WorldWideScience

Sample records for allowance for funds used during construction

  1. 18 CFR 367.4320 - Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction-Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4320 Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction—Credit. This...

  2. Estimating Required Contingency Funds for Construction Projects using Multiple Linear Regression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Jason J

    2006-01-01

    Cost overruns are a critical problem for construction projects. The common practice for dealing with cost overruns is the assignment of an arbitrary flat percentage of the construction budget as a contingency fund...

  3. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road...

  4. 7 CFR 247.25 - Allowable uses of administrative funds and other funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subgrantees must comply with part 3019 of this title. State and local agencies may use procurement procedures... authority regarding the settlement of all contractual and administrative issues arising out of procurements... administrative funds provided to State and local agencies? Administrative funds may be used for costs that are...

  5. Notification: EPA Region 10 Management Controls Over Allowing Substantial Public Funds to Construct the Spokane County Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    January 20, 2012. This EPA's OIG is initiating a review from an OIG hotline complaint regarding whether federal funds were properly used to construct the new Spokane County wastewater treatment facility in accordance with 40 CFR 35, Subpart K.

  6. 25 CFR 170.404 - What happens when a tribe uses its IRR Program construction funds for transportation planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.404 What happens when a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when a tribe uses its IRR Program construction funds for transportation planning? 170.404 Section 170.404 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS...

  7. 42 CFR 413.149 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets... SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Capital-Related Costs § 413.149 Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. (a) Principle. Depreciation is allowed on assets financed...

  8. 13 CFR 305.6 - Allowable methods of procurement for construction services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable methods of procurement for construction services. 305.6 Section 305.6 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... advertisement for bids and shall include the following, as applicable: (1) Justification for the proposed method...

  9. Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seter, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

  10. Design and Construction for Community Health Service Precision Fund Appropriation System Based on Performance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing; He, Yao; Hu, Hongpu

    2017-01-01

    Allowing for the differences in economy development, informatization degree and characteristic of population served and so on among different community health service organizations, community health service precision fund appropriation system based on performance management is designed, which can provide support for the government to appropriate financial funds scientifically and rationally for primary care. The system has the characteristic of flexibility and practicability, in which there are five subsystems including data acquisition, parameter setting, fund appropriation, statistical analysis system and user management.

  11. Characterization of PM-PEMS for in-use measurements conducted during validation testing for the PM-PEMS measurement allowance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Yusuf; Johnson, Kent C.; Durbin, Thomas D.; Jung, Heejung; Cocker, David R.; Bishnu, Dipak; Giannelli, Robert

    2012-08-01

    This study provides an evaluation of the latest Particulate Matter-Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS) under different environmental and in-use conditions. It characterizes four PM measurement systems based on different measurement principles. At least three different units were tested for each PM-PEMS to account for variability. These PM-PEMS were compared with a UC Riverside's mobile reference laboratory (MEL). PM measurements were made from a class 8 truck with a 2008 Cummins diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). A bypass around the DPF was installed in the exhaust to achieve a brake specific PM (bsPM) emissions level of 25 mg hp-1h-1. PM was dominated by elemental carbon (EC) during non-regeneration conditions and by hydrated sulfate (H2SO4.6H2O) during regeneration. The photo-acoustic PM-PEMS performed best, with a linear regression slope of 0.90 and R2 of 0.88 during non-regenerative conditions. With the addition of a filter, the photo-acoustic PM-PEMS slightly over reported than the total PM mass (slope = 1.10, R2 = 0.87). Under these same non-regeneration conditions, a PM-PEMS equipped with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology performed the poorest, and had a slope of 0.22 and R2 of 0.13. Re-tests performed on upgraded QCM PM-PEMS showed a better slope (0.66), and a higher R2 of 0.25. In the case of DPF regeneration, all PM-PEMS performed poorly, with the best having a slope of 0.20 and R2 of 0.78. Particle size distributions (PSD) showed nucleation during regeneration, with a shift of particle size to smaller diameters (˜64 nm to ˜13 nm) with elevated number concentrations when compared to non-regeneration conditions.

  12. 25 CFR 47.11 - Can these funds be used as matching funds for other Federal programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.11 Can these funds be used as matching funds for other Federal programs? A Bureau-operated school may use funds that it receives under...

  13. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  14. Calculation of high-rise construction limitations for non-resident housing fund in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliashenko Oksana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to topical issues of urban planning in terms of high-rise construction of a non-resident housing stock in relation to megacities. We consider this issue taking into account the limitations of natural, communal and social resources. The problem is especially acute for the overwhelming majority of the state capitals, as well as cities with historical heritage that are of great interest due to the rapid development of tourism and the high mobility of the population in the world. The growth of the population of many states capitals led to the use of high-rise buildings as a non-resident housing stock. However, there are a number of restrictions on the high-rise construction of non-resident housing stock in megacities. The authors formalize the problem of determining the optimal ratio of the volume of urban buildings belonging to the high-rise buildings types and intended for non-residents to a common housing fund. We conduct economic calculations to determine the quantitative indicators. It can be used as the basis for administrative measures aimed at limiting the people flow arriving with the intention of temporarily deploying in megacities.

  15. Calculation of high-rise construction limitations for non-resident housing fund in megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliashenko, Oksana; Krasnov, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to topical issues of urban planning in terms of high-rise construction of a non-resident housing stock in relation to megacities. We consider this issue taking into account the limitations of natural, communal and social resources. The problem is especially acute for the overwhelming majority of the state capitals, as well as cities with historical heritage that are of great interest due to the rapid development of tourism and the high mobility of the population in the world. The growth of the population of many states capitals led to the use of high-rise buildings as a non-resident housing stock. However, there are a number of restrictions on the high-rise construction of non-resident housing stock in megacities. The authors formalize the problem of determining the optimal ratio of the volume of urban buildings belonging to the high-rise buildings types and intended for non-residents to a common housing fund. We conduct economic calculations to determine the quantitative indicators. It can be used as the basis for administrative measures aimed at limiting the people flow arriving with the intention of temporarily deploying in megacities.

  16. Allowing Spouses to Be Paid Personal Care Providers: Spouse Availability and Effects on Medicaid-Funded Service Use and Expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Robert J.; Kang, Taewoon; Doty, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Medicaid service use and expenditure and quality of care outcomes in California's personal care program known as In-Home Supportive Service (IHSS) are described. Analyses investigated Medicaid expenditures, hospital use, and nursing home stays, comparing recipients who have paid spouse caregivers with those having other…

  17. Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, Sina; Jeffery, Nick D; Shivapour, Sara K; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Zylstra, Tyler J; Bratsch-Prince, Joshua; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Fredericks, Douglas C; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a novel intradural spinal cord (SC) stimulator designed to improve the treatment of intractable pain and the sequelae of SC injury. In-vivo ovine models of neuropathic pain and moderate SC injury are being implemented for pre-clinical evaluations of this device, to be carried out via gait analysis before and after induction of the relevant condition. We extend previous studies on other quadrupeds to extract the three-dimensional kinematics of the limbs over the gait cycle of sheep walking on a treadmill. Quantitative measures of thoracic and pelvic limb movements were obtained from 17 animals. We calculated the total-error values to define the analytical performance of our motion capture system for these kinematic variables. The post- vs. pre-injury time delay between contralateral thoracic and pelvic-limb steps for normal and SC-injured sheep increased by ~24s over 100 steps. The pelvic limb hoof velocity during swing phase decreased, while range of pelvic hoof elevation and distance between lateral pelvic hoof placements increased after SC injury. The kinematics measures in a single SC-injured sheep can be objectively defined as changed from the corresponding pre-injury values, implying utility of this method to assess new neuromodulation strategies for specific deficits exhibited by an individual. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminbakhsh, Saman; Gunduz, Murat; Sonmez, Rifat

    2013-09-01

    The inherent and unique risks on construction projects quite often present key challenges to contractors. Health and safety risks are among the most significant risks in construction projects since the construction industry is characterized by a relatively high injury and death rate compared to other industries. In construction project management, safety risk assessment is an important step toward identifying potential hazards and evaluating the risks associated with the hazards. Adequate prioritization of safety risks during risk assessment is crucial for planning, budgeting, and management of safety related risks. In this paper, a safety risk assessment framework is presented based on the theory of cost of safety (COS) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The main contribution of the proposed framework is that it presents a robust method for prioritization of safety risks in construction projects to create a rational budget and to set realistic goals without compromising safety. The framework provides a decision tool for the decision makers to determine the adequate accident/injury prevention investments while considering the funding limits. The proposed safety risk framework is illustrated using a real-life construction project and the advantages and limitations of the framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Funding knowledgebases: Towards a sustainable funding model for the UniProt use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabella, Chiara; Durinx, Christine; Appel, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Millions of life scientists across the world rely on bioinformatics data resources for their research projects. Data resources can be very expensive, especially those with a high added value as the expert-curated knowledgebases. Despite the increasing need for such highly accurate and reliable sources of scientific information, most of them do not have secured funding over the near future and often depend on short-term grants that are much shorter than their planning horizon. Additionally, they are often evaluated as research projects rather than as research infrastructure components. In this work, twelve funding models for data resources are described and applied on the case study of the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), a key resource for protein sequences and functional information knowledge. We show that most of the models present inconsistencies with open access or equity policies, and that while some models do not allow to cover the total costs, they could potentially be used as a complementary income source. We propose the Infrastructure Model as a sustainable and equitable model for all core data resources in the life sciences. With this model, funding agencies would set aside a fixed percentage of their research grant volumes, which would subsequently be redistributed to core data resources according to well-defined selection criteria. This model, compatible with the principles of open science, is in agreement with several international initiatives such as the Human Frontiers Science Program Organisation (HFSPO) and the OECD Global Science Forum (GSF) project. Here, we have estimated that less than 1% of the total amount dedicated to research grants in the life sciences would be sufficient to cover the costs of the core data resources worldwide, including both knowledgebases and deposition databases. PMID:29333230

  20. Funding knowledgebases: Towards a sustainable funding model for the UniProt use case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabella, Chiara; Durinx, Christine; Appel, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Millions of life scientists across the world rely on bioinformatics data resources for their research projects. Data resources can be very expensive, especially those with a high added value as the expert-curated knowledgebases. Despite the increasing need for such highly accurate and reliable sources of scientific information, most of them do not have secured funding over the near future and often depend on short-term grants that are much shorter than their planning horizon. Additionally, they are often evaluated as research projects rather than as research infrastructure components. In this work, twelve funding models for data resources are described and applied on the case study of the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), a key resource for protein sequences and functional information knowledge. We show that most of the models present inconsistencies with open access or equity policies, and that while some models do not allow to cover the total costs, they could potentially be used as a complementary income source. We propose the Infrastructure Model as a sustainable and equitable model for all core data resources in the life sciences. With this model, funding agencies would set aside a fixed percentage of their research grant volumes, which would subsequently be redistributed to core data resources according to well-defined selection criteria. This model, compatible with the principles of open science, is in agreement with several international initiatives such as the Human Frontiers Science Program Organisation (HFSPO) and the OECD Global Science Forum (GSF) project. Here, we have estimated that less than 1% of the total amount dedicated to research grants in the life sciences would be sufficient to cover the costs of the core data resources worldwide, including both knowledgebases and deposition databases.

  1. 44 CFR 208.26 - Accountability for use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accountability for use of funds. 208.26 Section 208.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.26 Accountability for use of funds. The Sponsoring Agency is...

  2. 34 CFR 75.532 - Use of funds for religion prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds for religion prohibited. 75.532 Section 75.532 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.532 Use of funds for religion prohibited. (a) No grantee...

  3. 34 CFR 76.532 - Use of funds for religion prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds for religion prohibited. 76.532 Section 76.532 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.532 Use of funds for religion...

  4. Quality during construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines the quality assurance program used by Bechtel Corp. in constructing Nuclear Power Plants. As a tool for scheduling and visualizing situations during construction, power plant scale models are used. The use of models, preplanning, detail scheduling, and early development of procedures and inspection plans, have all contributed to a lower cost integrated quality program. Quality control and quality assurance are built in, thus satisfying the regulatory requirements

  5. Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…

  6. EFFICIENCY OF INDONESIA’S MUTUAL FUNDS DURING 2007-2011 BY USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Hendrawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to assess the efficiency of mutual funds in Indonesia during the period 2007to 2011. To measure their efficiencies, the output-input data consisting of a panel of 105 mutual funds thatconsisted of 29 equity mutual funds, 38 balanced mutual funds and 39 fixed mutual funds were empiricallyexamined based on the most commonly used non-parametric approach, namely, Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA. The study found that based on the average score in during 2007 – 2011 performance of equity mutualfund Commonwealth Life Investra Equity had the highest index score, meanwhile Trimegah - trim capital wasthe lowest, performance of balanced mutual fund Reksa Dana CIMB-principal Dollar had the highest indexscore, meanwhile first State Indonesian Multistrategy was the lowest. Performance of equity mutual fund BrentDana Tetap had the highest index score, meanwhile stable debenture fund had the lowest one.

  7. Using Indigenous Materials for Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    block, lime, gypsum, natural pozzolans, biomass ash, vegetable fibers (and their fabrics/ropes), straw, bamboo, tree trunks/stems/leaves, corrugated...overcome the size limitation and numerical convergence, the finite element model was developed using multi-layered shell elements (unlike the...elements was used in finite element modeling of the sandwich composite panel. Shell elements were used in the case of the building system in order to

  8. Allowable peak heat-up cladding temperature for spent fuel integrity during interim-dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate allowable peak cladding temperature and hoop stress for maintenance of cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport, zirconium alloy cladding tubes were hydrogen-charged to generate 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen contents, simulating spent nuclear fuel degradation. The hydrogen-charged specimens were heated to four peak temperatures of 250°C, 300°C, 350°C, and 400°C, and then cooled to room temperature at cooling rates of 0.3 °C/min under three tensile hoop stresses of 80 MPa, 100 MPa, and 120 MPa. The cool-down specimens showed that high peak heat-up temperature led to lower hydrogen content and that larger tensile hoop stress generated larger radial hydride fraction and consequently lower plastic elongation. Based on these out-of-pile cladding tube test results only, it may be said that peak cladding temperature should be limited to a level < 250°C, regardless of the cladding hoop stress, to ensure cladding integrity during interim-dry storage and subsequent transport.

  9. Study of a pipe-scanning robot for use in post-construction evaluation during horizontal directional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Trenchless Technology has become an increasingly popular underground utility construction method, beginning in : the early 1900s with pipe jacking beneath railroad lines. One method, horizontal directional drilling (HDD), became : more common in the ...

  10. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  11. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, railroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. Emphasis is given to new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. Building designers are provided with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and to evaluate the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. It is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  12. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  13. Risk analytics for hedge funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Ankur

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  14. Funding knowledgebases: Towards a sustainable funding model for the UniProt use case [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Gabella

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Millions of life scientists across the world rely on bioinformatics data resources for their research projects. Data resources can be very expensive, especially those with a high added value as the expert-curated knowledgebases. Despite the increasing need for such highly accurate and reliable sources of scientific information, most of them do not have secured funding over the near future and often depend on short-term grants that are much shorter than their planning horizon. Additionally, they are often evaluated as research projects rather than as research infrastructure components. In this work, twelve funding models for data resources are described and applied on the case study of the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt, a key resource for protein sequences and functional information knowledge. We show that most of the models present inconsistencies with open access or equity policies, and that while some models do not allow to cover the total costs, they could potentially be used as a complementary income source. We propose the Infrastructure Model as a sustainable and equitable model for all core data resources in the life sciences. With this model, funding agencies would set aside a fixed percentage of their research grant volumes, which would subsequently be redistributed to core data resources according to well-defined selection criteria. This model, compatible with the principles of open science, is in agreement with several international initiatives such as the Human Frontiers Science Program Organisation (HFSPO and the OECD Global Science Forum (GSF project. Here, we have estimated that less than 1% of the total amount dedicated to research grants in the life sciences would be sufficient to cover the costs of the core data resources worldwide, including both knowledgebases and deposition databases.

  15. Funding knowledgebases: Towards a sustainable funding model for the UniProt use case [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Gabella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of life scientists across the world rely on bioinformatics data resources for their research projects. Data resources can be very expensive, especially those with a high added value as the expert-curated knowledgebases. Despite the increasing need for such highly accurate and reliable sources of scientific information, most of them do not have secured funding over the near future and often depend on short-term grants that are much shorter than their planning horizon. Additionally, they are often evaluated as research projects rather than as research infrastructure components. In this work, twelve funding models for data resources are described and applied on the case study of the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt, a key resource for protein sequences and functional information knowledge. We show that most of the models present inconsistencies with open access or equity policies, and that while some models do not allow to cover the total costs, they could potentially be used as a complementary income source. We propose the Infrastructure Model as a sustainable and equitable model for all core data resources in the life sciences. With this model, funding agencies would set aside a fixed percentage of their research grant volumes, which would subsequently be redistributed to core data resources according to well-defined selection criteria. This model, compatible with the principles of open science, is in agreement with several international initiatives such as the Human Frontiers Science Program Organisation (HFSPO and the OECD Global Science Forum (GSF project. Here, we have estimated that less than 1% of the total amount dedicated to research grants in the life sciences would be sufficient to cover the costs of the core data resources worldwide, including both knowledgebases and deposition databases.

  16. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  17. 30 CFR 886.12 - What can I use grant funds for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Tribal share funds as in § 872.19 of this chapter; historic coal funds as in § 872.23 of this chapter; minimum program make up funds as in § 872.28 of this chapter; prior balance replacement funds as in § 872... rights associated with the land, for up to 90 percent of the costs. (e) You may use grant funds only for...

  18. Rethinking Sponge Bob and Ninja Turtles: Popular Culture as Funds of Knowledge for Curriculum Co-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Children's interest in popular culture was clear in my study of interests-based curriculum. Yet, perhaps unsurprisingly, it was a contentious site of curriculum co-construction. This article explores this tension. It argues that interpreting popular culture as "funds of knowledge" might assist teachers to consider a different view of this interest…

  19. On Obtaining Design Allowables for Adhesives Used in the Bonded-Composite Repair of Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalkley, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A technique is documented, along with its experimental validation, for obtaining engineering-standard design allowables for structural adhesives used in the bonded/composite repair of aircraft structure...

  20. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds to... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs...

  1. Use of Constructed-Response Questions to Support Learning of Cell Biology during Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong May Yeong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of class-response systems such as the Clickers to promote active-learning during lectures has been wide-spread. However, the often-used MCQ format in class activities as well as in assessments for large classes might lower students’ expectations and attitudes towards learning. Here, I describe my experience converting MCQs to constructed-response questions for in-class learning activities by removing cues from the MCQs. From the responses submitted, students seemed capable of providing answers without the need for cues. Using class-response systems such as Socrative for such constructed-response questions could be useful to challenge students to express their ideas in their own words. Moreover, by constructing their own answers, mis-conceptions could be revealed and corrected in a timely manner.

  2. Shifting investments strategy from equity funds to money market funds – the case of Romanian open - end fund market during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds are one of the key suppliers of liquidity in Romanian capital market. This paper uses quarterly data on Romanian open-end funds starting with 2006 until 2010. We find that significant negative flows (outflows were registered beginning with the end of 2007 (equity funds, during 2008 (equity funds, balanced funds, other funds and bond funds in the last 2 quarters of the year and from 2009 to 2010 (in the case of money market funds. There is evidence that the changing market conditions attract differently the incoming flows in these mutual funds. This is the reason why such perturbations affect investors’ confidence for these investment vehicles and impose the reorientation of the investment funds and of their investors to other alternatives in order to preserve their capital.

  3. 32 CFR 37.685 - May I allow for-profit firms to purchase real property and equipment with project funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property and equipment with project funds? 37.685 Section 37.685 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 37.685 May I...

  4. Fair fund distribution for a municipal incinerator using GIS-based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chen, Ho-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Burning municipal solid waste (MSW) can generate energy and reduce the waste volume, which delivers benefits to society through resources conservation. But current practices by society are not sustainable because the associated environmental impacts of waste incineration on urbanized regions have been a long-standing concern in local communities. Public reluctance with regard to accepting the incinerators as typical utilities often results in an intensive debate concerning how much welfare is lost for those residents living in the vicinity of those incinerators. As the measure of welfare change with respect to environmental quality constraints nearby these incinerators remains critical, new arguments related to how to allocate the fair fund among affected communities became a focal point in environmental management. Given the fact that most County fair fund rules allow a great deal of flexibility for redistribution, little is known about what type of methodology may be a good fit to determine the distribution of such a fair fund under uncertainty. This paper purports to demonstrate a system-based approach that helps any fair fund distribution, which is made with respect to residents' possible claim for fair damages due to the installation of a new incinerator. Holding a case study using integrated geographic information system (GIS) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) for finding out the most appropriate distribution strategy between two neighboring towns in Taipei County, Taiwan demonstrates the application potential. Participants in determining the use of a fair fund also follow a highly democratic procedure where all stakeholders involved eventually express a high level of satisfaction with the results facilitating the final decision making process. It ensures that plans for the distribution of such a fair fund were carefully thought out and justified with a multi-faceted nature that covers political, socio-economic, technical, environmental, public

  5. Funding strategies for wilderness management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Alkire

    2000-01-01

    Funding wilderness protection will continue to be a challenge for public land managers. With continuing competition for federal funds and balanced budget goals, other sources of funds may be necessary to supplement annual federal appropriations. This paper identifies and evaluates five potential funding strategies and provides examples of each that are currently in use...

  6. 45 CFR 402.12 - Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred Prior to October 1, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred Prior to... STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT ASSISTANCE GRANTS Use of Funds § 402.12 Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred... funds provided under this part of costs incurred prior to October 1, 1987. (b) A State may use funds...

  7. Characterization of nanoparticles released during construction of photocatalytic pavements using engineered nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, Heather; Hassan, Marwa M.

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing use of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles in self-cleaning materials such as photocatalytic concrete pavements, the release of nanoparticles into the environment is inevitable. Nanoparticle concentration, particle size, surface area, elemental composition, and surface morphology are pertinent to determine the associated risks. In this study, the potential of exposure to synthetic nanoparticles released during construction activities for application of photocatalytic pavements was measured during laboratory-simulated construction activities of photocatalytic mortar overlays and in an actual field application of photocatalytic spray coat. A scanning mobility particle sizer system measured the size distribution of nanoparticles released during laboratory and field activities. Since incidental nanoparticles are released during construction activities, nanoparticle emissions were compared to those from similar activities without nano-TiO 2 . Nanoparticle counts and size distribution suggest that synthetic nanoparticles are released during application of photocatalytic pavements. In order to identify the nanoparticle source, nanoparticles were also collected for offline characterization using transmission electron microscopy. However, positive identification of synthetic nanoparticles was not possible due to difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images. As a result, further research is recommended to identify nanoparticle composition and sources.

  8. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance of DoD contracts; (2) Existing facilities, either Government or nongovernment, cannot meet program... effort which results in the special use allowance being excessive compared to the Government research... Defense contracts. FAR 31.3 governs how much the Government will reimburse the institution for the...

  9. Directed funding to address under-provision of treatment for substance use disorders: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Trafton, Jodie; Wallace, Amy; Neuman, Matthew; Pizer, Steven

    2013-07-18

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a substantial problem in the United States (U.S.), affecting far more people than receive treatment. This is true broadly and within the U.S. military veteran population, which is our focus. To increase funding for treatment, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has implemented several initiatives over the past decade to direct funds toward SUD treatment, supplementing the unrestricted funds VA medical centers receive. We study the 'flypaper effect' or the extent to which these directed funds have actually increased SUD treatment spending. The study sample included all VA facilities and used observational data spanning years 2002 to 2010. Data were analyzed with a fixed effects, ordinary least squares specification with monetized workload as the dependent variable and funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics the key dependent variable, controlling for unrestricted funding. We observed different effects of dedicated SUD specialty clinic funding over the period 2002 to 2008 versus 2009 to 2010. In the earlier period, there is no evidence of a significant portion of the dedicated funding sticking to its target. In the later period, a substantial proportion--38% in 2009 and 61% in 2010--of funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics did translate into increased medical center spending for SUD treatment. In comparison, only five cents of every dollar of unrestricted funding is spent on SUD treatment. Relative to unrestricted funding, dedicated funding for SUD treatment was much more effective in increasing workload, but only in years 2009 and 2010. The differences in those years relative to prior ones may be due to the observed management focus on SUD and SUD-related treatment in the later years. If true, this suggests that in a centrally directed healthcare organization such as the VA, funding dedicated to a service is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for increasing resources expended for that service.

  10. Poland - Electricity and gas marked development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Practical guidelines for using EU funds for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The present report is prepared as part of the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU - funds'. The EU structural and cohesion funds are presently considered the most relevant funds concerning support to energy projects. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly decentralized. The eligible project types to be supported from the various structural funds are described in a number of sector programmes. The sector programmes are described in vertical view, meaning that it is difficult to assess what kind of energy projects are eligible for support and, if eligible, then under which programme. This report presents a horizontal view of the various programmes in order to give an overview of the possibilities of support to energy related projects. The background for this report is a study of the following sector programmes: 1. Improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises. 2. Human resources development. 3. Restructuring and modernization of food sector and rural development. 4. Fisheries and fish processing. 5. Transport - maritime economy. 6. Integrated regional operational programme. 7. Technical assistance. Based on this review, it can be stated that energy projects in general have a low priority but can be supported under various measures within the programmes. (BA)

  11. 25 CFR 170.403 - What IRR Program funds can be used for transportation planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.403 What IRR Program funds can be used for transportation... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR Program funds can be used for transportation planning? 170.403 Section 170.403 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND...

  12. An outline of the bibliometric indicator used for performancebased funding of research institutions in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all...

  13. Supervision of tunnelling constructions and software used for their evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanas, Aristotelis; Hilar, Matous

    2017-09-01

    Supervision is a common instrument for controlling constructions of tunnels. In order to suit relevant project’s purposes a supervision procedure is modified by local conditions, habits, codes and ways of allocating of a particular tunnelling project. The duties of tunnel supervision are specified in an agreement with the client and they can include a wide range of activities. On large scale tunnelling projects the supervision tasks are performed by a high number of people of different professions. Teamwork, smooth communication and coordination are required in order to successfully fulfil supervision tasks. The efficiency and quality of tunnel supervision work are enhanced when specialized software applications are used. Such applications should allow on-line data management and the prompt evaluation, reporting and sharing of relevant construction information and other aspects. The client is provided with an as-built database that contains all the relevant information related to a construction process, which is a valuable tool for the claim management as well as for the evaluation of structure defects that can occur in the future. As a result, the level of risks related to tunnel constructions is decreased.

  14. From Compassionate Conservatism to Obamacare: Funding for the Ryan White Program During the Obama Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, William; Pund, Britten; Khatiashvili, Giorgi

    2016-11-01

    To examine President Obama's fiscal commitment to the Ryan White Program (formerly Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resource Emergency Act), which provides funding for economically disadvantaged people and families affected by HIV. We analyzed budgetary request and congressional appropriation data from 2009 to 2016. The data are available from the Health Resources and Services Administration and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Increased coverage for people living with HIV/AIDS provided by the Affordable Care Act most likely led the Obama administration to request small increases and at times decreases in funding for the Ryan White Program. Congress passed either small increases or decreases in appropriations for the Ryan White Program. Decreases or small increases in the Ryan White Program funding risk progress made in treating HIV among economically disadvantaged patients.

  15. Rental fees for using the non-residential funds of the municipal fisc and factors of its growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul’ R. Yarullin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the theoretical bases of forming the rent fees for nonresidential funds which constitute the fisc of Ufa municipality and to identify the opportunities of revenues increase from its use. Methods abstractlogical dialectical comparative systematic and structural economic analysis and synthesis. Results the content is disclosed of the rental fees of nonresidential funds constituting the municipal fisc as a cash payment of compensatory and equivalent character for the use of the municipality fisc the necessity is grounded of increasing the budget effectiveness of the municipal nonresidential facilities rent which consists in the proper use of rental fees for maintenance investments in the renovation and construction of nonresidential facilities the availability of funds for their financing and the lack of growth in rents above the economically viable threshold the factors are analyzed which determine the budget revenues from rent affecting the fiscal efficiency of nonresidential facilities rent in Ufa city a number of problematic issues were identified of systemic character reduction of the number of rent contracts reduction of the rented space an excessive amount of the reduced rent arrears of tenants on rents insufficient quality of the information management system ways are propose to improve the budget efficiency and profitability of the nonresidential rent consisting in the transition of nonresidential buildings and premises which are in economic conducting or in operational administration or are unused unregistered into the rent regime with the establishment of feasible rental fees expanding the number of premises the rental fee for the use of which is determined by bidding reduction of benefits to commercial organizations for the rent payment providing full and timely transfer of the arrears from tenants to the budget acceleration of the formation of the automated system for mass valuation of real estate allowing to

  16. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  17. Methodology for construction compliance monitoring in the crediting of investment projects for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaynshtok, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    The article provides the results of development of the methodology for construction compliance monitoring in the crediting of investment projects for road construction. Work scope analysis of construction audit was conducted and an algorithm of financial audit in the crediting investment projects was developed. Furthermore, the possible pitfalls and abuses of counterparties were investigated and recommendations were given allowing the bank to receive objective and independent information on the progress of the project in real time. This mechanism is useful for the bank in insurance of possible risks, targeted and rational use of credit funds.

  18. Field and laboratory test methods for geomembranes during waste management facility construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.R.; McCutchan, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous waste management facilities are required to use approved lining and leak detection systems to prevent the migration of waste into the environment. Synthetic flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have effectively served as the critical barrier for waste containment and fluid migration. The U.S. EPA has established minimum technology requirements for the construction of lined facilities that include detailed and documented Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) plans. The U.S. EPA (EPA) recognizes that CQA during field construction is imperative for successful completion of project work and long-term facility operation. This paper discusses the importance of CQA during FML installation and the practical aspects of implementing a successful CQA program. Standard methods used for FML evaluation, in both the field and laboratory, are discussed and specific aspects of seam testing and data evaluation are addressed. The general importance of comprehensive definition of geomembrane seam field failures is strongly emphasized so that an appropriate response to test failures can be recommended

  19. Streamlined project closeout for construction at KYTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Project closeout is the period between the end of construction and when a contract is finalized. During closeout, resources are held in encumbered funds intended for the project and in the contractors bonding capacity. Although the Kentucky Transp...

  20. Reindeer habitat use in relation to two small wind farms, during preconstruction, construction, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Anna; Alam, Moudud

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide there is a rush toward wind power development and its associated infrastructure. In Fennoscandia, large-scale wind farms comprising several hundred windmills are currently built in important grazing ranges used for Sámi reindeer husbandry. In this study, reindeer habitat use was assessed using reindeer fecal pellet group counts in relation to two relatively small wind farms, with 8 and 10 turbines, respectively. In 2009, 1,315 15-m 2 plots were established and pellet groups were counted and cleaned from the plots. This was repeated once a year in May, during preconstruction, construction, and operation of the wind farms, covering 6 years (2009-2014) of reindeer habitat use in the area. We modeled the presence/absence of any pellets in a plot at both the local (wind farm site) and regional (reindeer calving to autumn range) scale with a hierarchical logistic regression, where spatial correlation was accounted for via random effects, using vegetation type, and the interaction between distance to wind turbine and time period as predictor variables. Our results revealed an absolute reduction in pellet groups by 66% and 86% around each wind farm, respectively, at local scale and by 61% at regional scale during the operation phase compared to the preconstruction phase. At the regional, scale habitat use declined close to the turbines in the same comparison. However, at the local scale, we observed increased habitat use close to the wind turbines at one of the wind farms during the operation phase. This may be explained by continued use of an important migration route close to the wind farm. The reduced use at the regional scale nevertheless suggests that there may be an overall avoidance of both wind farms during operation, but further studies of reindeer movement and behavior are needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind this suggested avoidance.

  1. Surface facilities for geological deep repositories - Measures against dangers during construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the measures that are to be taken to address the dangers encountered during the construction and operation of deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes. Firstly, the operation of such repositories during the emplacement of nuclear wastes is discussed and examples of possible repositories for fuel rods and highly-radioactive waste are presented. Various emission-protection issues and safety measures to be taken during construction of such repositories are looked at as is the protection of ground water. Safety considerations during the operational phase are discussed, including inclusion methods used for the wastes and radiation protection. The handling of radioactive wastes, the recognition of dangers and measures to be taken to counteract them are discussed. Various possible accidents are looked at

  2. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  3. Financing Nonappropriated Fund (NAF) Major Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-09

    7-3 7.4 Market Analysis -Delta ...................... 7- 7.4.1 Franchisors ............................. 7-8 7.4.2 Owner-Operators...oojectives. Face-to-face conversations and telephone interviews were used to collect results. Companies were categorized in seven types: franchisors , owner...Attracting quality developers, franchisors , and concessionaires will depend in part on how well the Army can show its ability to uphold and enhance the

  4. Using of science technologies for mining machinery constructions' strength improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, E. V.; Mehtiev, A. D.; Yugai, V. V.; Bulatbayev, F. N.

    2015-04-01

    Recommendations for strengthening the brake construction in accident dangerous areas of fatigue destruction were developed. Computer modeling was made using the ANSYS program that helps to visualize stained condition of the construction for further practical testing of the strength and reliability improving technology of mining elevating machines' constructions, which are being in a long-term use, with a help of the strengthening elements. A way of construction strengthening, which eliminates the possibility of further fatigue destruction of the brake system elements, because of the load cycle in exploitation process.

  5. Quality assurance during site construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymess, K.J.; Haas, R.; Wellnitz, G.

    1980-01-01

    Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants under consideration of pipe assembling. Flow of Quality Requirements during: - Desing - Construction - Procurement - Prefabrication - Site. Organizational Requirements and Measurements during Erection: - Incoming Control - Material Storage - Surveillance of Tools - Weld Surveillance - Nondestructive Testing - Cleaning - Final Documentation. Qualification and Training of QA Personnel. (orig.)

  6. Surfaces allowing for fractional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, Charilaos.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we give a necessary condition in order for a geometrical surface to allow for Abelian fractional statistics. In particular, we show that such statistics is possible only for two-dimentional oriented surfaces of genus zero, namely the sphere S 2 , the plane R 2 and the cylindrical surface R 1 *S 1 , and in general the connected sum of n planes R 2 -R 2 -R 2 -...-R 2 . (Author)

  7. Algorithms for computerized test construction using classical item parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Jos J.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, linear programming models for test construction were developed. These models were based on the information function from item response theory. In this paper another approach is followed. Two 0-1 linear programming models for the construction of tests using classical item and test

  8. Use of polymer concrete for construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtanoski, Gligorche; Dukovski, Vladimir; Yamaguchi, Kitazumi

    2002-01-01

    Polymer concrete (PC), or resin concrete, consists of a polymer binder, which may be a thermoplastic but more frequently is a thermosetting polymer, and a mineral filler such as aggregate, gravel and crushed stone. PC has higher strength, greater resistance to chemicals and corrosive agents, lower water absorption and higher freeze-thaw stability than the conventional Portland cement concrete and Cast Iron. This paper is a review of the key features of PC materials as a bases for comparison with the cast iron. (Original)

  9. 47 CFR 400.7 - Eligible uses for grant funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT... of Phase II E-911 services, for the acquisition and deployment of hardware and software to enable the...

  10. Use of Ibovespa Future Contracts for Pension Funds in Brazil: a sectorial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Melo Teixeira da Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pension Funds must be dealt with better management strategies. This work aimed to analyze the risk of  Pension Funds with and without Ibovespa futures contracts and to evaluate the gains obtained in the return/risk relation using the sectorial approach proposed. The levels of use of futures contracts that would allow optimum hedge were obtained using the co-integration models, and the risk, represented by the Value-at-risk (VaR was obtained via conditional volatility models. The mean daily return of the hedge strategies drops, compared to the strategy without hedge. However, this drop is relatively small, compared to the drop of the risk offered by the use of the Ibovespa futures contracts. The results found indicated that a dynamic management, based on a sectorial monitoring of the assets that compose a particular investment portfolio improves its performance, considerably reducing the level of risk attained.

  11. 25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the IRRTIP...

