the rate only when their masses are below some 10 TeV, but in this case, the suppression of the light-neutrino masses has to be more than the ratio of the electroweak scale and the heavy-neutrino scale; i.e., more suppressed than the naive seesaw expectation. We classify the cases when this condition holds true in the minimal version of the seesaw model, showing its compatibility (1) with neutrinoless double beta rate being dominated by heavy neutrinos and (2) with any light neutrino mass spectra. The absence of excessive fine-tunings and the radiative stability of light neutrino mass matrices, together with a saturating sterile neutrino contribution, imply an upper bound on the heavy neutrino masses of about 10 GeV. We extend our analysis to the Extended seesaw scenario, where the light and the heavy sterile neutrino contributions are completely decoupled, allowing the sterile neutrinos to saturate the present experimental bound on neutrinoless double beta decay. In the models analyzed, the rate of this process is not strictly connected with the values of the light neutrino masses, and a fast transition rate is compatible with neutrinos lighter than 100 meV.

  8. Toward beta cell replacement for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sui, Lina; Freytes, Donald O; Creusot, Remi J; Egli, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of insulin more than 90 years ago introduced a life-saving treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes, and since then, significant progress has been made in clinical care for all forms of diabetes. However, no method of insulin delivery matches the ability of the human pancreas to reliably and automatically maintain glucose levels within a tight range. Transplantation of human islets or of an intact pancreas can in principle cure diabetes, but this approach is generally reserved for cases with simultaneous transplantation of a kidney, where immunosuppression is already a requirement. Recent advances in cell reprogramming and beta cell differentiation now allow the generation of personalized stem cells, providing an unlimited source of beta cells for research and for developing autologous cell therapies. In this review, we will discuss the utility of stem cell-derived beta cells to investigate the mechanisms of beta cell failure in diabetes, and the challenges to develop beta cell replacement therapies. These challenges include appropriate quality controls of the cells being used, the ability to generate beta cell grafts of stable cellular composition, and in the case of type 1 diabetes, protecting implanted cells from autoimmune destruction without compromising other aspects of the immune system or the functionality of the graft. Such novel treatments will need to match or exceed the relative safety and efficacy of available care for diabetes.

  9. Tables of double beta decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2β transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2β-; 2β+; εβ+; 2ε) and modes (0ν; 2ν; 0νM) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Transitioning between Clerkship Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth transition resulting in one case. Results: Gradually transitioning allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…

  11. Chiral Two-body Currents and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, Javier [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-12-16

    The nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) of neutrinoless double-beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay are studied using weak currents derived in the framework of chiral effective field theory. Apart from the standard one-body (1b) currents, it is shown that two-body (2b) currents contribute to weak processes. The normal-ordered 1b part of 2b currents modifies the Gamow-Teller (GT){sigma}{tau}{sup -} part of the 1b current, contributing to the well-known quenching of GT single-{beta} decays. The momentum-transfer dependence of the quenching due to 2b currents is also predicted. Therefore, including 2b currents allows to address, microscopically, the problem of the axial weak coupling (g{sub A}) value, which is the biggest uncertainty in the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay NME calculations for all available methods.

  12. Minimal model for beta relaxation in viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye

    2003-01-01

    Contrasts between beta relaxation in equilibrium viscous liquids and glasses are rationalized in terms of a double-well potential model with structure-dependent asymmetry, assuming structure is described by a single order parameter. The model is tested for tripropylene glycol where it accounts...... for the hysteresis of the dielectric beta loss peak frequency and magnitude during cooling and reheating through the glass transition....

  13. Resistive MHD studies of high-beta tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.

    1982-02-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in high-beta tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations have been built on earlier low-beta techniques, but the beta effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an x-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current-driven modes at low beta to predominantly pressure-driven modes at high beta is described. The nonlinear studies yield x-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  14. Resistive MHD studies of high-. beta. -tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-..beta.. tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low ..beta.. techniques, but the ..beta.. effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low ..beta.. to predominantly pressure driven modes at high ..beta.. is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  15. Relativistic calculation of L$\\beta\\_2$ satellite spectra of W and Au

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, J P; Martins, M C; Indelicato, P J; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    L$\\beta\\_2$ X-ray satellite spectra of tungsten and gold are calculated using the Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock energies and compared with recent experimental data. New calculations of L$\\_1$-L$\\_3$M$\\_5$ Coster-Kronig transition energies for tungsten are presented, confirming the origin of the L$\\beta\\_2$ visible satellites reported by two experimental groups. We found the value 5.09 eV for the average energy of the L$\\_1$-L$\\_3$M$\\_5$ Coster-Kronig transition in tungsten. A detailed calculation of the L$\\beta\\_2$ and L$\\beta\\_{15}$ satellite spectra was performed for gold.

  16. $\\beta$-delayed neutron spectroscopy of $^{130-132}$ Cd isotopes with the ISOLDE decay station and the VANDLE array

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to use the new ISOLDE decay station and the neutron detector VANDLE to measure the $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission of N=82-84 $^{130-132}$Cd isotopes. The large delayed neutron emission probability observed in a previous ISOLDE measurement is indicative of the Gamow-Teller transitions due to the decay of deep core neutrons. Core Gamow-Teller decay has been experimentally proven in the $^{78}$Ni region for the N>50 nuclei using the VANDLE array. The spectroscopic measurement of delayed neutron emission along the cadmium isotopic chain will allow us to track the evolution of the single particle states and the shell gap.

  17. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  18. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia. Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene ... One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version ...

  19. MQPM description of the structure and beta decays of the odd A=95,97 Mo and Tc isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydrefors, E., E-mail: emanuel.ydrefors@jyu.f [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Mustonen, M.T., E-mail: mika.t.mustonen@jyu.f [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Suhonen, J., E-mail: jouni.suhonen@phys.jyu.f [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    The odd-mass isotopes A=95,97 of molybdenum are of interest for neutrino-physics applications. The microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model (MQPM) is used to calculate energy and decay characteristics of these nuclei and their beta-decay partners ({sup 95}Tc and {sup 97}Tc). A realistic single-particle valence space and two-body interaction are used in the calculations. The computed results are compared with available data. The obtained energy spectra are also compared with earlier calculations. We present the first ever calculations for the rates of allowed and forbidden {beta}{sup +}/EC decay transitions in these nuclei. In general our computed numbers agree rather well with the available data.

  20. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  1. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  2. Structural and Magnetic Phase Transitions in Manganese Arsenide Thin-Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Felix Till

    that the evolution of electrical resistivity in the coexistence regime of alpha- and beta-phase can be understood in terms of a simple model. These measurements allow accurate extraction of the order-parameter "phase fraction" and thus permit us to study the hysteresis of the phase transition in detail. Major features in the hysteresis can be correlated to the ordering observed in the array of alpha- and beta-stripes. As the continuous ferromagnetic film breaks up into isolated stripes of alpha-phase, a hysteresis in the out-of-plane magnetization is detected from measurements of the anomalous Hall effect. The appearance of out-of-plane domains can be understood from simple shape-anisotropy arguments. Remarkably, an anomaly of the Hall effect at low fields persists far into the beta-phase. Signatures of the more elusive beta- to gamma-transition are found in the temperature-dependence of resistivity, the out-of-plane lattice constant, and reflectance difference spectra. The transition temperature is significantly lowered compared to the bulk, consistent with the strained state of the material. The negative temperature coefficient of resistivity, as well as its anisotropic changes, lend support to the idea of an antiferromagnetic order within the beta-phase.

  3. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose a world-first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$‐delayed n and $\\gamma$-radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$­-delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited states in the daughters...

  4. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grzywacz, Robert; Stone, Nicholas; Köster, Ulli; Singh, Barlaj; Bingham, Carrol; Gaulard, S; Kolos, Karolina; Madurga, Miguel; Nikolov, J; Otsubo, T; Roccia, S; Veskovic, Miroslav; Walker, Phil; Walters, William

    2013-01-01

    We propose a world-­‐first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$-­‐delayed n and $\\gamma$- radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$-­‐delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first-­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-­‐density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited state...

  5. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  6. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  7. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  8. Characterization of recombinant RI beta and evaluation of the presence of RI beta protein in rat brain and testicular extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeManno, D A; Jackiw, V; Brooks, E; Hunzicker-Dunn, M

    1994-07-21

    Based upon recent reports that the mRNA from the regulatory (R) RI beta subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was expressed in testicular extracts, we determined whether testicular extracts exhibited RI beta protein. To accomplish this goal, we initially determined the fundamental labeling and ionic characteristics of recombinant RI beta. Recombinant RI beta eluted from DEAE-cellulose with a salt concentration (of 0.075 M) equivalent to its elution position from soluble mouse brain extracts with catalytic subunit-free RI alpha. As predicted by its amino acid sequence homology to RI alpha, recombinant RI beta was not phosphorylated by PKA but was labeled specifically with 8-azido-adenosine 3':5'-[32P]monophosphate (8-N3[32P]cAMP). Additionally, RI antisera reacted equally with RI alpha (47 kDa) and recombinant RI beta (53 kDa). However, recombinant RI beta exhibited an unexpectedly basic pI of 6.65-6.85. By using a pH gradient for isoelectric focussing that allowed for clear focussing of 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled recombinant RI beta, 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled RI beta was readily detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in rat brain particulate extracts and exhibited a pI equivalent to that of recombinant RI beta. The 53-kDa RI beta was undetectable either by its immunoreactivity or upon photoaffinity labeling with 8-N3[32P]cAMP by one or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in soluble or particulate extracts of testes of 14-day-old, 45-day-old, or adult rats or in epididymal sperm. However, 8-N3[32P]cAMP-labeled RI beta was detected, albeit in very small levels, by two-dimensional electrophoresis upon separation of PKAs in testes of 14-day-old rats by DEAE-cellulose chromatography but was absent in equivalent extracts from adult rat testes. These results demonstrate that the unexpectedly basic pI of RI beta allows for its clear separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis from the RII proteins and therefore allows for its unambiguous identification. Further

  9. The pleiotropic roles of transforming growth factor beta inhomeostasis and carcinogenesis of endocrine organs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary-Helen

    2006-01-13

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous cytokine that plays a critical role in numerous pathways regulating cellular and tissue homeostasis. TGF-beta is regulated by hormones and is a primary mediator of hormone response in uterus, prostate and mammary gland. This review will address the role of TGF-beta in regulating hormone dependent proliferation and morphogenesis. The subversion of TGF-beta regulation during the processes of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on its effects on genetic stability and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), will also be examined. An understanding of the multiple and complex mechanisms of TGF-beta regulation of epithelial function, and the ultimate loss of TGF-beta function during carcinogenesis, will be critical in the design of novel therapeutic interventions for endocrine-related cancers.

  10. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  11. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  12. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  13. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  14. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  16. The Deacylation Mechanism of AmpC [beta]-Lactamase at Ultrahigh Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Minasov, George; Roth, Tomer A.; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K. (Degli); (NWU); (UCSF)

    2010-03-05

    {beta}-Lactamases confer bacterial resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins. The characteristic class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC catalyzes the reaction with several key residues including Ser64, Tyr150, and Lys67. Here, we describe a 1.07 {angstrom} X-ray crystallographic structure of AmpC {beta}-lactamase in complex with a boronic acid deacylation transition-state analogue. The high quality of the electron density map allows the determination of many proton positions. The proton on the Tyr150 hydroxyl group is clearly visible and is donated to the boronic oxygen mimicking the deacylation water. Meanwhile, Lys67 hydrogen bonds with Ser64O{gamma}, Asn152O{delta}1, and the backbone oxygen of Ala220. This suggests that this residue is positively charged and has relinquished the hydrogen bond with Tyr150 observed in acyl-enzyme complex structures. Together with previous biochemical and NMR studies, these observations indicate that Tyr150 is protonated throughout the reaction coordinate, disfavoring mechanisms that involve a stable tyrosinate as the general base for deacylation. Rather, the hydroxyl of Tyr150 appears to be well positioned to electrostatically stabilize the negative charge buildup in the tetrahedral high-energy intermediate. This structure, in itself, appears consistent with a mechanism involving either Tyr150 acting as a transient catalytic base in conjunction with a neutral Lys67 or the lactam nitrogen as the general base. Whereas mutagenesis studies suggest that Lys67 may be replaced by an arginine, disfavoring the conjugate base mechanism, distinguishing between these two hypotheses may ultimately depend on direct determination of the pKa of Lys67 along the reaction coordinate.

  17. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...... on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  18. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  19. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  2. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  3. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  4. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  5. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  6. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  7. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  8. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 5 CFR 1310.3.). (b) What is required to determine the allowability of costs? Source documents or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What...

  9. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295... OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Compensation Available Under the CGFAA § 295.21 Allowable compensation. (a) Allowable compensation. The CGFAA provides for...

  10. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  11. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  12. Magnitude of a conformational change in the glycine receptor beta1-beta2 loop is correlated with agonist efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Lynch, Joseph W

    2009-01-01

    associated with the closed-flip transition in the alpha1-glycine receptor. We employed voltage-clamp fluorometry to compare ligand-binding domain conformational changes induced by the following agonists, listed from highest to lowest affinity and efficacy: glycine > beta-alanine > taurine. Voltage...

  13. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, Michael F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivels, Ciara B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  14. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  15. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  16. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  17. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  18. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this approach...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  19. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  20. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  1. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  2. Theoretical study of the NO beta system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Komornicki, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical determination of the transition moment functions (TMFs) for the beta system of NO is presented. High levels of correlation treatment are required to show the changing degree of Rydberg character in the B2II with decreasing r values. The state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field multireference configuration-interaction method is used for the determination. Previous lifetime measurements made with laser-induced fluorescence, varying between 2 and 0.85 microns, are discussed in terms of the calculated lifetimes for v-prime values 0-6, which vary from 2.12-1.17 microns. When larger r values are used for the transition moment function, the calculated lifetimes correlate with experimental lifetimes. The Einstein coefficients agree with experimental results, although limitations in the calibration of the spectrometer can account for systematic differences. The correlation with earlier experimental results suggests that radiative lifetimes are in the range of 1-2 microns.

  3. Electromagnetic transition operators, ch. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the basic equations related to the electromagnetic interaction are summarized. A derivation of the operators that are used to calculate electromagnetic transitions and moments is given. Centre-of-mass corrections are treated. The angular-momentum and parity selection rules are discussed. Measurable quantities such as reduced transition rates, lifetimes, branching and mixing ratios are defined. The much-used Weisskopf single-particle estimates of transition strengths are derived. It is shown that the isospin formalism allows to express transition strengths in terms of isoscalar and isovector contributions. This separation can be used for example, to correlate transition rates in isobaric mass multiplets

  4. Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga

    CERN Document Server

    Bey, A; Canchel, G; Dossat, C; Giovinazzo, J; Matea, I; Elomaa, V; Eronen, T; Hager, U; Hakala, M; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Moore, I; Pentillä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Saastamoinen, A; Sonoda, T; Äystö, J; Adimi, N; De France, G; Thomas, J C; Voltolini, G; Chaventré, T

    2008-01-01

    Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla. 62Ga is one of the heavier Tz = 0, 0+ -> 0+ beta-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the Vud quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of 62Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR= 99.893(24)%, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed beta decay of 62Ga.

  5. Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bey, A.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Matea, I. [Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, Gradignan Cedex (France); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Adimi, N. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, El Alia, B.P. 32, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); France, G. de; Thomas, J.C.; Voltolini, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-05-15

    Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 62}Ga is one of the heavier T{sub z}=0, 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V{sub ud} quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of {sup 62}Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR=99.893(24) %, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed {beta} -decay of {sup 62}Ga. (orig.)

  6. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... allowances; travel allowances. Payments for stipends, dependency allowances, and the travel...

  7. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  8. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  9. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  10. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  11. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  12. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  13. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  14. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mobile homes may be allowed only in cases of collision, theft, or vandalism. (5) Money. Claims for money... claimant's supervisor. (4) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of mobile homes and their contents under the provisions of § 180.104(c)(2). Claims for structural damage to mobile...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  16. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  17. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  18. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  19. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  20. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  1. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  2. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  3. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  4. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with the cost...

  5. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to the limit on the all-inclusive rate for allowable costs. (3) Allowable graduate medical education.... (f) Graduate medical education. (1) Effective for that portion of cost reporting periods occurring on... receive direct graduate medical education payment for those residents. (2) Direct graduate...

  6. A Revised Scheme for the Beta Decay of 115-Day Ta182

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. Gregers; Nielsen, H. L.; Wilsky, K.

    1964-01-01

    V and not, as hitherto believed, to the 1222 keV level. The investigation has further revealed two new β components of higher energy: 591 keV (0.9±0.5% )and 1708 keV (0.05±0.01%). The 1708 keV transition represents a new example of K-forbidden 3−→2+ beta transitions in the rare-earth region.......A six-gap beta spectrometer, a xenon-filled proportional counter, scintillation equipment, and coincidence techniques have been used in a reinvestigation of the beta transitions to the known levels in W182. The main beta component of 522 keV (65%) is shown to proceed to the level at 1290 ke...

