WorldWideScience

Sample records for allowance for funds used during construction

  1. Tax effects of AFUDC: financial accounting aspects. [Allowance for funds used during construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, C.R.

    1980-08-14

    The use of generally accepted accounting principles in financial statements of regulated utilities requires the recognition of the utility's revenues and expenses for financial-reporting purposes in a manner that is temporally consistent with their recognition for ratemaking purposes. The achievement of this temporal consistency between financial and ratemaking accounting can be confusing, particularly in the area of income taxes. This study examines the possible treatment of the tax effects of capitalized interest for ratemaking and financial-reporting purposes. Various strategies are available to utilities seeking to maximize their financial-accounting return as well as their cash flow.

  2. 25 CFR 170.404 - What happens when a tribe uses its IRR Program construction funds for transportation planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... construction funds for transportation planning? 170.404 Section 170.404 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction... tribe uses its IRR Program construction funds for transportation planning? In order for IRR...

  3. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? 170.405 Section 170.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 7 CFR 247.25 - Allowable uses of administrative funds and other funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable. For availability of OMB Circulars referenced in this section, see 5 CFR 1310.3. Some examples of... equipment include automated information systems, automated data processing equipment, and other computer... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD...

  5. 13 CFR 305.6 - Allowable methods of procurement for construction services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... design/build, construction management at risk and force account. If an alternate method is used, the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable methods of procurement for construction services. 305.6 Section 305.6 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC...

  6. Increasing Students' Attendance at Lecture and Preparation for Lecture by Allowing Students to Use Their Notes during Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messling, Paul A., III; Dermer, Marshall L.

    2009-01-01

    In an upper-division, college course with a lecture component and two laboratory sections, we experimentally evaluated a treatment package that included this contingency: "only if students attended lecture and submitted notes for each day's reading assignment could they use their notes during a later test," and instructions about the contingency.…

  7. 42 CFR 413.149 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets... SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Capital-Related Costs § 413.149 Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. (a) Principle. Depreciation is allowed on assets...

  8. 25 CFR 47.11 - Can these funds be used as matching funds for other Federal programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.11 Can these funds be used as matching funds for other Federal programs? A Bureau-operated school may use funds that it receives...

  9. 13 CFR 308.1 - Use of funds in Projects constructed under projected cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... projected cost. (a) If the Assistant Secretary determines before closeout of a construction Project funded under parts 305 or 307 of this chapter that the cost of the Project, based on the designs and... the Recipient to: (1) Increase the Investment Rate of the Project to the maximum percentage...

  10. Allowing for spontaneous breathing during high-frequency oscillation: the key for final success?

    OpenAIRE

    Rimensberger, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In the present issue of Critical Care, van Heerde and colleagues describe a new technical development (a flow-demand system during high-frequency oscillation) that may have an important impact on the future use of high-frequency ventilation in children and adults. Flow compensation on patient demand seems to reduce the imposed work of breathing, may therefore increase patient comfort, and should theoretically allow for maintaining spontaneous breathing while heavy sedation and muscular paraly...

  11. LEGISLATIVE CHANGES NEEDED TO MAKE TO GUARANTEE SOCIAL VALUE OF THE CIVIL RIGHT OF AN INVESTOR IN HOUSING CONSTRUCTION UNDER THE FUND FOR BUILDING FINANCING IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorniak, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Substantive structural elements of the civil legal status of the fund for building financing under the housing capital construction contract are examining. Proposed developments in civil legal safeguards of supervising and procedure and on-site construction supervision function using the escrow account mechanism aims to provide a social value of the civil right of an investor in housing construction under the fund for building financing in Ukraine.

  12. Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, Sina; Jeffery, Nick D; Shivapour, Sara K; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Zylstra, Tyler J; Bratsch-Prince, Joshua; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Fredericks, Douglas C; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a novel intradural spinal cord (SC) stimulator designed to improve the treatment of intractable pain and the sequelae of SC injury. In-vivo ovine models of neuropathic pain and moderate SC injury are being implemented for pre-clinical evaluations of this device, to be carried out via gait analysis before and after induction of the relevant condition. We extend previous studies on other quadrupeds to extract the three-dimensional kinematics of the limbs over the gait cycle of sheep walking on a treadmill. Quantitative measures of thoracic and pelvic limb movements were obtained from 17 animals. We calculated the total-error values to define the analytical performance of our motion capture system for these kinematic variables. The post- vs. pre-injury time delay between contralateral thoracic and pelvic-limb steps for normal and SC-injured sheep increased by ~24s over 100 steps. The pelvic limb hoof velocity during swing phase decreased, while range of pelvic hoof elevation and distance between lateral pelvic hoof placements increased after SC injury. The kinematics measures in a single SC-injured sheep can be objectively defined as changed from the corresponding pre-injury values, implying utility of this method to assess new neuromodulation strategies for specific deficits exhibited by an individual. PMID:26341152