  12. Regularities of dust formation during stone cutting for construction works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Lebedev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When cutting stone, a large amount of dust release, which is a mixture of small, mostly sharp, mineral particles. Shallow dry dust with inhalation causes the pathological changes in organs that are a consequence of infiltration of acute and solids particles. Despite the importance of this problem, the questions of dust generation during the various working processes and its fractions distribution are practically not considered. This determines the time of dust standing in the air and its negative impact on a person. Aim: The aim of this research is to study the process of dusting during stones cutting and dust distribution on fractions regularities and quantification of dust formation process in order to improve the production equipment, staff individual and collective safety equipment. Materials and Methods: Many types of cutting can be divided into two types - a “dry” cutting and cutting with fluid. During “dry” cutting a dust represents a set of micro-chips which are cut off by the abrasive grains. The size of such chips very small: from a micrometer to a few micrometers fraction. Thus, the size of chips causes the possibility of creating dust slurry with low fall velocity, and which is located in the working space in large concentrations. Results: The following characteristic dependences were obtained as a result of research: dependence of the dust fall from the size of the dust particles, size of dust particles from minute feeding and grain range wheel, the specific amount of dust from the number of grit abrasive wheel and the temperature of the dust particles from the feeding at wheel turnover. It was shown that the distribution of chips (dust by size will request of a normal distribution low. Dimensions of chips during cut are in the range of 0.4...6 μm. Thus, dust slurry is formed with time of particles fall of several hours. This creates considerable minute dust concentration - within 0.28∙10^8...1.68∙10^8 units/m3.

  13. ISSUES IN ACHIEVING TARGETED FUNDING FOR LEADING SCIENTISTS AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITIES USING INDEXES OF PUBLICATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kurakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the competitiveness of the Russian scientific-technological complex in the global environment, it is planned to increase competition through State funding, spent on research and development. This will allow the focus of investment resources on the most perspective ideas and projects of the most efficient scientists, communities and organisations. The article suggests that we will witness the widening of competitive forms of funding against the simultaneous and gradual cuts in the share of financing through State contracts.One of the key criteria for evaluating the competency of team leaders and research applicants for State funding are measuring those who have «achieved high scientific results in concrete field of science», as a scientometric indicator, characterising their publication activity and citation rating.The article provides evidence showing that evaluation of individual scientists and whole scientific communities based on their publication activity indicators and impact is limited and challenges the ability for targeted funding and transparency in the selection process for executive projects.

  14. 38 CFR 17.352 - Amounts and use of grant funds for the replacement and upgrading of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... funds for the replacement and upgrading of equipment. 17.352 Section 17.352 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Amounts and use of grant funds for the replacement and upgrading of equipment. Grants awarded under § 17... States for the purpose. Funds appropriated for the upgrading and replacement of equipment at the Veterans...

  15. Ready to Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone & Cartilage Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    scaffold by laying down small droplets of the liquid 90% poly-caprolactone (PCL) and 10% hydroxyapatite (HA) by weight using a 25 G needle. The resulting...Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0933 TITLE: Ready to Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone & Cartilage Trauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Francis Y...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ready to Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone & Cartilage Trauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0933 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. 42 CFR 59.9 - For what purpose may grant funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false For what purpose may grant funds be used? 59.9 Section 59.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.9 For what purpose may...

  17. 25 CFR 39.505 - What are the reporting requirements for the use of the contingency fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contingency fund? 39.505 Section 39.505 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.505 What are the reporting requirements for the use of the contingency fund? (a) At the end of each fiscal year, Bureau/OIEP shall send an...

  18. Specification of properties and design allowables for copper alloys used in HHF components of ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinin, G.M.; Fabritziev, S.A.; Singh, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    CrZr and CuAl25 are not yet fully characterised. The performed R&D gives a basis for the specification of physical and mechanical properties required for the design analysis in accordance with the ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). For both CuCrZr-IG and CuAl25-IG alloys......Two types of copper alloys, precipitation hardened (PH) Cu (CuCrZr-IG) and dispersion strengthened (DS) Cu (CuAl25-IG), are proposed as heat sink materials for the high heat flux (HHF) components of ITER. However, copper alloys are not included in any national codes, and properties of both Cu......, the statistical evaluation of available experimental data has been used to calculate the temperature dependence of the average value and of the 95% confidence limit of tensile properties. The stress limits, Sm, Se, and Sd, have been estimated on the basis of available data. The procedure used for specification...

  19. 34 CFR 226.23 - May charter schools use grant funds for administrative costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May charter schools use grant funds for administrative... administrative costs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, charter school subgrantees may use... OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES...

  20. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  1. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered. PMID:23112655

  2. VERTICAL PROJECTION EFFICIENCY OF PIVOT POINTS USING ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER DURING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterenok

    2014-01-01

    transfer to mounting horizon using inclined projection in the point with plane coordinates which differ from initial point coordinates within the limits of apparent standard graph area. Such point can be indicated with the help of dot L.E.D. located on standard graph. Its spatial polar and rectangular coordinates on horizontal plane are determined by angular measurements with readings along both bearing circles of the electronic tacheometer and projection height.Production practice and executed experiments have permitted to make the following conclusions: a modern electronic tacheometer equipped with ocular attachment for telescope sighting in the zenith direction can be and must be efficiently applied for vertical point projection of internal geodetic base of a constructed building or a structure. The mentioned device ensures transfer of geodetic base points to mounting horizon not only vertically but also with inclination of a projected beam within sequential visibility of openings in intermediate floors that allows to adapt projection trajectory to specific conditions of its passing.

  3. Construction Example for Algebra System Using Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FangAn Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction example of algebra system is to verify the existence of a complex algebra system, and it is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, to solve this kind of problems, firstly, a mathematical optimization model for construction example of algebra system is established. Secondly, an improved harmony search algorithm based on NGHS algorithm (INGHS is proposed to find as more solutions as possible for the optimization model; in the proposed INGHS algorithm, to achieve the balance between exploration power and exploitation power in the search process, a global best strategy and parameters dynamic adjustment method are present. Finally, nine construction examples of algebra system are used to evaluate the optimization model and performance of INGHS. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has strong performance for solving complex construction example problems of algebra system.

  4. 34 CFR 682.418 - Prohibited uses of the assets of the Operating Fund during periods in which the Operating Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or sports events, meals, alcoholic beverages, lodging, rentals, transportation, and gratuities; (4... Operating Fund balance at the time the expenditures are made, unless the agency has provided written notice... to do so by the Secretary. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1840...

  5. Modelling borders of expediency of use of money funds for ensuring efficiency of marketing activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereshchahіna Hanna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers improvement of methods of determining the limit exceeding which additional attraction of money funds does not ensure efficiency of marketing activity. These methods are based on the use of theoretical approach based on analysis of change of marginal utility. This approach lies in: 1 the use of the correlation-regression analysis of dependency of change of indicators of efficiency of enterprise activity on change of the volume of resources (money funds directed at conduct of marketing activity; and 2 determination of first derivatives (extreme values, if possible of relevant functions. Practical use of the offered methods allows determination of the maximum volume of investments into the marketing activity required for ensuring its efficiency.

  6. Fund Raising for Haiti

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

  7. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock production. 205.603 Section 205.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. In accordance with restrictions specified in this section the following synthetic substances may be used in organic livestock production: (a) As disinfectants, sanitizer, and...

  8. Strain Measurement of Steel Roof Truss Using FBG Sensor during Construction of Reverse Shell Shaped Reinforced Concrete Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Woo [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hong Chul; Seo, Tae Seok [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Application of FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors to measure strain of steel roof trusses has been performed. This is to check and confirm the structural integrity of an unusually shaped, reverse shell structure made of reinforced concrete. The issue was to place sensors at proper location and compare the measured values to the results from structural analysis. It has been learned that a deliberate measurement scheme is needed in order to monitor a complex structure during construction. In this study, the measured values were within allowable range of strain, thus confirming the safety of the structure during measurement and construction.

  9. European Regulatory Framework for Money Market Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Portuese, Aurelien; MacNeil, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Money market funds are widely used by all types of investors, including households, corporate treasurers, pension funds, or insurance companies, who regard money market funds as a ‘safe’ short-term liquid asset class for investing cash. In this case they are proxies to cash deposits. Money market funds are themselves key lenders to issuers of short dated high quality money market instruments. They provide an important source of funding for a variety of institutions such as sovereigns, banks, ...

  10. KT Fund: Five years of funding for impact

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic safety, ion beam therapy, event management for communities, emergency lighting… this year’s applications for funding through the Knowledge Transfer Fund demonstrate the breadth of possible applications of CERN technology beyond high-energy physics.     The use of high index glass spherical targets as retroreflectors for a 3D interferometer is the subject of one of the 2015 KT Fund Projects.   Following the 2015 selection committee held in January, the KT Fund has funded a total of seven new projects that aim to further develop CERN technologies to a level where they can be transferred and subsequently make a positive impact on society. “CERN’s ambitious scientific programme requires state-of-the-art technologies that are not always directly reusable by society because they were not designed with this purpose in mind,” explains David Mazur, Section Leader of the IP Dissemination Section. “Since 2011, the KT...

  11. Using PROGUMBEL to predict extreme external hazards during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diburg, S.; Hoelscher, N.; Niemann, H.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Safety considerations concerning the construction of power plants, supporting structure planning, safety concept and structural design require reliable data on external events, their incidence probability and characteristic parameters. The basis for supporting structure calculations based on probabilistic reliability considerations is the knowledge on the statistical distribution or the incidence frequency of specific phenomena and their characteristic basic variables. The extreme value statistics software PRO GUMBEL is the extended version of the original GUMBEL software used for seismic assessments. The authors describe the features of the software, that covers seismic events, flooding and extreme storms.

  12. The use of fund accounting and the need for single fund reporting by institutional healthcare providers. Principles and Practices Board Statement No. 8. Healthcare Financial Management Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    For many years, hospitals and other institutional healthcare providers used fund accounting as a basis for presenting their financial statements. Recently, authoritative literature has placed less emphasis on separate fund reporting. This is evidenced by the reduction of fund classifications specified in the literature. This trend seems to follow the recognition that institutional healthcare activities should be reported in a manner comparable to other businesses. The Principles and Practices Board (P&P Board) of the Healthcare Financial management Association believes that general purpose financial statements of institutional healthcare providers should be comparable to reporting by other businesses. That is, all assets, liabilities, and equity are presented in a single aggregated balance sheet without differentiation by fund. This form of presentation, referred to in this statement as single fund reporting, should be used by all institutional healthcare providers including those that are part of HMOs, universities, municipalities, and other larger entities when separate reports of the provider are issued. The P&P Board is studying other significant issues concerning the reporting of revenues and components of equity and changes therein. The conclusion in this statement can be implemented even though conclusions on these related subjects are not yet complete. The P&P Board recognizes that certain circumstances may require detailed records and reports for special purposes. This statement deals only with those general purpose financial statements on which an independent accountant's opinion is expressed.

  13. Recycled industrial and construction waste for mutual beneficial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Instead of going to landfills, certain waste materials from industry and building construction can be recycled in transportation infrastructure projects, such as roadway paving. The beneficial use of waste materials in the construction of transportat...

  14. The effectiveness of community-based loan funds for transport during obstetric emergencies in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwolise, Chidiebere Hope; Hussein, Julia; Kanguru, Lovney; Bell, Jacqueline; Patel, Purvi

    2015-09-01

    Scarcity and costs of transport have been implicated as key barriers to accessing care when obstetric emergencies occur in community settings. Community-based loans have been used to increase utilization of health facilities and potentially reduce maternal mortality by providing funding at community level to provide emergency transport. This review aimed to provide evidence of the effect of community-based loan funds on utilization of health facilities and reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries. Electronic databases of published literature and websites were searched for relevant literature using a pre-defined set of search terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Screening of titles, abstracts and full-text articles were done by at least two reviewers independently. Quality assessment was carried out on the selected papers. Data related to deliveries and obstetric complications attended at facilities, maternal deaths and live births were extracted to measure and compare the effects of community-based loan funds using odds ratios (ORs) and reductions in maternal mortality ratio. Forest plots are presented where possible. The results of the review show that groups where community-based loan funds were implemented (alongside other interventions) generally recorded increases in utilization of health facilities for deliveries, with ORs of 3.5 (0.97-15.48) and 3.55 (1.56-8.05); and an increase in utilization of emergency obstetric care with ORs of 2.22 (0.51-10.38) and 3.37 (1.78-6.37). Intervention groups also experienced a positive effect on met need for complications and a reduction in maternal mortality. There is some evidence to suggest that community-based loan funds as part of a multifaceted intervention have positive effects. Conclusions are limited by challenges of study design and bias. Further studies which strengthen the evidence of the effects of loan funds, and mechanism for their functionality, are recommended. Published by Oxford

  15. Why we should use simpler models if the data allow this: relevance for ANOVA designs in experimental biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazic Stanley E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance (ANOVA is a common statistical technique in physiological research, and often one or more of the independent/predictor variables such as dose, time, or age, can be treated as a continuous, rather than a categorical variable during analysis – even if subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While this is not common, there are a number of advantages of such an approach, including greater statistical power due to increased precision, a simpler and more informative interpretation of the results, greater parsimony, and transformation of the predictor variable is possible. Results An example is given from an experiment where rats were randomly assigned to receive either 0, 60, 180, or 240 mg/L of fluoxetine in their drinking water, with performance on the forced swim test as the outcome measure. Dose was treated as either a categorical or continuous variable during analysis, with the latter analysis leading to a more powerful test (p = 0.021 vs. p = 0.159. This will be true in general, and the reasons for this are discussed. Conclusion There are many advantages to treating variables as continuous numeric variables if the data allow this, and this should be employed more often in experimental biology. Failure to use the optimal analysis runs the risk of missing significant effects or relationships.

  16. Contract for the supply of steel sheets to the BINP using money from the Russian fund

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Finance Committee is invited to note the decision which the Management has had to take, based on the arguments set out in this document, to place a contract without competitive tendering, using money from the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) in the Russian Fund RF-LHC I and, for the purchase of steel sheets from the firm EBG (DE), for an amount of 818 915 DEM (DDU Novosibirsk).

  17. Novel MLPA procedure using self-designed probes allows comprehensive analysis for CNVs of the genes involved in Hirschsprung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antiñolo Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hirschsprung disease is characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the enteric plexuses, due to a fail during enteric nervous system formation. Hirschsprung has a complex genetic aetiology and mutations in several genes have been related to the disease. There is a clear predominance of missense/nonsense mutations in these genes whereas copy number variations (CNVs have been seldom described, probably due to the limitations of conventional techniques usually employed for mutational analysis. In this study, we have looked for CNVs in some of the genes related to Hirschsprung (EDNRB, GFRA1, NRTN and PHOX2B using the Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach. Methods CNVs screening was performed in 208 HSCR patients using a self-designed set of MLPA probes, covering the coding region of those genes. Results A deletion comprising the first 4 exons in GFRA1 gene was detected in 2 sporadic HSCR patients and in silico approaches have shown that the critical translation initiation signal in the mutant gene was abolished. In this study, we have been able to validate the reliability of this technique for CNVs screening in HSCR. Conclusions The implemented MLPA based technique presented here allows CNV analysis of genes involved in HSCR that have not been not previously evaluated. Our results indicate that CNVs could be implicated in the pathogenesis of HSCR, although they seem to be an uncommon molecular cause of HSCR.

  18. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  19. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Langhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching autonomy, we had as a main objective the search for the chance to achieve progressive levels of teachers autonomy, according to its three teacher professionalization models, present in a critical and transformative perspective, relating them to the current formative paradigms: the contents based one, the humanist, the activist, the reflective and the technical (approaches we called CHART. Taking into consideration future physics teachers´ collective reflections about their own teaching practice, this research was supported by the following methodological instruments: focus group, coaching, self-confrontation and formative assessment, taking the discourse analysis as background. The outcomes of this research, which followed a sample of 40 future High School physics teachers during three semesters, through the use of five formative steps (planning, implementation, reflection, socialization, involvement and continuity, revealed the evidences of teachers autonomy construction, probably provided by their own teaching practice collective reflections, according to the analytical device used. This research showed that the reflections brakes provided during the process can allow the future teachers to position themselves critically in relation to their future pedagogical activities, even after their initial training. This experience leads us to rethink how subjects like Methodology and Teaching Practice have been teaching in the teachers’ education programs at

  20. 23 CFR 420.111 - What are the documentation requirements for use of FHWA planning and research funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Research Funds § 420.111 What are the documentation requirements for use of FHWA planning and... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the documentation requirements for use of FHWA planning and research funds? 420.111 Section 420.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 24 CFR 1000.238 - What percentage of the IHBG funds can be used for administrative and planning expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What percentage of the IHBG funds can be used for administrative and planning expenses? 1000.238 Section 1000.238 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.238 What percentage of the IHBG funds can be used for...

  2. Do firm characteristics influence mutual fund performance? An empirical study for European mutual funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Wingens, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of fund management firm characteristics on mutual fund performance. Using a sample of European domiciled open-end equity funds for the period 1998-2008, this study finds that the funds of private companies have performed better than the funds of public

  3. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  4. 25 CFR 1200.17 - What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What special criteria will be used to evaluate management... FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.17 What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans...

  5. Electrical measurements during magnet construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintchak, G.; Ganetis, G.; Cottingham, G.

    1989-01-01

    Throughout the construction phase of the cold mass for SSC magnets, electrical tests are made to determine that no faults in the coil structure have developed. These tests include ones designed to measure turn-to-turn voltage hold-off, hypot tests to ground, coil resistance, and instrumentation checks. These various tests will be described and the test parameters that are used will be covered. 4 figs

  6. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Sergey; Kukina, Olga; Abramenko, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state), and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced), made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  7. 25 CFR 170.925 - Is ERFO funding supplemental to IRR Program funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.925 Is ERFO funding supplemental to... construction and maintenance funds for FHWA-approved repairs. If IRR construction or maintenance funds are used... used to reimburse the construction or maintenance funds expended. ...

  8. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  9. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS... of this root cause analysis must be reported to each PHMSA pipeline safety regional office where the...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.106 - Uses of loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.106 Uses of loan funds. (a) Funds from loans made or guaranteed by RUS may be used to finance: (1) Distribution facilities. (i) The construction of new distribution facilities... station service, and the borrower is unable to finance the acquisition from other sources. See § 1710.107...

  11. Using Construction Management for Public and Institutional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Technology, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Construction management has been developed as an alternative to the traditional public building process and seeks to save an owner time and cost primarily through better activity coordination and project management. This report was developed to guide public agencies in their evaluation of construction management for their particular needs. It…

  12. Tunnels: different construction methods and its use for pipelines installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Tales; Soares, Ana Cecilia; Assis, Slow de; Bolsonaro, Ralfo; Sanandres, Simon [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In a continental dimensions country like Brazil, the pipeline modal faces the challenge of opening ROW's in the most different kind of soils with the most different geomorphology. To safely fulfill the pipeline construction demand, the ROW opening uses all techniques in earthworks and route definition and, where is necessary, no digging techniques like horizontal directional drilling, micro tunneling and also full size tunnels design for pipelines installation in high topography terrains to avoid geotechnical risks. PETROBRAS has already used the tunnel technique to cross higher terrains with great construction difficult, and mainly to make it pipeline maintenance and operation easier. For the GASBOL Project, in Aparados da Serra region and in GASYRG, in Bolivia, two tunnels were opened with approximately 700 meters and 2,000 meters each one. The GASBOL Project had the particularity of being a gallery with only one excavation face, finishing under the hill and from this point was drilled a vertical shaft was drilled until the top to install the pipeline section, while in GASYRG Project the tunnel had two excavation faces. Currently, two projects are under development with tunnels, one of then is the Caraguatatuba-Taubate gas pipeline (GASTAU), with a 5 km tunnel, with the same concepts of the GASBOL tunnel, with a gallery to be opened with the use of a TBM (Tunneling Boring Machine), and a shaft to the surface, and the gas pipeline Cabiunas-Reduc III (GASDUC III) project is under construction with a 3.7 km tunnel, like the GASYRG tunnel with two faces. This paper presents the main excavation tunneling methods, conventional and mechanized, presenting the most relevant characteristics from both and, in particular, the use of tunnels for pipelines installation. (author)

  13. Tracking Global Fund HIV/AIDS resources used for sexual and reproductive health service integration: case study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Ski, Samantha; Huntington, Dale

    2015-05-27

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria (GF) strives for high value for money, encouraging countries to integrate synergistic services and systems strengthening to maximize investments. The GF needs to show how, and how much, its grants support more than just HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) has been part of HIV/AIDS grants since 2007. Previous studies showed the GF PBF system does not allow resource tracking for SRH integration within HIV/AIDS grants. We present findings from a resource tracking case study using primary data collected at country level. Ethiopia was the study site. We reviewed data from four HIV/AIDS grants from January 2009-June 2011 and categorized SDAs and activities as directly, indirectly, or not related to SRH integration. Data included: GF PBF data; financial, performance, in-depth interview and facility observation data from Ethiopia. All HIV/AIDS grants in Ethiopia support SRH integration activities (12-100%). Using activities within SDAs, expenditures directly supporting SRH integration increased from 25% to 66% for the largest HIV/AIDS grant, and from 21% to 34% for the smaller PMTCT-focused grant. Using SDAs to categorize expenditures underestimated direct investments in SRH integration; activity-based categorization is more accurate. The important finding is that primary data collection could not resolve the limitations in using GF GPR data for resource tracking. The remedy is to require existing activity-based budgets and expenditure reports as part of PBF reporting requirements, and make them available in the grant portfolio database. The GF should do this quickly, as it is a serious shortfall in the GF guiding principle of transparency. Showing high value for money is important for maximizing impact and replenishments. The Global Fund should routinely track HIV/AIDs grant expenditures to disease control, service integration, and overall health systems strengthening. The current PBF system

  14. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albemarle Bill Clark Pest Control, Inc. Burnside Services, Inc. Cardinal Professional Products Chemtura Corp...

  15. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotukhin Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state, and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced, made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  16. Life cycle uses of concrete for more sustainable construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2001-07-01

    This paper examined ways in which the environmental burdens of construction in general and concrete production in particular can be reduced. Aggregates for concrete production include sand, gravel and stone. They account for most (80 per cent) of the materials used in the United States. This paper argued that given the fact that environmental concerns are an important social issue, the issue of natural resource conservation should be addressed. Some of the life-cycle assessments and comparative design issues associated with concrete construction were summarized. The author presented the example that often the initial cost of a new pavement application may indicate a lower environmental impact than an equivalent design when asphalt is used over reinforced concrete. However, annualized impacts may result in comparable environmental assessments. The same is true for bridge girders, reinforced concrete also seems to be a better environmental choice than steel. This paper also described end-of-life options that involve the use of waste products and recycled products in concrete and other materials to reduce the overall environmental impacts of a product or facility. This paper was divided into several sections entitled: life cycle assessments; life cycle inventory assessment of concretes and asphalt pavements; and, life cycle inventory assessment of concrete and steel bridge girders. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Real Time Search Algorithm for Observation Outliers During Monitoring Engineering Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, Dorota; Kolanowski, Bogdan; Pachelski, Wojciech; Sołoducha, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    Real time monitoring of engineering structures in case of an emergency of disaster requires collection of a large amount of data to be processed by specific analytical techniques. A quick and accurate assessment of the state of the object is crucial for a probable rescue action. One of the more significant evaluation methods of large sets of data, either collected during a specified interval of time or permanently, is the time series analysis. In this paper presented is a search algorithm for those time series elements which deviate from their values expected during monitoring. Quick and proper detection of observations indicating anomalous behavior of the structure allows to take a variety of preventive actions. In the algorithm, the mathematical formulae used provide maximal sensitivity to detect even minimal changes in the object's behavior. The sensitivity analyses were conducted for the algorithm of moving average as well as for the Douglas-Peucker algorithm used in generalization of linear objects in GIS. In addition to determining the size of deviations from the average it was used the so-called Hausdorff distance. The carried out simulation and verification of laboratory survey data showed that the approach provides sufficient sensitivity for automatic real time analysis of large amount of data obtained from different and various sensors (total stations, leveling, camera, radar).

  18. Real Time Search Algorithm for Observation Outliers During Monitoring Engineering Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latos Dorota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Real time monitoring of engineering structures in case of an emergency of disaster requires collection of a large amount of data to be processed by specific analytical techniques. A quick and accurate assessment of the state of the object is crucial for a probable rescue action. One of the more significant evaluation methods of large sets of data, either collected during a specified interval of time or permanently, is the time series analysis. In this paper presented is a search algorithm for those time series elements which deviate from their values expected during monitoring. Quick and proper detection of observations indicating anomalous behavior of the structure allows to take a variety of preventive actions. In the algorithm, the mathematical formulae used provide maximal sensitivity to detect even minimal changes in the object’s behavior. The sensitivity analyses were conducted for the algorithm of moving average as well as for the Douglas-Peucker algorithm used in generalization of linear objects in GIS. In addition to determining the size of deviations from the average it was used the so-called Hausdorff distance. The carried out simulation and verification of laboratory survey data showed that the approach provides sufficient sensitivity for automatic real time analysis of large amount of data obtained from different and various sensors (total stations, leveling, camera, radar.

  19. Accounting and analysis of the real labour input for objects and types of works during NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvaev, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for determining the actual labour input for PP construction according to types of works, construction units and objects is considered. The data are presented on specific expenditures on civil engineering, heat and electric installation, insulation and anticorrosion works for construction of the Chernobylsk and Kursk NPPs. A conclusion is drawn about the necessity of computer utilization in calculating the labour input for different types of works, number of workers and planning works during the NPP construction

  20. The absorption of european funds for environmental protection during the period 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Political realities of the European Union regarding the environment protection segment formed the basis of a specific reorientation of cohesion policy, the including this area as one of the main priorities for obtaining grants. In other words, due to long-term challenges such as climate change, energy security, scarcity of resources (raw materials, water, biodiversity loss, environment protection has become one of the strategic priorities of the European Union. These challenges are coupled with short-term threats like increasing public debt of States Members, in particular as a result of loans contracted by these to eliminate or counteract the financial crisis effects and the the dimensioning of fiscal discipline, both internally and at Community level.

  1. The Uses of Printed Curriculum Materials by Teachers during Instruction and the Social Construction of Pedagogic Discourse in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Molina-Alventosa, Pere; Kirk, David; Devís-Devís, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' use of printed curriculum materials (PCM) during physical education (PE) instruction in Spanish secondary schools and the role they play in the enacted curriculum and in the construction of pedagogical knowledge. Three hundred and ten participants (mean age: 37.7 ± 8.7) responded to an interview-questionnaire on…

  2. Peculiarities of accounting for depression morphosculptures during construction of the 'Vector' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, V.M.; Bublyas', V.M.; Shebets'kij, Yu.O.

    2001-01-01

    The studied area of the object 'Vector' is situated in the near (10-km) zone of the Chornobyl NPP Exclusion zone (CEZ). Analysis of data about local structures and geomorphological structure of the region gives evidence about influence of some structures on present relief. It follows that without taking into account of the specifics of anomalous morphosculptures during construction of the 'Vector' object and its depositories for radioactive wastes, or during their exploitation, a series of negative geological processes may take place, which enhance the risk destruction of these buildings and deterioration of ecological state of adjacent areas

  3. Sources of funding for community schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    There is an increasing level of interest amongst community groups in the UK to become involved in the development of renewable energy schemes. Often however these community groups have only limited funds of their own, so any additional funds that can be identified to help fund their renewable energy scheme can be very useful. There are a range of funding sources available that provide grants or loans for which community groups are eligible to apply. Few of these funding sources are targeted towards renewable energy specifically, nevertheless the funds may be applicable to renewable energy schemes under appropriate circumstances. To date, however, few of these funds have been accessed by community groups for renewable energy initiatives. One of the reasons for this low take-up of funds on offer could be that the funding sources may be difficult and time-consuming to identify, especially where the energy component of the fund is not readily apparent. This directory draws together details about many of the principal funding sources available in the UK that may consider providing funds to community groups wanting to develop a renewable energy scheme. (author)

  4. Snow Pads Used for Pipeline Construction in Alaska, 1976. Construction, Use and Breakup,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    vens Village, this winter road proceeded north- pass of a wheeled or tracked vehicle using a ward through Bettles and Anaktuvuk Pass to blade if...successfully by quirements and then describes how these can be Hercules C-130 and executive jet-type aircraft. met using specified quantities of materials

  5. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  6. METHODS FOR THE ARRANGEMENT OF IMMERSED TUBE TUNNELS DURING CONSTRUCTION BASED ON STRUCTURALLY UNSTABLE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Kurbatskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop the most effective construction and technological methods for strengthening the bottom of rivers and bays, composed of weak structurally unstable soils, including zones with seismic activity, using pile foundations with broadening and rock filling with micropiles.Methods. The method of constructing combined transport transitions was applied, consisting of overpasses running over relatively shallow channels from coasts to artificial islands on which the route enters tunnels crossing deep shipping canals.Results. The foreign experience in the construction of immersed tube tunnels in the construction of transport crossings through the extended river and sea barriers has been analytically generalised. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the construction of immersed tube tunnels in some countries of the world are revealed.Conclusion. A large number of already constructed and operated transport transits, including immersed tube tunnels, testifies to the advantages of such projects, as compared to other types of transport transitions like bridges and tunnels constructed using mining techniques. Constructiontechnological methods for strengthening the bottom of rivers and bays, composed of weak structurally unstable soils, are proposed. When selecting a design of a bridge to ensure the passage of hightonnage vessels, it is necessary to build large-span bridges on high supports. Weak, structurally unstable soils, deep bedding of bedrock and high seismicity of the area will create serious problems in the construction and operation of such structures. The natural vibration frequencies of the large-span bridges fall into the region of the dominant earthquake frequencies, which can lead to resonant phenomena and damage the structure even under weak seismic influences. Tunnels are less susceptible to seismic impacts, since, unlike ground structures, they don't experience resonance phenomena. When

  7. Future prices and market for SO2 allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.; Joseph, A.; Michael, K.; Munro, W.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The expected price of SO 2 emission allowances is an important issue in energy and integrated resource planning activities. For example, the expected price of SO 2 allowances in needed in order to evaluate alternative strategies for meeting SO 2 provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In addition, the expected SO 2 allowance price is important to state public utility regulators who must provide guidance on rate-making issues regarding utility compliance plans which involve allowance trading and direct investment of SO 2 control technologies. Last but not the least, the expected SO 2 allowance price is an important determinant of the future market for natural gas and low sulfur coal. The paper develops estimates of SO 2 allowance prices over time by constructing national supply and demand curves for SO 2 reductions. Both the supply and demand for SO 2 reductions are based on an analysis of the sulfur content of fuels burned in 1990 by utilities throughout the United States; and on assumptions about plant retirements, the rate of new capacity growth, the types of new and replacement plants constructed, the costs of SO 2 reduction measures and legislation by midwest states to maintain the use of high sulfur coal to protect local jobs. The paper shows that SO 2 allowance prices will peak around the year 2000 at about $500 per ton, and will eventually fall to zero by about the year 2020. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the price of SO 2 allowances is relatively insensitive to assumptions regarding the availability of natural gas or energy demand growth. However, SO 2 allowance prices tend to be quite sensitive to assumptions regarding regulations which may force early retirement of existing power plants and possible legislation which may reduce CO 2 emissions

  8. Using a public hospital funding model to strengthen a case for improved nutritional care in a cancer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltong, Anna G; Loeliger, Jenelle M; Steer, Belinda L

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of malnutrition risk and assessed malnutrition in patients admitted to a cancer-specific public hospital, and to model the potential hospital funding opportunity associated with implementing routine malnutrition screening. A point-prevalence audit of malnutrition risk and diagnosable malnutrition was conducted. A retrospective audit of hospital funding associated with documented cases of malnutrition was conducted. Audit results were used to estimate annual malnutrition prevalence, associated casemix-based reimbursement potential and the clinical support resources required to adequately identify and treat malnutrition. Sixty-four percent of inpatients were at risk of malnutrition. Of these, 90% were assessed as malnourished. Twelve percent of malnourished patients produced a positive change in the diagnosis-related group (DRG) and increased allocated financial reimbursement. Identifying and diagnosing all cases of malnutrition could contribute an additional AU$413644 reimbursement funding annually. Early identification of malnutrition may expedite appropriate nutritional management and improve patient outcomes in addition to contributing to casemix-based reimbursement funding for health services. A successful business case for additional clinical resources to improve nutritional care was aided by demonstrating the link between malnutrition screening, hospital reimbursements and improved nutritional care. What is known about the topic? It is known that between 20 and 50% of hospital patients are malnourished and oncology patients are 1.7 times more likely to be malnourished than are other hospitalised patients. Despite the existence of practice guidelines for malnutrition screening of at-risk oncology patients, these are not routinely implemented. Identification of malnutrition in hospitalised patients is linked to casemix funding via DRG. Casemix reimbursement for malnutrition can be enhanced if: (1) malnutrition risk is

  9. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Langhi; Roberto Nardi

    2012-01-01

    This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching ...

  10. Quality control during construction of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartstern, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper traces the background and examines the necessity for a program to control quality during the construction phase of a power plant. It also attempts to point out considerations for making these programs cost effective

  11. Creative partnerships for funding nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Judith J; Hills, Elizabeth Blanchard; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Smith, Carol E; Farran, Carol J; Wilkie, Diana J

    2011-02-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) program are two federal funding mechanisms that some nurses in academic positions have used to support research and development of innovative nursing products or services. Both the SBIR and STTR mechanisms are excellent sources of funding for nurse researchers who want to capitalize on relationships with small businesses or obtain seed money to fund high-risk projects with potential to attract new venture capital. This article provides an overview of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded SBIR and STTR programs and summarizes similarities and differences between the programs. The article also describes unique features of NIH SBIR and STTR funding mechanisms that differentiate them from other R-series funding mechanisms, reviews evaluation criteria for SBIR and STTR projects, and discusses critical partners and resources for proposal development. Finally, the article describes characteristics of successful partnerships and provides examples of SBIR/STTR-funded projects.

  12. Evaluation of behaviors of earth and rockfill dams during construction and initial impounding using instrumentation data and numerical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the behavior of Gavoshan dam was evaluated during construction and the first impounding. A two-dimensional (2D numerical analysis was conducted based on a finite difference method on the largest cross-section of the dam using the results of instrument measurements and back analysis. These evaluations will be completed in the case that back analysis is carried out in order to control the degree of the accuracy and the level of confidence of the measured behavior since each of the measurements could be controlled by comparing it to the result obtained from the numerical model. Following that, by comparing the results of the numerical analysis with the measured values, it is indicated that there is a proper consistency between these two values. Moreover, it was observed that the dam performance was suitable regarding the induced pore water pressure, the pore water pressure ratio ru, settlement, induced stresses, arching degree, and hydraulic fracturing probability during the construction and initial impounding periods. The results demonstrated that the maximum settlement of the core was 238 cm at the end of construction. In the following 6 years after construction (initial impounding and exploitation period, the accumulative settlement of the dam was 270 cm. It is clear that 88% of the total settlement of the dam took place during dam construction. The reason is that the clay core was smashed in the wet side, i.e. the optimum moisture content. Whereas the average curving ratio was 0.64 during dam construction; at the end of the initial impounding, the maximum amount of curving ratio in the upstream was 0.81, and the minimum (critical amount in the downstream was 0.52. It was also concluded that this dam is safe in comparison with the behaviors of other similar dams in the world.

  13. Quality assurance during site construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dommke, J.; Jurgutat, H.

    1980-01-01

    During the time of planing and construction of a nuclear power plant, the following proceeding is approved: - the deliverer of a nuclear power plant provides the reports fixing the quality assurance program, it means that he is responsible to write the safety analysis report, the specifications for the erection of the components, the working manuals and specifications for testing (eg nondestr. testing) - the manufacturing of components or systems will be controlled by an own independent quality assurance group, provided that this group was checked by the quality assurance group of the applicant - the TUeV with its independent assessors will fix the requirements relating to quality assurance in its assessment. On this basis the examination of the applicants specifications, working manuals, testing specifications will be done. The efficiency of quality assurance at the manufacturer and at the applicant will be checked by the TUeV specialists by considering specifications of modifications, repairs or tolerances. A mean point of the quality assurance in Germany is the dynamic adjustment, of an action on the latest state of engineering or science. If there exists a change of rules or guidelines, the quality assurance requirements have to be fit on this state in so far as it is feasible from the technical point of view. (orig./RW)

  14. Quantitative Decision Making Model for Carbon Reduction in Road Construction Projects Using Green Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous countries have established policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and have suggested goals pertaining to these reductions. To reach the target reduction amounts, studies on the reduction of carbon emissions have been conducted with regard to all stages and processes in construction projects. According to a study on carbon emissions, the carbon emissions generated during the construction stage of road projects account for approximately 76 to 86% of the total carbon emissions, far exceeding the other stages, such as maintenance or demolition. Therefore, this study aims to develop a quantitative decision making model that supports the application of green technologies (GTs to reduce carbon emissions during the construction stage of road construction projects. First, the authors selected environmental soundness, economic feasibility and constructability as the key assessment indices for evaluating 20 GTs. Second, a fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis (FS/QCA was used to establish an objective decision-making model for the assessment of both the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the key indices. To support the developed model, an expert survey was performed to assess the applicability of each GT from a practical perspective, which was verified with a case study using two additional GTs. The proposed model is expected to support practitioners in the application of suitable GTs to road projects and reduce carbon emissions, resulting in better decision making during road construction projects.