  7. Relativistic pn-QRPA to the double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental de Itapeva; Krmpotic, F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas; Carlson, Brett Vern [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In nature there are about 50 nuclear systems where the single beta-decay is energetically forbidden, and double- beta decay turns out to be only possible mode of disintegration. It is the nuclear pairing force which causes such an 'anomaly', by making the mass of the odd-odd isobar, (N - 1;Z + 1), to be greater than the masses of its even-even neighbors, (N;Z) and (N - 2;Z +2). The modes by which the double-beta decay can take place are connected with the neutrino and antineutrino distinction. In case the lepton number is strictly conserved the neutrino is a Dirac fermion and the two-neutrino mode is the only possible mode of disintegration. On the other hand, if this conservation is violated, the neutrino is a Majorana particle and neutrinoless double-beta decay also can occur. Both two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay processes have attracted much attention, because a comparison between experiment and theory for the first, provides a measure of confidence one may have in the nuclear wave function employed for extracting the unknown parameters from neutrinoless lifetime measurements. The proton-neutron (pn) quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) has turned out be the most simple model for calculating the nuclear wave function involved in the double-beta decay transitions. In this work the transition matrix elements for 0{sup +} -> 0{sup +} double-beta decay are calculated for {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Te nuclei, using a relativistic pn-QRPA based on Hartree-Bogoliubov approximation to the single-particle motion. (author)

  8. The NEXT double beta decay experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, A.; NEXT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) is a neutrinoless double-beta (ββ0v) decay experiment at Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (LSC). It is an electroluminescent Time Projection Chamber filled with high pressure 136Xe gas with separated function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Energy resolution and background suppression are the two key features of any neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. NEXT has both good energy resolution (LSC. It will validate the NEXT background rate expectations and will make first measurements of the two neutrino ββ2v mode of 136Xe. Furthermore, the NEXT technique can be extrapolated to the tonne scale, thus allowing the full exploration of the inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. These proceedings review NEXT R&D results, the status of detector commissioning at LSC and the NEXT physics case.

  9. The Yersinia adhesin YadA collagen-binding domain structure is a novel left-handed parallel beta-roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummelin, Heli; Merckel, Michael C; Leo, Jack C; Lankinen, Hilkka; Skurnik, Mikael; Goldman, Adrian

    2004-02-25

    The crystal structure of the recombinant collagen-binding domain of Yersinia adhesin YadA from Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 was solved at 1.55 A resolution. The trimeric structure is composed of head and neck regions, and the collagen binding head region is a novel nine-coiled left-handed parallel beta-roll. Before the beta-roll, the polypeptide loops from one monomer to the rest, and after the beta-roll the neck region does the same, making the transition from the globular head region to the narrower stalk domain. This creates an intrinsically stable 'lock nut' structure. The trimeric form of YadA is required for collagen binding, and mutagenesis of its surface residues allowed identification of a putative collagen-binding surface. Furthermore, a new structure-sequence motif for YadA beta-roll was used to identify putative YadA-head-like domains in a variety of human and plant pathogens. Such domains may therefore be a common bacterial strategy for avoiding host response. PMID:14765110

  10. Study of {sup 193}Os beta{sup -} decay; Estudo do decaimento beta{sup -} do {sup 193}Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme Soares

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the excited levels of {sup 193}Ir populated by the beta{sup -} decay of {sup 193}Os (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 30h) were investigated. For that purpose, {approx} 5 mg samples of 99%-enriched {sup 192}Os were irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of {approx} 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} and then analysed both using single gamma spectroscopy and a 4-detector multi parametric acquisition facility, which provided data for both a gamma gamma coincidence analysis and a directional angular correlation gamma gamma ({theta} ) study. From these data, 28 transitions were added to this decay scheme, 11 of which were previously known from nuclear reactions and 17 observed for the first time. Eight excited levels were also added to the decay scheme, 3 of which were known from nuclear reaction studies - the remaining 5 are suggested for the first time. Moreover, it was possible to confirm suspicions found in reference that the levels at 848.93 keV and 849.093 keV are indeed the same; it was also possible to confirm the existence of an excited level at 806.9 keV, which had been inferred, but not experimentally confirmed in beta decay studies to date. The angular correlation analysis allowed for the definition of the spin of the excited level at 874 keV as 5/2{sup +;} moreover, the results showed a 79% probability that the spin of the 1078 keV level is 5/2/'-, and also restricted the spin possibilities for the new excited level at 960 keV to two values (1/2 or 3/2). It was also possible to measure the multipolarity mixing ratio ({delta}{sub Ln+1}/L{sub n}) for 43 transitions - 19 of them for the first time and most of the others with a better precision than previously known. Finally, an attempt was made to understand the low-lying levels structure for this nucleus using a theoretical model, which reproduced the ground state and the two lowest-lying excited levels in {sup 193}Ir. (author)

  11. Corrosion behavior of {beta} titanium alloys for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atapour, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pilchak, A.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate/RXLM, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton OH 45432 (United States); Frankel, G.S., E-mail: frankel.10@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Williams, J.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-07-20

    The corrosion behavior of biocompatible {beta} titanium alloys Ti-13Mo-7Zr-3Fe (TMZF) and Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta (TiOsteum) was investigated in 0.9% NaCl and 5 M HCl solutions. Extra-low-interstitial Ti-6Al-4V, which is also a candidate material for biomedical applications, was studied for comparison. The as-received TiOsteum and TMZF alloys exhibited single-phase {beta} and {alpha} + {beta} microstructures, respectively, so the latter was also investigated in the solutionized and quenched condition. In 0.9% NaCl solution, all three alloys exhibited spontaneous passivity and very low corrosion rates. Ti-6Al-4V and the as-received TMZF exhibited active-passive transitions in 5 M HCl whereas TiOsteum and TMZF in the metastable {beta} condition showed spontaneous passivity. Potentiodynamic polarization tests, weight loss and immersion tests revealed that TiOsteum exhibited the best corrosion resistance in 5 M HCl. Analysis of surfaces of the corroded specimens indicated that the {alpha}/{beta} phase boundaries were preferential sites for corrosion in Ti-6Al-4V while the {beta} phase was preferentially attacked in the two-phase TMZF. The performance of the alloys in corrosive environment was discussed in terms of the volume fraction of the constituent phases and partitioning of alloying elements between these phases.

  12. Exogenous modulation of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} influences TGF-{beta}R-III-associated vascularization during wound healing in irradiated tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrhan, F.; Schultze-Mosgau, S. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Roedel, F. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). Department of Radiation Oncology; Amann, K. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). Institute of Pathology

    2004-08-01

    Background and purpose: Following preoperative radiotherapy prior to ablative surgery of squamous epithelial cell carcinomas of the head and neck region, wound-healing disorders occur. Previous experimental studies showed altered expression of transforming growth factor-(TGF-){beta} isoforms following surgery in irradiated graft beds. Altered levels of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} are reported to promote fibrosis and to suppress vascularization during wound healing, whereas expression of TGF-{beta} receptor-III (TGF-{beta}R-III) is associated with vascularization. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of anti-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} treatment on TGF-{beta}R-III-associated vascularization in the transition area between irradiated graft bed and graft. Material and methods: Wistar rats (male, weight 300-500 g) underwent preoperative irradiation of the head and neck region with 40 Gy (four fractions of 10 Gy each; n=16 animals). A free myocutaneous gracilis flap taken from the groin was then transplanted to the neck in all rats. The time interval between operation and transplantation was 4 weeks. Eight animals received 1 {mu}g anti-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} into the graft bed by intradermal injection on days 1-7 after surgery. On days 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120, skin samples were taken from the transition area between transplant and graft bed and from the graft bed itself. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the ABC-POX method to analyze the TGF-{beta}R-III and E-selection expression. Histomorphometry was performed to analyze the percentage and the area of positively stained vessels. Results: A significantly higher expression of TGF-{beta}R-III was seen in the irradiated and anti-TGF-{beta}{sub 1}-treated graft bed in comparison to the group receiving preoperative irradiation followed by transplantation alone. The percentage of TGF-{beta}R-III positively staining capillaries from the total amount of capillaries in the anti-TGF-{beta}{sub 1}-treated graft bed was higher than in

  13. Targeting insulin-producing beta cells for regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Adriana; Roscioni, Sara S; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic beta cells differ in terms of glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and proliferative capacity; however, the molecular pathways that regulate this cellular heterogeneity are unknown. We have identified the Wnt-planar cell polarity (PCP) effector Flattop (FLTP) as a biomarker that identifies mature beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Interestingly, three-dimensional architecture and Wnt-PCP ligands are sufficient to trigger mouse and human beta cell maturation. These results highlight the fact that novel biomarkers shed light on the long-standing mystery of beta cell heterogeneity and identify the Wnt-PCP pathway as triggering beta cell maturation. Understanding heterogeneity in the islets of Langerhans might allow targeting of beta cell subpopulations for regenerative therapy and provide building principles for stem cell-derived islets. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Amin Ardestani and Kathrin Maedler, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3892-9 , and by Harry Heimberg and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3879-6 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Shanta Persaud (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3870-2 ). PMID:27412250

  14. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy

  15. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  16. First identification of the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state in {sup 30}Mg via its E0 transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwerdtfeger, Wolfgang Norbert Erik

    2008-08-28

    The known 1789 keV level in {sup 30}Mg turned out to be a candidate for the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state due to its long lifetime of 3.9(4) ns and the absence of a {gamma} transition to the ground state. This triggered our search on the 0{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +} E0 transition in {sup 30}Mg following the {beta} decay of {sup 30}Na: {beta} decay electrons were detected in a scintillation detector, while conversion electrons were focused onto a cooled Si(Li) detector using a Mini-Orange and detected with high resolution, which simultaneously suppresses the high background of {beta} decay electrons. Due to the large Q value of the {beta} decay of {sup 30}Na (17.3 MeV) the suppression of the coincident background induced by high-energy {gamma} rays and subsequently Compton-scattered electrons turned out to be the key challenge for the success of this experiment. In order to optimise the background suppression and thus the sensitivity to weak E0 transitions, offline test measurements using an {sup 90}Y and a {sup 152}Eu source were performed together with GEANT4 simulations. Resulting from these test measurements a highly sensitive experimental setup was designed and built, consequently minimising the amount of high-Z material in the target chamber, reducing X-ray production. As a by-product from test measurements the database value of the half-life of the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state in {sup 90}Zr could be corrected by more than 30 % to be t{sub 1/2}=41(1) ns. Finally, in a {beta} decay experiment at the ISOLDE facility at CERN the 0{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +} E0 transition in {sup 30}Mg could be identified at the expected transition energy of 1788 keV proving for the first time shape coexistence at the borderline of the 'Island of Inversion'. This identification allows to determine the electric monopole strength as {rho}{sup 2}(E0)=26.2(7.5) x 10{sup -3}, indicating a rather weak mixing between the states in two potential minima in a simplified two

  17. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    becomes catabolic due to the high priority of milk production and to current feeding practices. Indeed, feed is changed from a gestation to a lactation diet for most sows and the feed supply typically goes from a restricted supply to an ad libitum allowance. In addition, transition sows are often exposed...... the first few days of lactation, and milk yield increases throughout the transition period and becomes the most important determinant of nutrient requirements. Thus, nutrient requirements of transition sows are affected by many intrinsic factors and these requirements change rapidly, yet, sow feeding...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  18. Tests of the standard electroweak model in beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severijns, N.; Beck, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [Caen Univ., CNRS-ENSI, 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2006-05-15

    We review the current status of precision measurements in allowed nuclear beta decay, including neutron decay, with emphasis on their potential to look for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of phenomenological model-independent descriptions of nuclear beta decay as well as in some specific extensions of the standard model. The values of the standard couplings and the constraints on the exotic couplings of the general beta decay Hamiltonian are updated. For the ratio between the axial and the vector couplings we obtain C{sub A},/C{sub V} = -1.26992(69) under the standard model assumptions. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the sensitivity and complementarity of different precision experiments in direct beta decay. The prospects and the impact of recent developments of precision tools and of high intensity low energy beams are also addressed. (author)

  19. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, his agent, the members of his family, or his..., superior authority. (6) Clothing and accessories. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of,...

  20. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks... Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981. Membrane Tanks...

  1. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Damage or loss of personal property, including baggage and household items, while being transported by a carrier, agent or agency of the government, or private conveyance, may be allowed only if the property...

  2. An effective method to accurately calculate the phase space factors for $\\beta^- \\beta^-$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates, and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  3. Sign Patterns That Allow the Given Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵燕灵; 孙良

    2003-01-01

    Let P be a property referring to a real matrix. For a sign pattern A, if there exists a real matrix B in the qualitative class of A such that B has property P, then we say A allows P. Three cases that A allows an M-matrix, an inverse M-matrix and a P0-matrix are considered. The complete characterizations are obtained.

  4. FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTING ASPECTS REGARDING FAMILY ALLOWANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Cenar

    2010-01-01

    The importance of family and ensuring its social protection are indisputable in any society. It is the reason why in this paper we plan to create an overall picture of how social protection is achieved through family allowances and other social benefits, as well as the role of accounting in this process. Thus, we considered appropriate to present the institutional and legal frameworks for the social protection of the family thorough family allowances and additional social benefits related to ...

  5. Child Allowances, Educational Subsidies and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Ju

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on economic growth attributable to government policies of child allowances and educational subsidies. We show that multiple steady states may arise under these two policies, with club convergence occurring, and the initial condition being of relevance, if the tax rate is fairly high. Under a policy of child allowances, an increase in the tax rate is found to raise the quantity of children, but lower the quality of adults; however, under a policy of educational ...

  6. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  7. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  8. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [National Regulatory Research Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  9. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular fellowships shall be...

  10. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  11. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  12. Isolation and characterization of BetaM protein encoded by ATP1B4 - a unique member of the Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunit gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestov, Nikolay B. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zhao, Hao [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Basrur, Venkatesha [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Modyanov, Nikolai N., E-mail: nikolai.modyanov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2011-09-09

    also characterized by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry before and after deglycosylation. This allowed us to determine that the carbohydrate moiety of BetaM has molecular mass 5.9 kDa and consists of short high-mannose type N-glycans. The results of direct analysis of the purified native eutherian BetaM protein provide first insights into structural properties underlying its entirely new evolutionarily acquired functions.

  13. The study of the properties of nuclei far from the beta stability line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of setups for measuring the lifetime of excited states of nuclei by the method of delayed electron-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidences in the range 10-10-10-6s is presented. The methods allowing for a substantial increase in the accuracy and efficiency of obtaining experimental data are developed. The procedures of measuring and analysing the multicomponent beta spectra with taking into account the instrumental effect which distorts the measured spectra are developed. Results of investigating the positron decay and determining the mass difference Qsub(B)+ for nuclei with Tsub(1/2)>20 min by the method of measuring the positron end-point energy are presented. The nano- and subnanosecond isomers for short-lived isotopes far from the beta stability line have been investigated. Probabilities of the electromagnetic transitions which depopulate the low-lying excited states in 151Tb, 153Dy, 160Tm, sup(157,159,161)Er have been determined and analysed. (author)

  14. Spectral shapes and a beta-gamma directional correlation in the beta decay of 172Tm (Jpi = 2-)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers Hansen, P.; Loft Nielsen, H.; Wilsky, K.;

    1966-01-01

    shape factor plots are taken relative to the 90Y shape factor measured in the same circumstances, and it is concluded that on this basis the shapes of all three 172Tm beta groups agree with the theoretical shape for a first-forbidden unique transition. The directional correlation for the 2-(beta)2......+(gamma)0+ cascade has been measured at six energies from 1010 to 1550 keV and these results too are consistent with the assumption that the 2- rarr 2+ beta transition is purely of tensor rank 2. The data for the 2- rarr 2+ transition are analysed on the basis of the modified Bij approximation, which...... defines parameters X and Y corresponding to the relative contributions of tensor ranks 0 and 1 respectively. The shape measurement provides the limit X2 + Y2 les 0.10, whereas the angular correlation measurement gives Y = 1.64X + (0.02 plusmn0.03). The reduced transition probabilities (f1t)-1 can...

  15. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  16. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  17. Concurrent tests of Lorentz invariance in $\\beta$-decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, K K; Timmermans, R G E

    2015-01-01

    Modern experiments on neutron and allowed nuclear $\\beta$ decay search for new semileptonic interactions, beyond the ``left-handed'' electroweak force. We show that ongoing and planned $\\beta$-decay experiments, with isotopes at rest and in flight, can be exploited as sensitive tests of Lorentz invariance. The variety of correlations that involve the nuclear spin, the direction of the emitted $\\beta$ particle, and the recoil direction of the daughter nucleus allow for relatively simple experiments that give direct bounds on Lorentz violation. The pertinent observables are decay-rate asymmetries and their dependence on sidereal time. We discuss the potential of several asymmetries that together cover a large part of the parameter space for Lorentz violation in the gauge sector. High counting statistics is required.

  18. Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hancu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes some thin layer chromatographic procedures that allow simple and rapid separation and identification of penicillins and cephalosporins from complex mixtures. Methods: Using silicagel GF254 as stationary phase and selecting different mobile phases we succeeded in the separation of the studied beta-lactamins. Our aim was not only to develop a simple, rapid and efficient method for their separation but also the optimization of the analytical conditions. Results: No system will separate all the beta-lactams, but they could be identified when supplementary information is used from color reactions and/or by using additional chromatographic systems. Conclusions: The right combination of solvent system and detection method allows the identification of the studied penicillins and cephalosporins and can be successfully used in the preliminary analysis beta-lactam antibiotics.

  19. Transitions between beta and gamma rhythms in neural systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Setsinsky, D; Fausbøll, Anders;

    2002-01-01

    We study the coexistence of different rhythms in a local network of one inhibitory and two excitatory nerve cells for a wide range of the excitatory synapse strength and of the slow K+-channel conductance. The dynamic features of spike trains in the presence of noise are discussed. It is found th...

  20. Transitions between beta and gamma rhythms in neural systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Setsinsky, D.; Fausbøll, Anders;

    2002-01-01

    We study the coexistence of different rhythms in a local network of one inhibitory and two excitatory nerve cells for a wide range of the excitatory synapse strength and of the slow K+-channel conductance. The dynamic features of spike trains in the presence of noise are discussed. It is found that...

  1. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  2. Exploring the Beta Model Using Proportional Budget Information in a Contingent Valuation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Robert P. Berrens; Bohara, Alok K.; Hank C. Jenkins-Smith; Silva, Carol L.; Weimer, David L

    2005-01-01

    Using a set of random telephone and Internet (web-based) survey samples for a national advisory referendum, we implement Beta models to handle proportional budget information, and allow for consistency in modeling assumptions and the calculation of estimated willingness to pay (WTP). Results indicate significant budget constraint effects and demonstrate the potential for Beta models in handling mental-accounting type information.