  13. Using fly ash for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  14. 34 CFR 75.532 - Use of funds for religion prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds for religion prohibited. 75.532 Section 75.532 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.532 Use of funds for religion prohibited. (a) No...

  15. 34 CFR 76.532 - Use of funds for religion prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds for religion prohibited. 76.532 Section 76.532 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.532 Use of funds for...

  16. 34 CFR 628.45 - How much endowment fund income may a grantee use and for what purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as stockbroker commissions and fees to “load” mutual funds; (3) May not use endowment fund income for... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much endowment fund income may a grantee use and... endowment fund income may a grantee use and for what purposes? (a) During the endowment challenge...

  17. Special purpose fund for the promotion of energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection (NEP fund)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legislation of the Republic of Croatia encourages energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection through many of its acts and regulations. The establishment of a system for the efficient use of energy and the utilisation of renewable energy sources largely depends on investments in relevant projects, programmes and initiatives. It is, therefore, necessary to establish special purpose financial mechanisms which would encourage investments in, as well as the realisation of such projects, programmes and initiatives. The article elaborates the model for the development of an extra-budgetary, special purpose fund (NEP fund) for financing energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection programmes, projects and measures. Its organisation, operation, project cycle, revenues and expenditures are elaborated. The proposed organisational model for the fund would not include an institutional framework for its operation. Instead, the fund would be an organisational scheme within the existing structure of commercial banks. It would be an organised system consisting of three basic elements: the Supervisory Board, the Financial Operator and the Professional Operator. The fund's area of operation would include the provision of loans under favourable conditions (interest rate, payback, grace period) for the production of equipment, the construction of energy facilities, the installation of equipment and the realisation of energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection projects. Financing would be available for project implementation, the finalization of initiated projects, project preparation and development, and the reconstruction or adaptation of existing infrastructure, facilities, etc. The elaborated model envisages commercial bank financing (funds earmarked for special purpose financing) and special product charges on fuel and electricity to be the fund's principal sources of income. (author)

  18. Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…

  19. Mega Construction Projects: using stakeholder management for enhanced sustainable construction

    OpenAIRE

    Eyiah-Botwe, E; Aigbavboa, C; Thwala, WD

    2016-01-01

    The need for mega construction projects development for accelerated socio-economic growth is long overdue for developing countries. Some studies have considered stakeholder management and sustainable construction concepts separately without exploring the simultaneous use for mega projects delivery. This paper reviews the two concepts and suggests a process for enhanced sustainable construction delivery. This study forms part of a broader Ph.D. study on “Development of sustainable ...

  20. In vitro production of multigene transgenic blastocysts via sperm-mediated gene transfer allows rapid screening of constructs to be used in xenotransplantation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiolu, A; Manzini, S; de Cecco, M; Bacci, M L; Forni, M; Galeati, G; Cerrito, M G; Busnelli, M; Lavitrano, M; Giovannoni, R

    2010-01-01

    Multigene transgenic pigs would be of benefit for large animal models and in particular for xenotransplantation, where extensive genetic manipulation of donor pigs is required to make them suitable for organ grafting to humans. We have previously produced multitransgenic pigs via sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) using integrative constructs expressing 3 different reporter genes. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using 3 integrative constructs carrying 3 different human genes involved in the modulation of inflammatory responses. We developed an in vitro fertilization system to demonstrate that SMGT can be used to efficiently produce multigene transgenic embryos through a 1-step genetic modification using multiple integrative constructs each carrying a different human gene involved in the modulation of inflammatory processes (hHO1, hCD39, and hCD73). The results suggest that this system allowed an effective preliminary test of transgenesis optimization, greatly reducing the number of animals used in the experiments and fulfilling important ethical issues. We performed 5 in vitro fertilization experiments using sperm cells preincubated with all 3 integrative constructs. A total of 1,498 oocytes were fertilized to obtain 775 embryos, among which 340 further developed into blastocysts. We did not observe any toxicity related to the transgenesis procedure that affected normal embryo development. We observed 68.5% transgenesis efficiency. Blastocysts were 48% single, 31% double, and 21% triple transgenic. PMID:20692428

  1. 25 CFR 170.403 - What IRR Program funds can be used for transportation planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads... list or TTIP and request the use of up to 100 percent of their IRR Program construction funds...