  15. The Persistence of Risk-Adjusted Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Elton, Edwin J; Gruber, Martin J; Blake, Christopher R

    1996-01-01

    The authors examine predictability for stock mutual funds using risk-adjusted returns. They find that past performance is predictive of future risk-adjusted performance. Applying modern portfolio theory techniques to past data improves selection and allows the authors to construct a portfolio of funds that significantly outperforms a rule based on past rank alone. In addition, they can form a combination of actively managed portfolios with the same risk as a portfolio of index funds but with ...

  16. Construction Analysis during the Design Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Harink, J.M.J.; Martens, B.; Brown, A.

    2005-01-01

    4D CAD systems are used by contractors for visually checking the construction process. To enable simulation of the construction process, the construction planner links building components from a CAD model with the activities from a project planning. In this paper we describe a method to generate a

  17. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa'a M

    2016-01-01

    Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient's mouth. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n = 15 each) according to investing method: plaster-plaster-plaster (P-P-P), plaster-stone-stone (P-S-S), and plaster-mix (P-M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I-I) and intermolar (M-M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor-molar (LI-LM and RI-RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used to compare the results. M-M, LI-LM, and RI-RM movement was significantly greater in the P-P-P group than in the P-S-S and P-M groups; no significant difference in I-I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M-M and I-I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P-P-P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement.

  18. Solid construction waste management in large civil construction companies through use of specific software - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Dalla Zanna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current construction market there is a high demand for sustainability. In addition to that the Brazilian government is enacting tougher and tougher legislation on the disposal of solid construction waste. These demands increasingly make the construction company responsible for the entire lifecycle of its waste as well as the accompanying cost and environmental impact of solid waste. A software program was used in the research which allows construction companies gather information about waste. This helps the decision makers, at all different levels of the company improving waste management through better decisions. The software program was used during the construction of two residential buildings, constructed by a large construction company in the South of Brazil. Five key performance indicators were used by the construction company team: Generated Waste Height (cm, cost per built area (R$ m-², Waste Segregation Quality Index (WSQI, Effective Waste Management Index (EWMI and Waste Management Quality Index (WMQI. After four months the total cost of waste management was R$ 83,551.71 for site A and R$ 91,668.02 for site B. About 70% of the waste was raw material waste. The software program provided information not previously available, which made it possible to calculate the cost of material loss, indicating corrective actions, all without losing sight of cost reduction opportunities for the management of Solid construction Waste (SCW.

  19. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Adrian A, E-mail: a.walsh@nanobiosols.com [Liverpool Science Park, Nano Biosols Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  20. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Adrian A.

    2017-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  1. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Adrian A

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  2. 24 CFR 1000.103 - How may IHBG funds be used for tenant-based or project-based rental assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Activities § 1000.103 How may IHBG funds be used for tenant-based or project-based rental assistance? (a) IHBG funds may be used for project-based or tenant-based rental assistance. (b) IHBG funds may be used for project-based or tenant-based rental assistance that is provided in a manner...

  3. 75 FR 65197 - Use of Public Housing Capital Funds for Financing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ..., lenders cannot view PHAs or their stand-alone projects as market-rate financing, but rather that private.... Response: This CFFP final rule permits PHAs to size their financing either on the project level, or on an... Funds for Financing Activities; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 203 / Thursday...

  4. Allowance for influence of gravity field nonuniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsysar, A. P.

    1987-03-01

    The constants of a quartz-metal pendulum used in higher-order gravimetric networks have been determined and a formula has been derived for the total correction for gravity field nonuniformity measurements made with the pendulum. Nomograms were constructed on the basis of these formulas and are used in introducing corrections into pendulum measurements. A table was prepared giving the components of the correction for some values of the derivatives of gravity potential from surrounding masses. Errors can be caused by building walls, the pedestal on which the instrument sits and other factors, and these must be taken into account since they increase the normal gravity gradient. After introducing these correction components for the nonuniform gravity field, the gravity field at the measurement point is related to the instrument point coinciding with the middle of the pendulum knife blade.

  5. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  6. Ranking mutual funds using Sortino method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Faghani Makrani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on most business activities is to determine an efficient method for ranking mutual funds. This paper performs an empirical investigation to rank 42 mutual funds listed on Tehran Stock Exchange using Sortino method over the period 2011-2012. The results of survey have been compared with market return and the results have confirmed that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between Sortino return and market return. In addition, there were some positive and meaningful relationship between two Sortino methods.

  7. Adequacy Model for School Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banicki, Guy; Murphy, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the effectiveness of the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding. In looking at the Evidence-Based Adequacy model for school funding, one researcher has been centrally associated with the development and study of this model. Allen Odden is currently a professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy…

  8. Funding models for outreach ophthalmology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Angus W; Mulholland, Will; Taylor, Hugh R

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to describe funding models used and compare the effects of funding models for remuneration on clinical activity and cost-effectiveness in outreach eye services in Australia. Cross-sectional case study based in remote outreach ophthalmology services in Australia. Key stake-holders from eye services in nine outreach regions participated in the study. Semistructured interviews were conducted to perform a qualitative assessment of outreach eye services' funding mechanisms. Records of clinical activity were used to statistically compare funding models. Workforce availability (supply of ophthalmologists), costs of services, clinical activity (surgery and clinic consultation rates) and waiting times. The supply of ophthalmologists (full-time equivalence) to all remote regions was below the national average (up to 19 times lower). Cataract surgery rates were also below national averages (up to 10 times lower). Fee-for-service funding significantly increased clinical activity. There were also trends to shorter waiting times and lower costs per attendance. For outreach ophthalmology services, the funding model used for clinician reimbursement may influence the efficiency and costs of the services. Fee-for-service funding models, safety-net funding options or differential funding/incentives need further exploration to ensure isolated disadvantaged areas prone to poor patient attendance are not neglected. In order for outreach eye health services to be sustainable, remuneration rates need to be comparable to those for urban practice. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Creative Partnerships for Funding Nursing Research

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Judith J.; Hills, Elizabeth Blanchard; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Smith, Carol E.; Farran, Carol J.; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2010-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) program are two federal funding mechanisms that some nurses in academic positions have used to support research and development of innovative nursing products or services. Both the SBIR and STTR mechanisms are excellent sources of funding for nurse researchers who want to capitalize on relationships with small businesses or obtain seed money to fund high risk projects with potentia...

  10. Differences in research funding for women scientists: a systematic comparison of UK investments in global infectious disease research during 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Atun, Rifat

    2013-12-09

    There has not previously been a systematic comparison of awards for research funding in infectious diseases by sex. We investigated funding awards to UK institutions for all infectious disease research from 1997 to 2010, across disease categories and along the research and development continuum. Systematic comparison. Data were obtained from several sources for awards from the period 1997 to 2010 and each study assigned to-disease categories; type of science (preclinical, phases I-III trials, product development, implementation research); categories of funding organisation. Fold differences and statistical analysis were used to compare total investment, study numbers, mean grant and median grant between men and women. 6052 studies were included in the final analysis, comprising 4357 grants (72%) awarded to men and 1695 grants (28%) awarded to women, totalling £2.274 billion. Of this, men received £1.786 billion (78.5%) and women £488 million (21.5%). The median value of award was greater for men (£179 389; IQR £59 146-£371 977) than women (£125 556; IQR £30 982-£261 834). Awards were greater for male principal investigators (PIs) across all infectious disease systems, excepting neurological infections and sexually transmitted infections. The proportion of total funding awarded to women ranged from 14.3% in 1998 to 26.8% in 2009 (mean 21.4%), and was lowest for preclinical research at 18.2% (£285.5 million of £1.573 billion) and highest for operational research at 30.9% (£151.4 million of £489.7 million). There are consistent differences in funding received by men and women PIs: women have fewer funded studies and receive less funding in absolute and in relative terms; the median funding awarded to women is lower across most infectious disease areas, by funder, and type of science. These differences remain broadly unchanged over the 14-year study period.

  11. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  12. Pension fund excellence creating value for stakeholders

    CERN Document Server

    Ambachtsheer, Keith P.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally recognized experts in the field introduce their "business excellence paradigm". In this book, two leading pension fund experts lay out a comprehensive plan for effective fund management. With the help of domestic and global case studies they critically assess current approaches to pension fund management and isolate what works and what doesn't using their unique critically acclaimed "run-it-like-a-business" model. Keith P. Ambachtsheer (Toronto, Canada) is principle at KPA Advisory Service, Inc., a pension fund management consulting firm. He runs The Ambachtsheer Letter and cofounded Cost Effective Measurement, Inc., which monitors the performance of 300 of the world's largest asset funds. D. Don Ezra (Toronto, Canada) is Director of European Consulting at Frank Russell Co. His previous books include The Struggle for Pension Fund Wealth.

  13. Using a very low level radioactive steel from decommissioning of nuclear installation for the construction of railway structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimak, A.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    During the operation, but especially during decommissioning (SW) of operation, there is a large amount of radioactive waste, whose activity only slightly exceeds the limits for unrestricted use, or for the unconditional release into the environment. In particular, metal and concrete debris. Processing, treatment and disposal of such waste would require considerable funds, and also storage space would be quickly filled up. A convenient way to use a large number of low-activity materials seems to be conditional release, which will reuse the materials for a particular purpose. The paper deals with use of a very low level of steel from decommissioning of nuclear installations for construction of the railway bridge. The task of the present paper is to review the impact of conditionally released steel on population and to determine what level of mass activity of the steel meets the limits prescribed by law. For impact assessment of conditionally released steel on population there was selected computing resource VISIPLAN 3D ALARA Planning Tool. (author)

  14. A Careful Blasting Technique During Construction of underground Openings for Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ester, Z.; Vrkljan, D.

    1998-01-01

    Underground nuclear waste repositories are constructed in natural rock formations, with heterogenous compound and structure, and should be accommodated in design and construction according to rock conditions. The quality insurance of underground repository, during and after construction, is most demanding in view of contour and category of excavation. the technology of drilling and blasting, regarding the mechanical excavation, is accommodated in sense of response to cross section magnitude of underground openings, the rock conditions and category, the support performance and other design demands. The high level rock damage around underground openings, that is in opposition with reaching quality insurance. Conventional construction technology can be successful by implementation of controlled blasting technique avoiding extensive rock weakness. (author)

  15. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  16. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Evernden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  17. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Antony; Ibell, Tim; Evernden, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP) laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP) for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP) to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  18. Analysis of the funds used during the three years of the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents general guidelines and a plan for financing the various activities of the RDP 2007-2013. An analysis of the use of financial resources under the priority axes of the activities forming the RDP 2007-2013 in the three years of the Programme. The source materials were Ministry of Agriculture Village and Development studies and reports. On the implementation of the RDP 2007-2013 Poland received financial support amounting to 17.2 billion Euros to June 2010 used 22.24% of the total budget. The largest share of financing by the action of axis 2 was related to the promotion and operation of the LFA areas Axis 1 Early retirement.

  19. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  20. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  1. Financial auditing at enterprises for control of projects realized with credit fund-raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmanova, Inessa

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes methods of conducting financial audit under the construction control of projects implemented with raising credit funds in modern conditions. This work aims to improve the methodological toolkit of construction control when lending projects of the construction of transport infrastructure. The paper considers correlations of various procedures of construction control, financial audit and organizational and technical factors affecting investment and construction projects. The authors presented the logical scheme of the process of lending to legal entities and developed an algorithm of the procedure for conducting a financial audit, allowing to make possible adjustments and the right decision.

  2. Investment Primer for Green Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Dano

    2012-01-01

    Developing return-oriented green revolving funds (GRFs) is a rapidly growing trend at colleges and universities. A green revolving fund (GRF) is a special account designated for investment in on-campus projects that improve energy efficiency or decrease material use. GRFs invest in a variety of cost-saving initiatives, resulting in significant…

  3. 45 CFR 2522.530 - May I use the Corporation's program grant funds for performance measurement and evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PARTICIPANTS, PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Evaluation Requirements § 2522.530 May I use the Corporation's program... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I use the Corporation's program grant funds for performance measurement and evaluation? 2522.530 Section 2522.530 Public Welfare Regulations...

  4. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. 114.15 Section 114.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.15 Permissible use of corporate...

  5. Soil mixing design methods and construction techniques for use in high organic soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The soils which serve as foundations for construction projects may be roughly classified as : inorganic or organic. Inorganic soils vary in firmness and suitability for construction. Soft : or loose inorganic soils may be stabilized using cement or s...

  6. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  7. Revolving fund for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in Eastern Europe is the adjustment of prices from the former COMECON level to a level conforming with free market conditions. In the case of household heating, this issue involves the removal of government subsidies leading to sharply increasing prices, metering of individual consumption, improving the efficiency of energy production, distribution and use - where savings of 30-50% in each link are technically feasible - thereby providing a potential for a adapting consumption patterns to higher energy prices, provided that funds are available. Currently, investment in commercial heat production and distribution systems have received substantial international support - whereas investment in reduction of demand has been little exploited. The Revolving Fund for Energy Savings in Polish Households is a concept for efficient financing of small-scale projects. It aims at financing, on the level of housing cooperatives, on the basis of a simplified lending and project evaluation procedure, well suited to current Polish conditions or an organizationally and financially weak banking system and little developed technical knowledge in the field of energy saving. A general introduction to the issue is given and technical problems are elaborated. The implementation of Energy Savings in Housing seen from the banking point of view, and a current pilot scheme for financing, are described. (AB)

  8. 23 CFR 661.51 - Can IRRBP funds be used for the approach roadway to a bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bridge? 661.51 Section 661.51 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.51 Can IRRBP funds be used for the approach roadway to a bridge? (a) Yes, costs associated with approach roadway work, as defined in...

  9. 34 CFR 628.45 - How much endowment fund income may a grantee use and for what purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much endowment fund income may a grantee use and for what purposes? 628.45 Section 628.45 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... necessary because of— (1) A financial emergency such as a pending insolvency or temporary liquidity problem...

  10. State-Targeted Funding and Technical Assistance to Increase Access to Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Amanda J; Andrews, Christina M; Grogan, Colleen M; Pollack, Harold A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Humphreys, Keith; Friedmann, Peter D

    2018-04-01

    As the United States grapples with an opioid epidemic, expanding access to effective treatment for opioid use disorder is a major public health priority. Identifying effective policy tools that can be used to expand access to care is critically important. This article examines the relationship between state-targeted funding and technical assistance and adoption of three medications for treating opioid use disorder: oral naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, and buprenorphine. This study draws from the 2013-2014 wave of the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey, a nationally representative, longitudinal study of substance use disorder treatment programs. The sample includes data from 695 treatment programs (85.5% response rate) and representatives from single-state agencies in 49 states and Washington, D.C. (98% response rate). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships of single-state agency targeted funding and technical assistance to availability of opioid use disorder medications among treatment programs. State-targeted funding was associated with increased program-level adoption of oral naltrexone (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.49-6.60, p=.004) and buprenorphine (AOR=2.47, 95% CI=1.31-4.67, p=.006). Buprenorphine adoption was also correlated with state technical assistance to support medication provision (AOR=1.18, 95% CI=1.00-1.39, p=.049). State-targeted funding for medications may be a viable policy lever for increasing access to opioid use disorder medications. Given the historically low rates of opioid use disorder medication adoption in treatment programs, single-state agency targeted funding is a potentially important tool to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with opioid disorders and misuse.

  11. Solid construction waste management in large civil construction companies through use of specific software - case study

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Dalla Zanna; Fernando Fernandes; José Carlos Gasparine

    2017-01-01

    In the current construction market there is a high demand for sustainability. In addition to that the Brazilian government is enacting tougher and tougher legislation on the disposal of solid construction waste. These demands increasingly make the construction company responsible for the entire lifecycle of its waste as well as the accompanying cost and environmental impact of solid waste. A software program was used in the research which allows construction companies gather information about...

  12. GHG emission quantification for pavement construction projects using a process-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charinee Limsawasd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have attracted much attention for their impacts upon the global environment. Initiating of new legislation and regulations for control of GHG emissions from the industrial sectors has been applied to address this problem. The transportation industries, which include operation of road pavement and pavement construction equipment, are the highest GHG-emitting sectors. This study presents a novel quantification model of GHG emissions of pavement construction using process-based analysis. The model is composed of five modules that evaluate GHG emissions. These are: material production and acquisition, (2 material transport to a project site, (3 heavy equipment use, (4 on-site machinery use, and, (5 on-site electricity use. The model was applied to a hypothetical pavement project to compare the environmental impacts of flexible and rigid pavement types during construction. The resulting model can be used for evaluation of environmental impacts, as well as for designing and planning highway pavement construction.

  13. Potential and Benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM During Pre-Construction, Construction and Post Construction Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aw Nien Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is the main economic support for all countries around the world in which continually adapting to meet competitive challenges around the global market. Nevertheless, the construction project is becoming much more complex and difficult to manage. This is because the construction project involves a large number of stakeholder, for example, the consultant companies, architects, engineers, building surveyors and quantity surveyors. The technology currently used in the construction industry is the AutoCAD (Automatic computeraided design. AutoCAD is a commercial software application for 2D and 3D computer-aided design (CAD and drafting develop by Autodesk. Generally, all the drawing design from Autocad will be exchanged among the stakeholder in the form of paper. Information exchanged among them mostly involves a lot of documents and drawings. This practice creates errors because of documents and drawings are mostly in a paper-based format that is not properly managed which results in miscommunication among them. Having wrong information in the construction process could hinder the productivity of projects because in a construction project information is one of the important construction materials. Building Information Modeling (BIM is one of the newly software in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC industries to ensure all parties receive the right information. BIM technology is also an intelligent model of a building constructed digitally in the way of 3D. The software will generate model containing the information needed to support the construction, fabrication, and procurement activities that needed to realize the building. This paper will discuss on potential and benefits of BIM during pre-construction stage, construction stage and during post construction stage

  14. 36 CFR 1280.94 - When do Presidential libraries allow other groups to use their public areas for events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Commercial advertising and sales; (3) Partisan political activities; (4) Sectarian activities, or other.... NARA will charge normal admission fees to the museum if that area is used for the event. (f) You will...

  15. Nuclear waste: A look at current use of funds and cost estimates for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has revised its long-range cost estimates for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other highly radioactive waste from about $20 billion to between $21 billion and $41 billion. Delays in meeting some program milestones have added to the costs of the program and consequently DOE has proposed a 5-year delay for the first repository to come on-line. These program uncertainties will limit confidence in the estimates for the next several years. One such uncertainty is the estimated quantity of spent fuel for disposal. DOE's estimating approach overstates the amount of spent fuel that utilities will generate and the fees that they will pay into the Nuclear Waste Fund. As a result, DOE may not be collecting fees at a rate that will cover total program costs and may be overbuilding the waste system

  16. 78 FR 18348 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...: There is no existing Governmentwide data base that collects PLAs and specifically the number submitted... Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... information collection requirement regarding Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects...

  17. The Swedish system for funding of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Tommy; Westerlind, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Sweden goes back to early 1950's. Research and development on spent fuel disposal in Sweden started in earnest with the report of the AKA-commission 1976, which outlined a complete system for the management of spent fuel and associated waste, including how to handle the costs. Components of the system, mentioned in the AKA-report, such as a sea transportation (MS Sigyn), a central spent fuel storage facility (CLAB) and a final repository for operational waste (SFR) have since been constructed and taken in operation. The research and planning for the additional facilities needed for a complete system is in an advanced stage. A nuclear waste fund has also been created, based on a special fee on nuclear power production. During the 1970's the nuclear power utilities established their own internal funds for future waste management expenses. These funds were transferred to the government-run financing system established in 1981 when the Swedish parliament passed the Act on the Financing of Future Expenses for Spent Nuclear Fuel etc. The fees to be paid into the Fund are to be based on the assumption that each reactor generates electricity for 25 years. These fees, plus the interest on the money already deposited in the Fund, must meet all expenses for handling spent fuel, dismantling facilities and for dealing with radioactive decommissioning waste. A guarantee shall compensate for the eventuality of a nuclear power plant being closed before the end of the 25-year earning period. The type of guarantee must be available until all nuclear waste has been placed in a repository and must cover contingencies for the waste programme. This guarantee will be used if expenses for future nuclear waste management become higher than expected, if these expenses have to be met earlier than expected, or if the actual amount in the Fund is lower than was estimated. The process of yearly cost calculations, review and determination of fees and guarantees is well

  18. Construction Safety Forecast for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    cadwallader, lee charles

    2006-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is poised to begin its construction activity. This paper gives an estimate of construction safety as if the experiment was being built in the United States. This estimate of construction injuries and potential fatalities serves as a useful forecast of what can be expected for construction of such a major facility in any country. These data should be considered by the ITER International Team as it plans for safety during the construction phase. Based on average U.S. construction rates, ITER may expect a lost workday case rate of < 4.0 and a fatality count of 0.5 to 0.9 persons per year.

  19. A Duration Prediction Using a Material-Based Progress Management Methodology for Construction Operation Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongho Ko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Precise and accurate prediction models for duration and cost enable contractors to improve their decision making for effective resource management in terms of sustainability in construction. Previous studies have been limited to cost-based estimations, but this study focuses on a material-based progress management method. Cost-based estimations typically used in construction, such as the earned value method, rely on comparing the planned budget with the actual cost. However, accurately planning budgets requires analysis of many factors, such as the financial status of the sectors involved. Furthermore, there is a higher possibility of changes in the budget than in the total amount of material used during construction, which is deduced from the quantity take-off from drawings and specifications. Accordingly, this study proposes a material-based progress management methodology, which was developed using different predictive analysis models (regression, neural network, and auto-regressive moving average as well as datasets on material and labor, which can be extracted from daily work reports from contractors. A case study on actual datasets was conducted, and the results show that the proposed methodology can be efficiently used for progress management in construction.

  20. Using real options to determine optimal funding strategies for CO2 capture, transport and storage projects in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhause, Jeremy; Herold, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Several projects in the European Union (EU) are currently under development to implement the carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technology on a large scale and may be subject to public funding under EU support initiatives. These CCS projects may develop any combination of three types of operating levels: pilot, demonstration and full-scale, representing progressing levels of electric power generation capability. Several projects have commenced at the demonstration level, with full-scale commercial levels planned for approximately 2020. Taking the perspective of a funding agency, we employ a real options framework for determining an optimal project selection and funding strategy for the development of full-scale CCS plants. Specifically, we formulate and solve a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) for obtaining optimal funding solutions in order to achieve at least one successfully operating full-scale CCS plant by a target year. The model demonstrates the improved risk reduction by employing such a multi-stage competition. We then extend the model to consider two sensitivities: (1) the flexibility to spend that budget among the time periods and (2) optimizing the budget, but specifying each time period's allocation a priori. State size and runtimes of the SDP model are provided. - Highlights: • Projects implementing three different CCS technology types are described. • We obtain projects’ transition probabilities and costs from expert interviews. • We use a multi-stage real options model to obtain optimal funding strategies. • Using this approach, actual decision-makers could reduce risks in CCS development

  1. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping and other routine activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The 241-A-101 tank, a 22.9 meter 3,785,400 liter capacity SST, was constructed from the fourth generation of tank designs, which were capable of holding boiling or self-concentrating waste. Construction features a reinforced concrete shell, dome, and base with a mild steel liner covering the bottom and sidewalls. The tank has a flat bottom with a usable waste depth of approximately 9.4 meters. The tank was put into service in 1956 to store plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) high-level waste and organic wash waste. The waste was allowed to self-concentrate up until 1968. Tank sluicing was performed in 1969 and again in 1976 to reduce the amount of strontium and cesium, the two isotopes found to be the main heat generating sources in the tank. In 1978, the tank was reassigned for saltcake storage. The tank was taken out of service in November 1980 and partially isolated in 1982. Salt well pumping is a method used to interim stabilize SSTS. Interim stabilization is commenced once all the liquid above the solids has been removed (primary stabilization). Interim stabilization removes the gravity drainable liquid and the interstitial liquid between the solids from the SST and transfers the liquid to a double-shell tank (DST) or to a staging double-contained receiver tank (DCRT), which is subsequently transferred to a DST. Pumping is accomplished at very low flow rates, 15.1 liters per minute or less. Normally, salt well pumping is performed without the need of an exhauster. However, recent safety evaluations concluded that a minimum exhaust flow rate of 7.1 cubic meters per minute would be required to enhance the safety of the tank. Therefore, active ventilation will be part of this process for the 241-A-101 tank. This document details the Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the use of a portable exhauster on Tank 241-A-101 during salt well pumping and other routine activities

  2. Adequate Funding for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Public schools are currently operating in a pressure-cooker of accountability systems in which they must teach students to high standards and meet ever increasing targets for student proficiency, or face increasingly severe sanctions. Into this mix is thrown educational technology and the funding for that technology. The literature espouses the…

  3. The Potential of Using the Financial Instruments of Accumulation of the Fund for Modernization of Electroenergetics of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukiashko Pavlo O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the efficient financial instruments for the formation of of the fund of financial resources for modernization of electroenergetics of Ukraine and evaluating the potential impact of applying them. Results of an assessment of the prospects of attracting financial resources for modernization of the electroenergetic sector from outside Ukraine urge to look for the available inland possibilities for financing (depreciation fund of enterprises of the industry sector, means of the banking system, resources of private investors. The article proposes a financial instrument for attracting investments for each of the indicated sources and assesses the potential for their use. The carried out study suggests the ability of Ukraine to provide the initial stages of modernization of the electroenergetic sector by means of the domestic sources, which can further become a significant incentive for inflow of foreign investment.

  4. USE OF MIRROR PATTERN CUTTING OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF LAKE BEACH SEINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification and calculation of a new methodological approach to the construction of a standard beach seine (502 / 302 х 3.75 with the use of the properties of mirror netting ensuring the saving of the netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance. Methodology. The carp age group selectivity of the constructed seine was assessed within fish fauna monitoring based on the catch analysis of monitoring gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-130 mm according to generally accepted methods [9, 10]. Calculation of netting materials and ropes was carried out according to generally accepted methods [12-14]. Seine resistance was calculated according to N. T. Senin formula for different netting materials and the angles of the movement of different seine parts in water [2]. The gear reliability and data processing were carried out according to standard methods [11, 14, 15]. Findings. A variant of the construction of the maximum lightweight beach lake seines made of mirror pattern netting taking into account the properties of the mirror pattern netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance has been proposed. The provided recalculation of the properties of a serial seine made of rhombic mesh for the mirror netting seine taking into account netting properties allowed: 1 reducing the seine drag resistance value by 1,4 times; 2 reducing the weight of netting materials by 16.3% compared to the prototype; 3 increasing the seine selectivity when fishing older age groups of carp in non-drainable ponds. Originality. We presented the method of the calculation and construction of lake beach seines made of mirror netting, analyzed the technological stages of the construction of mirror netting, determined main qualitative and technological parameters, which had effect on the conditions of the construction and reliability of such fishing gears. A new method of the use of an insert of the combined netting material cutting ensuring

  5. Constructing a Geology Ontology Using a Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W.; Yang, L.; Yin, S.; Ye, J.; Clarke, K.

    2013-12-01

    relationship. Based on a Quaternary database of downtown of Foshan city, Guangdong Province, in Southern China, a geological ontology was constructed using the proposed method. To measure the maintenance of semantics in the conversation process and the results, an inverse mapping from the ontology to a relational database was tested based on a proposed conversation rule. The comparison of schema and entities and the reduction of tables between the inverse database and the original database illustrated that the proposed method retains the semantic information well during the conversation process. An application for abstracting sandstone information showed that semantic relationships among concepts in the geological database were successfully reorganized in the constructed ontology. Key words: geological ontology; geological spatial database; multiple inheritance; OWL Acknowledgement: This research is jointly funded by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (RFDP) (20100171120001), NSFC (41102207) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (12lgpy19).

  6. Activities on the site during construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickel, O.F.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the work done on the site from site-opening till turn over of the plant to the client. After a short introduction to time schedules, manpower on site, site facilities and civil work and constructions, the commissioning and trial operation phase is discussed in detail. This phase begins with finishing the assembly of individual systems and components and ends with the trial operation and the acceptance measurement. During this period the subsystems are started-up in a useful sequence, first from cold, then from hot conditions and are finally operated as a total with nuclear energy. The single steps are: a) commissioning of indivudal systems; b) hot functional test 1 (without fuels) c) baseline inspection at the reactor pressure vessel; d) hot functional test 2 (with fuels); e) preparation for first criticality; f) postcriticality test program; g) trial operation: h) acceptance measurement. (HP) [de

  7. 7 CFR 3560.53 - Eligible use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be used for central cooking and dining areas. (h) Management-related facilities. Funds may be used to... requirements. (m) Legal, technical and professional services. Funds may be used for the costs of legal, technical, and professional services related to the borrower's MFH project, including appraisals...

  8. Economic impact of the European Funds in Extremadura during the period 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ramajo Hernández

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the evaluation of European Union regional policy is necessary to improve the effectiveness of the operational programmes, it is not usual to find studies comparing the efficiency of two programming periods for the case of a particular region. This could be explained by the fact that, at regional level, the study of the efficiency of the European funds during two different programming periods faces many different problems; for example, it entails the consideration of both adequate and homogeneous data, and similar methodology. The goal of this paper is twofold. The first goal is to estimate the economic impact of the European Union structural and cohesion funds received by Extremadura, a Spanish convergence objective NUTS II region, during the programming period 2007-2013. To this end, it is provided a multipliers analysis based on a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Extremadura for the year 2000. Secondly, the paper will compare the returns obtained in terms of output and employment by the European funds received in Extremadura during the periods 2000-2006 and 2007-2013. Our results allow quantifying the effects of the EU regional policy, showing and comparing the efficiency for these two programming periods.

  9. Use of the "dual construct" for the management of complex spinal reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Francis H; Qureshi, Rabia; Tyger, Rose; Lehman, Rebecca; Singla, Anuj; Shimer, Adam; Hassanzadeh, Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Surgical management of complex spinal reconstructions remains a clinical challenge, as pseudoarthrosis with subsequent rod breakage can occur. Increased rod density in the form of "satellite" or "outrigger" rods have been described; however, rod-fracture above or below satellite rods persist and can result in dissociation of the construct, loss of correction, and recurrence of deformity. The use of four distinct and mechanically independent rods (dual construct) reduces this concern. Since the original case description in 2006, there have been no other studies that use the dual construct for the surgical management of complex spinal reconstructions. The purpose of this study is to review the long-term experience and surgical technique using the dual construct, and to present our complications, rod fracture rates, and outcomes for the surgical management of complex spinal reconstructions. This study used a surgical technique with case series outcomes. Patients were from a single-institute who underwent dual construct between 2010 and 2014 and who were available for 2-year follow-up. Radiographic and functional outcomes, complications, rod fracture rates, and revision surgery rates were the outcome measures. A retrospective review was conducted from a single institution between 2010 and 2014, with a subsequent 2-year follow-up period. Extensive review of patients' medical record, radiographs, and advanced imaging where available was performed. Medical record was evaluated for patient demographics, surgical procedure, and complications. Radiographic measurements included presence or absence of implant failure and proximal junctional kyphosis or distal junctional kyphosis. A total of 36 patients underwent surgical reconstruction. The average estimated blood loss was 1,856 cc (range, 400-4,000 cc). The average length of stay was 7.3 days (range, 4-22 days). Clinical follow-up reported 21 patients (58.3%) with no or minimal pain. There were six deaths during the

  10. The Adaptation Fund: a model for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Harmeling, Sven; Kaloga, Alpha Oumar

    2009-08-15

    With millions of the poor already facing the impacts of a changing climate, adaptation is a globally urgent – and costly – issue. The Adaptation Fund, created under the Kyoto Protocol, has unique features that could herald a new era of international cooperation on adaptation. Its governance structure, for instance, offers a fresh approach to fund management under the UN climate convention. The Fund's Board has also developed a constructive working atmosphere, and further progress is expected before the 2009 climate summit in Copenhagen. But developing countries' demand for adaptation funding is huge: conservative estimates put it at US$50 billion a year. The Fund's current structure and funding base are clearly only a first step towards filling that gap. And despite its significant progress over the last 18 months, many countries, particularly in the developed world, remain sceptical about this approach. Looking in detail at the Fund's evolution offers insight into its future potential as a model for adaptation finance.

  11. Funding conservation through use and potentials for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-11-01

    The protected coral reefs off the coast of Malaysia receive numerous tourists, while also being as fishing grounds. These joint environmental pressures raise the need for additional costly conservation measures. It is natural to consider the potential for expanding the 'user pays' principle, already implemented in the form of various user fees. This study explores the potential for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan in Malaysia. The study applies a choice experiment to estimate scuba divers willingness to pay higher user fees for avoiding decreases of or getting improvements in environmental and recreational aspects of the diving experience. We investigate how sensitivity to fee size and hence willingness to pay vary with suitable selected characteristics of divers. We find potentials for a third degree price discrimination strategy exploiting higher willingness to pay among foreign divers (45%), male divers (16%) and people who has visited Sipadan several times (25%). Thus, revised pricing structures could significantly increase funds for the preservation of Sipadan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 32 CFR 37.675 - Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA? 37.675 Section 37.675 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF... Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA? Yes, you must include...

  13. 26 CFR 1.468B-6 - Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Allocation of earnings in commingled accounts. If an exchange facilitator commingles (for investment or... account the time that the exchange funds are in the commingled account, actual rate or rates of return.... Example 7. Marketing fee paid to exchange facilitator. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 4, except...

  14. Constant and changing photoperiods in the laying period for broiler breeders allowed [corrected] normal or accelerated growth during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P D; Gous, R M

    2006-02-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were grown on 8-h photoperiods to 2.23 or 2.42 kg of BW at 20 wk, and then transferred abruptly to 11- or 16-h photoperiods. Subsequently, some of the 11-h photoperiod birds were given 15-min increases in day length weekly or a 1-h increase every 4 wk to reach 16 h of light at 54 wk. The birds transferred abruptly to a 16-h photoperiod at 20 wk matured 4 d earlier than 11-h photoperiod birds, required 500 g less feed to reach 50% lay, but, because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak, produced 5 fewer eggs to 60 wk. However, the number of settable eggs was similar for the 2 groups because the 11-h photoperiod birds laid more eggs on the floor, resulting in more cracked and dirty eggs. The 11-h photoperiod birds converted feed into egg more efficiently, and were 100 g heavier at end of lay. Increasing the photoperiod in 15-min or 1-h increments from 11 to 16 h during the laying cycle depressed egg production. Mean egg weight and mortality were similar for all lighting groups. The heavier BW birds at 20 wk reached maturity 1 d earlier, but used 1 kg more feed to reach maturity, laid 5 fewer total eggs (because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak), produced 7 more unsettable eggs (because more eggs were laid on the floor), and converted feed into egg less efficiently than did the lighter BW birds. Mean egg weight, BW at 57 wk, and mortality were similar for both groups. There was no significant light x growth interaction for any performance parameter. It is concluded that there is no benefit to egg production from extending the photoperiod to 16 h when broiler breeders are kept in light-proofed housing, especially if they have access to illuminated nest boxes.

  15. Formal Analysis and Design of Supervisor and User Interface Allowing for Non-Deterministic Choices Using Weak Bi-Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazada Muhammad Umair Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In human machine systems, a user display should contain sufficient information to encapsulate expressive and normative human operator behavior. Failure in such system that is commanded by supervisor can be difficult to anticipate because of unexpected interactions between the different users and machines. Currently, most interfaces have non-deterministic choices at state of machine. Inspired by the theories of single user of an interface established on discrete event system, we present a formal model of multiple users, multiple machines, a supervisor and a supervisor machine. The syntax and semantics of these models are based on the system specification using timed automata that adheres to desirable specification properties conducive to solving the non-deterministic choices for usability properties of the supervisor and user interface. Further, the succinct interface developed by applying the weak bi-simulation relation, where large classes of potentially equivalent states are refined into a smaller one, enables the supervisor and user to perform specified task correctly. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to a model of a manufacturing system with several users interacting with their machines, a supervisor with several users and a supervisor with a supervisor machine to illustrate the design procedure of human–machine systems. The formal specification is validated by z-eves toolset.

  16. Construction and use of small chambers for boron trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Lallemant, C.; Valladas, G.

    1949-01-01

    The fabrication of the chambers (the materials used, the fabrication of the parts and their assembly), and their final testing are described in a first part. Then, the preparation of crude boron fluoride, the storing of the crude, the purification of BF 3 by sublimation and condensation, the pumping, drying and filling up of the chambers, their finishing and sealing are described in a second part. The last part describes the use of the chambers for the counting of slow neutrons: amplification system, pulses discrimination and neutrons counting, accuracy. The characteristics of the amplification circuit used with the chamber are described in the appendix. (J.S.)