  3. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  4. Beta systems error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  5. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  6. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  7. 19 CFR 191.101 - Drawback allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.101 Drawback allowance. (a... perfumery) manufactured or produced in the United States in part from the domestic tax-paid alcohol. (b... tax on flavoring extracts or medicinal or toilet preparations (including perfumery) manufactured...

  8. 77 FR 46987 - Utility Allowances Submetering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... published in the Federal Register amendments to Sec. 1.42-10 (73 FR 43863). If gross rent includes a utility... containing final regulations under section 42 (59 FR 10067). Among these regulations was Sec. 1.42- 10, which... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI91 Utility Allowances Submetering AGENCY:...

  9. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  10. 22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 145...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  11. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of... by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  12. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... Organizations” and paragraph (b) of this section. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of...

  13. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...— Private nonprofit organization other than (1) An institution of higher education; (2) a hospital; or (3... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Education...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  15. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  16. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  17. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... limited to reasons related to the family member's health, schooling or economic circumstances....

  18. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes its...

  19. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  20. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  1. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  2. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  3. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  4. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  5. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  6. Manpower Training Allowances: Financial Assistance or Investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Georges

    1975-01-01

    The author compares the differing approaches of Germany, Sweden, France, and Australia for providing financial support to adults enrolled in vocational training programs, focusing on training allowances for recurrent education. He concludes that without some governmental maintenance program, it is unlikely that adults can utilize even tuition-free…

  7. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  8. Hb Santa Clara (beta 97His-->Asn), a human haemoglobin variant: functional characterization and structure modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Pezzotti, Michela; Giardina, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    This study examines the functional and structural effects of amino acid substitution at alpha(1)beta(2) interface of Hb Santa Clara (beta 97His-->Asn). We have characterized the variation by a combination of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and DNA sequence analysis followed by oxygen-binding experiments. Functional studies outlined an increased oxygen affinity, reduced effect of organic phosphates and a reduced Bohr effect with respect to HbA. In view of the primary role of this interface in the cooperative quaternary transition from the T to R conformational state, a theoretical three-dimensional model of Hb Santa Clara was generated. Structural investigations suggest that replacement of Asn for His beta 97 results in a significant stabilization of the high affinity R-state of the haemoglobin molecule with respect to the low affinity T-state. The role of beta FG4 position has been further examined by computational models of known beta FG4 variants, namely Hb Malmö (beta 97His-->Gln), Hb Wood (beta 97His-->Leu), Hb Nagoya (beta 97His-->Pro) and Hb Moriguchi (beta 97His-->Tyr). These findings demonstrate that, among the various residues at the alpha(1)beta(2) (and alpha(2)beta(1)) intersubunit interface, His beta FG4 contributes significantly to the quaternary constraints that are responsible for the low oxygen affinity of human deoxyhaemoglobin.

  9. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  10. Anderson transition in the three dimensional symplectic universality class

    OpenAIRE

    Asada, Yoichi; Slevin, Keith; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2004-01-01

    We study the Anderson transition in the SU(2) model and the Ando model. We report a new precise estimate of the critical exponent for the symplectic universality class of the Anderson transition. We also report numerical estimation of the $\\beta$ function.

  11. Some aspects of pressure-induced omega -> beta transformation in group IVB elements

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, K D; Gupta, S C; Sikka, S K

    2002-01-01

    The omega (hexagonal) to beta (bcc) transformation in Zr and Hf occurs at 30 and 71 GPa under static pressures. This transition has not been found in Ti up to 87 GPa. On the basis of full-potential linearized augmented plane wave calculations aided with thermal and entropy correction we predict an omega -> beta transition in Ti at around 102 GPa along the 300 K isotherm. In addition to this, we calculate the omega -> beta transitions in Zr and Hf at around 27 and 65 GPa respectively, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The omega -> beta transition pressures, 102, 27 and 65 GPa for Ti, Zr and Hf respectively, do not follow the trend implied by the principle of corresponding states. We have analysed the causes for this anomalous trend. We observe that the omega -> beta transition depends on how the increased d-population due to s-d transfer under pressure is distributed in the different d-substates. For example, at ambient conditions, the bcc phase is unstable and the difference betwe...

  12. Wetting transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a liquid droplet is put onto a surface, two situations distinguishable by the contact angle may result. If the contact angle is zero, the droplet spreads across the surface, a situation referred to as complete wetting. On the other hand, if the contact angle is between 0 deg. and 180 deg., the droplet does not spread, a situation called partial wetting. A wetting transition is a surface phase transition from partial wetting to complete wetting. We review the key experimental findings on this transition, together with simple theoretical models that account for the experiments. The wetting transition is generally first order (discontinuous), implying a discontinuity in the first derivative of the surface free energy. In this case, if one measures the thickness of the adsorbed film beside the droplet, at the wetting transition a discontinuous jump in film thickness occurs from a microscopically thin to a thick film. We show that this can lead to the observation of metastable surface states and an accompanying hysteresis. The observed hysteresis poses, in turn, a number of questions concerning the nucleation of wetting films that we also consider here. In addition, we consider the equilibrium wetting film thickness that results from a competition between the long-range van der Waals forces and gravity. Finally, the first-order character of the wetting transition can lead to a similar transition even when the phase that does the wetting is not (yet) stable in the bulk. For such prewetting transitions, a discontinuous thin-to-thick film transition occurs off bulk coexistence. We show that, for the large variety of systems for which prewetting transitions have been observed, the behaviour is surprisingly uniform, and can be mapped onto a simple generic phase diagram. The second part of the review deals with the exceptions to the first-order nature of the wetting transition. Two different types of continuous or critical wetting transition have been reported, for which

  13. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  14. Structural gene for beta-nerve growth factor not defective in familial dysautonomia.

    OpenAIRE

    Breakefield, X O; Orloff, G; Castiglione, C; Coussens, L.; Axelrod, F. B.; Ullrich, A

    1984-01-01

    The developmental loss of neurons in sympathetic, sensory, and some parasympathetic ganglia in familial dysautonomia suggests an inherited defect in the action of beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF). The role of this growth factor in dysautonomia has been difficult to resolve as there is no known source of authentic human beta-NGF. The availability of a cloned DNA probe for the human beta-NGF gene has allowed identification of some copies of the gene (alleles) in six affected families. Allele...

  15. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o

  16. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  17. Realization of allowable qeneralized quantum gates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The most general duality gates were introduced by Long,Liu and Wang and named allowable generalized quantum gates (AGQGs,for short).By definition,an allowable generalized quantum gate has the form of U=YfkjsckUK,where Uk’s are unitary operators on a Hilbert space H and the coefficients ck’s are complex numbers with |Yfijo ck\\ ∧ 1 an d 1ck| <1 for all k=0,1,...,d-1.In this paper,we prove that an AGQG U=YfkZo ck∧k is realizable,i.e.there are two d by d unitary matrices W and V such that ck=W0kVk0 (0

  18. A physiological mode of puberty induction in hypogonadal girls by low dose transdermal 17 beta-oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illig, R; DeCampo, C; Lang-Muritano, M R; Prader, A; Torresani, T; Werder, E A; Willi, U; Schenkel, L

    1990-12-01

    Transdermal 17 beta-oestradiol administration (17 beta-E2), used mainly in menopausal women, allows a continuous 17 beta-E2 delivery through the skin into the systemic circulation, avoiding intestinal and hepatic passage. In order to explore whether transdermal 17 beta-E2 could be used for the induction of puberty, 17 beta-E2 patches with low dose delivery were administered in nine prepubertal girls with Turner syndrome (bone age greater than 10.5 years) for a mean period of 2.2 years. Treatment schedule: 5 micrograms/day for 6-9 months, 10 micrograms/day for 6-9 months, 25 micrograms/day for long-term substitution; addition of cyclic gestagen p.o. after 18-24 months. Breast development started within 3 months of therapy and menstruation occurred after 2 years. Growth rate increased from 3.2 to 5.0 cm/year during the 1st year of therapy, height prediction did not change. Serum oestradiol (E2) and urinary E2 conjugates increased proportionally with 17 beta-E2 doses, serum oestrone (E1) rose much less. The possibility to imitate time course, clinical events and hormonal changes of normal puberty, the absence of adverse drug reactions and the excellent acceptance and easy mode of application suggest that transdermal 17 beta-E2 is optimally suited for hormonal substitution in girls with hypogonadism. PMID:2126236

  19. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval th...

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of benzocaine-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Luciana M A; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Santana, Maria Helena A; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Junior, Sérgio Oyama; de Paula, Eneida

    2005-10-01

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief by binding to the sodium channel of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Benzocaine (BZC) is a local anesthetic whose low water-solubility limits its application to topical formulations. The present work focuses on the characterization of inclusion complexes of BZC in beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD). Differential scanning calorimetry and electron microscopy gave evidences of the formation and the morphology of the complex. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed a BZC/beta-CD 1:1 stoichiometry. Phase-solubility diagrams allowed the determination of the association constants between BZC and beta-CD (549 M(-1)) and revealed that a three-fold increase in BZC solubility can be reached upon complexation with beta-CD. The details of BZC/beta-CD molecular interaction were analyzed by 1H 2D NMR allowing the proposition of an inclusion model for BZC into beta-CD where the aromatic ring of the anesthetic is located near the head of the beta-CD cavity. Moreover, in preliminary toxicity studies, the complex seems to be less toxic than BZC alone, since it induced a decrease in the in vitro oxidation of human hemoglobin. These results suggest that the BZC/beta-CD complex represents an effective novel formulation to enhance BZC solubility in water, turning it promising for use outside its traditional application, i.e., in infiltrative anesthesia.

  1. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  2. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  3. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  4. Exchange effects in double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade there has been very impressive progress in the laboratory study of double beta decay with very precise limits on 0-neutrino decay in /sup 76/Ge, the imminent prospect of the observation of 2-neutrino decay in /sup 100/Mo and the first laboratory observation of 2-neutrino decay in /sup 82/Se. For the last case, the laboratory rate is in essential agreement with geochemical results and in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions based on a full shell model calculation. The motivation underlying the resurgence of interest in double beta decay is the hope that the observation of, or limits on the 0-neutrino mode will provide information about the nature of the neutrino. This clearly requires confidence in the nuclear matrix elements involved in the transition. The shell model calculations do not agree well with the geochemical values for /sup 130/Te, which has led to a spate of papers offering specific fixes for the problem. In this contribution we shall not comment on any of the specific nuclear calculations, rather we make some remarks which should be relevant to any model calculation. 11 refs., 1 tab

  5. Molecular effects in the neutrino mass determination from beta-decay of the tritium molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular final state energies and transition probabilities have been computed for beta-decay of the tritium molecule. The results are of sufficient accuracy to make a determination of the electron neutrino rest mass with an error not exceeding a few tenths of an electron volt. Effects of approximate models of tritium beta-decay on the neutrino mass determination are discussed. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Efficient inhibition of the Alzheimer's disease beta-secretase by membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Lawrence; Schneider, Anja; Schlechtingen, Georg; Weidlich, Sebastian; Ries, Jonas; Braxmeier, Tobias; Schwille, Petra; Schulz, Jörg B; Schroeder, Cornelia; Simons, Mikael; Jennings, Gary; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Simons, Kai

    2008-04-25

    beta-Secretase plays a critical role in beta-amyloid formation and thus provides a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. Inhibitor design has usually focused on active-site binding, neglecting the subcellular localization of active enzyme. We have addressed this issue by synthesizing a membrane-anchored version of a beta-secretase transition-state inhibitor by linking it to a sterol moiety. Thus, we targeted the inhibitor to active beta-secretase found in endosomes and also reduced the dimensionality of the inhibitor, increasing its local membrane concentration. This inhibitor reduced enzyme activity much more efficiently than did the free inhibitor in cultured cells and in vivo. In addition to effectively targeting beta-secretase, this strategy could also be used in designing potent drugs against other membrane protein targets. PMID:18436784

  7. Effect of beta-cyclodextrin nanocavity confinement on the photophysics of robinetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anwesha; Basu, Kaushik; Sengupta, Pradeep K

    2007-12-14

    We have studied the confinement of robinetin, a therapeutically active plant flavonol, in cyclodextrin (CDx) nanocavities, using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Enhanced tautomer emission (arising from excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT)) as well as dramatically blue shifted (approximately 10 nm in beta-CDx and approximately 33 nm in SHP beta-CDx) normal fluorescence observed upon addition of the beta-CDxs indicate that robinetin readily enters the doughnut-shaped hydrophobic cavity of beta-CDx where the chromone moiety is well shielded from external hydrogen bonding perturbations. Detailed analyses of the fluorescence data (emission profile, anisotropy, decay times) indicate that robinetin forms 1:1 inclusion complexes with both natural and chemically modified beta-cyclodextrins (beta-CDx and SHP beta-CDx) with affinity constant values K=195+/-17 M(-1) and 1055+/-48 M(-1) respectively, indicating the prospective utility of SHP beta-CDx in particular as an effective drug carrier. Unlike beta-CDxs, alpha-CDxs do not form inclusion complexes with robinetin. To further characterize the robinetin/beta-CDxs complexes, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies have been performed, which reveal that incorporation of robinetin molecules in the chiral environment of the beta-CDxs strongly affects the electronic transitions of robinetin leading to the occurrence of positive induced circular dichroism (ICD) bands in the near ultra-violet (UV) region. Molecular mechanics calculations show that the inclusion complex with the chromone ring inserted into the beta-CDx cavity is most favorable, in agreement with our spectroscopic data.

  8. Monte Carlo transition probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy, L. B.

    2001-01-01

    Transition probabilities governing the interaction of energy packets and matter are derived that allow Monte Carlo NLTE transfer codes to be constructed without simplifying the treatment of line formation. These probabilities are such that the Monte Carlo calculation asymptotically recovers the local emissivity of a gas in statistical equilibrium. Numerical experiments with one-point statistical equilibrium problems for Fe II and Hydrogen confirm this asymptotic behaviour. In addition, the re...

  9. Status and prospects of searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Schwingenheuer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous beta decay of two neutrons in a nucleus without the emission of neutrinos (called neutrinoless double beta decay) is a lepton number violating process which is not allowed in the Standard Model of particle physics. More than a dozen experiments using different candidate isotopes and a variety of detection techniques are searching for this decay. Some (EXO-200, Kamland-Zen, GERDA) started to take data recently. EXO and Kamland-Zen have reported first limits of the half life $T_{1/2}^{0\

  10. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  11. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  12. High-pressure behavior of beta-Ga2O3 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.; He, Y.; Chen, W.;

    2010-01-01

    Freestanding nanocrystalline beta-Ga2O3 particles with an average grain size of 14 nm prepared by chemical method was investigated by angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction in diamond-anvil cell up to 64.9 GPa at ambient temperature. The evolution of x-ray diffraction patterns indicated...... that nanocrystalline monoclinic beta-Ga2O3 underwent a phase transition to rhombohedral alpha-Ga2O3. It was found that beta- to alpha-Ga2O3 transition began at about 13.6-16.4 GPa, and extended up to 39.2 GPa. At the highest pressure used, only alpha-Ga2O3 was present, which remained after pressure release. A Birch......-Murnaghan fit to the P-V data yielded a zero-pressure bulk modulus at fixed B-0(')=4: B-0=228(9) GPa and B-0=333(19) GPa for beta-Ga2O3 and alpha-Ga2O3 phases, respectively. We compared our results with bulk beta-Ga2O3, and concluded that the phase-transition pressure and bulk modulus of nanocrystalline beta...

  13. Control of a high beta maneuvering reentry vehicle using dynamic inversion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Alfred Chapman

    2005-05-01

    The design of flight control systems for high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles presents a significant challenge to the control systems designer. These vehicles typically have a much higher ballistic coefficient than crewed vehicles like as the Space Shuttle or proposed crew return vehicles such as the X-38. Moreover, the missions of high performance vehicles usually require a steeper reentry flight path angle, followed by a pull-out into level flight. These vehicles then must transit the entire atmosphere and robustly perform the maneuvers required for the mission. The vehicles must also be flown with small static margins in order to perform the required maneuvers, which can result in highly nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics that frequently transition from being aerodynamically stable to unstable as angle of attack increases. The control system design technique of dynamic inversion has been applied successfully to both high performance aircraft and low beta reentry vehicles. The objective of this study was to explore the application of this technique to high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles, including the basic derivation of the dynamic inversion technique, followed by the extension of that technique to the use of tabular trim aerodynamic models in the controller. The dynamic inversion equations are developed for high performance vehicles and augmented to allow the selection of a desired response for the control system. A six degree of freedom simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the dynamic inversion approach, and results for both nominal and off nominal aerodynamic characteristics are presented.