  17. A construction process model for implementing constructability in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langkemper, J.; Al-Jibouri, S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Maas, G.J.; Gassel, van F.

    2003-01-01

    In construction, failure of design professionals to consider how a builder will implement the design can result in scheduling problems, cost escalation, delays and disputes during the construction process. The integration of construction knowledge and experience during planning and design is termed

  18. E-Learning System for Design and Construction of Amplifier Using Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for the comprehensive understanding of electronic circuits with transistors. The proposed e-Learning system allows users to learn a wide range of topics, encompassing circuit theories, design, construction, and measurement. Given the fact that the amplifiers with transistors are an integral part of…

  19. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  20. Characteristics of construction firms at risk for future workers' compensation claims using administrative data systems, Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jennifer L; Foley, Michael; Adams, Darrin; Bonauto, Dave

    2018-06-01

    Construction is high-hazard industry, and continually ranks among those with the highest workers' compensation (WC) claim rates in Washington State (WA). However, not all construction firms are at equal risk. We tested the ability to identify those construction firms most at risk for future claims using only administrative WC and unemployment insurance data. We collected information on construction firms with 10-50 average full time equivalent (FTE) employees from the WA unemployment insurance and WC data systems (n=1228). Negative binomial regression was used to test the ability of firm characteristics measured during 2011-2013 to predict time-loss claim rates in the following year, 2014. Claim rates in 2014 varied by construction industry groups, ranging from 0.7 (Land Subdivision) to 4.6 (Foundation, Structure, and Building Construction) claims per 100 FTE. Construction firms with higher average WC premium rates, a history of WC claims, increasing number of quarterly FTE, and lower average wage rates during 2011-2013 were predicted to have higher WC claim rates in 2014. We demonstrate the ability to leverage administrative data to identify construction firms predicted to have future WC claims. This study should be repeated to determine if these results are applicable to other high-hazard industries. Practical Applications: This study identified characteristics that may be used to further refine targeted outreach and prevention to construction firms at risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Experience in use of optical theodolite for machine construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shereshevskiy, L. M.

    1984-02-01

    An optical theodolite, an instrument of small size and weight featuring a high-precision horizontal dial, was successfully used in production of forging and pressing equipment at the Voronezh plant. Such a TV-1 theodolite, together with a contact-type indicating device and a mechanism for centering the machined part, is included in a turret goniometer for angular alignment and control of cutting operations. Its micrometer has 1 inch scale divisions, the instrument is designed to give readings with a high degree of stability and reproducibility with the standard deviation of one measurement not exceeding 5 inches. It is particularly useful in production of parts with variable spacing and cross section of grooves or slots, including curvilinear ones. With a universal adapter plate on which guide prisms and an interchangeable gauge pin are mounted, this theodolite can also be used in production of large bevel gears: the same instrument for a wide range of gear sizes, diametral pitches, and tooth profiles. Using the maximum of standard components, this theodolite can be easily assembled at any manufacturing plant.

  2. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205... Funding restrictions. (a) Prohibition against construction. Funds made available under this subpart shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility or the acquisition, expansion...

  3. Tunnel construction used as solution for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Teixeira, Andre N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The construction of tunnels for pipeline routes has started being adopted as a solution for technical, environmental and safety issues in the oil and gas industry. Although it is not yet a common practice, PETROBRAS decided to use this type of construction on part of 178 extension kilometers of the main line for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline located in the Gavioes mountains in the district of Cachoeiras de Macacu (RJ). The project implementation follows a growing trend of combining efficiency and environmental protection during its execution. Because the region is full of steep grades and is located in an environmentally sensitive area, the use of a tunnel connection removes some of the risks associated with that type of terrain. Among the many technical challenges involved in the project, one must include: access through dense forest, moving personnel, building material and equipment over step terrain and providing protection from corrosion. And as far as protecting the environment is concerned, the use of a pipeline results in a significant reduction in the loss of native vegetation and damage to the ecosystem. To increase these advantages, PETROBRAS seeks to adopt the kinds of construction methods that are most adequate for the challenge at hand, while producing the best results for the project. Whether using new or tried-and-true methods, the focus is always on perfecting the quality of service provided. (author)

  4. Ready to Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone & Cartilage Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : Columbia University in the City of New York New York, NY 10032 REPORT DATE: October 2013 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual... ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...base plate for implantation was designed. Scaffolds were fabricated from a polycaprolactone hydroxyapatite polymer (PCL-HA) using a 3D bioprinter

  5. Using a constructive pavement texture index for skid resistance screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pei Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skid resistance measurement is one of the major measurements used to assess road safety. Typical devices used for measuring skid resistance include single point checking type and continuous measurements type. However, conducting periodic full roadway network skid resistance survey can be a relatively time consuming and difficult task because of the limited water carrying capacity used by all kinds of devices, including the continuous types. On the contrary, measurement of pavement surface texture can be conducted easily and continuously by most profilers. This research investigates the relation between pavement skid resistance and surface texture. The focus is on the development of a texture index that can serve as a screening indicator to filter out the high-risk pavement sections for further skid resistance measurement. Two measuring devices, GripTester (GT and National Taiwan University laser profiler (NTU Profiler, were used to collect data on pavement skid resistance and texture in a network of 555 sections, respectively. The pavement texture index of the mean difference of elevation (MDE is calculated at a 1 mm profile interval, which is a very promising indicator to represent pavement skid resistance. Through a sensitivity study, the MDE threshold of 0.15 mm is observed to provide a relatively reasonable screening function that filters out 29.01% of the entire surveyed network for further skid resistance inspection. It averted more than 70% skid resistance measurement capacity of the entire network. The accuracy of correct judgment by the selected threshold is about 80%, only 3.78% of roadway sections considered for further inspection of the recommended list are not included. Keywords: Skid resistance, Pavement texture, Macrotexture, Laser profiler, GripTester

  6. The use of concrete-filled steel structures for modular construction of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.; Graves, H.

    1997-01-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. This paper presents the results of a research program which evaluated the use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The research program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules

  7. Funding for international family planning attacked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, L

    1997-08-01

    US funding for foreign assistance has been jeopardized in recent years in the context of dwindling public support for foreign aid. To stymie the provision of international family planning program assistance and services overseas, Congressional opponents of family planning and abortion are offering amendments to foreign aid legislation at every possible opportunity. State Department reauthorization legislation is the current target of family planning opponents' efforts. Reauthorization is the process by which Congress indicates its ongoing support for a program, makes any necessary changes, and sets new funding ceilings. The global gag rule joined UNFPA funding cuts on the 1997 State Department reauthorization bill, H.R. 1757, which passed the House of Representatives in early June. If successfully appended to the State Department bill, the gag rule would prevent the US from funding any organization in a developing country which provides legal abortion services or communicates with its government on abortion-related policy, regardless of whether that organization used its own non-US funds. These restrictions and cuts to international family planning program assistance could adversely affect family planning programs, leading to less contraceptive use and higher rates of abortion, maternal morbidity, and maternal mortality. President Bill Clinton has promised to veto the bill if both houses of Congress accept the restrictions. These issues will probably arise on the annual appropriations legislation which funds US operations overseas.

  8. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T., E-mail: naoyuki.nakadozono.st@hitachi.com [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishida, K. [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  9. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T.; Nishida, K.

    2013-01-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  10. Perceiving the affordance of string tension for power strokes in badminton: expertise allows effective use of all string tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Affordances mean opportunities for action. These affordances are important for sports performance and relevant to the abilities developed by skilled athletes. In racquet sports such as badminton, different players prefer widely different string tension because it is believed to provide opportunities for effective strokes. The current study examined whether badminton players can perceive the affordance of string tension for power strokes and whether the perception of affordance itself changed as a function of skill level. The results showed that string tension constrained the striking performance of both novice and recreational players, but not of expert players. When perceptual capability was assessed, perceptual mode did not affect perception of the optimal string tension. Skilled players successfully perceived the affordance of string tension, but only experts were concerned about saving energy. Our findings demonstrated that perception of the affordance of string tension in badminton was determined by action abilities. Furthermore, experts could adjust the action to maintain a superior level of performance based on the perception of affordance.

  11. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    There is no single satisfactory way to measure productivity in the construction industry. The industry is too varied, too specialized and too dependent upon vast numbers of interrelations between trades, contractors, designers and owners. Hence, no universally reliable indices for measuring construction productivity has been developed. There are problems that are generic to all large union-built nuclear power plants. The actions of any one owner cannot rectify the shortcomings of the construction industry. The generic problems are being identified, and many national organizations are attempting to make the construction industry more productive by recommending various changes

  12. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining bracing forces during bridge construction. : Numerical finite element models and analysis techniques were developed for evaluating brace forces induced by construction loads ...

  13. Improved construction materials for polar regions using microcellular thermoplastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Microcellular polymer foams (MCF) are thermoplastic foams with very small cell diameters, less than 10 microns, and very large cell densities, 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 15) cells per cubic centimeter of unfoamed material. The concept of foaming polymers with microcellular voids was conceived to reduce the amount of material used for mass-produced items without compromising the mechanical properties. The reasoning behind this concept was that if voids smaller than the critical flaw size pre-existing in polymers were introduced into the matrix, they would not affect the overall strength of the product. MCF polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were examined to determine the effects of the microstructure towards the mechanical properties of the materials at room and arctic temperatures. Batch process parameters were discovered for these materials and foamed samples of three densities were produced for each material. To quantify the toughness and strength of these polymers, the tensile yield strength, tensile toughness, and impact resistance were measured at room and arctic temperatures. The feasibility of MCF polymers has been demonstrated by the consistent and repeatable MCF microstructures formed, but the improvements in the mechanical properties were not conclusive. Therefore the usefulness of the MCF polymers to replace other materials in arctic environments is questionable.

  14. Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: the structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, Mario; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-05-01

    Despite the absence of stimulation or task conditions the cortex exhibits highly structured spatio-temporal activity patterns. These patterns are known as resting state networks (RSNs) and emerge as low-frequency fluctuations (rest. We are interested in the relationship between structural connectivity of the cortex and the fluctuations exhibited during resting conditions. We are especially interested in the effect of degree of connectivity on resting state dynamics as the default mode network (DMN) is highly connected. We find in experimental resting fMRI data that the DMN is the functional network that is most frequently active and for the longest time. In large-scale computational simulations of the cortex based on the corresponding underlying DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity matrix, we additionally find a strong correlation between the mean degree of functional networks and the proportion of time they are active. By artificially modifying different types of neuroanatomical connectivity matrices in the model, we were able to demonstrate that only models based on structural connectivity containing hubs give rise to this relationship. We conclude that, during rest, the cortex alternates efficiently between explorations of its externally oriented functional repertoire and internally oriented processing as a consequence of the DMN's high degree of connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Confucianism allow for body donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao

    2018-01-16

    Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment... During Construction.'' This ISG provides guidance to the NRC staff on the Preliminary Amendment Request...-ISG-025 ``Interim Staff Guidance on Changes during Construction under 10 CFR Part 52'' is available...

  17. A new approach for primary overloads allowance in ratcheting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Gatt, J.M.; Lejeail, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic loading must be taken into account in ratchetting design analysis. In LMFBR structures it mainly produces primary overloads, which are characterised by severe magnitudes but a generally low number of occurrences. Other cases of several primary overloads can also observed in pipes during emptying operations for instance. In the RCC-MR design code rule, the maximum primary stress supported by a structure is considered as permanent. No allowance is made for temporary load. Experimental ratchetting tests conducted on different structures with and without overloads clearly point out that temporary overloads lead to less ratchetting effect. A method using the RCC-MR efficiency diagram framework is proposed. A general theoretical approach allows to extend its field of application of various cases of primary loading: constant or null primary loading or overloads. Experimental results are then used to check the validity of this new approach. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Quantitative Market Research Regarding Funding of District 8 Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this quantitative research is to provide information : for more effective decision making regarding the level of investment in various : transportation systems in District 8. : This objective was accomplished by establishing ...

  19. Capital Construction Fund Program :: Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaders Budget Policy Work for NOAA Fisheries Contact Us Programs Sustainable Fisheries Protected Regional Fishery Management Councils Congress Activities Budget Testimony Educators and Students Education Budget Home Appeals Division Budget FOIA Financial Services Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program Fisheries

  20. Ross Works on the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) During

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  1. E-Learning System Using Segmentation-Based MR Technique for Learning Circuit Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system using the mixed reality (MR) technique for technical experiments involving the construction of electronic circuits. The proposed system comprises experimenters' mobile computers and a remote analysis system. When constructing circuits, each learner uses a mobile computer to transmit image data from the…

  2. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or open-quotes criticalclose quotes) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration

  3. Concreting organization during Chernobylsk NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysyuk, R.I.; Kareva, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Conreting organization during the Chernobylsk NPP construction is described. Processes of extra heavy concrete production and placement, which specific mass constitutes 4t/m 3 at the age of 28 days wiath metallic aggregates and 3.3-3.5 t/m 3 at the same age without aggregates, are considered in short. Basic characteristics of this concrete are presented. At the 4th power unit labour contents for construction works were a 1.5 times lower as compared to the 3rd power unit erection. This progress was achieved by round-the-clock operation of the concrete plant with the 800 m 3 /day output and also by utilization of special equipment for mechanized concrete placement: concrete pumps, automatic concrete mixer, manipulators and concrete pipelines

  4. Development of a methodology for optimization of technical specifications using PSA based techniques. Development of methodology for evaluation of STI (Surveillance Test Interval) and AOT (Allowed Outage Time) in technical specifications using PSA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong In Lee; Dae Wook Chung; Sok Chul Kim

    1997-01-01

    In Korea, continued improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants has been set as national policy for the construction and operation of NPPs. Safety Related regulatory requirements under the Korea's Atomic Energy Laws are strictly observed in the design, fabrication, construction, and operation of NPPs. Safety regulation as regulatory concepts, efficient management of regulatory organizations, and rationalization will be improved further through the improvement of regulatory systems, introduction of to technical standards. The following improvements are considered: Periodical safety reevaluation of the operating plants; licensing system allowing certification for standard design and comprehensive site approval; and severe accident policies and criteria established for next generation reactors

  5. Automotive and Construction Equipment for Arctic Use, Materials Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    followed. Nitrile rubber ( NBR ) is one of the most common materials used in seal manufacture. It is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile and is... rubber and other elastomers, and many plastics. This problem is exacerbated, especially in equipment with diesel engines, because the engines run...their original condition in a short time on removal of the stress. The group includes natural rubbers as well as synthetic polymers. Many of these

  6. Survey of productivity rates used for highway construction.

    OpenAIRE

    Harber, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis document was issued under the authority of another institution, not NPS. At the time it was written, a copy was added to the NPS Library collection for reasons not now known. It has been included in the digital archive for its historical value to NPS. Not believed to be a CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) title. The purpose of this paper was to report on a survey conducted by the University of Florida for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). The survey analyzed the pro...

  7. 23 CFR 661.35 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? 661.35 Section 661.35 Highways... RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.35 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? (a) Up to 80 percent of the available funding...

  8. Bitter Sweetness For Fund Managers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An influx of small investors eager to earn money puts heavy pressure on fund managers Fund managers control millions in capital and call the shots in the stock market. They can make a fortune from a single judgment. The debut of fund management operation

  9. Improved inference in the evaluation of mutual fund performance using panel bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, David; Caulfield, Tristan; Ioannidis, Christos; Tonks, I P

    2014-01-01

    Two new methodologies are introduced to improve inference in the evaluation of mutual fund performance against benchmarks. First, the benchmark models are estimated using panel methods with both fund and time effects. Second, the non-normality of individual mutual fund returns is accounted for by using panel bootstrap methods. We also augment the standard benchmark factors with fund-specific characteristics, such as fund size. Using a dataset of UK equity mutual fund returns, we find that fun...

  10. What parents say about the allowance: Function of the allowance for parents of different economic incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Lauer Lellis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of giving allowance is used by several parents in different parts of the world and can contribute to the economic education of children. This study aimed to investigate the purposes of the allowance with 32 parents of varying incomes. We used the focus group technique and Alceste software to analyze the data. The results involved two classes related to the process of using the allowance. These classes have covered aspects of the role of socialization and education allowance, serving as an instrument of reward, but sometimes encouraging bad habits in children. The justification of the fathers concerning the amount of money to be given to the children and when to stop giving allowance were also highlighted.   Keywords: allowance; economic socialization; parenting practices.

  11. A Fascinating Application of Steiner's Theorem for Trapezium: Geometric Constructions Using Straightedge Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupel, Moshe; Ben-Chaim, David

    2013-01-01

    Based on Steiner's fascinating theorem for trapezium, seven geometrical constructions using straight-edge alone are described. These constructions provide an excellent base for teaching theorems and the properties of geometrical shapes, as well as challenging thought and inspiring deeper insight into the world of geometry. In particular, this…

  12. Construction of image database for newspapaer articles using CTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Tatsuo

    Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. developed a system of making articles' image database automatically by use of CTS (Computer Typesetting System). Besides the articles and the headlines inputted in CTS, it reproduces the image of elements of such as photography and graphs by article in accordance with information of position on the paper. So to speak, computer itself clips the articles out of the newspaper. Image database is accumulated in magnetic file and optical file and is output to the facsimile of users. With diffusion of CTS, newspaper companies which start to have structure of articles database are increased rapidly, the said system is the first attempt to make database automatically. This paper describes the device of CTS which supports this system and outline.

  13. Finding Funding: A Guide to Federal Sources for Asset-Building Initiatives. Finding Funding Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Christianne; Relave, Nanette; Schmid, William; Terzaghi, Damon

    2009-01-01

    This guide outlines strategies for financing asset-building initiatives and provides information on 71 federal funding sources that can be used to support a range of activities and services. It includes well-known sources of funding for asset building, for example, the Assets for Independence Demonstration Program and the Family Self-Sufficiency…

  14. Construction of a New Phage Integration Vector pFIV-Val for Use in Different Francisella Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Tlapák

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified and described a putative prophage on the genomic island FhaGI-1 located within the genome of Francisella hispaniensis AS02-814 (F. tularensis subsp. novicida-like 3523. In this study, we constructed two variants of a Francisella phage integration vector, called pFIV1-Val and pFIV2-Val (Francisella Integration Vector-tRNAVal-specific, using the attL/R-sites and the site-specific integrase (FN3523_1033 of FhaGI-1, a chloramphenicol resistance cassette and a sacB gene for counter selection of transformants against the vector backbone. We inserted the respective sites and genes into vector pUC57-Kana to allow for propagation in Escherichia coli. The constructs generated a circular episomal form in E. coli which could be used to transform Francisella spp. where FIV-Val stably integrated site specifically into the tRNAVal gene of the genome, whereas pUC57-Kana is lost due to counter selection. Functionality of the new vector was demonstrated by the successfully complementation of a Francisella mutant strain. The vectors were stable in vitro and during host-cell infection without selective pressure. Thus, the vectors can be applied as a further genetic tool in Francisella research, expanding the present genetic tools by an integrative element. This new element is suitable to perform long-term experiments with different Francisella species.

  15. Qualification of technical personnel for employment during construction and operation of the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Wolf, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the early stages of the SSC design it became apparent that construction will have a significant impact on post-secondary technical/vocational education in Texas. Present estimates are that from 2,000 to 3,000 employees will be needed in the traditional fields of civil, mechanical, electrical technology, computers as well as exotic technologies such as cryogenics and high vacuum. In this paper an on-going project is described which is directed toward assuring that graduates of Texas post-secondary technical and vocational education programs will be competitive for employment in these jobs. The project involves development of SSC pedagogical material at a level appropriate to the students, education of teachers about the SSC and development of delivery systems for education about the SSC

  16. Financing state newborn screening programs: sources and uses of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kay; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Mann, Marie Y; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Therrell, Bradford L

    2006-05-01

    Financing for newborn screening is different from virtually all other public health programs. All except 5 screening programs collect fees as the primary source of program funding. A fee-based approach to financing newborn screening has been adopted by most states, to ensure consistent funding for this critical public health activity. Two types of data are reported here, ie, primary data from a survey of 37 state public health agencies and findings from exploratory case studies from 7 states. Most of the programs that participated in this survey (73%) reported that their newborn screening funding increased between 2002 and 2005, typically through increased fees and to a lesser extent through Medicaid, Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, and state general revenue funding. All of the responding states that collect fees (n = 31) use such funds to support laboratory expenses, and most (70%) finance short-term follow-up services and program management. Nearly one half (47%) finance longer-term follow-up services, case management, or family support beyond diagnosis. Other states (43%) finance genetic or nutritional counseling and formula foods or treatment. Regardless of the source of funds, the available evidence indicates that states are committed to maintaining their programs and securing the necessary financing for the initial screening through diagnosis. Use of federal funding is currently limited; however, pressure to provide dedicated federal funding would likely increase if national recommendations for a uniform newborn screening panel were issued.

  17. Using the direct current voltage gradient technology as a quality control tool during construction of new pipelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masilela, Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available pipelines. This technique is now increasingly gaining popularity as a good quality control tool when used on newly laid pipelines to detect coating damage, most of which could be attributed to construction work. On a recently built 50 km long gas pipeline...

  18. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TURKISH TYPE A MUTUAL FUNDS AND PENSION STOCK FUNDS BY USING TOPSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin ALPTEKIN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is evaluated performance of Turkish Type A mutual funds and pension stock funds by using TOPSIS method which is a multicriteria decision making approach. Both of these funds compose of stocks in their portfolios, so it can be enabled to compare each other. Generally, mutual or pension funds are evaluated according to their risk and return. At this point, it is used traditional performance measurement techniques of funds like Sharpe ratio, Sortino ratio, Treynor index and Jensen’s alpha. TOPSIS method takes into consideration all of these fund performance measurement techniques and provides more reasonable performance measurement.

  20. Modular construction: 30 years of experience in the naval sector, useful for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepelletier, P.; Danguy des Deserts, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the benefits of modular construction in the sector of submarines that was implemented in the mid eighties in French shipyards. The design of the submarine is cut in different longitudinal parts so that each part can be built and completely equipped independently from the other parts. The different parts are then joined and welded at the end of the process of fabrication to form the submarine. The main advantages of such a construction are shorter construction times, standardized construction and a higher quality standard. DCNS proposes to use modular construction for the design of Flexblue which is an immersed small modular reactor (SMR). More generally, modular construction will add economic competitiveness to SMR reactors that will be necessary to their full development on a worldwide scale

  1. 76 FR 45208 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... included within the employee's ``family'' for purposes of access to alcohol and drug abuse programs. These... dependent and family member relationships, including domestic partners. We are also proposing to change OPM... relationships to either an employee, the employee's spouse, or the employee's domestic partner: (1) A biological...

  2. 77 FR 42905 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... partnership. It is [the agency's] position that employees in same-sex and opposite-sex domestic partnerships... services for children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees; make certain technical....), and June 2, 2010, that agencies consider extending benefits, where possible, to same-sex domestic...

  3. Innovative funding solution for special projects: Crowd funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Imam Wahjono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of crowd funding knowledge, applica-tion, platform, and project initiator toward successful crowd funding. This study conducted by quantitative approach, data have been collected with web-based ques-tionnaires via Kickstarter.com direct message and e-mail to 200 successful crowd funding project initiators as a sample and as much 152 sets questionnaire returned by a complete answer and should be analyzed further. Deployment and data collection take 3 month from October to December 2013. This study found evidence that crowd funding knowledge, crowd funding application, crowd funding platform, and project initiator has positive and significant relationship toward the success of crowd funding. The implication from this research is crowd funding can be a source of capital to finance the projects, not just rely on traditional sources of financing just like banking and capital markets. Crowd funding can be innovative funding solution.

  4. Usefulness Of Three-Dimensional Printing Models for Patients with Stoma Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tominaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of patient-specific organ models in three-dimensional printing systems could be helpful for the education of patients and medical students. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the use of patient-specific stoma models is helpful for patient education. From January 2014 to September 2014, 5 patients who underwent colorectal surgery and for whom a temporary or permanent stoma had been created were involved in this study. Three-dimensional stoma models and three-dimensional face plates were created. The patients’ ages ranged from 59 to 81 years. Four patients underwent stoma construction because of rectal cancer, and 1 underwent stoma construction because of colon stenosis secondary to recurrent cancer. All patients were educated about their stoma and potential stoma-associated problems using three-dimensional stoma models, and all practiced cutting face plates using three-dimensional face plates. The models were also used during medical staff conferences to discuss current issues. All patients understood their problems and finally became self-reliant. The recent availability of three-dimensional printers has enabled the creation of many organ models, and full-scale stoma and face plate models are now available for patient education on cutting an appropriately individualized face plate. Thus, three-dimensional printers could enable fewer skin problems than are currently associated with daily stomal care.

  5. 41 CFR 301-75.201 - May we allow the interviewee to use individual Government contractor-issued charge cards for pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interviewee to use individual Government contractor-issued charge cards for pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.201 Section 301-75.201 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL...

  6. Estimating of funding levels for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieving, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to meet its public service obligations, an electric utility must attain the following objectives: Recognize future power requirements early, and take appropriate actions to satisfy them; Construct new generating, transmission and distribution facilities in a timely and economical manner; Operate its facilities safely, and maintain them without decreasing the quality and reliability of service. In the case of a nuclear electric generating station, the third objective includes the obligation to decommission the station following shutdown at the end of its useful life and to dispose of residual radioactivity in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines, as a part of the process of terminating the NRC license. In the case of an investor-owned electric utility, the third objective includes the additional duty to estimate the cost of decommissioning for ratemaking purposes, since the funds required for this future event must be collected over the life of the generating station from the consumers who enjoy the benefits of its output. This article deals with these issues

  7. Energy use for building construction. Final report, March 1, 1976--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, B M; Stein, R G; Segal, B; Serber, D; Stein, C

    1976-12-01

    Total (direct and indirect) energy requirements of the construction industry for 1967 were determined in order to examine the potential for energy savings. The Energy Input/Output Model developed at the Center for Advanced Computation, University of Illinois, was expanded to include 49 building and non-building construction sectors (new and maintenance). Total energy intensities were determined for these sectors, as well as energy requirements to final demand. Overall, the construction industry required about 6000 trillion Btu, or about 9% of the total U. S. energy requirement in 1967. About 20% of this requirement was for direct energy. Energy requirements were further broken down according to goods and services purchased by individual construction sectors, and energy distribution patterns were determined within each construction sector. Energy cost per unit for various building materials were calculated, as well as 1967 energy cost per square foot for building sectors. Laboratories required the most energy per square foot (2,074,056 Btu/SF), while Farm Service required the least (149,071 Btu/SF). Comparative interchangeable building assemblies were evaluated for their energy costs, including initial construction and lifetime maintenance energy. Tradeoffs between construction and operational energy costs were determined for a selected wall frame assembly with different exterior finishes and varying degrees of insulation. A study was initiated to determine industries in which direct energy use led to a significant amount of the energy embodied in New Building Construction for 1967. The resulting Energy Flow Chart is included.

  8. Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Electricity sector analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The present report is the final electricity sector analysis report in the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds'. As part of the project a number of quantitative analyses have been carried out for the electricity sector. The report presents the results of those electricity sector analyses. The present project aims at: 1. Identifying major issues relating to the restructuring and liberalization process in the Polish electricity and the gas sector, 2. Setting up an overview of the Polish electricity and natural gas sector, 3. Setting up scenarios for development of electricity and gas markets in the period to 2020, 4. Updating the Balmorel model with recent data for the Polish electricity system, 5. Analyzing future consequences of liberalization of energy markets for the producers, consumers and the Polish economy and society as a whole, 6. Presenting the possibilities and preparing a practical guide for using EU funds and community programmes for large infrastructure projects in the energy sector. (BA)

  9. PERSISTENCE IN PERFORMANCE FOR MUTUAL FUNDS IN PERIODS OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros KARGIDIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the persistence in performance for a sample of South European funds, domiciled in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain. Employing the Sharpe ratio, risk adjusted performance is measured in an attempt to judge the influence of the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis on funds’ inclination to persist in their previous returns record. Examination period extends from January 2004 to December 2010 incorporating stages of relative stability in the stock and bond markets while also capturing the early stages of the eurozone crisis. We categorize funds as winners and losers in consecutive 6-monthly periods, thus being able to judge persistence in the short run, while our results suggest that the identification of winners and losers could enable us to investigate the possibility to gain investment advantages through this finding. Overall results suggest evidence of persistent results, whether positive or negative, both during the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis, leading us to deduce that factors leading to performance persistence are not affected by market changes, since medium to long term persistence bypasses any temporary market mischief. This finding could be of use for fund managers aiming at establishing viable investment strategies, at their epicenter being the exploitation of such clues, suggesting persistence in returns. A fund of funds manager employing funds both in equities and fixed income could potentially choose to invest exclusively or more heavily in the winners of previous periods and avoid accordingly poor performers, thus achieving higher returns on average. For this purpose simple investment strategies are employed where we test the outcome of an investment strategy that would invest on fixed income securities by choosing those funds that were winners in the distribution of returns in the previous 6-monthly period, while disinvesting from poor performers and funds switching sides in performance

  10. Use sulfoferritic cements in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samchenko, Svetlana V.; Zorin, Dmitriy A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, high-rise construction has received increasing attention around the world. In the big cities under construction is less space and one solution is the high-rise construction. However, high-rise buildings use special requirements, such as strength, thermal insulation, wind load and others. When concrete is exposed to continuous loads by wind or to mechanical loads, it undergoes abrasion. Resistance to this process depends on the characteristics of materials that the concrete and finishing seams are made of. Research on increasing impact and abrasion resistance of calcium sulfoferrite-based cement stone from the perspective of formation of cement stone structure will be instrumental in developing durable materials for application in high-rise construction.

  11. Exploring Massachusetts Health Care Reform Impact on Fee-for-Service-Funded Substance Use Disorder Treatment Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dail; Pruett, Jana; Roman, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is forecast to increase the demand for and utilization of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Massachusetts implemented health reforms similar to the ACA in 2006-2007 that included expanding coverage for SUD treatment. This study explored the impact of Massachusetts health reforms from 2007 to 2010 on SUD treatment providers in Massachusetts, who relied on fee-for-service billings for more than 50% of their revenue. The changes across treatment facilities located in Massachusetts were compared to changes in other similar fee-for-service-funded SUD treatment providers in Northeast states bordering Massachusetts and in all other states across the US. From 2007-2010, the percentage changes for Massachusetts based providers were significantly different from the changes among providers located in the rest of the US for admissions, outpatient census, average weeks of outpatient treatment, residential/in-patient census, detoxification census, length of average inpatient and outpatient stays, and provision of medication-assisted treatment. Contrary to previous studies of publicly funded treatment providers, the results of this exploratory study of providers dependent on fee-for-service revenues were consistent with some predictions for the overall effects of the ACA.

  12. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRANDO, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping

  13. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  14. HRSA's PCRE grant recipients' plans for continuation after funding ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Thomas J; Burke, Daniel; Engel, Matthew; Loomis, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the US Department of Health and Human Services, under the Affordable Care Act, appropriated over $167 million to the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) for the Primary Care Residency Expansion (PCRE) program. In 2011, grants from the PCRE program were provided to residency programs in the specialties of family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatrics, allowing them to increase the number of residents in their programs. Seventy-seven programs received grant funding, and 504 primary care resident positions were created. The grants provide 5 years of funding for these positions. There is no provision for federal funding of these positions after 2016. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of residencies that had identified funding that would allow them to continue training these new positions after the PCRE grant period ends. Programs receiving PCRE funding were identified through the HRSA data warehouse website.1 Program directors were surveyed by email between January and March of 2013. A total of 55 programs responded, for a 71.4% response rate. Of those programs, 17.5% had identified funding that would allow them to continue training the increased number of positions beyond 2016. This one-time funding exhibits challenges to sustainability. This information will help inform policy makers that sustainable expansion of primary care graduate medical education (GME) training will require strategies other than time-limited funding mechanisms.

  15. Three-dimensional bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with polycaprolactone protective layers for using various thermoplastic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Jang, Jinah; Chae, Suhun; Gao, Ge; Kong, Jeong-Sik; Ahn, Minjun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-08-22

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed constructs have been recognized as promising biological substitutes for tissue/organ regeneration. They provide tailored physical properties and biological cues via multi-material printing process. In particular, hybrid bioprinting, enabling to use biodegradable synthetic polymers as framework, has been an attractive method to support weak hydrogels. The constructs with controlled architecture and high shape fidelity were fabricated through this method, depositing spatial arrangement of multi-cell types into microscale constructs. Among biodegradable synthetic polymers, polycaprolactone (PCL) has been commonly chosen in fabrication of cell-printed constructs because of its low melting temperature of 60 °C to be dispensed with extrusion-based bioprinting system. However, in addition to PCL, various synthetic polymers have been widely applied for tissue regeneration. These polymers have distinctive characteristics essential for tissue/organ regeneration. Nevertheless, it is difficult to use some polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polylactic acid (PLA) with 3D bioprinting technology because of their high melting temperature to be dispensed, which can result in thermal damage to the cells in the printed constructs during the fabrication process. We present a novel bioprinting method to use various synthetic polymers in fabrication of cell-printed constructs. PCL was introduced as a protective layer to prevent thermal damage caused by high temperature of polymers during fabrication. Remarkable improvement in cellular activities in the printed constructs with PCL layers was observed compared with the construct without PCL. This bioprinting method can be applied to fabricate more tissue-like constructs through the use of various biomaterials.

  16. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for incremental funding. 3432.771 Section 3432.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION..., Incremental Funding, in a solicitation if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is...

  17. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This symposium provides a forum for exchange of ideas on current research nationally and internationally on the use of industrial byproducts and other recycled materials in geotechnical construction. A key objective is to identify new opportunities...

  18. Environmental management systems - before, during and after construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an operational environmental managment system (EMS) as developed by TransCanada PipeLines, including an example of the application and concomitant benefits. The focus will be on the planning, construction, inspection and post-construction monitoring programs, covering approximately 3,190 kilometers of large diameter pipeline constructed between 1990 and 1996, across a wide range of Canadian land-uses and ecosystems. With the implementation of such systems, governments have recognized that corporate responsibility and self-management on environmental matters can result in effective, environmentally sound programs that minimize impacts and allow for a more cost-effective and streamlined regulatory approach. (au)

  19. ICF and casemix models for healthcare funding: use of the WHO family of classifications to improve casemix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Richard; Marshall, Ric; Race, Susan

    2013-06-01

    Casemix models for funding activity in health care and assessing performance depend on data based on uniformity of resource utilisation. It has long been an ideal to relate the measure of value more to patient outcome than output. A problem frequently expressed by clinicians is that measures of activity such as Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index scores may not sufficiently represent the aspirations of patients in many care programs. Firstly, the key features of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health are outlined. Secondly, the use of ICF dimensions in Australia and other countries is reviewed. Thirdly, a broader set of domains with potential for casemix funding models and performance reporting is considered. In recent years, the ICF has provided a more developed set of domains against which outcome goals can be expressed. Additional dimensions could be used to supplement existing data. Instances of developments in this area are identified and their potential discussed. A well-selected set of data items representing the broader dimensions of outcome goals may provide the ability to more meaningfully and systematically measure the goals of both curative and rehabilitation care against which outcome should be measured. More information about patient goals may be needed.

  20. [Štampar's contemporary Josip Šilović: the founder of the Colonization fund for orphans from hunger-stricken Croatian areas and the Fund for orphans of Croatian emigrants during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Agneza

    2015-11-01

    This article gives a brief review of the scientific, academic, and political activity of Josip Šilović, and most importantly of his humanitarian work. He will be remembered for saving thousands of children who lost their fathers or brothers to World War I and who were left to starve to death. To this end Šilović and his associates established several funds and organisations, most notably Narodna zaštita. He continued with his humanitarian activities until he died in Zagreb in 1939.

  1. Determination of pollutants in foundry during the manufacture of metal constructions for high buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Irina; Sushko, Elena; Lyshnikova, Anna; Prykina, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Current developments are devoted to the environmental safety of the foundry. There is a significant amount of pollutants, according to dust, which is released in the working area, during the manufacture of metal structures for high buildings. From the point of dust extraction, the most unfavorable areas are shot blasting, sand-blasting chambers and knockout grills. The weight fraction of dust composition with diameters up to 20 μm reaches 43,8% by mass, according to experimental analysis. This kind of dust is the most dangerous to employees and also it creates problems for dust-cleaning in the air.

  2. Addendum to Final Audit Report on Contracting Practices for the Use and Operations of DoD-Sponsored Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Inspector General, DoD, Report No. 95-048, "Contracting Practices for the Use and Operations of DoD-Sponsored Federally Funded Research and Development Centers," December 2, 1994, was published without management comments...