  14. The multivariate Wright-Fisher process with mutation: Moment-based analysis and inference using a hierarchical Beta model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobolth, Asger; Siren, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of the multivariate Wright-Fisher process with mutation. Analytically tractable formulas for the first-and second-order moments of the allele frequency distribution are derived, and the moments are subsequently used to better understand key population genetics parameters and modeling frameworks. In particular we investigate the behavior of the expected homozygosity (the probability that two randomly sampled genes are identical) in the transient and stationary phases, and how appropriate the Dirichlet distribution is for modeling the allele frequency distribution at different evolutionary time scales. We find that the Dirichlet distribution is adequate for the pure drift model (no mutations allowed), but the distribution is not sufficiently flexible for more general mutation models. We suggest a new hierarchical Beta distribution for the allele frequencies in the Wright-Fisher process with a mutation model on the nucleotide level that distinguishes between transitions and transversions. PMID:26612605

  15. Modeling the Production of Beta-Delayed Gamma Rays for the Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J M; Pruet, J A; Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hedstrom, G W; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-14

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop one or more models for the production of {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays following neutron-induced fission of a special nuclear material (SNM) and to define a standardized formatting scheme which will allow them to be incorporated into some of the modern, general-purpose Monte Carlo transport codes currently being used to simulate inspection techniques proposed for detecting fissionable material hidden in sea-going cargo containers. In this report, we will describe a Monte Carlo model for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray emission following the fission of SNM that can accommodate arbitrary time-dependent fission rates and photon collection histories. The model involves direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and spectral distributions representing photon emission from each fission product and for each decay mode. While computationally intensive, it will be shown that this model can provide reasonably detailed estimates of the spectra that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer and may prove quite useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries and identifying gaps in the libraries. The accuracy of the model will be illustrated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra from the decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general-purpose transport calculations, where a detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may not be necessary, it will be shown that a simple parameterization of the {gamma}-ray source function can be defined which provides high-quality average spectral distributions that should suffice for calculations describing photons being transported through thick attenuating media. Finally, a proposal for ENDF-compatible formats that describe each of the models and

  16. Venus Transit 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Odenwald, S. F.

    2002-09-01

    December 6th, 1882 was the last transit of the planet Venus across the disk of the sun. It was heralded as an event of immense interest and importance to the astronomical community as well as the public at large. There have been only six such occurrences since Galileo first trained his telescope on the heavens in 1609 and on Venus in 1610 where he concluded that Venus had phases like the moon and appeared to get larger and smaller over time. Many historians consider this the final nail in the coffin of the Ptolemaic, Earth centered solar system. In addition, each transit has provided unique opportunities for discovery such as measurement and refinement of the astronomical unit, calculation of longitudes on the earth, and detection of Venus' atmosphere. The NASA Sun Earth Connection Education Forum in partnership with the Solar System Exploration Forum, DPS, and a number of NASA space missions is developing plans for an international education program centered around the June 8, 2004 Venus transit. The transit will be visible in its entirety from Europe and partially from the East Coast of the United States. We will use a series of robotic observatories including the Telescopes In Education network distributed in latitude to provide observations of the transit that will allow middle and high school students to calculate the A.U. through application of parallax. We will also use Venus transit as a probe of episodes in American history (e.g. 1769: revolutionary era, 1882: post civil war era, and 2004: modern era). Museums and planetariums in the US and Europe will offer real time viewing of the transit and conduct educational programs through professional development seminars, public lectures, and planetarium shows. We are interested in soliciting advice from the research community to coordinate professional research interests with this program.

  17. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Amendment 2008-04 in the Federal Register (73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA...: Mr. Ed Davis, Office of Governmentwide Policy (M), Office of Travel, Transportation, and...

  19. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... June 25, 2008 (73 FR 35952), specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RIT Allowance tables in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT)...

  20. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . Dated: March 21, 2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA... effective March 24, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Ed Davis, Office of Governmentwide Policy...

  1. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  2. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  3. Transition probability studies in 175Au

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Tuomas; Watkins, H.; Joss, David; Page, Robert; Carroll, R. J.; Dewald, A.; Greenlees, Paul; Hackstein, M.; Herzberg, Rolf-Dietmar; Jakobsson, Ulrika; Jones, Peter; Julin, Rauno; Juutinen, Sakari; Ketelhut, Steffen; Kröll, Th

    2013-01-01

    Transition probabilities have been measured between the low-lying yrast states in 175Au by employing the recoil distance Doppler-shift method combined with the selective recoil-decay tagging technique. Reduced transition probabilities and magnitudes of transition quadrupole moments have been extracted from measured lifetimes allowing dramatic changes in nuclear structure within a low excitation-energy range to probed. The transition quadrupole moment data are discussed in terms...

  4. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  5. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns); Elaboracion de soportes para fuentes emisoras beta (con vyns)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L

    1990-04-15

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of {beta} particles ({approx} 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  6. Some aspects of pressure-induced {omega} {yields} {beta} transformation in group IVB elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, K D; Jyoti, G; Gupta, Satish C; Sikka, S K [High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2002-11-11

    The {omega} (hexagonal) to {beta} (bcc) transformation in Zr and Hf occurs at 30 and 71 GPa under static pressures. This transition has not been found in Ti up to 87 GPa. On the basis of full-potential linearized augmented plane wave calculations aided with thermal and entropy correction we predict an {omega} {yields} {beta} transition in Ti at around 102 GPa along the 300 K isotherm. In addition to this, we calculate the {omega} {yields} {beta} transitions in Zr and Hf at around 27 and 65 GPa respectively, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The {omega} {yields} {beta} transition pressures, 102, 27 and 65 GPa for Ti, Zr and Hf respectively, do not follow the trend implied by the principle of corresponding states. We have analysed the causes for this anomalous trend. We observe that the {omega} {yields} {beta} transition depends on how the increased d-population due to s-d transfer under pressure is distributed in the different d-substates. For example, at ambient conditions, the bcc phase is unstable and the difference between the average charges in the bcc stabilizing d-t{sub 2g} state and the destabilizing d-e{sub g} state are 0.008, 0.082 and 0.013 for Ti, Zr and Hf respectively. Compression increases this difference and stabilizes the bcc structure when it becomes about 0.1. The charge transfer needed for stabilizing the {beta} structure is highest for Ti followed by Hf and then Zr, in line with the trend in transition pressures.

  7. First direct observation of bound-state beta-decay. Measurements of branching and lifetime of {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+} fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, D.

    2005-08-01

    The first experimental observation of bound-state beta-decay showed, that due solely to the electron stripping, a stable nuclide, e.g. {sup 163}Dy, became unstable. Also a drastic modification of the half-life of bare {sup 187}Re, from 4.12(2) x 10{sup 10} years down to 32.9(20) years, could be observed. It was mainly due to the possibility for the mother nuclide to decay into a previously inaccessible nuclear level of the daughter nuclide. It was proposed to study a nuclide where this decay mode was competing with continuum-state beta-decay, in order to measure their respective branchings. The ratio {beta}{sub b}/{beta}{sub c} could also be evaluated for the first time. {sup 207}Tl was chosen due to its high atomic number, and Q-value of about 1.4 MeV, small enough to enhance the {beta}{sub b} probability and large enough to allow the use of time-resolved Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS) to study the evolution of mother and bound-state beta-decay daughter ions. The decay properties of the ground state and isomeric state of {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+} have been investigated at the GSI accelerator facility in two separate experiments. For the first time {beta}-decay where the electron could go either to a bound state (atomic orbitals) and lead to {sup 207}Pb{sup 81+} as a daughter nuclide, or to a continuum state and lead to {sup 207}Pb{sup 82+}, has been observed. The respective branchings of these two processes could be measured as well. The deduced total nuclear half-life of 255(17) s for {sup 207}Tl{sup 81+}, was slightly modified with respect to the half-life of the neutral atom of 286(2) s. It was nevertheless in very good agreement with calculations based on the assumption that the beta-decay was following an allowed type of transition. The branching {beta}{sub b}/{beta}{sub c}=0.192(20), was also in very good agreement with the same calculations. The application of stochastic precooling allowed to observe in addition the 1348 keV short-lived isomeric state of {sup

  8. Is Articulation from Two- to Four-Year Colleges an Allowed or a Forbidden Transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Tamar Y.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that patterns of student flow between two- and four-year institutions are not linear and that the permutations of student situations affect the datasets that are used to both defend and question the effectiveness and transferability of two-year programs. (DDR)

  9. Status and perspectives of double beta decay searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double beta decay is a very rare nuclear decay characterised by a change of 2 units the ordering number Z while leaving the mass number A constant. It can basically occur in two modes, with the emission of two electrons and two anti-neutrinos or the emission of two electrons only. The neutrinoless double beta decay of nuclei is not allowed in the Standard Model and is of outstanding importance for neutrino physics. It can only occur if a neutrino is its own antiparticle and if it has a non-vanishing rest mass. After a general introduction into double beta decay, the talk focusses on the current experimental searches and results and their implications for particle physics. An outlook towards future projects and the involved challenges is given. This includes a discussion on nuclear matrix elements and possible supporting experimental activities.

  10. Deconfinement and the Hagedorn transition in string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S

    2001-03-01

    We introduce a new definition of the thermal partition function in string theory. With this new definition, the thermal partition functions of all of the string theories obey thermal duality relations with self-dual Hagedorn temperature beta(2)(H) = 4pi(2)alpha('). A beta-->beta(2)(H)/beta transformation maps the type I theory into a new string theory (type I) with thermal D p-branes, spatial hypersurfaces supporting a p-dimensional finite temperature non-Abelian Higgs-gauge theory for p< or =9. We demonstrate a continuous phase transition in the behavior of the static heavy quark-antiquark potential for small separations r(2)(*)transitioning through a precise inverse power law at a critical temperature T(D) = T(H)r(*)/(2alpha('))(1/2)pi.

  11. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  12. Double beta decays and fundamental laws studied by ultra rare-decay nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent works on double beta decays and on fundamental laws, which are studied by means of the ultra rare-decay nuclear spectroscopy, are described. Subjects discussed here include unique features of the nuclear spectroscopic method for studying basic problems of nuclear and particle interactions, neutrinos and weak interactions studied by double-beta and gamma spectroscopy, weakly interacting dark matters studied by nuclear recoil spectroscopy, exotic K X-ray transitions and charge non-conservation, and exotic nuclear transitions associated with nucleon decays. (author)

  13. Recent status of the studies of nuclear masses and {beta}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masami [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The recent status of the above studies was explained, especially, nuclear masses were described from the aspect of probability theory and that of {beta}-decay suggested that the first forbidden transition was hindered between the ground states. We have to study various systematics in order to know the mass surface, Way-Yamada-Matumoto type systematics is better to check the experimental nuclear masses. The gross theory is very useful to understand the general aspect of {beta}-decay. The understanding method of mass surface, systematic check of mass and hindrance of the first forbidden transition at rank 1 were explained. (S.Y.)

  14. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  15. Cluster approach allows budgeting, planning with DRGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, P L

    1984-01-01

    Measuring costs and revenues on a diagnosis related group (DRG) basis allows health care managers to define product lines, identify market shares, and examine the effects of case mix and physician behavior on profitability. It also enables public agencies to predict bed needs and evaluate certificate-of-need applications. The large number of DRGs, however, and other managerial considerations may discourage the use of DRG-based budgeting and planning. To save time and enhance data usefulness, financial officers may consolidate the DRGs into fewer groups. Revenue, for example, can be estimated by grouping the DRGs into 23 major diagnostic categories or by clustering them according to cost weight or into one group. Comparisons of payment rates and costs will identify the DRGs that lose money and will determine whether departmental costs are excessive. Strategic planning units formed from the 468 DRGs will help health care managers analyze and project performance. Product lines for this purpose may be clustered according to major diagnostic category, physician specialty, or clinical department. Since a potentially enormous amount of DRG-based clinical and financial information could be generated, hospitals should create data committees to ensure that managers receive only the information they need. PMID:10310693

  16. Nanomolar Inhibitors of AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, Federica; Caselli, Emilia; Morandi, Stefania; Focia, Pamela J.; Blazquez, Jesus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio (Degali); (NIH); (NWU); (UCSF)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins. In an effort to combat these enzymes, a combination of stereoselective organic synthesis, enzymology, microbiology, and X-ray crystallography was used to design and evaluate new carboxyphenyl-glycylboronic acid transition-state analogue inhibitors of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC. The new compounds improve inhibition by over 2 orders of magnitude compared to analogous glycylboronic acids, with K{sub i} values as low as 1 nM. On the basis of the differential binding of different analogues, the introduced carboxylate alone contributes about 2.1 kcal/mol in affinity. This carboxylate corresponds to the ubiquitous C3(4)' carboxylate of {beta}-lactams, and this energy represents the first thermodynamic measurement of the importance of this group in molecular recognition by class C {beta}-lactamases. The structures of AmpC in complex with two of these inhibitors were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.72 and 1.83 {angstrom} resolution. These structures suggest a structural basis for the high affinity of the new compounds and provide templates for further design. The highest affinity inhibitor was 5 orders of magnitude more selective for AmpC than for characteristic serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. This inhibitor reversed the resistance of clinical pathogens to the third generation cephalosporin ceftazidime; it may serve as a lead compound for drug discovery to combat bacterial resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  17. Tumor-produced, active Interleukin-1 {beta} regulates gene expression in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudas, Jozsef, E-mail: Jozsef.Dudas@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Fullar, Alexandra, E-mail: fullarsz@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); 1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Ulloei ut 26, H-1085 Budapest (Hungary); Bitsche, Mario, E-mail: Mario.Bitsche@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schartinger, Volker, E-mail: Volker.Schartinger@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kovalszky, Ilona, E-mail: koval@korb1.sote.hu [1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Ulloei ut 26, H-1085 Budapest (Hungary); Sprinzl, Georg Mathias, E-mail: Georg.Sprinzl@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Riechelmann, Herbert, E-mail: Herbert.Riechelmann@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-09-10

    Recently we described a co-culture model of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts and SCC-25 lingual squamous carcinoma cells, which resulted in conversion of normal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of SCC-25 cells. We have found a constitutive high interleukin-1{beta} (IL1-{beta}) expression in SCC-25 cells in normal and in co-cultured conditions. In our hypothesis a constitutive IL1-{beta} expression in SCC-25 regulates gene expression in fibroblasts during co-culture. Co-cultures were performed between PDL fibroblasts and SCC-25 cells with and without dexamethasone (DEX) treatment; IL1-{beta} processing was investigated in SCC-25 cells, tumor cells and PDL fibroblasts were treated with IL1-{beta}. IL1-{beta} signaling was investigated by western blot and immunocytochemistry. IL1-{beta}-regulated genes were analyzed by real-time qPCR. SCC-25 cells produced 16 kD active IL1-{beta}, its receptor was upregulated in PDL fibroblasts during co-culture, which induced phosphorylation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), and nuclear translocalization of NF{kappa}B{alpha}. Several genes, including interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) were induced in CAFs during co-culture. The most enhanced induction was found for IL-6 and COX-2. Treatment of PDL fibroblasts with IL1-{beta} reproduced a time- and dose-dependent upregulation of IL1-receptor, IL-6 and COX-2. A further proof was achieved by DEX inhibition for IL1-{beta}-stimulated IL-6 and COX-2 gene expression. Constitutive expression of IL1-{beta} in the tumor cells leads to IL1-{beta}-stimulated gene expression changes in tumor-associated fibroblasts, which are involved in tumor progression. -- Graphical abstract: SCC-25 cells produce active, processed IL1-{beta}. PDL fibroblasts possess receptor for IL1-{beta}, and its expression is increased 4.56-times in the

  18. Transitional Shelter

    OpenAIRE

    Shiozaki, Yoshimitsu; TANAKA, Yasuo; Hokugo, Akihiko; Bettencourt, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Transitional shelter can play a crucial role in housing reconstruction following a mega disaster. Reconstruction of permanent housing cannot move forward until a number of complex issues are settled, such as relocation planning and removal of debris. Even after plans are agreed on and reconstruction begins, it may take several years for permanent housing to be completed. In this context, a...

  19. Measurements of $L_{31}, L_{3}\\alpha, L_{3}\\beta, L_{2}\\beta, L_{2} \\gamma, L_{1}\\beta, L_{1}\\gamma, L_{\\beta}, L_{\\gamma}, L_{1x}, L_{2x}$ and $L_{3x}$ X-ray production cross sections and L subshell fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Ertugrul, M

    2001-01-01

    The L/sub 3l/, L/sub 3 alpha /, L/sub 3 beta /, L/sub 2 beta /, L/sub 2 gamma /, L/sub 1 beta /, L/sub 1 gamma /, L/sub beta /, L/sub gamma /, L/sub 1x/, L/sub 2x/ and L/sub 3x/ X-ray production cross sections in Re, W and Ta have been measured using the 59.5 keV incident photon energy. The measurements were performed using an Am-241 radioisotope as the photon source and a Si(Li) detector. The L X-rays are resolved with a new analytical method. The obtained L/sub l/, L/sub alpha /, L /sub 3 beta /, L/sub 2 beta /, L/sub 2 gamma /, L/sub 1 beta /, L/sub 1 gamma /, L/sub beta /, L/sub gamma /, L/sub 1x/, L/sub 2x/ and L /sub 3x/ X-rays are compared with the theoretical calculations using the most reliable theoretical values of L/sub i/ (i=1, 2, 3) subshell photoionization cross sections, fluorescence yields, X-ray emission rates and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. The results in the present paper are found to be in good agreement with the calculated values. (23 refs).

  20. A Deductive Approach towards Reasoning about Algebraic Transition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Fu; Jinzhao Wu; Hongyan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Algebraic transition systems are extended from labeled transition systems by allowing transitions labeled by algebraic equations for modeling more complex systems in detail. We present a deductive approach for specifying and verifying algebraic transition systems. We modify the standard dynamic logic by introducing algebraic equations into modalities. Algebraic transition systems are embedded in modalities of logic formulas which specify properties of algebraic transition systems. The semanti...

  1. Phase transitions in the $sdg$ interacting boson model

    OpenAIRE

    P. Van Isacker(Ganil, Caen, France;); Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S.

    2010-01-01

    19 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Nuclear Physics A A geometric analysis of the $sdg$ interacting boson model is performed. A coherent-state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ($\\beta_2$), axial hexadecapole ($\\beta_4$) and triaxial ($\\gamma_2$). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic $sdg$ hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical ${\\rm U}(5)\\otimes{\\rm U}(9)$, the (prolate and ...

  2. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Petroni, N. Cufaro; Martino, S; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.

    1999-01-01

    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or nonstationary quantum states. In particular we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows to realize arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations, to account for controlled quantum transitions. The method is illustrated by presenting the detailed treatment of the transition probabilities and of the controlling time-depend...

  3. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  4. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states. In particular, we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations to account for controlled quantum transitions. As a first significant application we present a detailed treatment of the transition probabilities and of the controlling time-dependent potentials associated to the transitions between the stationary, the coherent, and the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. (author)

  5. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Petroni, N C; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F

    1999-01-01

    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or nonstationary quantum states. In particular we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows to realize arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations, to account for controlled quantum transitions. The method is illustrated by presenting the detailed treatment of the transition probabilities and of the controlling time-dependent potentials associated to the transitions between the stationary, the coherent, and the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. Possible extensions to anharmonic systems and mixed states are briefly discussed and assessed.