  3. Funding for reactor decommissioning: the NRC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The cost of decommissioning a nuclear power plant is discussed. Four funding approaches that have received the most attention from the NRC are: prepayment into a trust fund of estimated decommissioning funds at the start of facility operation; annual contributions into a trust fund outside the control of the utility over the estimated life of a facility; internal reserve or sinking fund amortizations over the estimated life of a facility; and insurance or other surety mechanisms used separately or in conjunction with any of the first three mechanisms

  4. 42 CFR 137.338 - Must funds from other sources be incorporated into a construction project agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.338 Must funds from other sources be... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must funds from other sources be incorporated into a construction project agreement? 137.338 Section 137.338 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  5. Dark refraction shift with allowance for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.H. Gillan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show that the dark refraction shift (dark focus is a more complicated phenomenon than implied when presented as spherical. Methods: Fifty autorefractor measurements of refractive state of the right eye were obtained in light  and  dark  conditions.  Multivariate  methods were used to analyze the data and stereo-pair scat-ter plots, polar meridional profiles and other means of presenting results are used to show important characteristics of the dark refraction shift. Results: The complexity of the dark refrac-tion shift is indicated by stereo-pair scatter plots showing the amount of stigmatic and antistigmatic variation that occurs in light and dark conditions. The mean dark refraction shift is presented in a complete manner including all three components of refractive state. The greater variance and covari-ance under dark conditions is clearly shown by the term-by-term dark-light variance-covariance ratio and polar profiles  of variance and covariance.Conclusions: The  dark  refraction  shift  is  a more complicated phenomenon than implied by representations as purely spherical in nature.

  6. Constructal design of phase change material enclosures used for cooling electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbasi, Rasool; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in cooling methods for portable electronic devices have heightened the need for using the large latent heat capacity of phase change materials (PCM). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the thermal characteristics of a PCM-based heat sink with high conductive materials. The solution is acquired as a procession of optimization stages which starts with the elemental area and proceeds toward the first assembly. Every optimization stage is the result of maximizing the safe operation time without allowing the electronics to reach the critical temperature. Primarily, the degrees of freedom and constrains were defined and then by changing the geometrical parameters, the target function which is the maximization of operation time, was optimized. Results show that the melting process in rectangular enclosures with vertical fins attached to the heated bottom surface can be affected by the contact surface between the fin and PCM and the convection of the melted PCM. For a rectangular enclosure with a constant area, it is better to use wider enclosure than the square and thin one. Also results indicate that the ratio of the vertical fin thickness to the horizontal one does not have a considerable effect on performance. By increasing the number of enclosures, the contact surface is raised, but the performance is not necessarily improved. - Highlights: • Thermal characteristics of a finned PCM-based heat sink are studied. • Constructal theory was used to optimize the PCM enclosures. • By increasing the number of enclosures, the performance is not necessarily improved

  7. 45 CFR 1610.4 - Authorized use of non-LSC funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activity prohibited by or inconsistent with Section 504. (c) A recipient may receive private funds and use.... (a) A recipient may receive tribal funds and expend them in accordance with the specific purposes for which the tribal funds were provided. (b) A recipient may receive public or IOLTA funds and use them in...

  8. Fund my treatment!: A call for ethics-focused social science research into the use of crowdfunding for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Mathers, Annalise; Crooks, Valorie A

    2016-11-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising money from large groups of individuals, often through the use of websites dedicated to this purpose. Crowdfunding campaigns aimed at raising money to pay for expenses related to receiving medical treatment are receiving increased media attention and there is evidence that medical crowdfunding websites are heavily used. Nonetheless, virtually no scholarly attention has been paid to these medical crowdfunding campaigns and there is no systematic evidence about how widely they are used and for what reasons, and what effects they have on the provision of medical care and individuals' relationships to their health systems. Ethical concerns have been raised in relation to these campaigns, focusing on issues for campaigners and donors such as exposure to fraudulent campaigns, loss of privacy, and fairness in how medical crowdfunding funds are distributed. Medical crowdfunding websites themselves have not been systematically studied, despite their significant influence on how these campaigns are developed and promoted. In this paper, we identify three very broad and pressing ethical questions regarding medical crowdfunding for social scientists to address and offer some preliminary insights into key issues informing future answers to each: Who benefits the most from medical crowdfunding and how does medical crowdfunding affect access to medical care; How does medical crowdfunding affect our understanding of the causes of inadequate access to medical care; and How are campaigner and donor privacy affected by website design? Our observations indicate the need for increased scholarly attention to the ethical and practical effects of medical crowdfunding for campaigners, recipients, donors, and the health system as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Drugs indicated for use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, André B

    2011-01-01

    The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) advocates that drugs used during pregnancy be tested exclusively in women. The SOGC holds the opinion that drugs to be used exclusively in men or in women should not be tested in a small number of men and women. The SOGC, always cautious with the choice of pharmacological treatments recommended for use during pregnancy, welcomes the increased options resulting from the introduction of generic formulations of drugs shown to be bioequivalent to currently available brand name products. These formulations provide less expensive options to Canadian women in need of drug therapy. However, the Society does not believe that drugs should be substituted without the patient and the physician both agreeing to such a change. Generic substitutions of some products may mean a potentially clinically significant difference in drug dose, possibly resulting in a changed patient effect. Furthermore, substituting a product on the basis of price alone is not acceptable.The SOGC, as an organization with the role of advising its members on clinical practice, calls on Health Canada to review its guideline on testing of drugs for vulnerable populations, especially pregnant women.

  10. Environmental monitoring of a wind park during the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castonguay, M.; Caron, F.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy qualifies as green energy because of low gas emissions associated with energy production. However, in order to truly qualify as green, each phase of a wind energy project should be evaluated, including construction, the energy exploitation period, as well as the dismantling of the turbines. Environmental monitoring of wind turbine arrays during the construction and dismantling phases could reveal the environmental impact of a project. This article provided the example of a wind turbine array at l'Anse-a-Valleau, located in a forested territory on the north side of the Gaspe Peninsula along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. The park was configured to have 67 wind turbines of 1.5 MW each, for a total of 100.5 MW. The project was evaluated at $164 million, with regional economic spending of $65.8 million. During the height of construction, the project employed 240 workers. Ten full-time jobs will be created for the operation phase, scheduled for the end of 2007. The environmental monitoring at the construction site is deemed both technical and social. Good working conditions and communication must be established between the environmental supervisor and the site manager. They must work jointly to ensure good conduct and progress of the work at the construction site. The environmental supervisor must have the necessary authority to stop work upon a breach of regulations in the deforesting phase, since 60 per cent of the territory is on public domain. Environmental monitoring also includes surveillance of the road construction, soil quality, transportation of equipment, air quality, noise pollution, and residual matter management. It was concluded that wind energy is a true form of green energy, and methods used by developers during construction demonstrate responsibility towards the environment. It was suggested that the key to success is to have good pre-planning and good communication between all parties concerned. 4 figs

  11. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  12. Evaluation of allowed outage time using PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) different measures of risk importance can be established. These measures can be used as a basis for further evaluation and determination of allowed outage time for specific components, within safety systems of a nuclear power plant. In order to optimize the allowed outage time (AOT) stipulated in the plant's Technical Specification it is necessary to create a methodology which could incorporate existing PRA data into a quantitative extrapolation. In order to evaluate the plant risk status due to AOT in a quantitative manner, the risk achievement worth is utilized. Risk achievement worth is defined as follows: to measure the worth of a feature, in achieving the present risk, one approach is to remove the feature and then determine how much the risk has increased. Thus, the risk achievement worth is formally defined to be the increase in risk if the feature were assumed not be there or to be failed. Another parameter of interest for this analysis is the shutdown risk increase. The shutdown risk achievement worth must be incorporated into the accident sequence risk achievement worth to arrive at an optimal set of plant specific AOTs

  13. Mining for constructions in texts using N-gram and network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    N-gram analysis to Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Mark Twain's novelThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and extrapolate a number of likely constructional phenomena from recurring N-gram patterns in the two texts. In addition to simple N-gram analysis, the following....... The main premise is that, if constructions are functional units, then configurations of words that tend to recur together in discourse are likely to have some sort of function that speakers utilize in discourse. Writers of fiction, for instance, may use constructions in characterizations, mind-styles, text...

  14. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the annual limit intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0 to 32 μm yr -1 ), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0 to 60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 μCi and 136 μCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively. (author)

  15. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Hunt, B W

    1979-05-01

    Values of the annual limit of intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0-32 micron yr-1), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0-60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 muCi and 136 muCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF TURKISH EQUITY UMBRELLA FUNDS USING THE MORNINGSTAR RATING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Yavuz; Altinirmak, Serpil

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - Different types of funds exist depending on the assetsthe portfolio is composed of. The main types of funds include; bond umbrellafunds, equity umbrella funds, precious metal umbrella fund, fund basketumbrella funds, money market umbrella funds, participation umbrella fund,balanced umbrella funds, free umbrella funds, guaranteed umbrella fund,umbrella fund for protection purposes.The subject of our study is equityumbrella funds. These kinds of funds receive at least 80% of the share...

  17. Implementation of a Pharmacist-Directed Cardiovascular Risk and Medication Management Program for Participants in a Construction Trade Benefit Trust Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To report the results of a pharmacist-directed cardiovascular risk management program; and (2 to identify obstacles faced by the pharmacists in the program implementation. Methods: The collaborators in this study included two local unions, a health benefit consulting company, and a community pharmacy. A total of 750 union workers with cardiovascular risk were informed about the cardiovascular risk management program. The program lasted six months, and the participation was voluntary. There were three group educational sessions with each session followed by a medication management service. A staff person of the health benefit consulting company and two pharmacists were interviewed via telephone. The interview questions were created according to the Gaps Model of Service Quality. The Gaps Model theorizes five gaps among consumer expectations, consumer perceptions, management perceptions of consumer expectations, service quality, service delivery, and external communications to consumers. The following data were collected: (1 types and quantity of drug therapy problems, (2 pharmacists' recommendations and prescribers' response, (3 patients' quality of life, disability days, and sick days, and (4 the experience of involved parties. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: Fifteen union workers participated in the program. For the participants, 35 drug-related problems were identified, with "need for additional therapy" and "dose too low" being the most common problems. To address these drug-related problems, pharmacists made 33 recommendations to prescribers, and prescribers accepted 55% of the recommendations. According to the interviews, there were three barriers faced by pharmacists to implement the program: lack of consensus about the recruitment, union workers' unawareness of the program's benefits, and limited support from the unions and the health benefit consulting company. Conclusions: It was difficult to recruit

  18. Implementation of a Pharmacist-Directed Cardiovascular Risk and Medication Management Program for Participants in a Construction Trade Benefit Trust Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Liu, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To report the results of a pharmacist-directed cardiovascular risk management program; and (2 to identify obstacles faced by the pharmacists in the program implementation. Methods: The collaborators in this study included two local unions, a health benefit consulting company, and a community pharmacy. A total of 750 union workers with cardiovascular risk were informed about the cardiovascular risk management program. The program lasted six months, and the participation was voluntary. There were three group educational sessions with each session followed by a medication management service. A staff person of the health benefit consulting company and two pharmacists were interviewed via telephone. The interview questions were created according to the Gaps Model of Service Quality. The Gaps Model theorizes five gaps among consumerexpectations, consumer perceptions, management perceptions of consumer expectations, service quality, service delivery, and external communications to consumers. The following data were collected: (1 types and quantity of drug therapy problems, (2 pharmacists’ recommendations and prescribers' response, (3 patients’ quality of life, disability days, and sick days, and (4 the experience of involved parties. Descriptive statistics were calculated.Results: Fifteen union workers participated in the program. For the participants, 35 drug-related problems were identified, with “need for additional therapy” and “dose too low” being the most common problems. To address these drug-related problems, pharmacists made 33 recommendations to prescribers, and prescribers accepted 55% of the recommendations. According to the interviews, there were three barriers faced by pharmacists to implement the program: lack of consensus about the recruitment, union workers’ unawareness of the program’s benefits, and limited support from the unions and the health benefitconsulting company.Conclusions: It was difficult to

  19. 23 CFR 661.43 - Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of... project that has been approved for funding and placed on the queue and then be reimbursed when IRRBP funds... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued...

  20. Performance-based specifications for temporary erosion and sediment control during construction : a survey of state practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    During construction projects, surrounding soils can be disrupted, causing ecological damage through topsoil erosion and pollution of waterways with sediment. MnDOT currently has requirements and inspection procedures to ensure that contractors take m...

  1. Models of resource planning during formation of calendar construction plans for erection of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocebneva, Irina; Belousov, Vadim; Fateeva, Irina

    2018-03-01

    This article provides a methodical description of resource-time analysis for a wide range of requirements imposed for resource consumption processes in scheduling tasks during the construction of high-rise buildings and facilities. The core of the proposed approach and is the resource models being determined. The generalized network models are the elements of those models, the amount of which can be too large to carry out the analysis of each element. Therefore, the problem is to approximate the original resource model by simpler time models, when their amount is not very large.

  2. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of the lecture deals with the Quality Assurance system on the construction site in general. Basic site-related problems during contract implementation and the QA system requirements resulting from them are presented. The compilation of these requirements in a QA program and its inclusion in the site manual in written form are explained. Site organization, personnel qualification and procedures are referred to. Whereas the first part shows what is to be done, the second part shows how it can be put into practice on the site. All the essential points for the assurance of quality are addressed. They include, e.g., review of documents, incoming goods control, in-process surveillance, store controls, identification of components and systems, dealing with changes and deviations, documentation control and audits. By means of examples taken form practice the necessity of a well-functioning QA system, and the importance of quality-assuring measures on the site are pointed out. (orig.)

  3. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  4. Opportunities for Funding at NSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafafi, Zakya H.

    2009-03-01

    Materials science, inter- and multi-disciplinary in nature, provides the bridge to many areas of fundamental and applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering. Strong links that may exist between materials science and other disciplines, such as biology or chemistry or physics, very often lead to novel applications and enable technologies of great benefit to our society. The Division of Materials Research (DMR) invested 274.0 M in FY 2008 and is estimated to invest 324.6 M in FY 2009 funding research and education as well as enabling tools & instrumentation for individual investigators, groups, centers, and national facilities. DMR programs cover a wide spectrum of materials research and education ranging from condensed matter and materials physics, solid-state and materials chemistry, multifunctional, hybrid, electronic, photonic, metallic, ceramic, polymeric, bio-materials, composites and nanostructures to list a few. New modes of funding, research opportunities and directions, such as the recent SOLAR solicitation, will be described. This Solar Energy Initiative launched jointly by three divisions, namely Chemistry, Materials Research and Mathematical Science is aimed at supporting truly interdisciplinary efforts that address the scientific challenges of highly efficient harvesting, conversion, and storage of solar energy. The goal of this new program is to create a new modality of linking the mathematical with the chemical and materials sciences to develop transformative paradigms based on the integrated expertise and synergy from three disciplinary communities. DMR is also seeking new ways to transform materials science and education, and make it more attractive as a career for bright, young women & men. A description will be given of several workshops held this year and planned for next year with this purpose in mind. Outreach programs that emphasize how the innovations resulting from materials research

  5. Complicating the dominant morality discourse: mothers and fathers' constructions of substance use during pregnancy and early parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; Magnus, Samantha; Phillips, Rachel; Marcellus, Lenora; Charbonneau, Sinéad

    2015-08-25

    Consumption of substances is a highly controversial behaviour, with those who do so commonly viewed as deviants, even criminals, or else as out of control addicts. In other work we showed that the use of substances by women who are pregnant or have recently become parents was mainly viewed by health and social care providers as morally wrong. Problematic substance use was framed through the narrow lens of gendered responsibilisation, resulting in women being seen primarily as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. In this follow-up paper we examine descriptive and qualitative data from a convenience sample of biological mothers and fathers (N = 34) recruited as part of a larger mixed methods study of the development and early implementation of an integrated primary maternity care program. We present a description of the participants' backgrounds, family circumstances, health status, and perception of drug-related stigma. This is succeeded by a thematic analysis of their personal views on substance use during both pregnancy and the transition to parenthood. Our results show that while many mothers and fathers hold abstinence as the ideal during pregnancy and early parenting, they simultaneously recognize the autonomy of women to judge substance use risk for themselves. Participants also call attention to social structural factors that increase/decrease harms associated with such substance use, and present an embodied knowledge of substance use based on their tacit knowledge of wellness and what causes harm. While these two main discourses brought forward by parents concerning the ideal of abstinence and the autonomy of women are not always reconcilable and are partially a reflection of the dissonance between dominant moral codes regarding motherhood and the lived experiences of people who use substances, service providers who are attuned to these competing discourses are likely to be more effective in their delivery of health and social services

  6. Using tailings and waste products of mining and processing plants for the construction of highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Khazin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia is one of the richest regions of Russia. However, the hardness of the climate in this region amends its full development. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia has a poorly developed network of highways and railroads. The active development of the fields of the region has been in progress since the middle of last century. However, more than 16 thousand potential deposits remain understudied. Thus, it is necessary to build highways with due regard for modern techniques and technologies of construction for the development of industry as well as socio-economic spheres in this region. This article deals with the issues of potential use of tailings of the diamond mining industry for the construction of highways. Moreover, the amounts of dumps available would be enough to construct more than 20 thousand km of double-track highways, for the industrial and civil purposes. The advantage of the use of the refuse heaps is their proximity to the potential route. First of all, it is necessary to build a transport road, which would connect the Trans-Siberian railway with the Northern sea route. Construction technology should be adapted to the climatic characteristics of the region, therefore providing a uniform resource usage all year round. For the accelerated construction of subgrade, the two lines of railway should be placed on the same roadbed. After the construction of the subgrade of the entire section one of the ways could be dismantled and the movement of vehicles could be organized in its stead, after the preparation of the pavement. This will result in the construction of the roads with combined traffic for road transport as well as railroad transport. The construction of highways in this region must be associated with the transport strategy of Russia until 2030 and 2050.

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit

  8. 77 FR 39468 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Capital Construction Fund-Deposit/Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... fishing vessels. Deferred taxes are recaptured by reducing an agreement vessel's basis for depreciation by... properly accounting for fund activity on their Federal income tax returns. The information collected must...

  9. Maintenance of Access as Demand for Substance Use Disorder Treatment Grows

    OpenAIRE

    Frakt, Austin B.; Trafton, Jodie; Pizer, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the Affordable Care Act and other recent laws and regulations, funding for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is on the rise. In the 2000s, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) implemented several initiatives that increased funding for SUD treatment during a period of growth in demand for it. A key question is whether access to and intensity of treatment kept pace or declined. Using VA SUD treatment funding data and patient-level records to construct performance measures, we stu...

  10. The Construction of cDNA Libraries from Human Single Preimplantation Embryos and Their Use in the Study of Gene Expression During Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adjaye, James; Daniels, Rob; Monk, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:The construction and application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based cDNA libraries from unfertilized human oocytes and single preimplantation-stage embryos are described. The purpose of these studies is to provide a readily available resource for the study of gene expression during human preimplantation development.

  11. Liquidity risk and contagion for liquid funds

    OpenAIRE

    Darolles , Serge; Dudek , Jeremy; Le Fol , Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Fund managers face liquidity problems but they have to distinguish the market liquidity risk implied by their assets and the funding liquidity risk. This latter is due to both the liquidity mismatch between assets and liabilities and the redemption risk due to the possible outflows from clients. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of contagion looking at common market liquidity problems to detect funding liquidity problems. Using the CDS Bond Spread basis as a liquidity indica...

  12. The Funding of the Irish Domestic Banking System During the Boom?

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    (read before the Society, 15th January 2015) This paper analyses the funding of the Irish domestic banking system during the boom period. We highlight: the shifting roles of deposit and bond funding; the prominence of foreign banks as funding counterparties; the role of interoffice funding; and the scale of US dollar and Sterling funding. From August 2007, the deterioration in funding conditions is clearly evident across a range of indicators.

  13. Forecasting the market for SO2 emission allowances under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G.; Pandola, G.; Lurie, G.; Taxon, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which are briefly reviewed here, provide for about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral, or potential speculators in the allowance market, are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by utilities that are risk averse. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions. 1 fig

  14. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  15. 45 CFR 98.54 - Restrictions on the use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regarding construction and renovation. (c) Tuition. Funds may not be expended for students enrolled in... services that supplant or duplicate the academic program of any public or private school. (d) Sectarian...

  16. Funding conservation through use and potentials for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-01-01

    The protected coral reefs off the coast of Malaysia receive numerous tourists, while also being as fishing grounds. These joint environmental pressures raise the need for additional costly conservation measures. It is natural to consider the potential for expanding the ‘user pays’ principle...

  17. Pension fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    At its June 2006 meeting, the Finance Committee approved the following amendment to Article 6a of the Regulations for elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, which will enter into force on 1.7.2006: Current text New text ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections and for issuing all relevant information. ... ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections by electronic voting or, if this method cannot be used, following the procedure outlined in Articles 6i., 6j. and 6k. below. He shall issue to the members of the Pension Fund all relevant information concerning the elections. The deadlines mentioned in paragraphs 6i. and 6j. below shall apply mutatis mutandis to electronic voting. ... The amendment will allow the Pension Fund to use an electronic voting procedure for the election of elected members to the Governing Board of the Fund. It will be included in a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulatio...

  18. The road maintenance funding models in Indonesia use earmarked tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Tiopan Henry M.; Tamin, Ofyar Z.; Sjafruddin, Ade; Pradono

    2017-11-01

    One of the solutions to get a sustainable road maintenance fund is to separate road sector revenue from other accounts, afterward, form a specific account for road maintenance. In 2001, Antameng and the Ministry of Public Works proposed a road fund model in Indonesia. Sources of the road funds proposal was a tariff formed on the nominal total tax. The policy of road funds was proposed to finance the road network maintenance of districts and provincials. This research aims to create a policy model of road maintenance funds in Indonesia using an earmarked tax mechanism. The research method is qualitative research, with data collection techniques are triangulation. Interview methods conducted were semi-structured. Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threat from every part of the models were showen on the survey format. Respondents were representative of executives who involved directly against the financing of road maintenance. Validation model conducted by a discussion panel, it was called the Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The FGD involved all selected respondents. Road maintenance financing model that most appropriately applied in Indonesia was a model of revenue source use an earmarked PBBKB, PKB and PPnBM. Revenue collection mechanism was added tariff of registered vehicle tax (PKB), Vehicle Fuel Tax (PBBKB) and the luxury vehicle sales tax (PPnBM). The funds are managed at the provincial level by a public service agency.

  19. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  20. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  1. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  2. Using existing case-mix methods to fund trauma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakova, Julia; Blais, Irene; Botz, Charles; Chechulin, Yuriy; Picciano, Gino; Basinski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Policymakers frequently face the need to increase funding in isolated and frequently heterogeneous (clinically and in terms of resource consumption) patient subpopulations. This article presents a methodologic solution for testing the appropriateness of using existing grouping and weighting methodologies for funding subsets of patients in the scenario where a case-mix approach is preferable to a flat-rate based payment system. Using as an example the subpopulation of trauma cases of Ontario lead trauma hospitals, the statistical techniques of linear and nonlinear regression models, regression trees, and spline models were applied to examine the fit of the existing case-mix groups and reference weights for the trauma cases. The analyses demonstrated that for funding Ontario trauma cases, the existing case-mix systems can form the basis for rational and equitable hospital funding, decreasing the need to develop a different grouper for this subset of patients. This study confirmed that Injury Severity Score is a poor predictor of costs for trauma patients. Although our analysis used the Canadian case-mix classification system and cost weights, the demonstrated concept of using existing case-mix systems to develop funding rates for specific subsets of patient populations may be applicable internationally.

  3. 25 CFR 163.30 - Revocable road use and construction permits for removal of commercial forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocable road use and construction permits for removal... Revocable road use and construction permits for removal of commercial forest products. (a) In accordance... revocable road use and construction permits to users for the purpose of removing forest products. (b) When a...

  4. Teaching Literature Using Multimedia. Final Report: Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, Sandra

    "Journey Home," an interactive CD-ROM program about Homer's "Odyssey," was produced at North Shore Community College (Massachusetts) to create an innovative method for teaching literature. Based on a prototype developed on an Apple II, the program incorporates video, text, graphics, music, and artwork related to the Odyssey and…

  5. A National Coordinating Center for Prehospital Trauma Research Funding Transfusion Using Stored Fresh Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    0.18 8% Regulatory oversight and coordination of reviews and reporting from site to NTI and from NTI to MRMC 4 Amy Flores Controller 0.6 5...Price at 2.5%. Monica Phillips worked on this project at 2% for 1.5 months. After 1.5 months of training, her role was filled by Amy Flores who

  6. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  7. The Panda Bear logo as crowbar. World Wildlife Fund approach useful for many countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarles van Ufford, A.; Van der Weijden, E. [World Wildlife Fund WWF, Zeist (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    WWF in the Netherlands has taken the initiative to build extremely energy efficient houses without pushing up the costs or needing subsidies. By utilizing their public relations experience, and by introducing the famous panda bear logo the programme has become a hug success. This approach could also be copied in other countries. The process and the results of the project are described and could act as a guide for local initiatives.

  8. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  9. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  10. Lessons learned from over two decades of constructed wetland : use for urban stormwater in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Vorenhout, Michel; Akkerman, Olof; de Lima, Rui; Blom, Johan

    Constructed wetlands are one type of Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) that have been used for decades in The Netherlands. They provide stormwater conveyance and improve stormwater quality. European regulations for water quality dictate lower and lower concentrations for an array of dissolved

  11. For the Benefit of California Electricity Ratepayers: Electricity Sector Options for the Use of Allowance Value Created under California’s Cap-and-Trade Program

    OpenAIRE

    Burtraw, Dallas; McLaughlin, David; Szambelan, Sarah Joh

    2012-01-01

    California will implement a cap-and-trade program to limit emissions of carbon dioxide covering industry and electricity sector emissions in 2013, expanding to cover transportation and natural gas in 2015. Although cap-and-trade would increase annual electricity costs for the average customer by $30 to nearly $100, the allowance value created under the program can offset all of these costs and even reduce electricity bills. California’s Air Resources Board has directed electricity regulators ...

  12. Questionnaires for research: an annotated bibliography on design, construction, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Potter; Kathryn M. Sharpe; John C. Hendee; Roger N. Clark

    1972-01-01

    Questionnaires as social science tools are used increasingly to study people aspects of outdoor recreation and other natural resource fields. An annotated bibliography including subjective evaluations of each article and a keyword list is presented for 193 references to aid researchers and managers in the design, construction, and use of mail questionnaires.

  13. Philanthropy as a source of funding for nursing initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth M; Start, Rachel; McIntosh, Erik; Worobec, Sophia; Llewellyn, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nurse leaders are challenged with ensuring that research and evidence-based practices are being integrated into clinical care. Initiatives such as the Magnet Recognition Program have helped reinforce the importance of advancing nursing practices to integrate best practices, conduct quality improvement initiatives, improve performance metrics, and involve bedside nurses in conducting research and evidence-based practice projects. While seeking research funding is an option for some initiatives, other strategies such as seeking funding from grateful patients or from philanthropic resources are becoming important options for nurse leaders to pursue, as the availability of funding from traditional sources such as professional organizations or federal funding becomes more limited. In addition, more institutions are seeking and applying for funding, increasing the pool of candidates who are vying for existing funding. Seeking alternative sources of funding, such as through philanthropy, becomes a viable option. This article reviews important considerations in seeking funding from philanthropic sources for nursing initiatives. Examples from a multiyear project that focused on promoting a healthy work environment and improving nursing morale are used to highlight strategies that were used to solicit, obtain, and secure extension funding from private foundation funding to support the initiative.

  14. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  15. 17 CFR 1.22 - Use of customer funds restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of customer funds... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.22 Use of customer funds restricted. No futures commission merchant shall use, or permit the use of, the customer funds of...

  16. The method of using current regulations and standards in designing management and technologies of construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinenko Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency of using funds in construction of buildings and structures begins from an effective, proper design, which is based on modern, cutting-edge, advanced equipment, streamlined organization and process solutions of construction operations. In the light of this it is considered application of “Self-Organization and Technology of Building” multifunctional software package capable of solving various engineering tasks on designing management of construction operations in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations in view of using software for automatic generation of workflow. Implementing this software in the construction management processes may help to solve management tasks at the construction site.

  17. Development of processes allowing near real-time refinement and validation of triage tools during the early stage of an outbreak in readiness for surge: the FLU-CATs Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R; McCann, Gerard; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Hashmi, Maimoona; Belatri, Rabah; Boyle, Emma; Barcroft, Alan; van Staa, Tjeerd Pieter; Kirkham, Jamie J; Nguyen Van Tam, Jonathan S; Williams, Timothy J; Semple, Malcolm G

    2015-10-01

    During pandemics of novel influenza and outbreaks of emerging infections, surge in health-care demand can exceed capacity to provide normal standards of care. In such exceptional circumstances, triage tools may aid decisions in identifying people who are most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. Rapid research during the early phase of an outbreak should allow refinement and validation of triage tools so that in the event of surge a valid tool is available. The overarching study aim is to conduct a prospective near real-time analysis of structured clinical assessments of influenza-like illness (ILI) using primary care electronic health records (EHRs) during a pandemic. This abstract summarises the preparatory work, infrastructure development, user testing and proof-of-concept study. (1) In preparation for conducting rapid research in the early phase of a future outbreak, to develop processes that allow near real-time analysis of general practitioner (GP) assessments of people presenting with ILI, management decisions and patient outcomes. (2) As proof of concept: conduct a pilot study evaluating the performance of the triage tools 'Community Assessment Tools' and 'Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score' to predict hospital admission and death in patients presenting with ILI to GPs during inter-pandemic winter seasons. Prospective near real-time analysis of structured clinical assessments and anonymised linkage to data from EHRs. User experience was evaluated by semistructured interviews with participating GPs. Thirty GPs in England, Wales and Scotland, participating in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. All people presenting with ILI. None. Study outcome is proof of concept through demonstration of data capture and near real-time analysis. Primary patient outcomes were hospital admission within 24 hours and death (all causes) within 30 days of GP assessment. Secondary patient outcomes included GP decision to prescribe antibiotics and/or influenza

  18. Practical Tips for Construction of Custom Peptide Libraries and Affinity Selection by Using Commercially Available Phage Display Cloning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fukunaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage display technology is undoubtedly a powerful tool for affinity selection of target-specific peptide. Commercially available premade phage libraries allow us to take screening in the easiest way. On the other hand, construction of a custom phage library seems to be inaccessible, because several practical tips are absent in instructions. This paper focuses on what should be born in mind for beginners using commercially available cloning kits (Ph.D. with type 3 vector and T7Select systems for M13 and T7 phage, respectively. In the M13 system, Pro or a basic amino acid (especially, Arg should be avoided at the N-terminus of peptide fused to gp3. In both systems, peptides containing odd number(s of Cys should be designed with caution. Also, DNA sequencing of a constructed library before biopanning is highly recommended for finding unexpected bias.

  19. Direct evidence of advantage of using nanosized zeolite Beta for ISFET-based biosensor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soy, Esin; Galioglu, Sezin; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert; Akata, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Analytical characteristics of urease- and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)- based ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) biosensors were investigated by the incorporation of zeolite Beta nanoparticles with varying Si/Al ratios. The results obtained by the zeolite-modified ISFET transducers suggested that the Si/Al ratio strongly influenced the biosensor performances due to the electrostatic interactions among enzyme, substrate, and zeolite surface as well as the nature of the enzymatic reaction. Using relatively small nanoparticles (62.7 ± 10, 76.2 ± 10, and 77.1 ± 10 nm) rather than larger particles, that are widely used in the literature, allow us to produce more homogenous products which will give more control over the quantity of materials used on the electrode surface and ability to change solely Si/Al ratio without changing other parameters such as particle size, pore volume, and surface area. This should enable the investigation of the individual effect of changing acidic and electronic nature of this material on the biosensor characteristics. According to our results, high biosensor sensitivity is evident on nanosize and submicron size particles, with the former resulting in higher performance. The sensitivity of biosensors modified by zeolite particles is higher than that to the protein for both types of biosensors. Most significantly, our results show that the performance of constructed ISFET-type biosensors strongly depends on Si/Al ratio of employed zeolite Beta nanoparticles as well as the type of enzymatic reaction employed. All fabricated biosensors demonstrated high signal reproducibility and stability for both BuChE and urease.

  20. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [ 18 F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL templates

  1. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.miederer@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Lutz, Beat [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55128 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  2. Should Glaucoma be Publicly Funded in Arguments for Funding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 59. [Downloaded free ... vision.[6] Further, Malaysia has an efficient, widespread ... universal healthcare program, mainly tax-funded (80%).

  3. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to 'other activities' throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the 'time at risk' while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped

  4. Trends and disparities in receipt of pharmacotherapy among pregnant women in publically funded treatment programs for opioid use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Vanessa L; Hand, Dennis J; MacAfee, Lauren; Abatemarco, Diane J; Terplan, Mishka

    2018-06-01

    To describe differences in geographic, demographic, treatment, and substance use characteristics by pharmacotherapy receipt among pregnant women entering publically funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in the United States. 1996 to 2014 Treatment Episode Data Set-Admissions data from pregnant admissions with OUD, defined as reporting opioids as the primary substance of use leading to the treatment episode, were analyzed for this cross-sectional study. The proportion of all pregnant admissions with OUD who received pharmacotherapy was calculated by year and U.S. census region. Trends across time were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage Trend test. Associations between demographic, substance use, and treatment characteristics and pharmacotherapy receipt were assessed using Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. The proportion of pregnant admissions where opioids were the primary substance of use increased from 16.9% to 41.6% during the study period, while the proportion of pregnant admissions with OUD who received pharmacotherapy remained relatively unchanged at around 50%. Overall, pharmacotherapy recipients were generally older and white, more likely to receive treatment in an outpatient setting, be self-referred, and report heroin as the primary substance, daily substance use, and intravenous drug use, and less likely to have a co-occurring psychiatric problem compared to those who did not receive pharmacotherapy. Regional differences in pharmacotherapy utilization exist; the South consistently had the fewest pregnant admissions with OUD receiving pharmacotherapy. Although the proportion of pregnant admissions to substance use treatment centers with OUD has increased since the mid-1990s, the proportion receiving pharmacotherapy has not changed. Significant variations in pharmacotherapy utilization exist by geography and demographic, substance use and treatment characteristics. Utilization of pharmacotherapy at publically funded

  5. New Mexico's Model for Funding School Facilities' Greatest Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Robert; Salamone, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Public Schools Facilities Authority (NM-PSFA) is a relatively small state agency (50 staff members) that manages the allocation of funding for public school facilities in the state while assisting school districts and state-chartered charter schools in facility planning, construction, and maintenance. Like the majority of other…

  6. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  7. Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-07-01

    The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.

  8. How do clinicians practise the principles of beneficence when deciding to allow or deny family presence during resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tracey; de Lacey, Sheryl; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2018-03-01

    To examine how clinicians practise the principles of beneficence when deciding to allow or deny family presence during resuscitation. Family presence during resuscitation has important benefits for family and is supported by professional bodies and the public. Yet, many clinicians restrict family access to patients during resuscitation, and rationales for decision-making are unclear. Secondary analysis of an existing qualitative data set using deductive category application of content analysis. We analysed 20 interview transcripts from 15 registered nurses, two doctors and three paramedics who had experienced family presence during resuscitation in an Australian hospital. The transcripts were analysed for incidents of beneficent decision-making when allowing or denying family presence during resuscitation. Decision-making around family presence during resuscitation occurred in time poor environments and in the absence of local institutional guidelines. Clinicians appeared to be motivated by doing "what's best" for patients and families when allowing or denying family presence during resuscitation. However, their individual interpretations of "what's best" was subjective and did not always coincide with family preferences or with current evidence that promotes family presence during resuscitation as beneficial. The decision to allow or deny family presence during resuscitation is complex, and often impacted by personal preferences and beliefs, setting norms and tensions between clinicians and consumers. As a result, many families are missing the chance to be with their loved ones at the end of life. The introduction of institutional guidelines and policies would help to establish what safe and effective practice consists of, reduce value-laden decision-making and guide beneficent decision-making. These findings highlight current deficits in decision-making around FPDR and could prompt the introduction of clinical guidelines and policies and in turn promote the

  9. On the Importance of Mutual Fund Families in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Anders; Pasternack, Daniel; Sandvall, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the mutual fund literature by looking at performance persistence on a fund family level, allowing for individual equity, bond and balanced funds to be included under single family umbrellas. The study is conducted on the emerging Finnish mutual fund market, an environment in which the importance of superior fund family teams is likely to be accentuated. Using both non–parametric and parametric tests we find robust evidence of performance persistence for the fund fami...