  6. Controlled quantum evolutions and transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Nicola Cufaro [INFN Sezione di Bari, INFM Unitadi Bari and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica dell' Universitae del Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [INFM Unitadi Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli - Gruppo collegato di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universitadi Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno (Italy)

    1999-10-29

    We study the nonstationary solutions of Fokker-Planck equations associated to either stationary or non stationary quantum states. In particular, we discuss the stationary states of quantum systems with singular velocity fields. We introduce a technique that allows arbitrary evolutions ruled by these equations to account for controlled quantum transitions. As a first significant application we present a detailed treatment of the transition probabilities and of the controlling time-dependent potentials associated to the transitions between the stationary, the coherent, and the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. (author)

  7. On the extraction of weak transition strengths via the (3He,t) reaction at 420 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Zegers, R G T; Akimune, H; Austin, Sam M; Berg, A M van den; Brown, B A; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Galès, S; Guess, C J; Harakeh, M N; Hashimoto, H; Hatanaka, K; Hayami, R; Hitt, G W; Howard, M E; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Kawase, K; Kinoshita, M; Matsubara, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, S; Okumura, S; Ohta, T; Sakemi, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Scholl, C; Simenel, C; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, T; Yosoi, M

    2007-01-01

    Differential cross sections for transitions of known weak strength were measured with the (3He,t) reaction at 420 MeV on targets of 12C, 13C, 18O, 26Mg, 58Ni, 60Ni, 90Zr, 118Sn, 120Sn and 208Pb. Using this data, it is shown the proportionalities between strengths and cross sections for this probe follow simple trends as a function of mass number. These trends can be used to confidently determine Gamow-Teller strength distributions in nuclei for which the proportionality cannot be calibrated via beta-decay strengths. Although theoretical calculations in distorted-wave Born approximation overestimate the data, they allow one to understand the main experimental features and to predict deviations from the simple trends observed in some of the transitions.

  8. Transition Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.

  9. P-426 measurement of the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter in $^{35}$Ar decay with a laser polarized beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    With this proposal we request beam time for the first two phases of a project that aims at measuring the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter of the mirror $\\beta$-decay branch in $^{35}$Ar using an optically polarized Ar atom beam. The final goal of the experiment is to measure this parameter to a precision of 0.5%. This will allow the most precise determination of the V$_{ud}$ quark mixing matrix element from all the mirror transitions with an absolute uncertainty of 0.0007. The proposal will be presented in phases and we ask here 11 shifts (7 on-line + 4 off-line) for phase 1 and 15 shifts (6 on-line and 9 off-line) for phase 2. Phase 1 aims at establishing the optimal laser polarization scheme as well as the best implantation host for maintaining the polarization. Phase 2 aims at enhancing the beam polarization by removing the unpolarized part of the beam using re-ionization.

  10. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  11. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of [1-14C]trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and 14CO2 release. At this point, reduction by NaB3H4 and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes

  12. Combine-ARMS: a rapid and cost-effective protocol for molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K L; Tan, J A; Wong, Y C; Wee, Y C; Thong, M K; Yap, S F

    2001-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia major patients have chronic anemia and are dependent on blood transfusions to sustain life. Molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis of beta3-thalassemia is essential in Malaysia because about 4.5% of the population are heterozygous carriers for beta-thalassemia. The high percentage of compound heterozygosity (47.62%) found in beta-thalassemia major patients in the Thalassaemia Registry, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, also supports a need for rapid, economical, and sensitive protocols for the detection of beta-thalassemia mutations. Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia is currently carried out using ARMS, which detects a single beta-thalassemia mutation per PCR reaction. We developed and evaluated Combine amplification refractory mutation system (C-ARMS) techniques for efficient molecular detection of two to three beta-thalassemia mutations in a single PCR reaction. Three C-ARMS protocols were evaluated and established for molecular characterization of common beta-thalassemia mutations in the Malay and Chinese ethnic groups in Malaysia. Two C-ARMS protocols (cd 41-42/IVSII #654 and -29/cd 71-72) detected the beta-thalassemia mutations in 74.98% of the Chinese patients studied. The CARMS for cd 41-42/IVSII #654 detected beta-thalassemia mutations in 72% of the Chinese families. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 allowed detection of beta-thalassemia mutations in 36.53% of beta-thalassemia in the Malay patients. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 detected beta-thalassemia in 45.54% of the Chinese patients. We conclude that C-ARMS with the ability to detect two to three mutations in a single reaction provides more rapid and cost-effective protocols for beta-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis and molecular analysis programs in Malaysia. PMID:11336396

  13. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  14. Determination of $\\gamma$ and $-2\\beta_s$ from charmless two-body decays of beauty mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Using the latest LHCb measurements of time-dependent $C\\!P$ violation in the $B^0_s \\to K^+K^-$ decay, a U-spin relation between the decay amplitudes of $B^0_s \\to K^+K^-$ and $B^0\\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay processes allows constraints to be placed on the angle $\\gamma$ of the unitarity triangle and on the $B^0_s$ mixing phase $-2\\beta_s$. Results from an extended approach, which uses additional inputs on $B^0\\to \\pi^0\\pi^0$ and $B^+\\to \\pi^+\\pi^0$ decays from other experiments and exploits isospin symmetry, are also presented. The dependence of the results on the maximum allowed amount of U-spin breaking is studied. At 68% probability, the value $\\gamma = \\left( 63.5^{\\,+\\, 7.2}_{\\,-\\,6.7} \\right)^\\circ~\\mathrm{modulo}~180^\\circ$ is determined. In an alternative analysis, the value $-2\\beta_s = -0.12 ^{\\,+\\,0.14}_{\\,-\\,0.16}\\,\\,\\mathrm{rad}$ is found. In both measurements, the uncertainties due to U-spin breaking effects up to 50% are included.

  15. A Phase Transition in U(1) Configuration Space: Oscillons as Remnants of Vortex-Antivortex Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, M; Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel

    2007-01-01

    We show that the low-momentum scattering of vortex-antivortex pairs can lead to very long-lived oscillon states in 2d Abelian Higgs models. The emergence of oscillons is controlled by the ratio of scalar and vector field masses, $\\beta=(m_s/m_v)^2$ and can be described as a phase transition in field configuration space with critical value $\\beta_c\\simeq 0.13(6)\\pm 2 $: only models with $\\beta<\\beta_c$ lead to oscillon-like remnants. The critical behavior of the system obeys a power law $O(\\beta)\\sim |\\beta-\\beta_c|^o$, where $O$ is an order parameter indicating the presence of oscillons and $o = 0.2(2)\\pm 2 $ is the critical exponent.

  16. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnell, J

    2012-01-01

    SNO+ will search for neutrinoless double beta decay by loading 780 tonnes of linear alkylbenzene liquid scintillator with O(tonne) of neodymium. Using natural Nd at 0.1% loading will provide 43.7 kg of 150Nd given its 5.6% abundance and allow the experiment to reach a sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass of 100-200 meV at 90% C.L in a 3 year run. The SNO+ detector has ultra low backgrounds with 7000 tonnes of water shielding and self-shielding of the scintillator. Distillation and several other purification techniques will be used with the aim of achieving Borexino levels of backgrounds. The experiment is fully funded and data taking with light-water will commence in 2012 with scintillator data following in 2013.

  17. Double beta decay and neutrino mass models

    CERN Document Server

    Helo, J C; Ota, T; Santos, F A Pereira dos

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay allows to constrain lepton number violating extensions of the standard model. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, the mass mechanism will always contribute to the decay rate, however, it is not a priori guaranteed to be the dominant contribution in all models. Here, we discuss whether the mass mechanism dominates or not from the theory point of view. We classify all possible (scalar-mediated) short-range contributions to the decay rate according to the loop level, at which the corresponding models will generate Majorana neutrino masses, and discuss the expected relative size of the different contributions to the decay rate in each class. We also work out the phenomenology of one concrete 2-loop model in which both, mass mechanism and short-range diagram, might lead to competitive contributions, in some detail.

  18. Final-State Spectrum of $^3$He after $\\beta^-$ Decay of Tritium Anions T$^-$

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Alexander; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The final-state spectrum of $\\beta$ decaying tritium anions T$^-$ was calculated. The wavefunctions describing the initial T$^-$ ground state and the final $^3$He states were obtained by the full configuration-interaction method. The transition probability was calculated within the sudden approximation. The transition probability into the electronic continuum is extracted from the complex-scaled resolvent and is shown to converge for very high-energies to an approximate analytical model proba...

  19. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  20. Dynamic Hysteresis Probes High-{\\beta} Nanolaser Emission Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Si Hui; Amili, Abdelkrim El; Vallini, Felipe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2016-01-01

    The quest for an integrated light source that promises high energy efficiency and fast modulation for high-performance photonic circuits has led to the development of room-temperature telecom-wavelength nanoscale laser with high spontaneous emission factors, \\beta. The coherence characterization of this type of lasers is inherently difficult with the conventional measurement of output light intensity versus input pump intensity due to the diminishing kink in the measurement curve. We demonstrate the transition from chaotic to coherent emission of a high-{\\beta} pulse-pump metallo-dielectric nanolaser can be determined by examining the width of a second order intensity correlation peak, which shrinks below and broadens above threshold. Photon fluctuation study, first one ever reported for this type of nanolaser, confirms the validity of this measurement technique. Additionally, we show that the width variation above threshold results from the delayed threshold phenomenon, providing the first indirect observati...

  1. $\\beta$-decay studies using total-absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Algora, A; García-Borge, M J; Cano-Ott, D; Collatz, R; Courtin, S; Dessagne, P; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Gadea, A; Gelletly, W; Hellström, M; Janas, Z; Jungclaus, A; Kirchner, R; Karny, M; Le Scornet, G; Miehé, C; Maréchal, F; Moroz, F; Nacher, E; Poirier, E; Roeckl, E; Rubio, B; Rykaczewski, K; Taín, J L; Tengblad, O; Wittmann, V

    2004-01-01

    $\\beta$-decay experiments are a primary source of information for nuclear-structure studies and at the same time complementary to in- beam investigations of nuclei far from stability. Although both types of experiment are mainly based on $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy, they face different experimental problems. The so-called " Pandemonium effect " is a critical problem in $\\beta$-decay if we are to test theoretically calculated transition probabilities. In this contribution we will present a solution to this problem using total absorption spectroscopy methods. We will also present some examples of experiments carried out with the Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS) at GSI and describe a new device LUCRECIA recently installed at CERN.

  2. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... number of Federal agencies have made the WTA optional to the employee. Nothing in tax law or existing... state and local tax law. At the same time, this rule carries forward from the current 302-17 the... including Social Security tax, if applicable, and Medicare tax. Current law does not allow Federal...

  3. Studies of $\\beta$-delayed two-proton emission : The cases of $^{31}$Ar and $^{35}$Ca

    CERN Multimedia

    Riisager, K; Jokinen, A; Canchel, G; Heinz, A M; Jonson, B N G; Dominguez reyes, R R; Koldste, G T; Fraile prieto, L M; Nilsson, T; Audirac, L L

    2008-01-01

    We propose to perform detailed studies of the decays of the two dripline nuclei $^{31}$Ar and $^{35}$Ca. This will allow an in-depth study in the process of $\\beta$-delayed two-proton emission ($\\beta$2p); as well as provide important information on resonances in $^{30}$S and $^{34}$Ar relevant for the astrophysical rp-process.

  4. $\\beta$3$p$-spectroscopy and proton-$\\gamma$ width determination in the decay of $^{31}$Ar

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to perform a detailed study of the $\\beta$-decay of the dripline nucleus $^{31}$Ar. This will allow a detailed study of the $\\beta$-delayed 3$p$-decay as well as provide important information on the resonances of $^{30}$S and $^{29}$P, in particular the ratio between the $p$- and $\\gamma$- partial widths relevant for astrophysics.

  5. Choosing information variables for transition probabilities in a time-varying transition probability Markov switching model

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Filardo

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses a practical estimation issue for time-varying transition probability (TVTP) Markov switching models. Time-varying transition probabilities allow researchers to capture important economic behavior that may be missed using constant (or fixed) transition probabilities. Despite its use, Hamilton’s (1989) filtering method for estimating fixed transition probability Markov switching models may not apply to TVTP models. This paper provides a set of sufficient conditions to justi...

  6. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    1999-01-01

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with -chloro

  7. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  8. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  9. Epistasis and the sensitivity of phenotypic screens for beta thalassaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Penman, Bridget S.; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic disorders of haemoglobin, particularly the sickle cell diseases and the alpha and beta thalassaemias, are the commonest inherited disorders worldwide. The majority of affected births occur in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Screening programmes are a vital tool to counter these haemoglobinopathies by: (i) identifying individual carriers and allowing them to make informed reproductive choices, and (ii) generating population level gene-frequency estimates, to help ensure t...

  10. $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry in mirror nuclei: A = 9

    CERN Multimedia

    Axelsson, L E; Smedberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of light nuclei close to the drip lines have revealed new and intriguing features of the nuclear structure. The occurrence of halo structures in loosely bound systems has had a great impact on the nuclear physics research in the last years. As intriguing but not yet solved is the nature of transitions with very large $\\beta$ - strength. \\\\ \\\\We report here on the investigation of this latter feature by an accurate measurement of the $\\beta$ - decay asymmetry between the mirror nuclei in the A=9 mass chain.\\\\ \\\\The possible asymmetry for the decay to the states around 12 MeV is interesting not only due to the fact that the individual B$_{GT}$ values are large (with large overlap in wave-functions, an unambiguous interpretation is much easier made), but also due to the special role played by this transition for the $^{9}$Li decay. It seems to belong to a class of high-B$_{GT}$ transitions observed at the neutron drip line and has been suggested to be due either to a lowering of the giant Gamow-Te...

  11. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs....... It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast...

  12. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  13. Pressure-induced phase transitions of indium selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Anya Marie

    In2Se3 has potential as a phase-change material for memory applications. Understanding its phase diagram is important to achieve controlled switching between phases. Pressure-dependent phase transitions of In2Se3 bulk powders and nanowire samples were studied at room temperature and at elevated temperatures using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and diamond-anvil cells (DACs). alpha-In2Se3 transforms into the beta phase at 0.7 GPa, an order of magnitude lower than phase-transition critical pressures in typical semiconductors. The bulk moduli are reported and the c/a ratio for the beta phase is shown to have a highly nonlinear dependence on pressure. gamma-In2Se3, metastable under ambient conditions, transforms into to the high-pressure beta phase between 2.8 GPa and 3.2 GPa in bulk powder samples and at slightly higher pressures, between 3.2 GPa and 3.7 GPa in nanowire samples. While the gamma phase bulk modulus is similar to that of the beta phase, the decrease due to pressure in the unit cell parameter ratio, c/a, is less than half the decrease seen in the beta phase. Using high-temperature DACs, we investigated how elevated temperatures and pressures affect the crystal structure of In 2Se3. From these measurements, the high-pressure beta phase was found to be metastable. The high-pressure beta phase transitions into the high-temperature beta phase at temperatures above 380 °C.

  14. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  15. Kinematic sensitivity to the Fierz term of $\\beta$-decay differential spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The current most stringent constraints on exotic scalar or tensor couplings in neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay, involving left-handed neutrinos, are obtained from the Fierz interference term. The sensitivity to this term in a correlation coefficient is usually driven by an energy-averaged kinematic factor that increases monotonically toward smaller values of the $\\beta$ endpoint energies. We first point out here that this property does not hold for certain differential observables that are directly sensitive to the Fierz term, such as the $\\beta$ or the recoil energy spectrum. This observation is relevant for the selection of sensitive transitions in searches for exotic couplings through spectrum shape measurements. We then point out previous errors in the exploitation of measurements of the $\\beta-\

  16. Nonlinear transport in beta-Na0.33V2O5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, S; Yamauchi, T; Ueda, Y; van Loosdrecht, PHM

    2005-01-01

    The transport properties of the charge ordering compound beta-Na0.33V2O5 are studied in the temperature range from 65 K to 300 K using current driven DC conductivity experiments. Below the metal-insulator transition temperature (T-MI = 136 K) this material shows a typical non-linear charge density w

  17. Nonlinear transport in beta-Na0.33V2O5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirbu, S.; Yamauchi, T.; Ueda, Y.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Transport properties of the charge ordering compound beta-Na0.33V2O5 are studied in the temperature range from 30 K to 300 K using current driven DC conductivity experiments. It is found that below the metal-insulator transition temperature (T-MI = 136 K) this material shows a nonlinear charge densi

  18. Spectral distribution Method for neutrinoless double beta decay: Results for $^{82}$Se and $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2016-01-01

    Statistical spectral distribution method based on shell model and random matrix theory is developed for calculating neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear transition matrix elements. First results obtained for $^{82}$Se and $^{76}$Ge using the spectral method are close to the available shell model results.

  19. Insulin-producing cells generated from dedifferentiated human pancreatic beta cells expanded in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger A Russ

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion of beta cells from the limited number of adult human islet donors is an attractive prospect for increasing cell availability for cell therapy of diabetes. However, attempts at expanding human islet cells in tissue culture result in loss of beta-cell phenotype. Using a lineage-tracing approach we provided evidence for massive proliferation of beta-cell-derived (BCD cells within these cultures. Expansion involves dedifferentiation resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Epigenetic analyses indicate that key beta-cell genes maintain open chromatin structure in expanded BCD cells, although they are not transcribed. Here we investigated whether BCD cells can be redifferentiated into beta-like cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Redifferentiation conditions were screened by following activation of an insulin-DsRed2 reporter gene. Redifferentiated cells were characterized for gene expression, insulin content and secretion assays, and presence of secretory vesicles by electron microscopy. BCD cells were induced to redifferentiate by a combination of soluble factors. The redifferentiated cells expressed beta-cell genes, stored insulin in typical secretory vesicles, and released it in response to glucose. The redifferentiation process involved mesenchymal-epithelial transition, as judged by changes in gene expression. Moreover, inhibition of the EMT effector SLUG (SNAI2 using shRNA resulted in stimulation of redifferentiation. Lineage-traced cells also gave rise at a low rate to cells expressing other islet hormones, suggesting transition of BCD cells through an islet progenitor-like stage during redifferentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate for the first time that expanded dedifferentiated beta cells can be induced to redifferentiate in culture. The findings suggest that ex-vivo expansion of adult human islet cells is a promising approach for generation of insulin-producing cells for

  20. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  1. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  2. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  3. Getting Information on |Ue3|2 from Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Merle

    2007-01-01

    neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that typically a lower limit on |Ue3| as a function of the smallest neutrino mass can be set. Furthermore, we give the values of the sum of neutrino masses and |Ue3| which are allowed and forbidden by an experimental upper limit on the effective mass. Alternative explanations for neutrinoless double beta decay, Dirac neutrinos or unexplained cosmological features would be required if future measurements showed that the values lie in the respective regions. Moreover, we show that a measurement of |Ue3| from neutrinoless double beta decay is very difficult due to the expected errors on the effective mass and the oscillation parameters.

  4. Orthogonally protected cyclo-beta-tetrapeptides as solid-supported scaffolds for the synthesis of glycoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Pasi; Karskela, Marika; Lönnberg, Harri

    2006-03-01

    Two novel peptide scaffolds, viz. cyclo[(N(alpha)-Alloc)Dpr-beta-Ala-(N(alpha)-Fmoc)Dpr-beta-Ala] (1) and cyclo[(N(alpha)-Alloc)Dpr-alpha-azido-beta-aminopropanoyl-(N(alpha)-Fmoc)Dpr-beta-Ala] (2), composed of orthogonally protected 2,3-diaminopropanoyl (Dpr) and beta-alanyl residues, have been described. Fmoc chemistry on a backbone amide linker derivatized resin has been used for the chain assembly. Selective removal of the 4-methyltrityl (Mtt) and 1-methyl-1-phenylethyl protections (PhiPr) exposes the beta-amino and carboxyl terminus, respectively, and on-resin cyclization then gives the desired orthogonally protected cyclo-beta-tetrapeptides (1 and 2). The alpha-amino groups, bearing the Fmoc and Alloc protections and the azide mask, allow stepwise orthogonal derivatization of these solid-supported cyclo-beta-tetrapeptide cores (1 and 2). This has been demonstrated by attachments of various sugar units [viz., acetyl- or toluoyl-protected carboxymethyl alpha-d-glycopyranosides (13-15) and methyl 6-O-(4-nitrophenoxycarbonyl)-alpha-d-glycopyranosides (22-24)] to obtain diverse di- and trivalent glycoclusters (33-42). Acidolytic release (TFA) from the support, followed by conventional NaOMe-catalyzed transesterification (33-40) or hydrazine-induced acyl substitution in DMF (41 and 42), gives the fully deprotected clusters (43-52) as final products.

  5. High-resolution FTIR spectroscopy of the ν8 and Coriolis perturbation allowed ν12 bands of ketenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Michael K; Thompson, Christopher D; Robertson, Evan G; Appadoo, Dominique R T; McNaughton, Don

    2011-04-21

    High resolution FTIR spectra have been recorded in the region 250-770 cm(-1) using synchrotron radiation and over 2000 transitions to the ν(8) and ν(12) states of the short lived species ketenimine have been assigned. Ground state combination differences combined with published microwave transitions were used to refine the constants for the ground vibrational state. Rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters for the v(8) = 1 and v(12) = 1 levels were determined by co-fitting transitions, and treating a strong a-axis Coriolis interaction. Selection rules for the observed ν(12) transitions indicate that they arise solely from "perturbation allowed" intensity resulting from this Coriolis interaction.

  6. Impact of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay on Models of Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Deppisch, Frank F; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Interactions that manifest themselves as lepton number violating processes at low energies in combination with sphaleron transitions typically erase any pre-existing baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We demonstrate in a model independent approach that the observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would impose a stringent constraint on mechanisms of high-scale baryogenesis, including leptogenesis scenarios. Further, we discuss the potential of the LHC to model independently exclude high-scale leptogenesis scenarios when observing lepton number violating processes. In combination with the observation of lepton flavor violating processes, we can further strengthen this argument, closing the loophole of asymmetries being stored in different lepton flavors.

  7. Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption and release in {beta}-titanium alloys; Kinetik und Thermodynamik der Wasserstoffaufnahme und -abgabe von {beta}-Titanlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, M.; Christ, H.J. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik

    1998-12-31

    The work reported was intended to yield results allowing to describe as completely as possible the processes of interaction of {beta}-titanium and hydrogen. Three alloys have been selected for the experiments which suitably differ in stability of the {beta} phase. The characterisation of the hydrogen/metal interactions is primarily based on gravimetric measurements. A method was found to determine the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen, which is a significant variable for quantitative characterisation of the hydrogen absorption rate. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der Arbeit wird eine moeglichst vollstaendige Beschreibung der Wechselwirkung von {beta}-Titanlegierungen mit Wasserstoff angestrebt. Hierfuer wird mit drei Legierungen gearbeitet, die sich hinsichtlich der Stabilitaet der {beta}-Phase in sinnvoll abgestufter Weise unterscheiden. Fuer die Charakterisierung der Wasserstoff/Metall-Wechselwirkung wurden insbesondere gravimetrische Messungen eingesetzt. Weiterhin wurde die fuer eine quantitative Beschreibung der Wasserstoffaufnahmegeschwindigkeit wichtige Groesse des Diffusionskoeffizienten von Wasserstoff mit einem Verfahren bestimmt. (orig./MM)

  8. Allocation of CO2 emission allowances. Distribution of emission allowances in a European emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, H.; Van der Kolk, J. [KPMG Sustainability, Amstelveen (Netherlands); Kerssemeeckers, M.; De Beer, J. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-10-01

    The European Commission has submitted a draft directive on Emissions Trading on 23 October 2001. In this system, each Member State has to submit an allocation plan that describes the allowances that will be distributed, and how these will be distributed among the operators of each participating installation. In this study the possible allocation options and their consequences are investigated; the potential bottlenecks are assessed, which would occur if the Netherlands developed a national allocation plan; the criteria for national allocation plans are assessed (Annex III draft directive); and some possibilities for solutions are presented.

  9. A novel radioguided surgery technique exploiting $\\beta^{-}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Camillocci, E Solfaroli; Bellini, F; Bocci, V; Collamati, F; Cremonesi, M; De Lucia, E; Ferroli, P; Fiore, S; Grana, C M; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Morganti, S; Paganelli, G; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Recchia, L; Russomando, A; Schiariti, M; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Voena, C; Faccini, R

    2014-01-01

    The background induced by the high penetration power of the gamma radiation is the main limiting factor of the current Radio-guided surgery (RGS). To partially mitigate it, a RGS with beta+ emitting radio-tracers has been suggested in literature. Here we propose the use of beta- emitting radio-tracers and beta- probes and discuss the advantage of this method with respect to the previously explored ones: the electron low penetration power allows for simple and versatile probes and could extend RGS to tumours for which background originating from nearby healthy tissue makes gamma probes less effective. We developed a beta- probe prototype and studied its performances on phantoms. By means of a detailed simulation we have also extrapolated the results to estimate the performances in a realistic case of meningioma, pathology which is going to be our first in-vivo test case. A good sensitivity to residuals down to 0.1ml can be reached within 1s with an administered activity smaller than those for PET-scans thus ma...

  10. Measurement of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state in the NEMO3 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vala, L

    2003-09-01

    The NEMO3 detector was designed for the study of double beta decay and in particular to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay process (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The intended sensitivity in terms of a half-life limit for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is of the order of 10{sup 25} y which corresponds to an effective neutrino mass m{sub {nu}} on the level of (0.3 - 0.1) eV. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process is today the most promising test of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The detector was constructed in the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) in France by an international collaboration including France, Russia, the Czech Republic, the USA, the UK, Finland, and Japan. The experiment has been taking data since May 2002. The quantity of {sup 100}Mo in the detector (7 kg) allows an efficient measurement of the two-neutrino double beta decay (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state (eeN{gamma} channel). Monte-Carlo simulations of the effect and of all the relative sources of background have been produced in order to define a set of appropriate selection criteria. Both Monte-Carlo simulations and special runs with sources of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 214}Bi showed that the only significant background in the eeN{gamma} channel comes from radon that penetrated inside the wire chamber of NEMO3. The experimental data acquired from May 2002 to May 2003 have been analysed in order to determine the signal from the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state and the corresponding background level. The physical result, which was obtained at the level of four standard deviations, is given in the form of an interval of half-life values at 95% confidence level: [5.84*10{sup 20}, 2.26*10{sup 21}] y for method A and [5.83*10{sup 20}, 1.71*10{sup 21}] y for method B. (author)

  11. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    OpenAIRE

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; A. Figus; Loi, A; Pirastu, M.; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation ...

  12. Application of inverse models and XRD analysis to the determination of Ti-17 {beta}-phase coefficients of thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freour, S. [GeM, Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), Universite de Nantes, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 37 Boulevard de l' Universite, BP 406, 44 602 Saint-Nazaire cedex (France)]. E-mail: freour@crttsn.univ-nantes.fr; Gloaguen, D. [GeM, Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), Universite de Nantes, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 37 Boulevard de l' Universite, BP 406, 44 602 Saint-Nazaire cedex (France); Francois, M. [Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' Ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS FRE CNRS 2719), Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Guillen, R. [GeM, Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), Universite de Nantes, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 37 Boulevard de l' Universite, BP 406, 44 602 Saint-Nazaire cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    scope of this work is the determination of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the Ti-17 {beta}-phase. A rigorous inverse thermo-elastic self-consistent scale transition micro-mechanical model extended to multi-phase materials was used. The experimental data required for the application of the inverse method were obtained from both the available literature and especially dedicated X-ray diffraction lattice strain measurements performed on the studied ({alpha} + {beta}) two-phase titanium alloy.

  13. Impact of the first-forbidden $\\beta$ decay on the production of $A \\sim 195$ r-process peak

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Nobuya; Fang, Dong-Liang; Suzuki, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of first-forbidden transitions in $\\beta$ decays on the production of the r-process $A \\sim 195$ peak. The theoretical calculated $\\beta$-decay rates with $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission were examined using several astrophysical conditions. As the first-borbidden decay is dominant in $N \\sim 126$ neutron-rich nuclei, their inclusion shortens $\\beta$-decay lifetimes and shifts the abundance peak towards higher masses. Additionally, the inclusion of the $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission results in a wider abundance peak, and smoothens the mass distribution by removing the odd-even mass staggering. The effects are commonly seen in the results of all adopted astrophysical models. Nevertheless there are quantitative differences, indicating that remaining uncertainty in the determination of half-lives for $N=126$ nuclei is still significant in order to determine the production of the r-process peak.

  14. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta have both similar and distinct effects on myofiber switching toward an oxidative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Frandsen, Lis; Schjerling, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    of myotubes, as seen by mRNA downregulation of the immature embryonal and perinatal myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms. PGC-1alpha or PGC-1beta overexpression enhanced mRNA of the slow oxidative-associated MHC isoform MHCIb and downregulated mRNA levels of the fast glycolytic-associated MHC isoforms MHCIIX...... and MHCIIB. Only PGC-1beta overexpression caused an increase in mRNA of the intermediary fast oxidative-associated MHC isoform MHCIIA. PGC-1alpha or PGC-1beta overexpression upregulated GLUT4 mRNA and downregulated myocyte enhancer factor 2C transcription factor mRNA; only PGC-1alpha overexpression caused......Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta (PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta) were overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in cultures of primary rat skeletal muscle cells derived from neonatal myoblasts. Effects on muscle fiber type transition and metabolism...

  15. Plan beta: Core or Cusp?

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Thomas; Lehnert, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

  16. Spectrofluorimetric determination of stoichiometry and association constants of the complexes of harmane and harmine with beta-cyclodextrin and chemically modified beta-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; León, A; Olives, A I; Del Castillo, B; Martín, M A

    2003-06-13

    The association characteristics of the inclusion complexes of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmane and harmine with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and chemically modified beta-cyclodextrins such as hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbeta-CD), 2,3-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbeta-CD) and 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbeta-CD) are described. The association constants vary from 112 for harmine/DMbeta-CD to 418 for harmane/HPbeta-CD. The magnitude of the interactions between the host and the guest molecules depends on the chemical and geometrical characteristics of the guest molecules and therefore the association constants vary for the different cyclodextrin complexes. The steric hindrance is higher in the case of harmine due to the presence of methoxy group on the beta-carboline ring. The association obtained for the harmane complexes is stronger than the one observed for harmine complexes except in the case of harmine/TMbeta-CD. Important differences in the association constants were observed depending on the experimental variable used in the calculations (absolute value of fluorescence intensity or the ratio between the fluorescence intensities corresponding to the neutral and cationic forms). When fluorescence intensity values were considered, the association constants were higher than when the ratio of the emission intensity for the cationic and neutral species was used. These differences are a consequence of the co-existence of acid-base equilibria in the ground and in excited states together with the complexation equilibria. The existence of a proton transfer reaction in the excited states of harmane or harmine implies the need for the experimental dialysis procedure for separation of the complexes from free harmane or harmine. Such methodology allows quantitative results for stoichiometry determinations to be obtained, which show the existence of both 1:1 and 1:2 beta-carboline alkaloid:CD complexes with different solubility properties.

  17. Review of double beta experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, X.

    2012-01-01

    C13-10-22.1 International audience This paper gives a review of the double beta experimental techniques and projects, in the search for the Majorana neutrino. The purpose of this review is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations of the different techniques are discussed. 1. Introduction The neutrino is one of the most puzzling elementary particle with very unique properties. I...

  18. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  19. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, P.; Yao, J. M.; Song, L. S.; Hagino, K.; Meng, J.

    2015-10-01

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME's) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME's can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.

  20. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, P., E-mail: ring@ph.tum.de [Physik-Department der Technischen Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing 100871 (China); Yao, J. M. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Song, L. S. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing 100871 (China); Hagino, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7602 (South Africa)

    2015-10-15

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME’s) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME’s can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.

  1. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME’s) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME’s can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort

  2. Beta decay and muon capture rates in a self-consistent relativistic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marketin, Tomislav; Paar, Nils; Niksic, Tamara; Vretenar, Dario [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Ring, Peter [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A fully consistent calculation of muon capture and beta decay rates is presented, based on a microscopic theoretical framework describing the semileptonic weak interaction processes. Nuclear ground state is determined using the Relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov (RHB) model with density dependent meson-nucleon coupling constants, and transition rates are calculated via proton-neutron relativistic quasiparticle RPA using the same interaction as in the RHB equations. Muon capture rates are calculated for a wide range of nuclei along the valley of stability, from {sup 12}C to {sup 244}Pu, with accuracy of approximately 30%, using the interaction DD-ME2. Previous studies of beta decay rates have only taken into account Gamow-Teller transitions. We extend this approach by including forbidden transitions and systematically study their contribution to decay rates of exotic nuclei along the r-process path, which are important for constraining the conditions in which nucleosynthesis takes place.

  3. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta... 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  4. Spontaneous quaternary and tertiary T-R transitions of human hemoglobin in molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen S Hub

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present molecular dynamics simulations of unliganded human hemoglobin (Hb A under physiological conditions, starting from the R, R2, and T state. The simulations were carried out with protonated and deprotonated HC3 histidines His(beta146, and they sum up to a total length of 5.6 micros. We observe spontaneous and reproducible T-->R quaternary transitions of the Hb tetramer and tertiary transitions of the alpha and beta subunits, as detected from principal component projections, from an RMSD measure, and from rigid body rotation analysis. The simulations reveal a marked asymmetry between the alpha and beta subunits. Using the mutual information as correlation measure, we find that the beta subunits are substantially more strongly linked to the quaternary transition than the alpha subunits. In addition, the tertiary populations of the alpha and beta subunits differ substantially, with the beta subunits showing a tendency towards R, and the alpha subunits showing a tendency towards T. Based on the simulation results, we present a transition pathway for coupled quaternary and tertiary transitions between the R and T conformations of Hb.

  5. Phase sensitive quantum interference on forbidden transition in ladder scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Koganov, Gennady A

    2014-01-01

    A three level ladder system is analyzed and the coherence of initially electric-dipole forbidden transition is calculated. Due to the presence of two laser fields the initially dipole forbidden transition becomes dynamically permitted due to ac Stark effect. It is shown that such transitions exhibit quantum-interference-related phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, gain without inversion and enhanced refractive index. Gain and dispersion characteristics of such transitions strongly depend upon the relative phase between the driving and the probe fields. Unlike allowed transitions, gain/absorption behavior of ac-Stark allowed transitions exhibit antisymmetric feature on the Rabi sidebands. It is found that absorption/gain spectra possess extremely narrow sub-natural resonances on these ac Stark allowed forbidden transitions. An interesting finding is simultaneous existence of gain and negative dispersion at Autler-Townes transition which may lead to both reduction of the group velocity a...

  6. Transition time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 2013 is going to be an interesting year for the High Dilution research field. There is a tendency to revise basic concepts and common beliefs, while refining models and theories. The fundamental research team seems to be open to deeper discussions, aiming to reinforce some hypothesis and discharge others. In somehow, we are stuck in a vicious way of think, trying to manage and describe an informational phenomenon into a molecular framework. The challenge offered to those researchers involved with basic science is to figure out how to deal with such phenomenon, since previous theories and models have not shown to be matched! In the other hand, there is a tendency to explore the HD phenomenon in its technological branch. While basic research is important to describe how things work, the applied research has a more intense social and economic appeal. To develop technology based on HD means to give a different kind of visibility to the field, attracting sponsors, companies, entrepreneurs, always committed to the market regulatory laws. I am expecting for this year some important movements, both in the basic and applied research. Of course, it will be only a new beginning, as these changes require a lot of work, discussions and insights. But this transition time is very welcome!

  7. Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn

    2015-11-01

    In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.