  10. Tools for Social Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    for social construction, i.e. supporting staging, performing, and sharing of playful activities involving people and artifacts.             The method used is a triangulation of the problem domain—pervasive media systems for children—from three perspectives: theory, design, and empirical work......: the potential of pervasive media systems to support the children’s social construction.  ......In this dissertation, I propose a new type of playful media for children. Based on field work, prototypes, and theoretical development, I define, build, and explore a distinct cross-section of existing and new digital media, tools, and communication devices in order to assess the characteristics...

  11. Construction and use of an applicator of the afterloading type for treatment of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, U.J.; Vizeu, D.M.; Moura, A.M.S.; Petito, J.W.

    The construction of an afterloading type applicator for treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix is described. The technique of intercavitary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix used in the Osvaldo Cruz Institute of Radiotherapy (Brazil) is also discribed [pt

  12. Ready-to-Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone and Cartilage Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    physiologic hyaline cartilage - osseous transition in massive osteochondral defects in large animals. We will conduct functional outcome analysis, X...10-1-0933 TITLE: Ready-to-Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone and Cartilage Trauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Francis Y. Lee... Cartilage Trauma” addresses the current limitations in treating complex, high-energy musculoskeletal wounds incurred in active combat. High-energy

  13. Accessing International Funding for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Ray, Aaron D.; Smith, Joel B.

    of international public funding sources dedicated to adaptation investments (Chapter 3) • Seven fundamental eligibility criteria for accessing international public funding and guidance on how to apply these concepts to project ideas (Chapter 3) • A template (built on the abovementioned seven fundamental...

  14. Raising private investment funds for museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Tsjalle; Dolfsma, W.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose the notion of an "arts fund", a publicly traded investment fund for the purpose of acquiring increasingly costly art works to be displayed in museums. Public as well as private museums stand to benefit greatly from such an approach to financially supporting the arts. A

  15. A New Funding Model for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul W.; Otto, Daniel M.; Ouart, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional funding model of the Cooperative Extension System has been stretched to its limits by increasing demand for information and programs without concurrent increases in funding by the public sector. As the social, economic, and political environments have evolved and become more complex, extension is often asked to apply the expertise…

  16. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  17. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  18. How Should Global Fund Use Value-for-Money Information to Sustain its Investments in Graduating Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitti Kanpirom

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been debated whether the Global Fund (GF, which is supporting the implementation of programs on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria, should consider the value-for-money (VFM for programs/interventions that they are supporting. In this paper, we critically analyze the uses of economic information for GF programs, not only to ensure accountability to their donors but also to support country governments in continuing investment in cost-effective interventions initiated by the GF despite the discontinuation of financial support after graduation. We demonstrate that VFM is not a static property of interventions and may depend on program start-up cost, economies of scales, the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of providers once the program develops, and acceptance and adherence of the target population. Interventions that are cost-ineffective in the beginning may become cost-effective in later stages. We consider recent GF commitments towards value for money and recommend that the GF supports interventions with proven cost-effectiveness from program initiation as well as interventions that may be cost-effective afterwards. Thus, the GF and country governments should establish mechanisms to monitor cost-effectiveness of interventions invested over time.

  19. 12 CFR 411.100 - Conditions on use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions on use of funds. 411.100 Section 411.100 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING General § 411.100 Conditions on use of funds. (a) No appropriated funds may be expended by the recipient of a...

  20. Using Investment Funds to Support Advancements in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Nawar, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is about using investment funds to support advancements in healthcare. The structure is designed to identify the relevant elements in a funding strategy that can be used to support healthcare companies likely to produce usable solutions. The research objective is to establish a proper investment fund strategy that supports healthcare. Additionally, it is positioned to highlight the dynamic components that outline the viable fund. The preliminary scope of the ...

  1. Intrapancreatic Parenchymal Injection of Cells as a Useful Tool for Allowing a Small Number of Proliferative Cells to Grow In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vivo inoculation of cells such as tumor cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS/embryonic stem (ES cells into immunocompromised mice has been considered as a powerful technique to evaluate their potential to proliferate or differentiate into various cell types originating from three germ cell layers. Subcutaneous grafting and grafting under the kidney capsule have been widely used for this purpose, but there are some demerits such as the requirement of a large number of tumor cells for inoculation and frequent failure of tumorigenesis. Therefore, grafting into other sites has been explored, including intratesticular or intramuscular grafting as well as grafting into the cochleae, liver, or salivary glands. In this study, we found that intrapancreatic parenchymal injection of cells is useful for allowing a small number of cells (~15 × 103 cells or ~30 cell clumps μL−1·site−1 to proliferate and sometimes differentiate into various types of cells. It requires only surgical exposure of the pancreas over the dorsal skin and subsequent injection of cells towards the pancreatic parenchyma under dissecting microscope-based observation using a mouthpiece-controlled glass micropipette. We now name this technology “intrapancreatic parenchymal cell transplantation (IPPCT”, which will be useful, especially when only a small number of cells or colonies are available.

  2. Obtaining consumer perspectives using a citizens' jury: does the current country of origin labelling in Australia allow for informed food choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.

  3. Mitigating construction safety risks using prevention through design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Roca, Xavier; Fuertes, Alba

    2010-04-01

    Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made prior to work at construction sites can influence construction worker safety. However, it has also been argued that most architects and design engineers possess neither the knowledge of construction safety nor the knowledge of construction processes necessary to effectively perform Construction Hazards Prevention through Design (CHPtD). This paper introduces a quantitative methodology that supports designers by providing a way to evaluate the safety-related performance of residential construction designs using a risk analysis-based approach. The methodology compares the overall safety risk level of various construction designs and ranks the significance of the various safety risks of each of these designs. The methodology also compares the absolute importance of a particular safety risk in various construction designs. Because the methodology identifies the relevance of each safety risk at a particular site prior to the construction stage, significant risks are highlighted in advance. Thus, a range of measures for mitigating safety risks can then be implemented during on-site construction. The methodology is specially worthwhile for designers, who can compare construction techniques and systems during the design phase and determine the corresponding level of safety risk without their creative talents being restricted. By using this methodology, construction companies can improve their on-site safety performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Financing of the Construction Strategy of Leningrad During the Siege (1941-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Anastasiya Valeryevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of archival documents the strategy of public authorities aimed at organizing in Leningrad construction, rehabilitation and repair works carried out in 1941-1944, is investigated, the activity of Leningrad lending institutions (Leningrad communal Bank and Agricultural Bank, which provided loans to enterprises, institutions and residents of Leningrad on various types of construction, is analyzed. Leningrad banks performed two main functions: control over the licit distribution of funds in construction organizations that were responsible for operational and residential buildings in Leningrad and providing citizens with affordable loans to buy and build houses. The author presents statistical information on the number of building and installation companies on the eve of the Great Patriotic War and during the siege of Leningrad. In the article the dynamics of building frames in different periods of the war is traced, the sharp deterioration in the training associated with the fact that most of the builders went into the Red army is noted. The article also notes the role of banks in preventing unfair wage calculation, which was carried out by the construction organizations. On the basis of study of experience of Leningrad banks activity in the extreme conditions of the siege, the author makes a conclusion about the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by the Central government and the local authorities on lending to government organizations and individuals. The author points to the important experience of enterprises, which become guarantors for their employees to banks. As a result, the employees received money at a lo interest rate. The author believes that this contributed to increased responsibility of workers for the results of their work that eventually affected the efficiency of enterprises. According to the author, it is necessary to use the historical experience of financing of enterprises, institutions and

  5. Are pilot trials useful for predicting randomisation and attrition rates in definitive studies: A review of publicly funded trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Amy; Pottrill, Edward; Julious, Steven A; Walters, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Background/aims: External pilot trials are recommended for testing the feasibility of main or confirmatory trials. However, there is little evidence that progress in external pilot trials actually predicts randomisation and attrition rates in the main trial. To assess the use of external pilot trials in trial design, we compared randomisation and attrition rates in publicly funded randomised controlled trials with rates in their pilots. Methods: Randomised controlled trials for which there was an external pilot trial were identified from reports published between 2004 and 2013 in the Health Technology Assessment Journal. Data were extracted from published papers, protocols and reports. Bland–Altman plots and descriptive statistics were used to investigate the agreement of randomisation and attrition rates between the full and external pilot trials. Results: Of 561 reports, 41 were randomised controlled trials with pilot trials and 16 met criteria for a pilot trial with sufficient data. Mean attrition and randomisation rates were 21.1% and 50.4%, respectively, in the pilot trials and 16.8% and 65.2% in the main. There was minimal bias in the pilot trial when predicting the main trial attrition and randomisation rate. However, the variation was large: the mean difference in the attrition rate between the pilot and main trial was −4.4% with limits of agreement of −37.1% to 28.2%. Limits of agreement for randomisation rates were −47.8% to 77.5%. Conclusion: Results from external pilot trials to estimate randomisation and attrition rates should be used with caution as comparison of the difference in the rates between pilots and their associated full trial demonstrates high variability. We suggest using internal pilot trials wherever appropriate. PMID:29361833

  6. IAEA Nobel Peace fund schools for nutrition. Combating child malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Dhaka, Bangladesh - Malnutrition remains the world's most serious health problem and the single biggest contributor to child deaths in the developing world, according to the World Bank. Now, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is using its Nobel Peace Prize earnings to promote the use of nuclear techniques to combat malnutrition during the earliest years of life. 'One out of every ten children born in developing countries will die before his or her fifth birthday,' explains IAEA nutrition expert Lena Davidsson. 'That's more than 10 million dead children each year. And the vast majority of these child deaths in developing countries are preventable with a combination of good care, adequate nutrition and appropriate medical treatment,' explains Dr. Davidsson. 'This brings us hope that unacceptably high childhood mortality can be substantially reduced with effective and well-targeted nutritional interventions.' Undernutrition is an important factor in more than half of all child deaths worldwide. The high prevalence of infants born with low birth weight and undernutrition among Asian children, especially in South Asia, emphasizes the urgent need to develop effective nutrition interventions within 'the window of opportunity', i.e., to target young women before pregnancy as well as infants and young children during the first 2 years of life. The IAEA Nobel Peace Prize Fund School for Nutrition for Asia will be held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, April 22-26, 2007. It will focus on Interventions to combat undernutrition during early life and seeks to disseminate information about the usefulness of stable isotope techniques in intervention programs that reduce malnutrition, in particular in infants and children. The event is hosted by the Government of Bangladesh through the International Centre for Health and Population Research (ICDDR, B) and the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC). The IAEA is assisting some of the world's poorest countries in their

  7. A new award for the CERN Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the CERN Pension Fund was awarded the 2013 Investment and Pensions Europe (IPE) Award for “Best Use of Equities”. IPE is the leading European Pension Fund industry publication.   The award recognized CERN’s implementation of capital preservation principles in equities, referring in particular to CERN’s innovation with the development of “asymmetric” equity strategies. The awards were judged by a panel of 65 European pension fund executives, experts and consultants. In addition, CERN was selected by the judges as a finalist for “Best Public Pension Fund” in Europe.  This award was won by the UK government’s Pension Protection Fund.

  8. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.B. II; Radulski, D.R.; Ellingson, E.G.; Engels, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO 2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  9. Ratemaking and accounting for allowances and compliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The regulatory treatment of compliance costs and allowances will significantly affect both the utility's CAAA compliance decisions and the cost of compliance. Sections in this chapter include ratemaking treatment of allowances, utility buy-ins, the market test of compliance costs and utility incentive, FERC account classification, measuring the value of allowances, inventory methods for allowances, expense recognition of allowances, regulatory-created assets and liabilities, and application of the FERC proposal. 8 refs., 1 tab

  10. A new geometrical construction using rounded surfaces proposed for the transverse flux machine for direct drive wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new construction for transverse flux machines (TFM) using a rounded surfaces core geometry. The new concept has been developed for TFM with U core geometry. In this case a new analytic design procedure was proposed. The analytic design of the new TFM construction is further ...... proposed concept is more attractive for the direct-drive wind turbine application....

  11. The use of constructed wetlands for the treatment of industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypiecbcef Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands are characterized by specific conditions enabling simultaneous various physical and biochemical processes. This is the result of specific environment for the growth of microorganisms and hydrophytes (aquatic and semiaquatic plants which are capable of living in aerobic, anaerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions. Their interaction contributes to the intensification of oxidation and reduction responsible for the removal and retention of pollutants. These processes are supported by sorption, sedimentation and assimilation. Thanks to these advantages, treatment wetland systems have been used in communal management for over 50 years. In recent years, thanks to its advantages, low operational costs and high removal efficiency, there is growing interest in the use of constructed wetlands for the treatment or pre-treatment of various types of industrial wastewater. The study analyzes current use of these facilities for the treatment of industrial wastewater in the world. The conditions of use and efficiency of pollutants removal from readily and slowly biodegradable wastewater, with special emphasis on specific and characteristic pollutants of particular industries were presented. The use of subsurface horizontal flow beds for the treatment of industrial wastewater, among others from crude oil processing, paper production, food industry including wineries and distillery, olive oil production and coffee processing was described. In Poland constructed wetlands are used for the treatment of sewage and sludge from milk processing in pilot scale or for dewatering of sewage sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plant treating domestic sewage with approximately 40% share of wastewater from dairy and fish industry. In all cases, constructed wetlands provided an appropriate level of treatment and in addition the so-called ecosystem service.

  12. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    construction delay of NPP. The main contribution of the work was the identification of main cause of NPP construction schedule delay for turnkey contractual approached international project in different level. The second contribution was a development of a multi-criteria decision making model for the prioritization of NPP construction delay risk factors. Finally, prioritization of delay factors in different levels of NPP construction delay risk factors were accomplished. The model is developed by using the AHP methodology. This study has produced results and insights that involve one of the most vital aspect which is the quantitative weights and ranking of factors that affect delay in NPP construction. Undoubtedly, it is a necessity in the NPP construction industry for the use of quantitative terms when it comes to schedule delay risk. The outcomes of this study confirm that the model is capable to support decision-makers to examine the strengths and weaknesses of factors in different level of the NPP construction phase. Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delay of NPP. This study finds the different party's importance in behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), Financial and Country Factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%).The results show that the top most important 5 sub factors according to global weight in level 2 are delayed regulatory approval, country factor, inadequate completion of design before start of construction, slow procurement, manufacturing of equipment and delivery to the site for installation, and financial matters. This study finds top most important 10 sub-sub factors in the lowest level which are uncompromising regulatory criteria and conflicting licensing documents with existing regulations, robust design documents

  13. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    construction delay of NPP. The main contribution of the work was the identification of main cause of NPP construction schedule delay for turnkey contractual approached international project in different level. The second contribution was a development of a multi-criteria decision making model for the prioritization of NPP construction delay risk factors. Finally, prioritization of delay factors in different levels of NPP construction delay risk factors were accomplished. The model is developed by using the AHP methodology. This study has produced results and insights that involve one of the most vital aspect which is the quantitative weights and ranking of factors that affect delay in NPP construction. Undoubtedly, it is a necessity in the NPP construction industry for the use of quantitative terms when it comes to schedule delay risk. The outcomes of this study confirm that the model is capable to support decision-makers to examine the strengths and weaknesses of factors in different level of the NPP construction phase. Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delay of NPP. This study finds the different party's importance in behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), Financial and Country Factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%).The results show that the top most important 5 sub factors according to global weight in level 2 are delayed regulatory approval, country factor, inadequate completion of design before start of construction, slow procurement, manufacturing of equipment and delivery to the site for installation, and financial matters. This study finds top most important 10 sub-sub factors in the lowest level which are uncompromising regulatory criteria and conflicting licensing documents with existing regulations, robust design documents

  14. Computational tools for the construction of calibration curves for use in dose calculations in radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Alex C.H.; Vieira, Jose W.; Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco , Recife, PE

    2011-01-01

    The realization of tissue inhomogeneity corrections in image-based treatment planning improves the accuracy of radiation dose calculations for patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy. Before the tissue inhomogeneity correction can be applied, the relationship between the computed tomography (CT) numbers and density must be established. This relationship is typically established by a calibration curve empirically obtained from CT images of a phantom that has several inserts of tissue-equivalent materials, covering a wide range of densities. This calibration curve is scanner-dependent and allows the conversion of CT numbers in densities for use in dose calculations. This paper describes the implementation of computational tools necessary to construct calibration curves. These tools are used for reading and displaying of CT images in DICOM format, determination of the mean CT numbers (and their standard deviations) of each tissue-equivalent material and construction of calibration curves by fits with bilinear equations. All these tools have been implemented in the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 in C≠ programming language. (author)

  15. Fact Sheet on Sources and Uses of U.S. Funding Provided in Fiscal Year 2006 for Iraq Relief and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... about $5.4 billion, in additional non-IRRF funding made available in FY 2006, to four separate funds, for various relief and reconstruction projects in Iraq, including training of Iraqi security...

  16. Student use of a Learning Management System for group projects: A case study investigating interaction, collaboration, and knowledge construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonn, Steven D.

    Web-based Learning Management Systems (LMS) allow instructors and students to share instructional materials, make class announcements, submit and return course assignments, and communicate with each other online. Previous LMS-related research has focused on how these systems deliver and manage instructional content with little concern for how students' constructivist learning can be encouraged and facilitated. This study investigated how students use LMS to interact, collaborate, and construct knowledge within the context of a group project but without mediation by the instructor. The setting for this case study was students' use in one upper-level biology course of the local LMS within the context of a course-related group project, a mock National Institutes of Health grant proposal. Twenty-one groups (82 students) voluntarily elected to use the LMS, representing two-thirds of all students in the course. Students' peer-to-peer messages within the LMS, event logs, online surveys, focus group interviews, and instructor interviews were used in order to answer the study's overarching research question. The results indicate that students successfully used the LMS to interact and, to a significant extent, collaborate, but there was very little evidence of knowledge construction using the LMS technology. It is possible that the ease and availability of face-to-face meetings as well as problems and limitations with the technology were factors that influenced whether students' online basic interaction could be further distinguished as collaboration or knowledge construction. Despite these limitations, students found several tools and functions of the LMS useful for their online peer interaction and completion of their course project. Additionally, LMS designers and implementers are urged to consider previous literature on computer-supported collaborative learning environments in order to better facilitate independent group projects within these systems. Further research is

  17. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such fund-raising programs and use of the 4-H name and emblem on, or associated with, products, and services...

  18. Strategies for Closing the ITRS Funding Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The semiconductor industry needs to find creative ways to close the $1.1 – 1.5B research gap , first noted in 2003, between the funding being...2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies for Closing the ITRS Funding Gap 5a. CONTRACT...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 STRATEGIES FOR CLOSING THE ITRS FUNDING GAP # Yaw S. Obeng, Stephen Knight, and Joaquin V. Martinez de

  19. User-inspired design methodology using Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM) for construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari J. Uma; Charlesraj V. Paul C.; Battacharya Soma

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, design phase of construction projects is often performed with incomplete and inaccurate user preferences. This is due to inefficiencies in the methodologies used for capturing the user requirements that can subsequently lead to inconsistencies and result in non-optimised end-result. Iterations and subsequent reworks due to such design inefficiencies is one of the major reasons for unsuccessful project delivery as they impact project performance measures such as time and cost am...

  20. Laboratory Testing of Precast Bridge Beck Panel Transverse Connections for Use in Accelerated Bridge Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Precast concrete bridge deck panels have been used for decades to accelerate bridge construction. Cracking of the transverse connection between panels is a common problem that can damage deck overlays and cause connection leaking leading to corrosion of lower bridge elements. To better understand the behavior of bridge deck transverse female-to-female connections, shear and moment lab testing were performed at Utah State University for the Utah Department of Transportation. Two existing UDOT ...

  1. Space allowance of young goats during transportation to slaughter = Beladingsdichtheid tijdens het wegtransport van jonge geiten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Lambooij, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research was performed during long distance road transportations of young goats (6-8 weeks). Effects of three space allowances on physiological responses (blood parameters, heart rate and body temperature) were measured.

  2. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walchli John

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. Results In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38α, viral polymerase (HCV NS5B, and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. Conclusion The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  3. Licensing of the OPAL reactor during construction and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerfield, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the licensing activities associated with the construction and commissioning of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation's (ANSTO) OPAL reactor. It addresses the Construction Licence, the interface between ANSTO, INVAP (the contractor with responsibility for design and construction of the facility) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA, the Australian nuclear regulator) during the construction of OPAL, specific licensing issues that have arisen during the construction and commissioning process, and the Operating Licence Application. Particular emphasis will be given to the way in which the licensing process is integrated into the overall project program and the lessons learnt that may be of benefit to other licensees and regulators

  4. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  5. Controlling for the use of extreme weights in bank efficiency assessments during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Zhu, Minyan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for bank efficiency assessment, based on weight restricted DEA, that limits banks’ abilities to use extreme weights, corresponding to extreme judgements of the risk adjusted prices on funding sources and assets. Based on a data set comprising the largest European banks during...... the financial crisis, we illustrate the impact of the proposed weight restrictions in two different efficiency models; one related to banks’ funding mix and one related to their asset mix. The results show that using a more balanced set of weights tend to reduce the estimated efficiency scores more for those...... banks which were bailed out during the crisis, which confirms the potential bias within standard DEA that does not control for extreme weights applied by highly risky banks. We discuss the use of the proposed method as a regulatory tool to constrain discretion when complying with regulatory capital...

  6. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on the...

  7. Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, an overview of the concept of private placement is given to enable a better appreciation of its unique role in raising funds for organizations that are not publicly quoted in a registered stock exchange. It concludes with an exposition of the problems of allowing private placements for publicly quoted firms.

  8. 42 CFR 86.16 - Use of project funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of project funds. 86.16 Section 86.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.16...

  9. A methodological framework to determine optimum durations for the construction of soil water characteristic curves using centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vero, Sara E.; Healy, Mark G.; Henry, Tiernan; Creamer, Rachel E.; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; Forrestal, Patrick J.; Richards, Karl G.; Fenton, Owen

    2016-01-01

    During laboratory assessment of the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC), determining equilibrium at various pressures is challenging. This study establishes a methodological framework to identify appropriate experimental duration at each pressure step for the construction of SWCCs via

  10. The use of public funds for environmental preservation and environmental education activities in the light of the Polish Supreme Audit Office reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Serowaniec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the assessment of the implementation of public funds provided under grant agreements for environmental preservation and environmental education activities in the light of the reports submitted by the Polish Supreme Audit Office (NIK. The areas covered by the audit were: the completeness and timeliness of the tasks defined in the agreements, the economy and legality of the use of the financial resources, the correctness of keeping financial and accounting records, and the preparation of reports and the settlement of funds.

  11. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 , 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N, 68%). Phosphate (PO 4 -P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO 3 -N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P≤0.05) in BOD 5 , TAN and NO 2 -N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P≤0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

  12. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  13. Allowable stem nut wear and diagnostic monitoring for MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburne, P.

    1994-01-01

    After a motor-operated valve (MOV) stem nut failure in 1991 that contributed to a forced plant shutdown, the FitzPatrick Plant staff developed criteria to check for excessive stem nut wear in MOVs. Allowable stem nut wear monitoring uses both direct dimensional measurement and diagnostic test data interpretation. The wear allowance is based on the recommended permitted backlash discussed in the Electric Power Research Institute/Nuclear Maintenance Assistance Center Technical Repair Guideline for the Limitorque SMB-000 Motor Actuator. The diagnostic analysis technique measures the time at zero load and compares this with a precalculated allowable zero force time. Excessive zero force time may be the result of other MOV problems, such as a loose stem nut lock nut or excessive free play in the drive sleeve bearing. Stress levels for new or nominal stem nuts and stem nuts with the full wear allowance were compared. Bending and shear stresses at the thread root increase for the maximum wear condition when compared with a open-quotes newclose quotes stem nut. These stresses are directly related to the thread root thickness. For typical MOV loading and common stem threading (with two diameters of thread engagement), the thread stresses are well within acceptable limits for ASTM B584-C86300 (formerly B147-863) manganese bronze (typical stem nut material)

  14. Colorado Handbook for State-Funded Student Assistance Programs. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    Policies and procedures established by the Colorado Commission on Higher Education for the use of state-funded student assistance are presented. Annual budget ranges, sample forms, and instructions are included. In addition to providing definitions and general policy information, the guidelines cover fund application and allocation; accounting,…

  15. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Adina-Simona

    2013-01-01

    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  16. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for internal funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, utilities have exercised sole responsibility for reinvesting capital funds collected from ratepayers. Capital provided by ratepayers, whether for recovery of invested capital or for removal costs, reduces the magnitude of future borrowings - dollar for dollar. If regulatory commissions require utilities to place these collections in separate, inaccessible investment accounts (as in external funding methods), then utilities will be denied the use of these funds. Ratepayers, in turn, will be denied both their usual interest credit and the cost-saving benefits afforded by utilities having readily accessible cash to use instead of having to resort to borrowing. Such benefits can be attained only through internal-funding methods that keep rate payer contributions under unrestricted utility control. While state regulatory commissions currently favor external funding for financial assurance, the author feels the extra cost to ratepayers and the utilities is too high a price to pay

  17. On the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets used for water proofing under NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.D.; Korenev, K.I.; Chukvaidze, K.I.; Dzhurinskij, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The problem on the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets with special longitudinal ribs which are anchorized in concrete is considered. The use of new water proofing material applied under NPP construction allows one to enhance the commercialization of water proofing works which ensured cost reduction of these works

  18. 13 CFR 120.1892 - What happens if an SISMBD does not use SISMBD Loan funds for a statutorily mandated purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if an SISMBD does not use SISMBD Loan funds for a statutorily mandated purpose? 120.1892 Section 120.1892 Business Credit... the Small Business Act or Pools of such loans, the Administrator shall: (a) Demand immediate repayment...

  19. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-05-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates.

  20. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates. (orig.)

  1. PERMutation Using Transposase Engineering (PERMUTE): A Simple Approach for Constructing Circularly Permuted Protein Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alicia M; Atkinson, Joshua T; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2017-01-01

    Rearrangements that alter the order of a protein's sequence are used in the lab to study protein folding, improve activity, and build molecular switches. One of the simplest ways to rearrange a protein sequence is through random circular permutation, where native protein termini are linked together and new termini are created elsewhere through random backbone fission. Transposase mutagenesis has emerged as a simple way to generate libraries encoding different circularly permuted variants of proteins. With this approach, a synthetic transposon (called a permuteposon) is randomly inserted throughout a circularized gene to generate vectors that express different permuted variants of a protein. In this chapter, we outline the protocol for constructing combinatorial libraries of circularly permuted proteins using transposase mutagenesis, and we describe the different permuteposons that have been developed to facilitate library construction.

  2. The Effects of Reinforcing Intermediate Elementary Students to Constructively Use Free Time for Vocational Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Thomas W.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)

  3. Measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs for use in yoga research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Douglas A; Friedman, Harris L

    2009-01-01

    This article presents information on standardized paper-and-pencil measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs that hold promise for use in yoga research. Nine instruments are discussed at length including the Assessment Schedule for Altered States of Consciousness, Ego Grasping Orientation, Expressions of Spirituality Inventory, Hindu Religious Coping Scale, Measures of Hindu Pathways, Self-Expansiveness Level Form, Spiritual Orientation Inventory, Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Vedic Personality Inventory. As well, a listing of an additional 14 measures, along with primary citations, is provided. In conclusion, the authors proffer recommendations for the use of psychometric tests and provide a general proposal for programmatic research. PMID:21234209

  4. Physicochemical study of parameters for the production of mortar using industrial waste and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, K.C.; Goncalves, S.G. e; Souza, J. A. da S.; Felipe, A.M.P.F.

    2014-01-01

    The mortars can be considered as a mixture of the binders and aggregates with water, having capacity of the induration and adherence. Instead, it is suggested the production of mortars using civil construction waste, with plenty silicoaluminate, obtained in demolitions and reforms of build, and fly ash as material pozzolana, obtained of the combustion of mineral coal in fluidized bed boilers, in partial replacement of Portland cement. The civil construction wastes were benefited and characterized by X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The fly ash was characterized by granulometric analyze and X-ray spectrometry. The mortars of the were prepared using the following compositions of RCC, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75 and 70%; CV of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% e 5% of Portland CP II Z 32 cement. In all the compositions were put 0,8% of water and the rheological testing was used the same proportions residue (RCC e CV) with 35% water. The specimens were cured for 28 days and after were submitted physical trials of absorption, porosity and bulk density; mechanical trials of resistance to compression and analysis of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained show that the recycling of civil construction waste and the use of fly ash and RCC is a promising technique in production of mortars. (author)

  5. Methodology for construction of hollow spheres for use in physical phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.C.H.; Lima, F.R.A.; Oliveira, F.; Vieira, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET), quantitative evaluation of spatial resolution/object size, attenuation and scatter effects is often performed using phantoms with hollow spheres. Fillable, plastic-walled spheres are commercially available in several sizes. Radioactive solutions in any concentration can be injected into the spheres. Hollow spheres have several desirable traits, including repeatable, consistent use, and standardization across measurements at different institutions, since identical items are distributed by a single manufacturer. The objective of this work is to describe a methodology for construction of hollow spheres using rapid prototyping. It was used the software SolidWork (2014) to create five 3D models of the hollow spheres with inner diameters of 10 mm, 13 mm, 17 mm, 22 mm, and 28 mm. These models were based on hollow spheres of NEMA/IEC PET body phantom. It was used a Cubex Duo 3D printer (3D Systems) to build the hollow spheres. The material used was the ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) resin. (authors)

  6. Low endogenous glucocorticoid allows induction of kidney cortical cyclooxygenase-2 during postnatal rat development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Stubbe, Jane; Skøtt, Ole

    2004-01-01

    COX-2 in these cells. Thus low plasma concentrations of corticosterone allowed for cortical and medullary COX-2 induction during postnatal kidney development. Increased circulating glucocorticoid in the postnatal period may damage late renal development through inhibition of COX-2.......In postnatal weeks 2-4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in the rat kidney cortex where it is critically involved in final stages of kidney development. We examined whether changes in circulating gluco- or mineralocorticosteroids or in their renal receptors regulate postnatal COX-2 induction....... Plasma corticosterone concentration peaked at birth, decreased to low levels at days 3-13, and increased to adult levels from day 22. Aldosterone peaked at birth and then stabilized at adult levels. Gluco- and mineralocorticoid receptor (GR and MR) mRNAs were expressed stably in kidney before, during...

  7. Social Security Funds Clamor for Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秉文

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed the institutional deficiencies inherent in China’s social security system based on a dissection of various social security fund violations. It holds that the unscientific design in social security system is the root cause for social security fund violations, which is reflected in low level of social security unification, irrational investment system and legislative loopholes etc. Currently, China’s social security funds are facing risks in management and in system; The key of risk control lies in the reforming of the overall framework of social security system through the following aspects: 1) readjust the unified account system structure to raise the level of unification; 2) reform funds investment system to boost ROI; 3) speeding up legislative to regulate the administrative costs and the behaviors of its entities.

  8. Use of communication technologies in document exchange for the management of construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Information and communication technologies represent a set of people, processes, technical and software tools providing collection, transport, storage and processing of data for distribution and presentation of information. Particularly communication systems are the main tool for information exchange. Of the other part, these technologies have a broad focus and use. One of them is the exchange of documents in the management of construction projects. Paper discusses the issue of exploitation level of communication technologies in construction project management. The main objective of this paper is to analyze exploitation level of communication technologies. Another aim of the paper is to compare exploitation level or rate of document exchange by electronic communication devices and face-to-face communication.

  9. Use of communication technologies in document exchange for the management of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesároš Peter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies represent a set of people, processes, technical and software tools providing collection, transport, storage and processing of data for distribution and presentation of information. Particularly communication systems are the main tool for information exchange. Of the other part, these technologies have a broad focus and use. One of them is the exchange of documents in the management of construction projects. Paper discusses the issue of exploitation level of communication technologies in construction project management. The main objective of this paper is to analyze exploitation level of communication technologies. Another aim of the paper is to compare exploitation level or rate of document exchange by electronic communication devices and face-to-face communication.

  10. Continued Funding for Prime Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    PHP language with the help of CMF Drupal-6. The standard modules of the Drupal core set are developed by third parties and obtained from the...repository drupal.org. Part of the modules was modified specifically for the PrIMe portal. The PrIMe portal uses MySQL for the database technology. It is

  11. Innovativeness in housing construction and the role of the Housing Fund: From residence to an integral living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Mlinar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to contribute to clarification of the conditions and actors impacting innovativeness in housing construction and the management of space. It concentrates on the role of the Slovenian national Housing Fund, which is too restricted and lacks appropriate legal bases and means, and also – according to some evaluations – the aspiration to assert its innovative and developmental role. The Fund is focussed on the financial-economic aspects of providing non-profit housing and housing for the market. Currently attention is primarily directed towards its legal-organizational structure and its transformation into an independent company. This neglects broader consideration of socio-spatial change, developmental directions and values in the context of the information age (Lisbon Strategy, which call for innovative sociological, architectural and urbanistic solutions. Mindsets, legal norms and institutions in Slovenia are lagging behind these changes. Thus, housing is still mainly treated as a discrete segment. In order to perform their task in this new framework, which demands more integral treatment of the everyday living environment and reintegration of living, work and recreation, the mandate of the housing funds must no longer be confined merely to housing. Several examples of innovative design as well as their limitations are presented, together with examples of good international practice.

  12. Approach to the use of indicators for the assessment of the environmental level of construction products

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Delgado, María Victoria; Monterde Pereira, Daniel; Villoria Saez, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The European construction industry is supposed to consume the 40% of the natural European resources and to generate the 40% of the European solid waste. Conscious of the great damage being suffered by the environment because of construction activity, this work tries to provide the building actors with a new tool to improve the current situation. The tool proposed is a model for the comprehensive evaluation of construction products by determining their environmental level. In this researc...

  13. Construction of an Anthropomorphic Phantom for Use in Evaluating Pediatric Airway Digital Tomosynthesis Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Kasraie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of radiolucent foreign bodies (FBs is a common task charged to pediatric radiologists. The use of a motion compensated technique to decrease breathing motion on images would greatly decrease overall exposure to ionizing radiation and increase access to treatment yielding a great impact on clinical care. This study reports on the methodology and materials used to construct an in-house anthropomorphic phantom for investigating image quality in digital tomosynthesis protocols for volumetric imaging of the pediatric airway. Availability and cost of possible substitute materials were considered and simplifying assumptions were made. Two different modular phantoms were assembled in coronal slab layers using materials designed to approximate a one- and three-year-old thorax at diagnostic photon energies for use with digital tomosynthesis protocols such as those offered on GE’s VolumeRAD application. Exposures were made using both phantoms with inserted food particles inside an oscillating airway. The goal of the phantom is to help evaluate (1 whether the currently used protocol is sufficient to image the airway despite breathing motion and (2 whether it is not, to find the optimal protocol by testing various commercially available protocols using this phantom. The affordable construction of the pediatric sized phantom aimed at optimizing GE’s VolumeRAD protocol for airway foreign body imaging is demonstrated in this study which can be used to test VolumeRAD’s ability to image the airways with and without a low-density foreign body within the airways.

  14. Construction of an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation using semidefinite programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, G.; Wynn, A.

    2015-01-01

    A method to construct systematically an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation is developed by formulating the classical problem as an optimisation problem. In particular, we show that the infinite-dimensional problem can be rewritten as a finite-dimensional convex semidefinite problem, which is solved to construct a background profile and to obtain an upper bound on the energy of the solution ‖u‖ that applies to the infinite-dimensional PDE. The results are compared to existing analytical results, and support the fact that limsup t→∞ ‖u‖≤O(L 3/2 ) is the optimal estimate achievable with the background profile method and a quadratic Lyapunov function. - Highlights: • Optimal background profiles are constructed for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation. • Analytical L 2 bounds for the solution are found using convex optimisation. • The optimal background profile is a double shock profile. • Results attest that L 1.5 scaling is optimal within the classic Lyapunov argument. • We improve the proportionality constant of the scaling law for the attracting set

  15. A new construction technique for tissue-engineered heart valves using the self-assembly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Catherine; Ruel, Jean; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Laterreur, Véronique; Vallières, Karine; Tondreau, Maxime Y; Lacroix, Dan; Germain, Lucie; Auger, François A

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering appears as a promising option to create new heart valve substitutes able to overcome the serious drawbacks encountered with mechanical substitutes or tissue valves. The objective of this article is to present the construction method of a new entirely biological stentless aortic valve using the self-assembly method and also a first assessment of its behavior in a bioreactor when exposed to a pulsatile flow. A thick tissue was created by stacking several fibroblast sheets produced with the self-assembly technique. Different sets of custom-made templates were designed to confer to the thick tissue a three-dimensional (3D) shape similar to that of a native aortic valve. The construction of the valve was divided in two sequential steps. The first step was the installation of the thick tissue in a flat preshaping template followed by a 4-week maturation period. The second step was the actual cylindrical 3D forming of the valve. The microscopic tissue structure was assessed using histological cross sections stained with Masson's Trichrome and Picrosirius Red. The thick tissue remained uniformly populated with cells throughout the construction steps and the dense extracellular matrix presented corrugated fibers of collagen. This first prototype of tissue-engineered heart valve was installed in a bioreactor to assess its capacity to sustain a light pulsatile flow at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Under the light pulsed flow, it was observed that the leaflets opened and closed according to the flow variations. This study demonstrates that the self-assembly method is a viable option for the construction of complex 3D shapes, such as heart valves, with an entirely biological material.