  8. Methods of Fabricating Scintillators with Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Squillante, Michael R.; Tieman, Timothy C.; Higgins, William; Shiriwadkar, Urmila

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been developed for a class of self-contained, long-duration power sources called beta batteries, which harvest the energy contained in the radioactive emissions from beta decay isotopes. The new battery is a significant improvement over the conventional phosphor/solar cell concept for converting this energy in three ways. First, the thin phosphor is replaced with a thick scintillator that is transparent to its own emissions. By using a scintillator sufficiently thick to completely stop all the beta particles, efficiency is greatly improved. Second, since the energy of the beta particles is absorbed in the scintillator, the semiconductor photodetector is shielded from radiation damage that presently limits the performance and lifetime of traditional phosphor converters. Finally, instead of a thin film of beta-emitting material, the isotopes are incorporated into the entire volume of the thick scintillator crystal allowing more activity to be included in the converter without self-absorption. There is no chemical difference between radioactive and stable strontium beta emitters such as Sr-90, so the beta emitter can be uniformly distributed throughout a strontium based scintillator crystal. When beta emitter material is applied as a foil or thin film to the surface of a solar cell or even to the surface of a scintillator, much of the radiation escapes due to the geometry, and some is absorbed within the layer itself, leading to inefficient harvesting of the energy. In contrast, if the emitting atoms are incorporated within the scintillator, the geometry allows for the capture and efficient conversion of the energy of particles emitted in any direction. Any gamma rays associated with secondary decays or Bremsstrahlung photons may also be absorbed within the scintillator, and converted to lower energy photons, which will in turn be captured by the photocell or photodiode. Some energy will be lost in this two-stage conversion process (high-energy particle

  9. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  11. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... allowance shall not include an allowance for a family member not entitled to it in his own right, nor shall a group allowance be applied to any property of that member. (b) Members of a family residing in one... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section...

  12. Progress with large N{sub f} {beta}-functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracey, J.A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Math. Sci.

    1997-04-11

    We report on the progress in the computation of the {beta}-functions of {phi}{sup 4} theory and QCD in the large N expansion. For the former we give an analytic formula for the critical exponent which encodes higher order coefficients in the series beyond those currently known in the MS scheme at O(1/N{sup 2}) in a large N expansion. This allows us to deduce new coefficients in the field anomalous dimension which relate to Kreimer`s knot theory of the divergences of a quantum field theory. A similar exponent is computed for the {beta}-function of QCD at O(1/N{sub f}). (orig.).

  13. GERDA - a new neutrinoless double beta experiment using 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhofer, G.; GERDA Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νßß) has been a very active field for the last decades. While double beta decay has been observed, 0νßß decay still waits for its experimental proof. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) uses 76Ge, an ideal candidate as it is acting as source and detector simultaneously. Germanium detectors, isotopically enriched in 76Ge are submerged directly into an ultra pure cryo liquid, which serves as coolant and radiation shield. This concept will allow to reduce the background by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to earlier experiments. GERDA has been constructed in hall A of the underground laboratory LNGS of the INFN in Italy. The experiment started recently with a test run.

  14. GERDA - a new neutrinoless double beta experiment using 76Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νssss) has been a very active field for the last decades. While double beta decay has been observed, 0νssss decay still waits for its experimental proof. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) uses 76Ge, an ideal candidate as it is acting as source and detector simultaneously. Germanium detectors, isotopically enriched in 76Ge are submerged directly into an ultra pure cryo liquid, which serves as coolant and radiation shield. This concept will allow to reduce the background by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to earlier experiments. GERDA has been constructed in hall A of the underground laboratory LNGS of the INFN in Italy. The experiment started recently with a test run.

  15. Intermediate γ beta beams with a cluster of detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, D.; Mena, O.; Orme, C.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pascoli, S.

    2008-05-01

    The acceleration of radionuclides in a beta beam provides an alternative experimental design to superbeam and neutrino factory long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Only single baseline beta beam scenarios have been considered thus far although a storage ring could source at least two baselines. The multitude of possible detector sites in Europe potentially allows for numerous baselines for future long baseline experiments sourced at CERN. Here, we will consider an example taking the CERN-Canfranc and CERN-Boulby baselines. We present results that indicate good sensitivity to the mass hierarchy for values of sin2 2θ13 as small as 10-3 and CP-violation discovery for sin2 2θ13 down to 10-4. These results are achieved with a single helicity since the second baseline provides the synergies usually associated with an anti-neutrino run.

  16. Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  17. Transition probability studies in 175Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition probabilities have been measured between the low-lying yrast states in 175Au by employing the recoil distance Doppler-shift method combined with the selective recoil-decay tagging technique. Reduced transition probabilities and magnitudes of transition quadrupole moments have been extracted from measured lifetimes allowing dramatic changes in nuclear structure within a low excitation-energy range to probed. The transition quadrupole moment data are discussed in terms of available systematics as a function of atomic number and aligned angular momentum.

  18. Binding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A; Bostedt, L; Stigbrand, T; O'Connor-McCourt, M D

    1994-04-15

    Pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is quantitatively the most important pregnancy-associated plasma protein and it has strong similarity to alpha 2-macroglobulin. Since alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein for transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta), it was of interest to test whether the related protein, PZP, also binds to these growth-regulatory proteins. Using affinity-labelling methods, we demonstrate that PZP binds both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and that the binding characteristics are similar to those of the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 1 bind to PZP in a predominantly noncovalent manner in vitro. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bind to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of PZP. Our studies also indicate that PZP binds TGF-beta 2 with higher affinity than TGF-beta 1. Finally, we demonstrate that PZP inhibits the binding of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 to their cell surface receptors. The increased level of PZP during pregnancy may affect the action of TGF-beta by regulating the distribution, clearance and/or general availability of TGF-beta. The preferential binding of TGF-beta 2 over TGF-beta 1 by PZP implies that PZP may differentially regulate the action of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2.

  19. On gaps in Rényi $\\beta$-expansions of unity for $\\beta > 1$ an algebraic number.

    OpenAIRE

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\beta> 1$ be an algebraic number. We study the strings of zeros (“gaps”) in the Rényi $\\beta$ -expansion $d_{\\beta}(1)$ of unity which controls the set $\\mathbb{Z}_{\\beta}$ of $\\beta$-integers. Using a version of Liouville's inequality which extends Mahler's and Güting's approximation theorems, the strings of zeros in $d_{\\beta}(1)$ are shown to exhibit a “gappiness” asymptotically bounded above by $log(M(\\beta ))/ log(\\beta)$, where $M(\\beta)$ is the Mahler measure of $\\beta$ . The proo...

  20. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  1. STA heat treatment of beta-titanium alloys after various thermomechanical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovsky, P.E.; Teliovich, R.V.; Matviychuk, Yu.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziki Metallov

    2000-07-01

    Commercial beta-titanium alloys are promising material for a wide range of applications due to essentially high strength/density ratio, sufficient fatigue performance and crack propagation resistance. Present work was aimed at systematical study the microstructure and mechanical properties of two commercial beta-titanium alloys VT22 and TIMETAL {sup trademark} -LCB in STA condition produced by special heat treatment, comprising from rapid heating into a single-phase beta field and subsequent aging, depending on previous thermomechanical processing employed. Three types of such a processing were studied: hot deformation at temperatures of alpha+beta field, hot deformation in single-phase beta field and cold deformation of as-quenched metastable beta phase. Solid solutionizing by rapid heating has proved to be efficient in receiving fine-grained beta microstructure with average grain size, which varies from 50 {mu}m to 12 {mu}m depending on initial microstructure. Such treatment allowed to obtain on subsequent aging yield strengths up to 1470 MPa while maintaining sufficient ductility. (orig.)

  2. Interaction between cyclodextrin and neuronal membrane results in modulation of GABA(A) receptor conformational transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Maria; Mercik, Katarzyna; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-06-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are nanostructures widely applied in biotechnology and chemistry. Owing to partially hydrophobic character, CDs interact with biological membranes. While the mechanisms of CDs interactions with lipids were widely studied, their effects on proteins are less understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of beta cyclodextrin (betaCD) on GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) gating. To reliably resolve the kinetics of conformational transitions, currents were elicited by ultrafast gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) applications to outside-out patches from rat cultured hippocampal neurons. betaCD increased the amplitude of responses to saturating GABA concentration ([GABA]) in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by profound alterations in the current kinetics. Current deactivation was slowed down by betaCD but this effect was biphasic with a maximum at around 0.5 mM betaCD. While the fast deactivation time constant was monotonically slowed down within considered betaCD concentration range, the slow component first increased and then, at millimolar betaCD concentration, decreased. The rate and extent of desensitization was decreased by betaCD in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of current responses to nonsaturating [GABA] indicated that betaCD affected the GABA(A)R agonist binding site by slowing down the unbinding rate. Modulation of GABA(A)R desensitization and binding showed different concentration-dependence suggesting different modualtory sites with higher affinity of the latter one. All the betaCD effects were fully reversible indicating that cholesterol uptake into betaCD was not the primary mechanism. We conclude that betaCD is a strong modulator of GABA(A)R conformational transitions.

  3. Vanishing linear term in chemical potential difference in volume term of work of critical nucleus formation for phase transition without volume change

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A question is given on the form n({\\mu}_{\\beta}-{\\mu}_{\\alpha}) for the volume term of work of formation of critical nucleus. Here, n is the number of molecule undergone the phase transition, {\\mu} denotes the chemical potential, {\\alpha} and {\\beta} represent the parent and nucleating phases, respectively. In this paper we concentrate phase transition without volume change. We have calculated the volume term in terms of the chemical potential difference {\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq}$ for this case. Here, {\\mu}_{re} is the chemical potential of the reservoir and {\\mu}_{eq} that at the phase transition. We have W_{vol} = -[({\\kappa}_{\\beta}-{\\kappa}_{\\alpha})/(2v_{eq}^2)] ({\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq})^2 V_{\\beta} with {\\kappa} denoting the isothermal compressibility, v_{eq} being the molecular volume at the phase transition, V_{\\beta} the volume of the nucleus.

  4. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  5. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK JNK1 downregulates beta-catenin signaling and plays a critical role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in suppressing tumor formation. This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro system with manipulation of JNK2 and beta-catenin expression and found that activated JNK2 increased GSK3beta activity and inhibited beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. However, JNK2-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and GSK3beta inhibitor lithium chloride. Moreover, targeted mutations at GSK3beta phosphorylation sites (Ser33 and Ser37 of beta-catenin abrogated JNK2-mediated suppression of beta-catenin. In vivo studies further revealed that JNK2 deficiency led to upregulation of beta-catenin and increase of GSK3-beta phosphorylation in JNK2-/- mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, physical interaction and co-localization among JNK2, beta-catenin and GSK3beta were observed by immunoprecipitation, mammalian two-hybridization assay and confocal microscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: In general, our data suggested that JNK2, like JNK1, interacts with and suppresses beta-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo, in which GSK3beta plays a key role, although previous studies have shown distinct functions of JNK1 and JNK2. Our study also provides a novel insight into the crosstalk between Wnt/beta-catenin and MAPK JNKs signaling.

  6. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  7. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... diseases and reflects the size of the tumour mass. During cytostatic treatment of myelomatosis and chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the serum-beta 2M levels decrease on remission and increase on relapse. In acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma with infiltration of the CNS, similar conditions prevail for CSF...

  8. Hypersomnolence with beta-adrenergic blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, J; Zeller, J R; Kochar, M S

    1987-11-01

    An elderly, mildly demented, hypertensive male patient developed hypersomnolence on administration of propranolol for treatment of hypertension; no other cause for hypersomnolence was detected. Upon replacement of propranolol with atenolol, he felt better but continued to be quite somnolent. When atenolol was discontinued, he reported to have lack of sleep. On readministration of subtherapeutic doses of the same beta-adrenergic blocking agents, he once again experienced excessive sleepiness. By discontinuing beta-blocking agents and introducing captopril, he felt much better, became pleasant and talkative, and blood pressure was well controlled. Beta antagonists are important drugs in the management of many cardiovascular problems. Propranolol, a lipophilic beta-blocking agent, and atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, are two of the major agents currently used clinically in the United States. Numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been reported, but hypersomnolence is not readily recognized as one of them. PMID:3665616

  9. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  10. Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be ab...

  11. The pancreatic beta cell surface proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Stützer, I.; Esterházy, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell is responsible for maintaining normoglycaemia by secreting an appropriate amount of insulin according to blood glucose levels. The accurate sensing of the beta cell extracellular environment is therefore crucial to this endocrine function and is transmitted via its cell surface proteome. Various surface proteins that mediate or affect beta cell endocrine function have been identified, including growth factor and cytokine receptors, transporters, ion channels and prote...

  12. Constructions for a bivariate beta distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olkin, Ingram; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta distribution is a basic distribution serving several purposes. It is used to model data, and also, as a more flexible version of the uniform distribution, it serves as a prior distribution for a binomial probability. The bivariate beta distribution plays a similar role for two probabilities that have a bivariate binomial distribution. We provide a new multivariate distribution with beta marginal distributions, positive probability over the unit square, and correlations over the full ...

  13. Novel shell-model analysis of the $^{136}$Xe double beta decay nuclear matrix elements

    CERN Document Server

    Horoi, M

    2013-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay, if observed, could distinguish whether neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle, and it could be used to determine the absolute scale of the neutrino masses. $^{136}$Xe is one of the most promising candidates for observing this rare event. However, until recently there were no positive result for the allowed and less rare two-neutrino double beta decay mode. The small nuclear matrix element associated with the small half-life represents a challenge for nuclear structure models used for its calculation. We report a new shell-model analysis of the two-neutrino double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe, which takes into account all relevant nuclear orbitals necessary to fully describe the associated Gamow-Teller strength. We further use the new model to analyze the main contributions to the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life, and show that they are also diminished.

  14. Search for non Standard Model physics in nuclear-$\\beta$ decay with the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Coeck, Sam

    In this work the WITCH experiment, which primarily aims for precision measurements of the beta-neutrino-angular correlation coefficient, is presented in detail. First a theoretical description of the beta-decay process is presented and it was shown how measurements of correlation coefficients can reveal the exact nature of the weak interaction. Although many experiments have already been conducted in this field, there is still considerable room for additional phenomena that are not included in the Standard Model. At WITCH the beta-neutrino-angular correlation coefficient will be obtained from precision measurements of the energy spectrum of the nuclei that recoil after beta-decay, thus avoiding the need to observe the neutrino. To enable a measurement of the recoiling ions, the setup uses a combination of two electromagnetic Penning traps and a retardation spectrometer. This allows one to construct the scattering free radioactive source that is needed as the recoiling ions have only a very small kinetic energ...

  15. Abnormal phase transition in BiNbO{sub 4} powders prepared by a citrate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Haifa; Qian Xu; Kong Jizhou [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Aidong, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gong Youpin [Nano Device and Material Division, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li Hui; Wu Di [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: > Pure BiNbO{sub 4} powders were successfully prepared by a citrate method using home-made Nb-citrate (Nb-CA) aqueous solution. > Abnormal phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} was first observed in BiNbO{sub 4} system. > The synthesis of Low-{beta} can be attributed to the formation of the intermediated phase Bi{sub 5}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 15} and the mechanism of the phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} was proposed. > We identified that the stress in pellet format can accelerate the phase transition compared with powder samples. - Abstract: Triclinic {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} prepared below 750 deg. C and above 1040 deg. C (denoted as Low-{beta} and High-{beta}, respectively) and pure orthorhombic {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} at 900 deg. C were successfully derived from a citrate method and the phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} was first observed in BiNbO{sub 4} powders. This phenomenon proves that the abnormal phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} exists in BiNbO{sub 4} powder system. The synthesis of Low-{beta} powders can be attributed to the formation of the intermediate phase of Bi{sub 5}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 15} by the citrate method. With increasing temperature, the Low-{beta} phase gradually turns into {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} due to the thermodynamically metastable state of Low-{beta}. We also identified that the stress in pellet format can accelerate the phase transition from Low-{beta} to {alpha} phase of BiNbO{sub 4} in comparison with powder samples. It brings us new understanding of the BiNbO{sub 4} system and also provides a simple way to obtain BiNbO{sub 4} for microwave and photocatalytic applications.

  16. Judd-Ofelt treatment on luminescence of europium complexes with beta-diketone and bis(beta-diketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yanhua [CAS Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Anhui Province, Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [School of Electrical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Chen Biao [Department of History of Science and Technology and Archaeometry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wu Wenxuan; Yu Xiaowu; Yan Qing [CAS Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Anhui Province, Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang Qijin, E-mail: yhluo3@mail.ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Anhui Province, Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Eu(DBM){sub 3}2H{sub 2}O and Eu{sub 2}(DDBM){sub 3}H{sub 2}O were synthesized by reactions between EuCl{sub 3} and chelating regents of beta-diketone (dibenzoylmethane, HDBM) and bis(beta-diketone) (1,3-bis(3-phenyl-3-oxopropanoyl)benzene, H{sub 2}DDBM), respectively, and their luminescence properties were investigated by the fluorescence spectra and metastable state decay spectra. It was found that the relative intensity ratio of {sup 5}D{sub 0}->{sup 7}F{sub 2} to {sup 5}D{sub 0}->{sup 7}F{sub 1}transition and the radiative lifetime shows a little change attributing to the different symmetry of europium ions, which OMEGA{sub 2} of Eu complexes with beta-diketone and bis(beta-diketone) are 13.08 and 12.24, respectively. Moreover, it was also found that the metastable state lifetime of Eu{sub 2}(DDBM){sub 3}H{sub 2}O is much longer than that of Eu(DBM){sub 3}2H{sub 2}O, due to smaller water quenching and lower triplet level of ligands. The Commission Internacionale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates calculated from emission spectrum are x=0.637 and y=0.343 for Eu{sub 2}(DDBM){sub 3}H{sub 2}O, which presents high red color purity near 100%.

  17. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Sebely Pal; Keith Woodford; Sonja Kukuljan; Suleen Ho

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-...

  18. NMR Spectroscopic Analysis on the Chiral Recognition of Noradrenaline by {beta}-Cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and Carboxymethyl- {beta}-cyclodextrin (CM- {beta}-CD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoo; Yi, Dong Heui; Jung, Seun Ho [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD as chiral NMR shift agents were used to resolve the enantiomers of noradrenaline (NA). The stoichiometry of each complex formed between the CDs and the enantiomers of NA was found to be 1 : 1 through the continuous variation plots. The binding constants (K) of the complexes were determined from 1H NMR titration curves. This result indicated that both {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD formed the complexes with the S (+)-NA more preferentially than its R(.)-enantiomer. The K values for the complexes with {beta}-CD (KS(+) = 537 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 516 M{sup -1}) was larger than those with CM-{beta}-CD (K{sub S}({sub +}) = 435 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 313 M{sup -1}), however, enantioselectivity ({alpha}) of S({sub +})- and R(-)-NA to CM-{beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.38) was larger than that to {beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.04), indicating that CM-{beta}-CD was the better chiral NMR solvating agents for the recognition of the enantiomers of NA. Two dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were also performed to explain the binding properties in terms of spatial fitting of the NA molecule into the macrocyclic cavities

  19. Review of double beta experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sarazin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the manuscript written in April 2012 for my academic Accreditation to supervise research. It offers a review of the double beta experimental techniques. My purpose is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations are discussed. This review is organized as follows. First, the question of the possible Majorana nature for the neutrino is presented and the physic of neutrinoless double beta decay is summarized. Then I begin by presenting the tracko-calo NEMO-3 and SuperNEMO experiments. I've worked on these two experiments since 15 years. So it was natural to start with them with a relatively more exhaustive description. I will then present the germanium technique. I will then review the bolometer technique. I will describe in detail the recent progress in scintillating bolometers because I think that it is one of the most promising techniques. Finally I will review the large l...

  20. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  1. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  2. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Sam [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Guo, Zhefeng, E-mail: zhefeng@ucla.edu [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions

  3. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Massa, A.; Marinucci, M.; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M.

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta b...

  4. An Observational Perspective of Transitional Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Espaillat, Catherine; Najita, Joan; Andrews, Sean; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Calvet, Nuria; Kraus, Stefan; Hashimoto, Jun; Kraus, Adam; D'Alessio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about...

  5. The phase transition of Axelrod's model revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model with $F=2$ cultural features, where each feature can assume $k$ states drawn from a Poisson distribution of parameter $q$, exhibits a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition in the square lattice. Here we use extensive Monte Carlo simulations and finite size scaling to study the critical behavior of the order parameter $\\rho$, which is the fraction of sites that belong to the largest domain of an absorbing configuration averaged over many runs. We find that it vanishes as $\\rho \\sim \\left (q_c^0 - q \\right)^\\beta$ with $\\beta \\approx 0.25$ at the critical point $q_c^0 \\approx 3.10$ and that the exponent that measures the width of the critical region is $\

  6. Transitions in Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social...... problems. The results show that social problems during upbringing have a large and significant effect on children's educational outcome and that the indicators of social problems explain about 20–30 per cent of the class differences in the students’ educational outcomes....

  7. Transit spectroscopy with GTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio M.R. Zapatero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different ground-based surveys and space missions, nowadays we have a fairly large sample of discovered extra-solar planets to study and, without a doubt, this number will increase in the future. One of the most succesful techniques that allows us to prove the physical properties and atmospheric composition of these exoplanets is transmission spectroscopy. The level of precision that is require to measure these effects provides a technical challenge that is solved by using big telescopes and stable instruments to reach low noise levels. In this article, we will discuss the use of the 10m class telescope GTC to observed planetary transits in spectroscopic mode and some of the results that we are currently obtaining.

  8. The Geometric Transition Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, Rhiannon

    2007-01-01

    Our intention in this article is to review known facts and to summarise recent advances in the understanding of geometric transitions and the underlying open/closed duality in string theory. We aim to present a pedagogical discussion of the gauge theory underlying the Klebanov--Strassler model and review the Gopakumar--Vafa conjecture based on topological string theory. These models are also compared in the T-dual brane constructions. We then summarise a series of papers verifying both models on the supergravity level. An appendix provides extensive background material about conifold geometries. We pay special attention to their complex structures and re-evaluate the supersymmetry conditions on the background flux in constructions with fractional D3-branes on the singular (Klebanov--Strassler) and resolved (Pando Zayas--Tseytlin) conifolds. We agree with earlier results that only the singular solution allows a supersymmetric flux, but point out the importance of using the correct complex structure to reach th...

  9. Maritime in transit care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, G; Barnard, J; Prior, K

    2015-01-01

    Operation GRITROCK saw the first operational deployment of the Maritime In Transit Care team from the Role 2 (Enhanced) (R2(E)) Medical Treatment Facility, which is able to provide Damage Control Surgery and the limited holding of patients, situated on board RFA ARGUS. Whilst the Medical Emergency Response Team demonstrated the capability of advanced military Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) on Op HERRICK, the need to provide a similar high level of care on contingency operations was recognised. Op GRITROCK allowed for the continued exploration of a maritime capability from an established R2(E) platform whilst providing medical evacuation capability for a significant population at risk distributed over a large Joint Operation Area. Although the patient load during the operation was low, key lessons were learnt and opportunities identified to further develop the newly recognised sub-speciality of PHEC, both medically and logistically, and these will be discussed in this article. PMID:26867404

  10. Supersymmetry Unification Predictions for $m_{top}, V_{cb}$ and $tan{\\beta}$

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, M A; Valle, José W F; Diaz, Marco A.; Ferrandis, Javier; Valle, Jose W.F.

    2000-01-01

    We study the predictions for M_top, tan(beta) and V_cb in a popular texture ansatze for the fermion mass matrices. We do this both for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and for the simplest model (MSSM-BRpV) where a bilinear R-Parity violating term is added to the superpotential. We find that taking the experimental values for M_top and V_cb at 99 % C.L. and the GUT relations h_b=h_tau and (V_cb)^2=h_c/h_t within 5 %, the large tan(beta) solution, characteristic in the MSSM with bottom--tau unification, becomes disallowed. In contrast the corresponding allowed region for the MSSM-BRpV is slightly larger. We also find that important modifications occur if we relax the texture conditions at the GUT scale. For example, if the GUT relations are imposed at 40 %, the large tan(beta) branch in the MSSM becomes fully allowed. In addition, in MSSM-BRpV the whole tan(beta)-M_top plane become allowed, finding unification at any value of tan(beta).

  11. Radiative lifetimes and transition probabilities for electric-dipole delta n equals zero transitions in highly stripped sulfur ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, D. J.; Elston, S. B.; Griffin, P. M.; Forester, J. P.; Thoe, R. S.; Peterson, R. S.; Sellin, I. A.; Hayden, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The beam-foil time-of-flight method has been used to investigate radiative lifetimes and transition rates involving allowed intrashell transitions within the L shell of highly ionized sulfur. The results for these transitions, which can be particularly correlation-sensitive, are compared with current calculations based upon multiconfigurational models.

  12. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  13. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  14. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F

    1990-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  15. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  16. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  17. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  18. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  19. 24 CFR 891.785 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.785 Adjustment of utility allowances. In... adjustment of utility allowances provided in § 891.440 apply....

  20. 24 CFR 891.440 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Project Management § 891.440 Adjustment of utility allowances. This section shall apply to projects funded... submit an analysis of any utility allowances applicable. Such data as changes in utility rates and...

  1. 24 CFR 886.326 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... utility allowances. When the owner requests HUD approval of an adjustment in Contract Rents under § 886.312, an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances must be included. Such data as changes in...

  2. 24 CFR 880.610 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Management § 880.610 Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with annual and special adjustments of contract rents, the owner must submit an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances. Such data as...

  3. 24 CFR 886.126 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... utility allowances. When the owner requests HUD approval of adjustment in Contract Rents under § 886.112, an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances must be included. Such data as changes in...

  4. 24 CFR 884.220 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with annual and special adjustments of contract rents, the owner must submit an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances. Such data as changes in utility...

  5. 40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance deduction formula. 72.95... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.95 Allowance deduction formula. The following formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar...

  6. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  7. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  8. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  9. 40 CFR 74.49 - Calculation for deducting allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation for deducting allowances. 74.49 Section 74.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....49 Calculation for deducting allowances. (a) Allowance deduction formula. The following formula...

  10. 5 CFR 180.105 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 180.105 Section 180.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 180.105 Claims not allowed. (a) A claim is not allowable if: (1) The damage...

  11. 46 CFR 64.13 - Allowable stress; tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress; tank. 64.13 Section 64.13 Shipping... CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.13 Allowable stress; tank. (a) The calculated stress in... not exceed the allowable stress listed in Division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Code, for a...

  12. 40 CFR 96.50 - NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.50 NOX Allowance Tracking System accounts. (a) Nature and... accordance with this subpart. (b) Nature and function of general accounts. Consistent with § 96.51(b), the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Allowance Tracking System...

  13. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section 52.810... for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality Factors Factor Sample unit size Maximum number permissible for the respective grade A B C Color: Vary markedly...

  14. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality Factors Factor Sample unit size Maximum number permissible for the respective grade A A B B C C Pits 20 ozs...

  15. 42 CFR 61.37 - Stipends, allowances, and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fellowship or series of service fellowships. (b) Travel and transportation allowances. Under conditions prescribed by the Secretary, an individual appointed as a service fellow may be authorized personal travel allowances or transportation and per diem, travel allowances or transportation for his or her...

  16. 78 FR 67465 - Loan Guaranty: Maximum Allowable Attorney Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Maximum Allowable Attorney Fees AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... (VA) Home Loan Guaranty program concerning the maximum attorney fees allowable in calculating the... maximum attorney fees will be allowed for all loan terminations completed on or after December 12,...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27...-Return of GSA Stock Items § 101-27.503 Allowable credit. Allowable credit for activities returning... condition of the material received. (a) Credit will be granted at the rate of 80 percent of the current...

  18. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...

  19. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  20. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance must be as required in 46 CFR 54.01-35. ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5...

  1. RELAP-7 Beta Release: Summary of Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Building upon the decades of software development at the INL, we began the development of RELAP-7 in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway. As part of this development, the first lines of RELAP-7 code were committed to the software revision control repository on November 7th, 2011. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. RELAP-7 is built using the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). MOOSE provides improved numerical calculations (including higher-order integration in both space and time, yielding converged second-order accuracy). The RELAP-7 code structure is based on multiple physical component models such as pipes, junctions, pumps, etc. Each component can have options for different fluid models such as single- and two-phase flow. This component-based and physics-based software architecture allows RELAP-7 to adopt different physical models for different applications. A relatively new two-phase hydrodynamic model, termed the ''7-Equation model'' for two phasic pressures, velocities, energies, and volumetric fraction, is incorporated into RELAP-7 for liquid-gas (water-steam) flows. This new model allows second-order integration because it is well-posed, which will reduce the numerical error associated with traditional systems analysis codes. In this paper, we provide a RELAP-7 capability list describing analysis features, range of applicability, and reactor components that will be available for the December 15th, 2014 beta release of the software.

  2. Stellar Transits in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 106 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ~10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

    1992-05-01

    A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds.

  4. The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    CERN Document Server

    Lorca, D; Monrabal, F

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

  5. Kinetic analysis of the phenyl-shift reaction in $\\beta$-O-4 lignin model compounds: A computational study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The phenyl-shift reaction in $\\beta$-phenethyl phenyl ether ($\\beta - \\rm PhCH_2CH_2OPh$, $\\beta$-PPE) is an integral step in the pyrolysis of PPE, which is a model compound for the $\\beta$-O-4 linkage in lignin. We investigated the influence of natural occurring substituents (hydroxy, methoxy) on the reaction rate by calculating relative rate constant using density functional theory in combination with transition state theory, including anharmonic correction for low-frequency modes. The phenyl-shift reaction proceeds through an intermediate and the overall rate constants were computed invoking the steady-state approximation (its validity was confirmed). Substituents on the phenethyl group have only little influence on the rate constants. If a methoxy substituent is located in para position of the phenyl ring adjacent to the ether oxygen, the energies of the intermediate and second transition state are lowered, but the overall rate constant is not significantly altered. This is a consequence of the dominating first transition from pre-complex to intermediate in the overall rate constant. {\\it O}- and di-{\\it o}-methoxy substituents accelerate the phenyl-migration rate compared to $\\beta$-PPE.

  6. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  7. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium

  8. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  9. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  10. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  11. Alpha and beta dose gradients in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New results describing gradients in effective alpha and beta doses within a layer of tooth enamel in planar geometry are presented. The alpha (track) dose to an enamel layer is calculated using an algorithm similar to that of Aitken (Aitken, M.J., 1987. Alpha dose to a thin layer. Ancient TL 5, 1-3.). The code for ROSY version 1.4 incorporates this algorithm. The approach allows for variation of the alpha track dose near the edges of the enamel, and we describe the gradient of the alpha track dose within 40 μm of each edge of the enamel for natural sources. In ESR or luminescence dating of naturally thin layers, for which stripping of the surface layer containing the alpha dose gradients may not be feasible, age estimates may change by as much as 5-10% when the detailed alpha dose calculation is included. Modern Monte Carlo-based results for the variation of beta dose for depths up to 2 mm are compared with ROSY results. For external irradiation by different sources, the attenuation of the ROSY dose estimate with depth is usually less rapid than that of the Monte Carlo-based estimate. The ROSY estimate of average beta dose to a layer in this case is between 5 and 18% higher than the Monte Carlo estimate

  12. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  13. Dose point kernels for beta-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the dose point kernel corresponding to a specific radionuclide is required to calculate the spatial dose distribution produced in a homogeneous medium by a distributed source. Dose point kernels for commonly used radionuclides have been calculated previously using as a basis monoenergetic dose point kernels derived by numerical integration of a model transport equation. The treatment neglects fluctuations in energy deposition, an effect which has been later incorporated in dose point kernels calculated using Monte Carlo methods. This work describes new calculations of dose point kernels using the Monte Carlo results as a basis. An analytic representation of the monoenergetic dose point kernels has been developed. This provides a convenient method both for calculating the dose point kernel associated with a given beta spectrum and for incorporating the effect of internal conversion. An algebraic expression for allowed beta spectra has been accomplished through an extension of the Bethe-Bacher approximation, and tested against the exact expression. Simplified expression for first-forbidden shape factors have also been developed. A comparison of the calculated dose point kernel for 32P with experimental data indicates good agreement with a significant improvement over the earlier results in this respect. An analytic representation of the dose point kernel associated with the spectrum of a single beta group has been formulated. 9 references, 16 figures, 3 tables

  14. Plasma beta control of scaling of solar wind turbulent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Nemec, Frantisek; Prech, Lubomir; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Zastenker, Georgy N.

    2016-04-01

    The high-time resolution of Spektr-R plasma measurements allows us to make direct observations of solar wind turbulence below ion kinetic length scales. The paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speeds that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001-2 Hz. The statistics based on more than 5000 of individual spectra shows that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectra fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are ‑1.43 and ‑1.38, respectively for the bulk and thermal speeds, whereas those in the kinetic scale are ‑3.08 and ‑2.43, respectively; (4) the break between both MHD and kinetic scales is controlled the ion beta; and (5) the power index corresponding to kinetic turbulence depends on a level of the density variations in the high beta solar wind, whereas the ion gyromotion determines it for low beta intervals.

  15. The GERDA Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrinoless double beta (0νββ)-decay is the key process to gain understanding of the nature of neutrinos. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is designed to search for 0νββ-decay of the isotope 76Ge. Germanium crystals enriched in 76Ge, acting as source and detector simultaneously, will be submerged directly into an ultra pure cooling medium that also serves as a radiation shield. This concept will allow for a reduction of the background by up to two orders of magnitudes with respect to earlier experiments

  16. Values of the phase space factors for double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an up-date list of the experimentally most interesting phase space factors for double beta decay (DBD). The electron/positron wave functions are obtained by solving the Dirac equations with a Coulomb potential derived from a realistic proton density distribution in nucleus and with inclusion of the finite nuclear size (FNS) and electron screening (ES) effects. We build up new numerical routines which allow us a good control of the accuracy of calculations. We found several notable differences as compared with previous results reported in literature and possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed

  17. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  18. Adaptive changes in pancreatic beta cell fractional area and beta cell turnover in human pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Cao-Minh, L.; Galasso, R; Rizza, R. A.; Corradin, A.; Cobelli, C; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Methods Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). Pancreases were evaluated for fractional pancreatic beta cell area, islet size and islet fraction of beta cells, beta cell replication (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL), and indirect markers of beta cel...

  19. Influence of the overall charge and local charge density of pectin on the complex formation between pectin and beta-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, Bram L. H. M.; Schols, Henk A.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The complex formation between beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) and pectin is studied using pectins with different physicochemical characteristics. Pectin allows for the control of both the overall charge by degree of methyl-esterification as well as local charge density by the degree of blockiness. Vary

  20. Induction of cell scattering by expression of beta1 integrins in beta1-deficient epithelial cells requires activation of members of the rho family of GTPases and downregulation of cadherin and catenin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimond, C; van Der Flier, A; van Delft, S;

    1999-01-01

    was required for a complete morphological transition towards the spindle-shaped fibroblast-like phenotype. The expression of an interleukin-2 receptor (IL2R)-beta1A chimera and its incorporation into focal adhesions also induced the disruption of cadherin-based adhesions and the reorganization of ECM......Adhesion receptors, which connect cells to each other and to the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), play a crucial role in the control of tissue structure and of morphogenesis. In this work, we have studied how intercellular adhesion molecules and beta1 integrins influence each other using two......-catenin protein levels accompanied by their redistribution from the cytoskeleton-associated fraction to the detergent-soluble fraction. Regulation of alpha-catenin protein levels by beta1 integrins is likely to play a role in the morphological transition, since overexpression of alpha-catenin in GE11 cells before...