  16. Construction of a multiple fluorescence labeling system for use in co-invasion studies of Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Roldgaard, Bent; Lindner, A. B.

    2006-01-01

    strains at the single cell level by use of fluorescence microscopy. More than 90% of the L. monocytogenes host cells maintained the fluorescence tags for 40 generations. The fluorescence tags did not alter the invasive capacity of the L. monocytogenes cells in a traditional Caco-2 cell invasion assay......, and visual discrimination between invaded bacteria carrying different fluorescent labels inside the cells was possible. Conclusion The constructed fluorescent marker system is stable, easy to use, does not affect the virulence of L. monocytogenes in Caco-2 cell assays, and allows discrimination between...... deviations in the observed capacity for infection when animal models are used. One way to circumvent this problem is to carry out virulence studies as competition assays between 2 or more strains. This, however, requires invasion-neutral markers that enable easy discrimination between the different strains...

  17. An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

  18. 76 FR 24082 - Notice With Respect to List of Countries Denying Fair Market Opportunities for Government-Funded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., suppliers, or bidders in foreign government-funded airport construction projects. DATES: Effective Date... to U.S. products, suppliers, or bidders in connection with airport construction projects of $500,000... Fair Market Opportunities for Government-Funded Airport Construction Projects AGENCY: Office of the...

  19. 77 FR 23791 - Notice With Respect to List of Countries Denying Fair Market Opportunities for Government-Funded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ..., suppliers, or bidders in foreign government-funded airport construction projects. DATES: Effective Date... to U.S. products, suppliers, or bidders in connection with airport construction projects of $500,000... Fair Market Opportunities for Government-Funded Airport Construction Projects AGENCY: Office of the...

  20. Unit soil loss rate from various construction sites during a storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquiz, Marla C; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Eunju; Kong, Dong-Soo; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) opts to establish an ordinance having a standard specifying an allowable soil loss rate applicable to construction projects. The predicted amount of soil loss from a construction site exceeding the standard can be used to calculate the percent reduction necessary to comply with the ordinance. This research was conducted to provide a basis to establish a standard by investigating the unit soil loss rates in the three phases of development: pre-construction, active construction and post construction based from 1,036 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports within the six-year period (2000-2005). Based on the findings, several factors affect the magnitude of soil loss rates particularly storm characteristics, site slope, soil type, location from rivers, as well as the type of construction activity. In general, the unit soil loss rates during the active construction phase are extremely higher in comparison to undisturbed areas; in magnitude of 7 to 80 times larger in urban areas and 18 to 585 times in rural areas. Only between 20 to 40 percent of the soil loss rates was contributed at pre- and post- construction phases indicating that the active construction phase is the most important phase to control.

  1. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on welfare indicators in Merino lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozar, A.; Rodriguez, A.I.; Garijo, P.; Calvo, L.; Vergara, H.

    2016-11-01

    A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA) during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24); 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24) and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24)] and two lairage treatments (TL) during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36) vs feeding (FEED; n=36)] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05). SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001) while increased LDH (p<0.001). Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05) of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001) in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage. (Author)

  2. Using Ecotech Architecture as an Effective Tool for Sustainability in Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mozhdegani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecotech architecture can be used as an effective strategy to minimize energy consumption and enhance the satisfaction of construction industry beneficiaries in the Middle East. The use of ecotech principles has been employed in different parts of the world. However, following a universal approach is not possible as local conditions are always to be considered Applications and examples of ecotech architecture are investigated in this paper. A proposed building design for the Cheetgar region in Tehran is also briefly demonstrated. A further insight on Masdar city in Abhu Dabi is provided. An overall discussion is made and key conclusions are drawn.

  3. Tentative to use wastes from thermal power plants for construction building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quoc-Bao; Phan, To-Anh-Vu; Tran, Minh-Tung; Le, Duc-Hien

    2018-04-01

    Thermal power plants (TPP) generates wastes (bottom and fly ashes) which become a serious environmental problem in Vietnam. Indeed, although in several countries fly ash can be used for cement industry, fly ash from actual TPP in Vietnam does not have enough good quality for cement production, because the fly ash treatment phase has not yet included in the generations of existing Vietnamese TPP. That is why bottom ash and fly ash purely become wastes and their evacuation is an urgent demand of the society. This paper presents an investigation using fly and bottom ashes in the manufacturing of construction materials. The main aims of this study is to reduce environmental impacts of fly and bottom ashes, and to test another non-conventional binder to replace cement in the manufacture of unburnt bricks. Several proportions of fly ash, bottom ash, cement, gravel, sand and water were tested to manufacture concretes. Then, geopolymer was prepared from the fly ash and an activator. Specimens were tested in uniaxial compressions. Results showed that the cement concrete tested had the compressive strengths which could be used for low rise constructions and the material using geopolymer could be used for non-load-bearing materials (unburnt bricks).

  4. The use of modern measurement techniques for designing pro ecological constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorowski, Michał; Gapiński, Bartosz; Szymański, Maciej; Rękas, Artur

    2017-10-01

    In the paper some possibilities of application modern length and angle metrology techniques to design constructions that support ecology were presented. The paper is based on a project where a lighter bus and train car seat was developed. Different options were presented including static and dynamic photogrammetry, computed tomography and thermography. Research related with dynamic behaviour of designed structures gave input to determine deformation of a seat and passengers sitting on it during communication accidents. Works connected to strength of construction elements made it possible to optimize its dimensions maintaining proper durability. Metrological actions taken in relation to production machines and equipment enabled to better recognize phenomena that take place during manufacturing process and to correct its parameters, what in turns also contributed to slim down the construction.

  5. Pre- and post-construction analysis of a wetland used for mine drainage control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.M.; Mitsch, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A 0.39 ha constructed wetland in Athens County, Ohio is being evaluated for its ability to remove contaminants from acidic mine drainage. The wetland receives water flow from Lick run stream which is contaminated by two major abandoned underground mine seeps. The wetland effluent is then directed back into Lick Run, a tributary of the Hocking River. Data were collected 1.5 years prior to construction and 11 months following completion of the passive wetland system. Preconstruction data reported average spring quarter 1991 and 1992 iron concentrations in the stream at the future wetland influent and effluents sites to be 330 and 106 mg/l, while spring quarter 1993 showed iron levels at the wetland influent and effluent to be 64 and 3 mg/l, respectively. Iron removal percentages were 68% prior to the construction of the wetland and 95% following its completion. Preconstruction data were analyzed using a dynamic computer model and preliminary comparison with the first 11 months of the wetland data show the actual iron removal rates to be 4 g/m 2 day 1 compared to the predicted value of 6.5 g/m 2 day 1 (based on data collected from April 1991--March 1992, under similar hydrologic conditions)

  6. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Jr., Hugh [CDH Energy Corp., Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  7. Water exchange traded funds: A study on idiosyncratic risk using Markov switching analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudeo Anand Tularam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship between idiosyncratic risk and return among four water exchange traded funds—PowerShares Water Resources Portfolio, Power Shares Global Water, First Trust ISE Water Index Fund, and Guggenheim S&P Global Water Index ETF using the Markov switching model for the period 2007–2015. The generated transition probabilities in this paper show that there is a high and low probability of switching between Regimes 1 and 3, respectively. Moreover, we find that the idiosyncratic risk for most of the exchange traded funds move from low volatility (Regime 2 to very low volatility (Regime 1 and 3. Our study also identify that the beta coefficients are positive and entire values are less than 1. Thus, it seems that water investment has a lower systematic risk and a positive effect on the water exchange traded index funds returns during different regimes.

  8. Impediments to markets for SO2 emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990 imposed tighter limits on allowed emissions from electric utilities. The CAA also introduced an innovative SO 2 market mechanism to help lower the cost of compliance. The annual Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) auctions of emission allowances intended to help usher in the market mechanisms for trading allowances. In that respect, the results have been mixed. A full fledged market for emission allowances has been slow to emerge. Starting with a detailed study of the EPA auctions to date, this paper analyzes and discusses some of the reasons for this slow development

  9. Construction of prediction intervals for Palmer Drought Severity Index using bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaztas, Ufuk; Bickici Arikan, Bugrayhan; Beyaztas, Beste Hamiye; Kahya, Ercan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we propose an approach based on the residual-based bootstrap method to obtain valid prediction intervals using monthly, short-term (three-months) and mid-term (six-months) drought observations. The effects of North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation indexes on the constructed prediction intervals are also examined. Performance of the proposed approach is evaluated for the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) obtained from Konya closed basin located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The finite sample properties of the proposed method are further illustrated by an extensive simulation study. Our results revealed that the proposed approach is capable of producing valid prediction intervals for future PDSI values.

  10. Construction of a preclinical multimodality phantom using tissue-mimicking materials for quality assurance in tumor size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongsook C; Fullerton, Gary D; Goins, Beth A

    2013-07-29

    World Health Organization (WHO) and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) working groups advocated standardized criteria for radiologic assessment of solid tumors in response to anti-tumor drug therapy in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. WHO criteria measure solid tumors in two-dimensions, whereas RECIST measurements use only one-dimension which is considered to be more reproducible (1, 2, 3,4,5). These criteria have been widely used as the only imaging biomarker approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (6). In order to measure tumor response to anti-tumor drugs on images with accuracy, therefore, a robust quality assurance (QA) procedures and corresponding QA phantom are needed. To address this need, the authors constructed a preclinical multimodality (for ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) phantom using tissue-mimicking (TM) materials based on the limited number of target lesions required by RECIST by revising a Gammex US commercial phantom (7). The Appendix in Lee et al. demonstrates the procedures of phantom fabrication (7). In this article, all protocols are introduced in a step-by-step fashion beginning with procedures for preparing the silicone molds for casting tumor-simulating test objects in the phantom, followed by preparation of TM materials for multimodality imaging, and finally construction of the preclinical multimodality QA phantom. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide the protocols to allow anyone interested in independently constructing a phantom for their own projects. QA procedures for tumor size measurement, and RECIST, WHO and volume measurement results of test objects made at multiple institutions using this QA phantom are shown in detail in Lee et al. (8).

  11. Trust Fund Support for Development : An Evaluation of the World Bank's Trust Fund Portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2011-01-01

    In the changing global environment of development cooperation, trust funds have emerged as a significant pillar of the global aid architecture, used to address limitations in bilateral aid and fill perceived gaps in the operations of existing multilateral institutions. They currently account for about 11 percent of official development assistance (ODA), and they finance a substantial part ...

  12. Popular housing finance: how the fgts funds are being used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fernando Moro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the housing shortage, was created popular housing programs for low-income families. In Brazil, these programs differs from the rest of the world, since here the programs are directed to the acquisition of real estate, unlike the rest of the world where the focus is lower rents for low-income families. In the context, this type of program has also been used as a tool against economic crises. Based on these aspects, this article aims to identify how the FGTS funds are being used regarding the housing finance. To perform this analysis was studied the targeting of FGTS funds for social housing in Brazil, thus demonstrating, a convincing growth in this modality and also an exchange preferably after the year 2009, of used real estates to new ones.

  13. 42 CFR 52b.9 - What is the right of the United States to recover Federal funds when facilities are not used for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the right of the United States to recover... HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.9 What is the right of the United States to recover Federal funds when... purposes authorized under the Act. (d) The right of recovery of the United States set forth in paragraph (a...

  14. Application of disintigratory technology for the modification of materials used in the construction of wells. Part I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGZAMOV Farit Akramovich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disintegrator technology was widely used in the construction industry and in the oil and gas industry. In the process of drilling wells, powdery materials are used, the quality of which often determines the results of the well construction as an engineering structure. The application of disintegrator technology in the processing of clay powders which are one of the main components used to produce washing liquids has shown the high efficiency of this technology. One of the main multi-tonnage materials used in the construction of deep wells for oil and gas is Portland cement. However, the specific conditions of the well and work performance technology establish additional requirements for both grouting cement and also mortar and stone which are obtained from this binder. That refers to high water-cement ratios, rigid frames for density, water loss, sedimentation stability of solutions, high strength and low permeability of the stone. High corrosive activity of reservoir fluids and high temperatures, which often exceeds 100–150о C, set increased requirements to corrosion and thermal resistance of hardening products. The use of modifying additives and mechanoactivation of cements and grouting mixtures allows us to effectively solve these problems. The results of the study how mechanochemical activation of siliceous additives effects on the structure of their surfaces are presented and the increase in the rate of interaction of silica with calcium hydroxide, which is necessary for increasing the life of a plugging stone, is experimentally proven. Improved structure of the produced cement stone after the disintegration treatment of cement is shown.

  15. Aquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing but not for purification in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingying; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; van Kempen, Monique M. L.; Verbaarschot, Evi J. H.; Loeffen, Laury M. J. M.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2017-02-01

    The sequestration of nutrients from surface waters by aquatic macrophytes and sediments provides an important service to both natural and constructed wetlands. While emergent species take up nutrients from the sediment, submerged and floating macrophytes filter nutrients directly from the surface water, which may be more efficient in constructed wetlands. It remains unclear, however, whether their efficiency is sufficient for wastewater purification and how plant species and nutrient loading affects nutrient distribution over plants, water and sediment. We therefore determined nutrient removal efficiencies of different vegetation (Azolla filiculoides, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum) and sediment types (clay, peaty clay and peat) at three nutrient input rates, in a full factorial, outdoor mesocosm experiment. At low loading (0.43 mg P m-2 d-1), plant uptake was the main pathway (100 %) for phosphorus (P) removal, while sediments showed a net P release. A. filiculoides and M. spicatum showed the highest biomass production and could be harvested regularly for nutrient recycling, whereas C. demersum was outcompeted by spontaneously developing macrophytes and algae. Higher nutrient loading only stimulated A. filiculoides growth. At higher rates ( ≥ 21.4 mg P m-2 d-1), 50-90 % of added P ended up in sediments, with peat sediments becoming more easily saturated. For nitrogen (N), 45-90 % was either taken up by the sediment or lost to the atmosphere at loadings ≥ 62 mg N m-2 d-1. This shows that aquatic macrophytes can indeed function as an efficient nutrient filter but only for low loading rates (polishing) and not for high rates (purification). The outcome of this controlled study not only contributes to our understanding of nutrient dynamics in constructed wetlands but also shows the differential effects of wetland sediment types and plant species. Furthermore, the acquired knowledge may benefit the application of macrophyte harvesting to remove

  16. Construction and use of small chambers for boron trifluoride; Construction et utilisation de petites chambres au trifluorure de bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Lallemant, C; Valladas, G

    1949-07-01

    The fabrication of the chambers (the materials used, the fabrication of the parts and their assembly), and their final testing are described in a first part. Then, the preparation of crude boron fluoride, the storing of the crude, the purification of BF{sub 3} by sublimation and condensation, the pumping, drying and filling up of the chambers, their finishing and sealing are described in a second part. The last part describes the use of the chambers for the counting of slow neutrons: amplification system, pulses discrimination and neutrons counting, accuracy. The characteristics of the amplification circuit used with the chamber are described in the appendix. (J.S.)

  17. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  18. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  19. Selection of wild macrophytes for use in constructed wetlands for phytoremediation of contaminant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Philippe, Anna; Petit, Marie-Eléonore; Masotti, Véronique; Monnier, Yogan; Malleret, Laure; Coulomb, Bruno; Combroux, Isabelle; Baumberger, Teddy; Viglione, Julien; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) offer an alternative to traditional industrial wastewater treatment systems that has been proved to be efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Most of the time, CWs are planted with proliferative species such as Phragmites australis or with plants originating from nurseries, both representing a risk for the natural biodiversity conservation of aquatic ecosystems located downstream of the CWs. For the removal of metals and organic pollutant mixtures present in industrial effluents, it is necessary to select tolerant plant species that are able to produce a high aboveground biomass and to develop a healthy belowground system. Wild plant species growing in aquatic bodies at industrial outfalls could constitute suitable tolerant species to use in CWs for industrial effluent treatment. To test this hypothesis, we assessed, under laboratory conditions (using an experimental design), the tolerance to mixtures of metals (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) or/and organic pollutants (THC, PHE, PYR, LAS) of five European sub-cosmopolitan native macrophytes (Alisma lanceolatum, Carex cuprina, Epilobium hirsutum, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus inflexus) that had been collected in a polluted Mediterranean wetland, after a field study (crossing ecological relevés and analyses of contaminant concentrations in water and sediments). Our results demonstrated that research on phytoremediation of industrial effluents should focus much more on the use of native macrophytes growing at short distances from industrial discharges (such as C. cuprina in this study), and that root/shoot ratio, aerial height and proportion of green leaves are good and cost-effective indicators of plant tolerance to metals and organic pollutant mixtures in laboratory studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Poisson Log-Normal Model for Constructing Gene Covariation Network Using RNA-seq Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonha; Coram, Marc; Peng, Jie; Tang, Hua

    2017-07-01

    Constructing expression networks using transcriptomic data is an effective approach for studying gene regulation. A popular approach for constructing such a network is based on the Gaussian graphical model (GGM), in which an edge between a pair of genes indicates that the expression levels of these two genes are conditionally dependent, given the expression levels of all other genes. However, GGMs are not appropriate for non-Gaussian data, such as those generated in RNA-seq experiments. We propose a novel statistical framework that maximizes a penalized likelihood, in which the observed count data follow a Poisson log-normal distribution. To overcome the computational challenges, we use Laplace's method to approximate the likelihood and its gradients, and apply the alternating directions method of multipliers to find the penalized maximum likelihood estimates. The proposed method is evaluated and compared with GGMs using both simulated and real RNA-seq data. The proposed method shows improved performance in detecting edges that represent covarying pairs of genes, particularly for edges connecting low-abundant genes and edges around regulatory hubs.

  1. Interim radon-resistant construction guidelines for use in Florida-1989. Final report, August 1987-June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, T.D.

    1990-08-01

    The report gives results of a project to investigate, analyze, and develop radon-resistant construction guidelines that are consistent with other building codes and that could be applied to Florida. A literature search resulted in information on radon remediation techniques, new construction methods, and existing radon-resistant building codes such as those in Sweden and Canada. The identified techniques were amended, modified, or supplemented for incorporation into draft model guidelines for new construction in format consistent with the Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc.'s Standard Building Code. A technical review advisory committee formed during development of the guidelines, provided input and recommended changes to the draft guidelines. Although the project has resulted in guidelines for recommended construction practices, they should be coupled with a carefully planned and implemented program of experimentation. Eventually, this approach will lead to building code provisions that are scientifically defensible, cost effective, reliable, and easily incorporated into standard construction practice

  2. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  3. Integrated risk management for improving internal traffic control, work-zone safety, and mobility during major construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Highway construction is among the most dangerous industries in the US. Internal traffic control design, along with how construction : equipment and vehicles interact with the traveling public, have a significant effect on how safe a highway construct...

  4. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  5. Application of disintigratory technology for the modification of materials used in the construction of wells. Part II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGZAMOV Farit Akramovich,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Disintegrator technology was widely used in the construction industry and in the oil and gas industry. In the process of drilling wells, powdery materials are used, the quality of which often determines the results of the well construction as an engineering structure. The application of disintegrator technology in the processing of clay powders which are one of the main components used to produce washing liquids has shown the high efficiency of this technology. One of the main multi-tonnage materials used in the construction of deep wells for oil and gas is Portland cement. However, the specific conditions of the well and work performance technology establish additional requirements for both grouting cement and also mortar and stone which are obtained from this binder. That refers to high water-cement ratios, rigid frames for density, water loss, sedimentation stability of solutions, high strength and low permeability of the stone. High corrosive activity of reservoir fluids and high temperatures, which often exceeds 100–150оC, set increased requirements to corrosion and thermal resistance of hardening products. The use of modifying additives and mechanoactivation of cements and grouting mixtures allows us to effectively solve these problems. The results of the study how mechanochemical activation of siliceous additives effects on the structure of their surfaces are presented and the increase in the rate of interaction of silica with calcium hydroxide, which is necessary forincreasing the life of a plugging stone, is experimentally proven. Improved structure of the produced cement stone after the disintegration treatment of cement is shown.

  6. HSTDEK: Developing a methodology for construction of large-scale, multi-use knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael S.

    1987-01-01

    The primary research objectives of the Hubble Space Telescope Design/Engineering Knowledgebase (HSTDEK) are to develop a methodology for constructing and maintaining large scale knowledge bases which can be used to support multiple applications. To insure the validity of its results, this research is being persued in the context of a real world system, the Hubble Space Telescope. The HSTDEK objectives are described in detail. The history and motivation of the project are briefly described. The technical challenges faced by the project are outlined.

  7. Improving of the monolithic foamconcrete quality for used in the high-rise constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychova, Anastasia; Solomahin, Andrey; Kotovich, Vitaliy; Svatovskaya, Larisa; Kamenev, Yuriy

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of obtaining the desired rheological characteristics of the foamconcrete when transporting it by the feeding pipelines to the place of installation in high-rise construction. The dependence of the density change of foamconcrete on the height to which it is transported is shown. It is stated that the use of stabilizers for the foam, as well as certain mechanisms of stabilization results in the concrete mix of the required density. To assess the rheological properties of the concrete mix the coefficient of volumetric relaxation is proposed.

  8. Soil mixing design methods and construction techniques for use in high organic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Organic soils present a difficult challenge for roadway designers and construction due to the high : compressibility of the soil structure and the often associated high water table and moisture content. For : other soft or loose inorganic soils, stab...

  9. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  10. Safety management system during rock blasting at FRFCF construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, C.; Kandasamy, S.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Blasting is an important activity during rock excavation to reach required depth for obtaining stability of the civil structure. For the construction of various Plant Buildings of Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF), IGCAR at Kalpakkam, based on the geological survey it is required to reach a depth of 21.4 meters from existing ground level. This paper details about the procedures and precaution adopted during the rock blasting activities at FRFCF site. The volume of rock removed by blasting was 3 lakh cubic meters. The total number of blasting carried out was 304 using 105.73 tons of blasting material. The entire blasting work could be completed within 174 days without any incident. (author)

  11. Plasmid DNA transfection using magnetite cationic liposomes for construction of multilayered gene-engineered cell sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Kosuke; Kawasumi, Tamayo; Ito, Akira; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-01

    Modification of cellular functions by overexpression of genes is being increasingly practiced for tissue engineering. In the present study, we investigated whether transfection efficiency could be enhanced by magnetofection that involves the use of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) complexes (pDNA/MCL) and magnetic force. The transfection efficiencies of the magnetofection technique by pDNA/MCL in fibroblasts and keratinocytes using reporter genes were 36- and 10-fold higher, respectively, than those of a lipofection technique by cationic liposomes. Moreover, in vitro construction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues is an important challenge. We recently proposed a novel technique termed "magnetic force-based tissue engineering" (Mag-TE) to produce 3D tissues. Since the fibroblasts after magnetofection incorporated both magnetite nanoparticles and pDNA, we investigated whether multilayered heterotypic cell sheets expressing transgene could be fabricated by Mag-TE. First, the fibroblasts were seeded onto an ultra-low attachment culture plate. When a magnet was placed under the plate, the cells accumulated at the bottom of the culture plate. After 24 h of culture, the transgene-expressing cells formed a multilayered cell sheet-like structure. These results indicated that MCLs are a potent biomanipulation tool for both gene transfer and 3D tissue construction, suggesting that these techniques are useful for tissue engineering. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Project and construction of a spectrometer for alpha particles using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The project, construction, tests and some applications of a system for alpha and beta spectrometry, using surface barrier detector are described. The device includes a solid state detector ORTEC-Series F coupled to a system for amplifying the charges produced by passage of an ionizing particle through the detector. The amplifying system is composed by a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, which employs an operational amplifier CA 3140, and a low noise linear amplifier, which is based on the operational amplifiers CA 3140 and LM 301. The pre-amplifier stage input impedance is on the order of TΩ and produces output pulses which heights are proportional to total charge produced by passage of particle through the detector sensitive volume. The main advantage to use charge sensitive system lies in obtention of independent pulse heights of the distributed capacity of connecting cable between the detector and the pre-amplifier. The total system amplification ca reach a maximum of 50.000 in the linear region. Pulses are analysed in a multichannel system ORTEC, model 6240. The amplifier system is easily constructed and low cost using components available in the national market, and it can be employed with ionization chambers, proportional counters, scitillation counters and semiconductor detectors. The results of spectrometer application for alpha spectrometry of AM 241 source were compared to systems made with imported stages. (Author) [pt

  13. 24 CFR 1000.122 - May NAHASDA grant funds be used as matching funds to obtain and leverage funding, including any...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... considered an affordable housing activity? 1000.122 Section 1000.122 Housing and Urban Development... Housing Activities § 1000.122 May NAHASDA grant funds be used as matching funds to obtain and leverage...

  14. The use of waste materials for concrete production in construction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teara, Ashraf; Shu Ing, Doh; Tam, Vivian WY

    2018-04-01

    To sustain the environment, it is crucial to find solutions to deal with waste, pollution, depletion and degradation resources. In construction, large amounts of concrete from buildings’ demolitions made up 30-40 % of total wastes. Expensive dumping cost, landfill taxes and limited disposal sites give chance to develop recycled concrete. Recycled aggregates were used for reconstructing damaged infrastructures and roads after World War II. However, recycled concrete consists fly ash, slag and recycled aggregate, is not widely used because of its poor quality compared with ordinary concrete. This research investigates the possibility of using recycled concrete in construction applications as normal concrete. Methods include varying proportion of replacing natural aggregate by recycled aggregate, and the substitute of cement by associated slag cement with fly ash. The study reveals that slag and fly ash are effective supplementary elements in improving the properties of the concrete with cement. But, without cement, these two elements do not play an important role in improving the properties. Also, slag is more useful than fly ash if its amount does not go higher than 50%. Moreover, recycled aggregate contributes positively to the concrete mixture, in terms of compression strength. Finally, concrete strength increases when the amount of the RA augments, related to either the high quality of RA or the method of mixing, or both.

  15. Prerequisites for an effective use of ashes in road construction; Foerutsaettningar foer att askor kommer till anvaendning i vaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, Erik; Moeffaert, Denis van [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjurstroem, Henrik; Berg, Magnus [AaF Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svedberg, Bo [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project was to compile how different EU-countries have overcome the obstacles for the use of ashes in road constructions and conclude what has to be done in Sweden. An assumption and starting point for the study is that the use of ashes is beneficial. The study is focused on other EU countries through interviews with relevant actors in Belgium, Netherlands, France, England, Finland and Denmark. The conditions in these countries vary. Netherlands and Denmark were pioneers and have today many years of experience of using ashes in road construction. At the time for this investigation there were however drawbacks - in Netherlands due to mismanagement of ashes in large road constructions and in Denmark because of the introduction of stricter regulations. Belgium and England are making efforts towards recycling of ashes although only small amounts have been used hitherto. In some regions of France, ashes are used to a vast degree, which is mainly due to a strong network of material suppliers marketing ashes together. In Finland, finally, a comprehensive program for research and development were undertaken during the 1990s. An output of this program was guidelines, which facilitate the use of ashes. Typical obstacles for the use of recycled materials in constructions in Sweden have in previous projects been identified as 1) ambiguous laws and regulations, 2) lack of experiences, 3) weak economical incentives, 4) material-related decisions are made too late in project planning and, 5) lack of methods for showing the benefits of recycling. The experiences from the studied countries confirm that points 1, 3 and partly 2 also are valid there. Lack of competence can only be reconciled by active marketing. Point 5 can be overcome by the use of environmental system analysis (ESA) in which both the road construction and alternative management (e.g. disposal) of ashes are included. This type of analyses has not been carried out in the studied countries (except a

  16. Materials and construction techniques for cryogenic wind tunnel facilities for instruction/research use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. F.; Roper, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the cryogenic wind tunnel program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are presented to provide a starting point for the design of an instructional/research wind tunnel facility. The advantages of the cryogenic concept are discussed, and operating envelopes for a representative facility are presented to indicate the range and mode of operation. Special attention is given to the design, construction and materials problems peculiar to cryogenic wind tunnels. The control system for operation of a cryogenic tunnel is considered, and a portion of a linearized mathematical model is developed for determining the tunnel dynamic characteristics.

  17. Global Fund investments in human resources for health: innovation and missed opportunities for health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Diana; Sparkes, Susan Powers; Mitchell, Andrew; Bossert, Thomas J; Bärnighausen, Till; Gedik, Gulin; Atun, Rifat

    2014-12-01

    Since the early 2000s, there have been large increases in donor financing of human resources for health (HRH), yet few studies have examined their effects on health systems. To determine the scope and impact of investments in HRH by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), the largest investor in HRH outside national governments. We used mixed research methodology to analyse budget allocations and expenditures for HRH, including training, for 138 countries receiving money from the Global Fund during funding rounds 1-7. From these aggregate figures, we then identified 27 countries with the largest funding for human resources and training and examined all HRH-related performance indicators tracked in Global Fund grant reports. We used the results of these quantitative analyses to select six countries with substantial funding and varied characteristics-representing different regions and income levels for further in-depth study: Bangladesh (South and West Asia, low income), Ethiopia (Eastern Africa, low income), Honduras (Latin America, lower-middle income), Indonesia (South and West Asia, lower-middle income), Malawi (Southern Africa, low income) and Ukraine (Eastern Europe and Central Asia, upper-middle income). We used qualitative methods to gather information in each of the six countries through 159 interviews with key informants from 83 organizations. Using comparative case-study analysis, we examined Global Fund's interactions with other donors, as well as its HRH support and co-ordination within national health systems. Around US$1.4 billion (23% of total US$5.1 billion) of grant funding was allocated to HRH by the 138 Global Fund recipient countries. In funding rounds 1-7, the six countries we studied in detail were awarded a total of 47 grants amounting to US$1.2 billion and HRH budgets of US$276 million, of which approximately half were invested in disease-focused in-service and short-term training activities. Countries employed

  18. Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Anderson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1962, Clark and Lyons proposed incorporating the enzyme glucose oxidase in the construction of an electrochemical sensor for glucose in blood plasma. In their application, Clark and Lyons describe an electrode in which a membrane permeable to glucose traps a small volume of solution containing the enzyme adjacent to a pH electrode, and the presence of glucose is detected by the change in the electrode potential that occurs when glucose reacts with the enzyme in this volume of solution. Although described nearly 50 years ago, this seminal development provides the general structure for constructing electrochemical glucose sensors that is still used today. Despite the maturity of the field, new developments that explore solutions to the fundamental limitations of electrochemical glucose sensors continue to emerge. Here we discuss two developments of the last 15 years; confining the enzyme and a redox mediator to a very thin molecular films at electrode surfaces by electrostatic assembly, and the use of electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs to leverage the electrocatalytic effect of the CNTs to reduce the oxidation overpotential of the electrode reaction or for the direct electron transport to the enzyme.

  19. Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Shielded Metal Arc Welding Exposures During Construction Projects in Oil Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kevin W; Andrews, Ronnee; Bertke, Steven; Ashley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted an occupational exposure assessment study of manganese (Mn) in welding fume of construction workers rebuilding tanks, piping, and process equipment at two oil refineries. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposures to different Mn fractions using a sequential extraction procedure. Seventy-two worker-days were monitored for either total or respirable Mn during stick welding and associated activities both within and outside of confined spaces. The samples were analyzed using an experimental method to separate different Mn fractions by valence states based on selective chemical solubility. The full-shift total particulate Mn time-weighted average (TWA) breathing zone concentrations ranged from 0.013-29 for soluble Mn in a mild ammonium acetate solution; from 0.26-250 for Mn(0,2+) in acetic acid; from non-detectable (ND) - 350 for Mn(3+,4+) in hydroxylamine-hydrochloride; and from ND - 39 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m(3)) for insoluble Mn fractions in hydrochloric and nitric acid. The summation of all Mn fractions in total particulate TWA ranged from 0.52-470 μg/m(3). The range of respirable particulate Mn TWA concentrations were from 0.20-28 for soluble Mn; from 1.4-270 for Mn(0,2+); from 0.49-150 for Mn(3+,4+); from ND - 100 for insoluble Mn; and from 2.0-490 μg/m(3) for Mn (sum of fractions). For all jobs combined, total particulate TWA GM concentrations of the Mn(sum) were 99 (GSD = 3.35) and 8.7 (GSD = 3.54) μg/m(3) for workers inside and outside of confined spaces; respirable Mn also showed much higher levels for welders within confined spaces. Regardless of particle size and confined space work status, Mn(0,2+) fraction was the most abundant followed by Mn(3+,4+) fraction, typically >50% and ∼30-40% of Mn(sum), respectively. Eighteen welders' exposures exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values for total Mn (100 μg/m(3)) and 25 exceeded the recently adopted respirable

  20. Predicted allowable doses to normal organs for biologically targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, J.A.; Wheldon, T.E.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1988-01-01

    The authors have used Dale's extension to the ''linear quadratic'' (LQ) model (Dale, 1985) to evaluate ''equivalent doses'' in cases involving exponentially decaying dose rates. This analysis indicates that the dose-rate effect will be a significant determinant of allowable doses to organs such as liver, kidney and lung. These organ tolerance doses constitute independent constraints on the therapeutic intensity of biologically targeted radiotherapy in exactly the same way as for conventional external beam radiotherapy. In the context of marrow rescue they will in all likelihood constitute the dose-limiting side-effects and thus be especially important. (author)

  1. Construction of an ortholog database using the semantic web technology for integrative analysis of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis.

  2. Protocol for chromosome-specific probe construction using PRINS, micromanipulation and DOP-PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO Z. PASSAMANI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chromosome-specific probes have been widely used in molecular cytogenetics, being obtained with different methods. In this study, a reproducible protocol for construction of chromosome-specific probes is proposed which associates in situ amplification (PRINS, micromanipulation and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR. Human lymphocyte cultures were used to obtain metaphases from male and female individuals. The chromosomes were amplified via PRINS, and subcentromeric fragments of the X chromosome were microdissected using microneedles coupled to a phase contrast microscope. The fragments were amplified by DOP-PCR and labeled with tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-dUTP. The probes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH procedure to highlight these specific regions in the metaphases. The results show one fluorescent red spot in male and two in female X chromosomes and interphase nuclei.

  3. Constructing Tissue Microarrays: Protocols and Methods Considering Potential Advantages and Disadvantages for Downstream Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingle, Lynne; Fonseca, Felipe P; Farthing, Paula M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue microarrays were first constructed in the 1980s but were used by only a limited number of researchers for a considerable period of time. In the last 10 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of publications describing the successful use of tissue microarrays in studies aimed at discovering and validating biomarkers. This, along with the increased availability of both manual and automated microarray builders on the market, has encouraged even greater use of this novel and powerful tool. This chapter describes the basic techniques required to build a tissue microarray using a manual method in order that the theory behind the practical steps can be fully explained. Guidance is given to ensure potential disadvantages of the technique are fully considered.

  4. Maintenance of access as demand for substance use disorder treatment grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Trafton, Jodie; Pizer, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    Due to the Affordable Care Act and other recent laws and regulations, funding for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is on the rise. In the 2000s, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) implemented several initiatives that increased funding for SUD treatment during a period of growth in demand for it. A key question is whether access to and intensity of treatment kept pace or declined. Using VA SUD treatment funding data and patient-level records to construct performance measures, we studied the relationship between funding and access during the VA expansion. Overall, we observed an increase in access to and intensity of VA SUD care associated with increased funding. The VA was able to increase funding for and expand the population to which it offered SUD treatment without diminishing internal access and intensity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

    2013-01-01

    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  6. Allowing for surface preparation in stress corrosion cracking modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.; Buisine, D.; Gelpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    When a 600 alloy component is significantly deformed during installation, by welding, rolling, bending, its stress corrosion cracking in Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor's primary coolant, is significantly changed by the initial surface treatment. Therefore, the crack initiated time may be reduced by several orders of magnitude for certain surfaces preparations. Allowing for cold working of the surface, for which modelling is proposed, depends less on the degree of cold work then on the depths of the hardened layers. Honing hardens the metal over depths of about one micron for vessel head penetrations, for example, and has little influence on subsequent behaviour after the part deforms. On the other hand, coarser turning treatment produces cold worked layers which can reach several tens of microns and can very significantly reduce the initiation time compared to fine honing. So evaluation after depths of hardening is vital on test pieces for interpreting laboratory results as well as on service components for estimating their service life. Suppression by mechanical or chemical treatment of these layers, after deformation, seems to be the most appropriate solution for reducing over-stressing connected with surface treatment carried out before deformation. (author)

  7. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  8. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  9. Terms and conditions for Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use this T&C for DERA Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon.

  10. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, B.; Bartlam, M.

    1997-01-01

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  11. Constructive use of holographic projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  12. Constructive use of holographic projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der FU, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  13. Implementing a Student-Based Funding Policy: Considerations for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambaugh, Larisa S.; Chambers, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    As education budgets continue to tighten, increased attention is focused on how school districts can best distribute existing funds to schools and how schools can best use these funds. Student-based funding (SBF)--sometimes referred to as a weighted student formula--is one approach that school districts have taken during the past decade. SBF…

  14. Construction safety management guide for use with DOE Order 440.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    DOE Order (DOE O) 440.1, Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees, establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program to reduce or eliminate accidental losses, injuries, and illnesses by providing workers with places of employment free of recognized hazards. In addition to prescribing program requirements applicable to all activities performed by DOE and its contractors, DOE O 440.1 provides specific requirements applicable only to construction activities. The intent of these construction-specific requirements is to compel the proactive management of construction safety on a project-by-project basis and, to the greatest extent possible, integrate the management of safety and health, both in terms of project personnel and management methodologies, with the management of the other primary elements of construction project performance: quality, cost and schedule

  15. The strategic management of construction companies during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... South Africa, to identify the key strategies that are able to keep construction entities in operation. .... executed to implement the corporate strategy of an organisation and any step taken in the ..... Exploring corporate strategy: Text and cases.

  16. An interatomic potential model for carbonates allowing for polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, S.E.A.; Archer, T.D.; Dove, Martin T.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gale, Julian D.; Redern, Simon A.T.

    2003-01-01

    An empirical model for investigating the behavior of CaCO 3 polymorphs incorporating a shell model for oxygen has been created. The model was constructed by fitting to: the structure of aragonite and calcite; their elastic, static and high-frequency dielectric constants; phonon frequencies at the wave vectors (1/2 0 2) and (0 0 0) of calcite; and vibrational frequencies of the carbonate deformation modes of calcite. The high-pressure phase transition between calcite I and II is observed. The potentials for the CO 3 group were transferred to other carbonates, by refitting the interaction between CO 3 and the cation to both the experimental structures and their bulk modulus, creating a set of potentials for calculating the properties of a wide range of carbonate materials. Defect energies of substitutional cation defects were analyzed for calcite and aragonite phases. The results were rationalized by studying the structure of calcite and aragonite in greater detail.

  17. The Search for Security Technology Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Explains that although it is difficult to find money to pay for school security technology, there are places to look. For example, the Department of Education has a list serve that summarizes various funding opportunities. There is also a Federal Register list serve and a site put out by the Department of Justice. A sidebar presents three…

  18. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  19. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social

  20. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Chakma, Justin; Simiyu, Ken; Ronoh, Wesley; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital's potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social returns. Such funds should be structured to overcome the

  1. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  2. Allowable carbon emissions for medium-to-high mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Annan, James D.; Kawamiya, Michio [Research Inst. for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, (Japan)], e-mail: tachiiri@jamstec.go.jp; Huntingford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Using an ensemble of simulations with an intermediate complexity climate model and in a probabilistic framework, we estimate future ranges of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to follow three medium-high mitigation concentration pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and SCP4.5 to 2.6. Uncertainty is first estimated by allowing modelled equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within widely accepted ranges. Results are then constrained by comparison against contemporary measurements. For both constrained and unconstrained projections, our calculated allowable emissions are close to the standard (harmonised) emission scenarios associated with these pathways. For RCP4.5, which is the most moderate scenario considered in terms of required emission abatement, then after year 2100 very low net emissions are needed to maintain prescribed year 2100 CO{sub 2} concentrations. As expected, RCP2.6 and SCP4.5 to 2.6 require more strict emission reductions. The implication of this is that direct sequestration of carbon dioxide is likely to be required for RCP4.5 or higher mitigation scenarios, to offset any minimum emissions for society to function (the 'emissions floor'). Despite large uncertainties in the physical and biogeochemical processes, constraints from model-observational comparisons support a high degree of confidence in predicting the allowable emissions consistent with a particular concentration pathway. In contrast the uncertainty in the resulting temperature range remains large. For many parameter sets, and especially for RCP2.6, the land will turn into a carbon source within the twenty first century, but the ocean will remain as a carbon sink. For land carbon storage and our modelling framework, major reductions are seen in northern high latitudes and the Amazon basin even after atmospheric CO{sub 2} is stabilised, while for ocean carbon uptake, the tropical ocean regions will be a

  3. Using Extra-Linguistic Material for Mandarin-French Verbal Constructions Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Magistry, Pierre; Prevot, Laurent; Cheung, Hintat; Shiao, C.Y; Desalle, Yann; Gaume, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Systematic cross-linguistic studies of verbs syntactic-semantic behaviors for ty-pologically distant languages such as Mandarin Chinese and French are difficult to conduct.Such studies are nevertheless necessary due to the crucial role that verbal constructions playin the mental lexicon. This paper addresses the problem by combining psycho-linguisticsand computational methods. Psycho-linguistics provides us with a bilingual corpus that fea-tures verbal construction ass...

  4. Quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with the Commission's regulations with regard to quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants. This guide applies to all types of nuclear power plants. (U.S.)

  5. A BRIEF OVERVIEW AND METALLOGRAPHY FOR COMMONLY USED MATERIALS IN AERO JET ENGINE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Belan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium, titanium, and nickel base alloys are mostly and widely used for aircraft jet engine con-struction. A proper evaluation of its microstructure is important from working safety point of view. To receive a well prepared sample of microstructure, some important steps have to be undertaken. Except for proper grinding and polishing of a sample, structure developing is a significant step, too. In order to develop microstructure various chemical reagents were used to achieve the best results for microstructure evaluation. The chemical reagents were used according to the previous knowledge and some new ones were also tested. Aluminium AK4-1č, titanium VT – 8, and nickel VŽL – 14 and ŽS6 – U alloys were used as an experimental materials. Alloy AK4-1č is used for fan blade produc-tion with working temperatures up to 300°C. It is a forged piece of metal machined down into final shape by five-axe milling machine. Alloy VT – 8 is used for high pressure compressor rotor blade production with working temperatures up to 500°C. Blades are forged as well and finally grinded. Finally nickel base alloys VŽL – 14 and ŽS6 – U are used for turbine blade production with working temperatures up 950°C. Blades for turbine are casted into mould with reducible models.

  6. Construction and use of a three-dimensional model as a teaching resource for protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alexandre Lazzaroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of biology topics are complex and abstract. So, the use of models that can simplify without trivializing knowledge, are important tools for the transposition of academic knowledge in school settings. By understanding the needs of its construction and, due to the lack of a concrete model that exemplifies the protein synthesis, the objective of this work was to elaborate this referred model. For this, the active teaching method was applied as a challenge proposal: the conception of a model conducted by High School students. Once the prototype was built, this strategy was applied to biology graduates, who evaluated and made some criticisms about it. Our results show that the tactic used   was effective. It was verified that the model should be reproduced and that its application facilitated learning of both high school students and undergraduates. We conclude that the availability of this model should contribute to the learning of biochemistry / molecular biology in formal education.

  7. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  8. Temperature gradient method for lipid phase diagram construction using time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.; Hing, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    A method that enables temperature-composition phase diagram construction at unprecedented rates is described and evaluated. The method involves establishing a known temperature gradient along the length of a metal rod. Samples of different compositions contained in long, thin-walled capillaries are positioned lengthwise on the rod and equilibrated such that the temperature gradient is communicated into the sample. The sample is then moved through a focused, monochromatic synchrotron-derived x-ray beam and the image-intensified diffraction pattern from the sample is recorded on videotape continuously in live-time as a function of position and, thus, temperature. The temperature at which the diffraction pattern changes corresponds to a phase boundary, and the phase(s) existing (coexisting) on either side of the boundary can be identified on the basis of the diffraction pattern. Repeating the measurement on samples covering the entire composition range completes the phase diagram. These additional samples can be conveniently placed at different locations around the perimeter of the cylindrical rod and rotated into position for diffraction measurement. Temperature-composition phase diagrams for the fully hydrated binary mixtures, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE)/DPPC, have been constructed using the new temperature gradient method. They agree well with and extend the results obtained by other techniques. In the DPPE/DPPC system structural parameters as a function of temperature in the various phases including the subgel phase are reported. The potential limitations of this steady-state method are discussed

  9. Construction of a memory battery for computerized administration, using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aristides I; Almeida, Leandro S; Prieto, Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    In accordance with Item Response Theory, a computer memory battery with six tests was constructed for use in the Portuguese adult population. A factor analysis was conducted to assess the internal structure of the tests (N = 547 undergraduate students). According to the literature, several confirmatory factor models were evaluated. Results showed better fit of a model with two independent latent variables corresponding to verbal and non-verbal factors, reproducing the initial battery organization. Internal consistency reliability for the six tests were alpha = .72 to .89. IRT analyses (Rasch and partial credit models) yielded good Infit and Outfit measures and high precision for parameter estimation. The potential utility of these memory tasks for psychological research and practice willbe discussed.

  10. Stock investment funds in Brazil: performance and management expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Faustino Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the stock investment fund market in Brazil and proposes dynamic rankings constructed from different risk-return metrics, during the period from 1998 to 2009. We find an uncommon level of persistence, mainly among the best performing funds, due to the expertise of the managers. The quadrimestral rebalancing of the portfolios based on these rankings permits inferring that in scenarios characterized as economic booms or recovery of financial markets, the strategies with equal participation in winner funds provides significantly higher average monthly gains, reduction of risk associated with diversification and consequently enhanced performance in relation to market or sector benchmarks. This evidence is robust to the use of different performance metrics for fund selection, indicating that active investors in winning funds demand good performance not only in terms of the Sharpe ratio, but also with respect to other metrics, such as the Treynor, Calmar and Sortino ratios. In these optimistic scenarios, only the industrial sector index (INDX provided returns compatible with those of these fund’s portfolios. However, during periods of crisis, no strategy involving the funds managed to provide hedge levels characteristic of the electric energy sector index (IEE, so it can be said that the majority of investing strategies are dominated in gain-risk criteria by sector or market indexes, with the exception of value-weighted portfolios composed of losing funds, a signal that the usual passive investors in large funds indexed to the Ibovespa can be presenting a greater level of inertia.

  11. [Medication error management climate and perception for system use according to construction of medication error prevention system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Soo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine current status of IT-based medication error prevention system construction and the relationships among system construction, medication error management climate and perception for system use. The participants were 124 patient safety chief managers working for 124 hospitals with over 300 beds in Korea. The characteristics of the participants, construction status and perception of systems (electric pharmacopoeia, electric drug dosage calculation system, computer-based patient safety reporting and bar-code system) and medication error management climate were measured in this study. The data were collected between June and August 2011. Descriptive statistics, partial Pearson correlation and MANCOVA were used for data analysis. Electric pharmacopoeia were constructed in 67.7% of participating hospitals, computer-based patient safety reporting systems were constructed in 50.8%, electric drug dosage calculation systems were in use in 32.3%. Bar-code systems showed up the lowest construction rate at 16.1% of Korean hospitals. Higher rates of construction of IT-based medication error prevention systems resulted in greater safety and a more positive error management climate prevailed. The supportive strategies for improving perception for use of IT-based systems would add to system construction, and positive error management climate would be more easily promoted.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriso O. EMEROLE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90 rural farm households of multi-type (varied enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that positively influenced decisions to source farm investment fund to include level of education, gender, membership of cooperative society, interest charge, land acquisition method, and ease of getting loan. Other factors that negatively influenced decisions include farming as major occupation, household savings, household size, and distance of farmers’ home to source of credit. Proprietor withdrawal decisions were positively influenced by household level variables like taking farming as major occupation, payment of school fees for children of farmers, and amount of credit so far repaid by a farm household. Other factors namely household size, being member of cooperative society or savings group, interest charges on loan, off-farm income, and household savings had negative influences on proprietor withdrawal decisions. We recommended that small-scale farmers should not borrow their start-up capital from outside their households but as their farm businesses stabilize, they could decide to take loans from outside to cover their working capital and/or expand their farms and be prepared to repay such loans according to contractual agreements.

  13. Administrative Circular No. 20 (Rev. 2) – Re-evaluation of the kilometre allowance when using a private vehicle for journeys on official duty

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 21 March 2011, the kilometre allowance was increased from 0,65 CHF/km to 0,70 CHF/km as from 11 April 2011 which is the first date of the new overtime period. Department Head Office

  14. Construction of CRISPR Libraries for Functional Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Carsten P; Felts, Katherine A; Johns, Sarah E

    2018-01-01

    Identification of gene function has been aided by the ability to generate targeted gene knockouts or transcriptional repression using the CRISPR/CAS9 system. Using pooled libraries of guide RNA expression vectors that direct CAS9 to a specific genomic site allows identification of genes that are either enriched or depleted in response to a selection scheme, thus linking the affected gene to the chosen phenotype. The quality of the data generated by the screening is dependent on the quality of the guide RNA delivery library with regards to error rates and especially evenness of distribution of the guides. Here, we describe a method for constructing complex plasmid libraries based on pooled designed oligomers with high representation and tight distributions. The procedure allows construction of plasmid libraries of >60,000 members with a 95th/5th percentile ratio of less than 3.5.

  15. 7 CFR 3419.6 - Use of matching funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MATCHING FUNDS REQUIREMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION FORMULA FUNDS AT 1890 LAND-GRANT INSTITUTIONS, INCLUDING TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, AND AT...) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977, section 7 of the...

  16. The construction of help during radiotherapy: Redefining informal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Lynda; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    This study will explore how help is constructed during and following radiotherapy for patients with cancer. Grounded theory methods were used in the study to explore the way in which family members and friends constructed a role for themselves in relation to patients receiving radiotherapy. A total of 22 helpers were interviewed. Patients were being treated for a range of cancers including breast, prostate, colorectal, and head and neck. Respondents in this study consistently defined themselves as "helpers" rather than "carers." While radiotherapy as a treatment modality was mostly seen as noninvasive, the cancer diagnosis cast a long shadow over the lives of helpers and patients creating a separation in longstanding relationships. Helpers experienced this separation as "otherness." Help became an important vehicle for bridging this separation. Individuals developed different ways of knowing about the patient as the basis for providing help. Two different types of help were identified in this study: the behind the scenes, largely invisible work that helpers undertook to help the patient without their knowledge and the explicit visible help that was much more commonly negotiated and discussed between helpers and patients. The study provides the basis for a greater understanding on the part of professionals into the impact of diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment on family and friends. In doing so, the study identifies opportunities for the experience of helpers to be recognised and supported by professionals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  18. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.10 Section 82.10... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.10 Availability of consumption allowances in...

  19. Substrate-Limited Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Allow Control of Fermentation during Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-04-26

    Identification and use of yeast strains that are unable to consume one or more otherwise fermentable substrate types could allow a more controlled fermentation process with more flexibility regarding fermentation times. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different capacities to consume substrates present in wheat were selected to investigate the impact of substrate limitation on dough fermentation and final bread volume. Results show that fermentation of dough with maltose-negative strains relies on the presence of fructan and sucrose as fermentable substrates and can be used for regular bread making. Levels of fructan and sucrose, endogenously present or added, hence determine the extent of fermentation and timing at the proofing stage. Whole meal is inherently more suitable for substrate-limited fermentation than white flour due to the presence of higher native levels of these substrates. Bread making protocols with long fermentation times are accommodated by addition of substrates such as sucrose.

  20. Factors causing cost variation for constructing wastewater projects in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-03-01

    conditions; (4 Inflation; and (5 Fluctuation in prices of raw materials are also responsible. The study concluded with recommending, ensuring adequate and available source of finance, allocating sufficient time and funding the design phase while cost estimators should be aware of the problems, but must not allow to deflect them from their primary tasks, which must always use all data and time available to produce the best possible estimate, improve owner’s project management procedures, material bulk purchase, establishing fraudulent system of individual accountability to discourage stealing and other related vices, adequate planning by breaking project planning into short term achievable goals, medium term planning and long term planning, and through estimation process for projects cost calculations, with vigilant planning, keeping in view trends of inflation and depreciation factors, construction cost variation trends in wastewater projects with lead to smoother implementation and achievement of desired cost control. Also, this paper serves as a guide and reference for contractors and construction managers for more effective management in constructing wastewater projects to achieve a competitive level of quality and a cost effective project.

  1. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance with...

  2. Statistical considerations of graphite strength for assessing design allowable stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Mogi, H.; Ioka, I.; Arai, T.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of statistics need to be considered to determine design allowable stresses for graphite structures. These include: 1) Statistical variation of graphite material strength. 2) Uncertainty of calculated stress. 3) Reliability (survival probability) required from operational and safety performance of graphite structures. This paper deals with some statistical considerations of structural graphite for assessing design allowable stress. Firstly, probability distribution functions of tensile and compressive strengths are investigated on experimental Very High Temperature candidated graphites. Normal, logarithmic normal and Weibull distribution functions are compared in terms of coefficient of correlation to measured strength data. This leads to the adaptation of normal distribution function. Then, the relation between factor of safety and fracture probability is discussed on the following items: 1) As the graphite strength is more variable than metalic material's strength, the effect of strength variation to the fracture probability is evaluated. 2) Fracture probability depending on survival probability of 99 ∼ 99.9 (%) with confidence level of 90 ∼ 95 (%) is discussed. 3) As the material properties used in the design analysis are usually the mean values of their variation, the additional effect of these variations on the fracture probability is discussed. Finally, the way to assure the minimum ultimate strength with required survival probability with confidence level is discussed in view of statistical treatment of the strength data from varying sample numbers in a material acceptance test. (author)

  3. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2013-09-15

    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AICPA allows low-cost options for compiled financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Alan; Luecke, Randall W

    2002-02-01

    The AICPA Accounting and Review Services Committee's (ARSC) SSARS No. 8, Amendment to Statement on Standards for Accounting and Review Services No. 1, Compilation and Review of Financial Statements, issued in October 2000, allows financial managers to provide plain-paper, compiled financial statements for the exclusive use of management. Such financial statements were disallowed in 1979 when the AICPA issued SSARS No. 1, Compilation and Review of Financial Statements. With the issuance of SSARS No. 8, financial managers can prepare plain-paper, compiled financial statements when third parties are not expected to rely on the financial statements, management acknowledges such restrictions in writing, and management acknowledges its primary responsibility for the adequacy of the financial statements.

  5. Radiological significance of marble used for construction of dwellings in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.; Asaduzzaman, Kh.; Zaman, N.

    2012-01-01

    The natural γ-radiation in samples of a variety of marbles imported into Bangladesh for use in building construction was measured, employing γ-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector. From the measured γ-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 226 Ra (29.31 ± 2.06 to 46.99 ± 2.97 Bq.kg -1 ), 232 Th (42.91 ± 2.53 to 62.92 ± 3.37 Bq.kg -1 ) and 40 K (824.42 ± 15.42 to 1071.58 ± 20.14 Bq.kg -1 ). The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of soil. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), the hazard indices, the gamma activity concentration index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were estimated for the potential radiological hazard of the marble. The Ra eq values of all marble samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg -1 , equivalent to a dose of 1.5 mSv.y -1 . The average values of the external and internal hazard indices are less than unity. The average indoor absorbed dose rate (121.25 nGy.h -1 ) is higher than the population-weighted average of 84 nGy.h -1 , whereas the corresponding annual dose limit falls within an average value of 0.60 mSv, which is an order of magnitude below the limit specified for building materials in the literature. The present results indicate that using marble in building construction in Bangladesh does not pose any significant radiological hazard. (authors)

  6. Radiological significance of marble used for construction of dwellings in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO, Box 158, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Division, 4 Kazi Nauru Islam Avenue, Ramna, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Asaduzzaman, Kh. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO, Box 158, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Zaman, N. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    The natural {gamma}-radiation in samples of a variety of marbles imported into Bangladesh for use in building construction was measured, employing {gamma}-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector. From the measured {gamma}-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (29.31 {+-} 2.06 to 46.99 {+-} 2.97 Bq.kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (42.91 {+-} 2.53 to 62.92 {+-} 3.37 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (824.42 {+-} 15.42 to 1071.58 {+-} 20.14 Bq.kg{sup -1}). The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of soil. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the hazard indices, the gamma activity concentration index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were estimated for the potential radiological hazard of the marble. The Ra{sub eq} values of all marble samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}, equivalent to a dose of 1.5 mSv.y{sup -1}. The average values of the external and internal hazard indices are less than unity. The average indoor absorbed dose rate (121.25 nGy.h{sup -1}) is higher than the population-weighted average of 84 nGy.h{sup -1}, whereas the corresponding annual dose limit falls within an average value of 0.60 mSv, which is an order of magnitude below the limit specified for building materials in the literature. The present results indicate that using marble in building construction in Bangladesh does not pose any significant radiological hazard. (authors)

  7. Protective measures during construction against radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, thoron as well as their daughter products have an cancerogeneous effect on the human respiratory tracts. In this respect protective measures in the area of construction are of great importance. This article deals with constructional solutions which consist of different individual measures. Sources of radon are outside air, water, fuels, building materials as well as the building ground. Possible protective measures are divided into area-related (floor structure, intermediate floors, exterior walls of cellar, foundation slab, building ground), line-related (joints, cracks, wall ducts) as well as supplementary measures (tightly closing doors, arrangement of natural cross-ventilation and vertical ventilating shafts). (BWI) [de

  8. The use of halophytic plants for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Abolfazl; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2017-07-03

    This research studied the use of constructed wetlands (CWs) to reduce water salinity. For this purpose, three halophytic species of the Chenopodiaceae family (Salicornia europaea, Salsola crassa, and Bienertia cycloptera) that are resistant to saline conditions were planted in the CWs, and experiments were conducted at three different salinity levels [electrical conductivity (EC)∼2, 6, 10 dS/m]. EC and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) were measured before and after phytoremediation with a retention time of 1 week. The results suggested that these plants were able to grow well and complete their life cycles at all the salinity levels within this study. Moreover, these plants reduced the measured parameters to acceptable levels. Therefore, these plants can be considered good options for salt phytoremediation.

  9. [Construction of abridged life table for health evaluation of local resident using Excel program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingsha; Wang, Feng; Li, Xiaozhen; Yang, Jian; Yu, Shouyi; Hu, Jun

    2012-05-01

    To provide an easy computational tool for evaluating the health condition of local residents. An abridged life table was programmed by applying mathematical functions and formula in Excel program and tested with the real study data to evaluate the results computed. The Excel was capable of computing group death probability of age in the life table ((n)q(x)), number of survivors (l(x)), number of death ((n)d(x)), survival per person-year ((n)L(x)), survival total per person-year (T(x)) and life expectancy (e(x)). The calculated results were consistent with those by SAS. The abridged life table constructed using Microsoft Excel can conveniently and accurately calculate the relevant indices for evaluating the health condition of the residents.

  10. Vertical and horizontal equity of funding for malaria control: a global multisource funding analysis for 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrenho, Eliana; Miraldo, Marisa; Shaikh, Mujaheed; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    International and domestic funding for malaria is critically important to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Its equitable distribution is key in ensuring that the available, scarce, resources are deployed efficiently for improved progress and a sustained response that enables eradication. We used concentration curves and concentration indices to assess inequalities in malaria funding by different donors across countries, measuring both horizontal and vertical equity. Horizontal equity assesses whether funding is distributed in proportion to health needs, whereas vertical equity examines whether unequal economic needs are addressed by appropriately unequal funding. We computed the Health Inequity Index and the Kakwani Index to assess the former and the latter, respectively. We used data from the World Bank, Global Fund, Unicef, President's Malaria Initiative and the Malaria Atlas Project to assess the distribution of funding against need for 94 countries. National gross domestic product per capita was used as a proxy for economic need and 'population-at-risk' for health need. The level and direction of inequity varies across funding sources. Unicef and the President's Malaria Initiative were the most horizontally inequitable ( pro-poor ). Inequity as shown by the Health Inequity Index for Unicef decreased from -0.40 (P0.10) in 2006 to -0.38 (P<0.05) in 2008, and decreased to -0.36 (P<0.10) in 2010. Domestic funding was inequitable ( pro-rich ) with inequity increasing from 0.28 (P<0.01) in 2006 to 0.39 (P<0.01) in 2009, and then decreasing to 0.22 (P<0.10) in 2010. Funding from the World Bank and the Global Fund was distributed proportionally according to need. In terms of vertical inequity, all sources were progressive: Unicef and the President's Malaria Initiative were the most progressive with the Kakwani Indices ranging from -0.97 (P<0.01) to -1.29 (P<0.01), and -0.90 (P<0.01) to -1.10 (P<0.01), respectively. Our results suggest that external funding of

  11. Vertical and horizontal equity of funding for malaria control: a global multisource funding analysis for 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrenho, Eliana; Miraldo, Marisa; Shaikh, Mujaheed; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Background International and domestic funding for malaria is critically important to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Its equitable distribution is key in ensuring that the available, scarce, resources are deployed efficiently for improved progress and a sustained response that enables eradication. Methods We used concentration curves and concentration indices to assess inequalities in malaria funding by different donors across countries, measuring both horizontal and vertical equity. Horizontal equity assesses whether funding is distributed in proportion to health needs, whereas vertical equity examines whether unequal economic needs are addressed by appropriately unequal funding. We computed the Health Inequity Index and the Kakwani Index to assess the former and the latter, respectively. We used data from the World Bank, Global Fund, Unicef, President’s Malaria Initiative and the Malaria Atlas Project to assess the distribution of funding against need for 94 countries. National gross domestic product per capita was used as a proxy for economic need and ‘population-at-risk’ for health need. Findings The level and direction of inequity varies across funding sources. Unicef and the President’s Malaria Initiative were the most horizontally inequitable (pro-poor). Inequity as shown by the Health Inequity Index for Unicef decreased from −0.40 (P0.10) in 2006 to −0.38 (P<0.05) in 2008, and decreased to −0.36 (P<0.10) in 2010. Domestic funding was inequitable (pro-rich) with inequity increasing from 0.28 (P<0.01) in 2006 to 0.39 (P<0.01) in 2009, and then decreasing to 0.22 (P<0.10) in 2010. Funding from the World Bank and the Global Fund was distributed proportionally according to need. In terms of vertical inequity, all sources were progressive: Unicef and the President’s Malaria Initiative were the most progressive with the Kakwani Indices ranging from −0.97 (P<0.01) to −1.29 (P<0.01), and −0.90 (P<0.01) to −1.10 (P<0

  12. Status report No. 8: State uses of Exxon and Stripper Well oil overcharge funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, H.; Claytor, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    From March of 1986 through early January, 1991 (when the report surveying began) state governments received $3.423 billion in funds obtained by the federal government through two major cases, based on price overcharges committed by numerous oil companies during the period of price controls, between 1973 and 1981. Furthermore, about another $1 billion may still be collected from oil companies, with roughly 1/2 to be distributed to the states (and the other 1/2 to the federal government), over the next 5 to 10 years. The role of state governments is to allocate the funds, within the specific case guidelines, to new or existing energy programs, in a way which is designed to benefit (or provide restitution to) the class or classes of purchasers who bore the burden of the overcharges. This report incorporates information collected by NCLC through telephone surveys conducted from January through March 1991. The information we collected on the status and state uses of both Exxon and Stripper Well funds is contained in the state-by-state narrative summary selection and in a series of tables at the end of the report. Each of the quarterly reports tracks final state decisions allocating use of these funds. The terms ''allocated'' and ''designated'' are used interchangeably throughout the document to mean that final state decisions have been made regarding these funds. Tracking state allocations about these funds is the only practical way for us to provide an overview of the actual status of state processes or decisions which have occurred with regard to this money. 9 tabs

  13. The use of typed lambda calculus for comprehension and construction of simulation models in the domain of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uschold, Michael

    1992-01-01

    We are concerned with two important issues in simulation modelling: model comprehension and model construction. Model comprehension is limited because many important choices taken during the modelling process are not documented. This makes it difficult for models to be modified or used by others. A key factor hindering model construction is the vast modelling search space which must be navigated. This is exacerbated by the fact that many modellers are unfamiliar with the terms and concepts catered to by current tools. The root of both problems is the lack of facilities for representing or reasoning about domain concepts in current simulation technology. The basis for our achievements in both of these areas is the development of a language with two distinct levels; one for representing domain information, and the other for representing the simulation model. Of equal importance, is the fact that we make formal connections between these two levels. The domain we are concerned with is ecological modelling. This language, called Elklogic, is based on the typed lambda calculus. Important features include a rich type structure, the use of various higher order functions, and semantics. This enables complex expressions to be constructed from relatively few primitives. The meaning of each expression can be determined in terms of the domain, the simulation model, or the relationship between the two. We describe a novel representation for sets and substructure, and a variety of other general concepts that are especially useful in the ecological domain. We use the type structure in a novel way: for controlling the modelling search space, rather than a proof search space. We facilitate model comprehension by representing modelling decisions that are embodied in the simulation model. We represent the simulation model separately from, but in terms of a domain mode. The explicit links between the two models constitute the modelling decisions. The semantics of Elklogic enables

  14. Carbon footprint of construction using industrialised building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P. Y.; Yahya, K.; Aminudin, E.; Zakaria, R.; Haron, Z.; Mohamad Zin, R.; Redzuan, A. A. H.

    2017-11-01

    Industrialised Building System (IBS) is more sustainable to the environment as compared to the conventional construction methods. However, the construction industry in Malaysia has low acceptance towards IBS due to the resistance to change and also lack of awareness towards sustainability development. Therefore, it is important to study the amount carbon footprint produced by IBS during its manufacturing and construction stage, and also the amount of carbon footprint produced by one meter square of gross floor area of IBS construction using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to ease future research through the comparison of the carbon footprint of IBS with the conventional building system. As a result, a case study on a residential type of construction in the vicinity of Johor Bahru, Malaysia was carried out to obtain the necessary data and result. From the data analysis, the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for a residential type IBS construction based on the raw materials and resources involved to manufacture and construct IBS components is 0.127 tonnes fossil CO2Eq per meter square. Raw material that contributed to the most amount of carbon footprint is Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), followed by steel bars, autoclaved aerated blocks and diesel. The LCA data acquired will be very useful in implementing IBS in the residential type construction. As a result, the awareness towards sustainable construction using IBS can be improved.

  15. Use of target-date funds in 401(k) plans, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig

    2009-03-01

    WHAT THEY ARE: Target-date funds (also called "life-cycle" funds) are a type of mutual fund that automatically rebalances its asset allocation following a predetermined pattern over time. They typically rebalance to more conservative and income-producing assets as the participant's target date of retirement approaches. WHY THEY'RE IMPORTANT AND GROWING: Of the 401(k) plan participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database who were found to be in plans that offeredtarget-date funds, 37 percent had at least some fraction of their account in target-date funds in 2007. Target-date funds held about 7 percent of total assets in 401(k) plans and the use of these funds is expected to increase in the future. The Pension Protection Act of 2006 made it easier for plan sponsors to automatically enroll new workers in a 401(k) plan, and target-date funds were one of the types of approved funds specified for a "default" investment if the participant does not elect a choice. BRI/ICI 401(K) DATABASE: This study uses the unique richness of the data in the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, which has almost 22 million participants, to examine the choices and characteristics of participants whose plans offer target-date funds. EFFECT OF AGE, SALARY, JOB TENURE, AND ACCOUNT BALANCE: Younger workers are significantly more likely to invest in target-date funds than are older workers: Almost 44 percent of participants under age 30 had assets in a target-date fund, compared with 27 percent of those 60 or older. Target-date funds appeal to those with lower incomes, little time on the job, and with few assets. On average, target-date fund investors are about 2.5 years younger than those who do not invest in target-date funds, have about 3.5 years less tenure, make about $11,000 less in salary, have $25,000 less in their account, and are in smaller plans. EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC ENROLLMENT: While the EBRI/ICI database does not contain specific information on whether

  16. DEVELOPMENT FEATURES OF LEASING RELATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patimat A. Abdulkhalikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Leasing, which is an alternative to traditional forms of investment for Russia, is currently among the most effective methods of financing construction organisations. Under conditions of shortage of available financial resources, leasing allows the modernisation of production to be carried out, modern equipment to be used or new production facilities to be opened in the shortest possible time. The purpose of the study is to comprehensively substantiate the specifics of leasing operations in construction and demonstrate its advantages as a tool for financing construction organisations. Methods The theoretical basis of the study was the fundamental provisions of economic, financial and management theory. During the process of research, logical, statistical and comparative analysis methods were used alongside expert evaluation and factor analysis approaches. Results For a leasing company whose purpose is to identify potential risk areas associated with the possibility of exceeding planned costs, it is recommended that a feasibility analysis be carried out prior to forming a loan portfolio. It is established that the transactions of a leasing company with a construction organisation can be presented as a separate investment project with a complex financial structure and a combination of interrelated long-term contracts. It is shown that the standardisation of principles of corporate governance and risk management is capable not only of reducing the susceptibility of a construction organisation to risk, but also of increasing the degree of trust on the part of customers and counterparties. Conclusion The expediency of using leasing in construction is due to the insufficient volume of private funds for the acquisition of equipment, which becomes particularly relevant against the background of rapidly aging facilities of construction organisations. Under conditions of largescale technical re-equipment, in which advanced

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DURING CONSTRUCTION OF MOTORWAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzan, Tadeusz

    2001-01-01

    In this paper given and analysed are the factors related to the construction of motorways and having a negative impact on the environment. Given are the conditions o f the assessment of the impact of the motorways on the environment, arable land andforests and cultural heritage.

  18. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.

    1980-01-01

    Scope of 'Site Construction concerning Electrical Equipment' (Installation, erection, commissioning, operation): tasks and organization of Siemens-Field Services Division; organization on site; receiving, incoming inspection and storage of material; installation, erection; (drawings, instructions, documents / execution of installation / personnel qualification). Non conformance and corrective actions; quality records; internal audits. (orig.)

  19. Risk-adjusted capitation funding models for chronic disease in Australia: alternatives to casemix funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioch, K M; Walsh, M K

    2002-01-01

    Under Australian casemix funding arrangements that use Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) the average price is policy based, not benchmarked. Cost weights are too low for State-wide chronic disease services. Risk-adjusted Capitation Funding Models (RACFM) are feasible alternatives. A RACFM was developed for public patients with cystic fibrosis treated by an Australian Health Maintenance Organization (AHMO). Adverse selection is of limited concern since patients pay solidarity contributions via Medicare levy with no premium contributions to the AHMO. Sponsors paying premium subsidies are the State of Victoria and the Federal Government. Cost per patient is the dependent variable in the multiple regression. Data on DRG 173 (cystic fibrosis) patients were assessed for heteroskedasticity, multicollinearity, structural stability and functional form. Stepwise linear regression excluded non-significant variables. Significant variables were 'emergency' (1276.9), 'outlier' (6377.1), 'complexity' (3043.5), 'procedures' (317.4) and the constant (4492.7) (R(2)=0.21, SE=3598.3, F=14.39, Probpayment (constant). The model explained 21% of the variance in cost per patient. The payment rate is adjusted by a best practice annual admission rate per patient. The model is a blended RACFM for in-patient, out-patient, Hospital In The Home, Fee-For-Service Federal payments for drugs and medical services; lump sum lung transplant payments and risk sharing through cost (loss) outlier payments. State and Federally funded home and palliative services are 'carved out'. The model, which has national application via Coordinated Care Trials and by Australian States for RACFMs may be instructive for Germany, which plans to use Australian DRGs for casemix funding. The capitation alternative for chronic disease can improve equity, allocative efficiency and distributional justice. The use of Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCGs) is a promising alternative classification system for capitation arrangements.

  20. Characterisation of MSWI bottom ash for potential use as subbase in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    of infrastructure due to increased oil and mineral exploitation. Thus, in this study MSWI bottom ash from a Greenlandic incinerator was tested for possible reuse as subbase in road construction. The mechanical properties (grain size distribution, wear resistance and bearing capacity) showed that the bottom ash...... grain sizes and could be reduced by removing some of these smaller grain sizes to obtain the stability requirement of the bottom ash. All in all, this study showed that the Greenlandic bottom ash has potential for being reused in road construction....... was acceptable for reuse after some small adjustments in the grain size distribution to prevent frost sensitivity. Results obtained from heavy metal content and heavy metal leaching complied with the Danish guideline values for reuse of waste materials in construction. Leaching of Cu and Cr was high from small...