  2. Mega Construction Projects: using stakeholder management for enhanced sustainable construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyiah-Botwe, E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for mega construction projects development for accelerated socio-economic growth is long overdue for developing countries. Some studies have considered stakeholder management and sustainable construction concepts separately without exploring the simultaneous use for mega projects delivery. This paper reviews the two concepts and suggests a process for enhanced sustainable construction delivery. This study forms part of a broader Ph.D. study on “Development of sustainable stakeholder management framework for construction projects” aimed at improving stakeholder management process and project delivery. A qualitative research method approach was adopted. An extensive literature review on stakeholder management and sustainable construction was conducted using filtering method for four major journals from the institution database. Identified concepts were developed into a conceptual framework and validated using face to face semi-structured interviews involving ten key stakeholders. The findings are that stakeholder management and sustainability concepts are yet to embrace. This paper suggests a seven-step approach for project managers. (1 Embracing stakeholder management and sustainability concepts, (2 identify stakeholder approach and sustainable principle to adopt, (3 identify and classify project stakeholders, (4 engage stakeholders, (5 analyze stakeholders, (6 manage stakeholders and sustainable principle, (7 monitor and support process.

  3. Use of structural funds for cultural projects: study

    OpenAIRE

    European Parliament; Iglesias, Marìa

    2012-01-01

    EU policies are moving towards a comprehensive understanding of culture as a tool contributing to urban regeneration, attractiveness, entrepreneurship, innovation, jobs and sustainability. Cities and regions are going through the same path. Unfortunately, the new Cohesion Policy proposal for 2014-2020 only partially captures the pervasiveness of cultural investment. This report analyses the use of Structural Funds (SFs) in the period 2007-2013 and provides advice on how to facilitate access t...

  4. MCPN, Octree Neighbor Finding During Tree Model Construction Using Parental Neighboring Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Mohammad Hasan; Hejazi, Seyed Reza; Palhang, Maziar

    2015-09-01

    A new method for octree neighbor finding is proposed, named during Model Construction using Parental Neighboring rule (MCPN). Our proposed method finds and stores all neighbors of all leaf nodes during tree model construction, unlike majority of previous neighbor finding methods in which constructed tree model is the input of neighbor finding algorithm. Considering Parental Neighboring Rule (PNR), neighbor finding during tree model construction causes no increase in its time complexity class. The proposed method finds all neighbors of a node in 26 possible directions regardless of their size. Experimental results show that both in quadtrees and octrees, MCPN's needed time to find and store all neighbors of all leaf nodes plus tree model construction time, relative to tree model construction time alone, converges to one as the level of tree increases. Also MCPN outclasses the latest constant time neighbor finding method for quadtrees proposed by Aizawa and Tanaka.

  5. Risk analytics for hedge funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Ankur

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  6. 29 CFR 2580.412-15 - Procedures to be used for estimating the amount of funds to be “handled” during the current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to fund or set up the plan, plus the amount of contributions required to be made under the plan... formula from either employers, employees, employer organizations or any other source) by the number of... applicable. In the case of a newly formed profit-sharing plan covered by the Act, if the...

  7. Using fuzzy numbers for construction projects monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupka, Dariusz; Kuchta, Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Fuzzy numbers will be used to estimate project activities duration times possible increases, both in the planning phase and - for non-completed activities - in consecutive control points during project realisation. The fuzzy estimates will allow to estimate and continuously update the predicted project completion time and the risk of not keeping to the deadline. The fuzzy estimates of non-completed activities will be updated in each control point, on the basis of the information on the actual adequacy of the fuzzy estimates of already completed activities with similar risk factors. A new method for this updating process will be proposed. The method will focus on construction projects and will be applied to a real world construction project.

  8. Thue use of Management Contracts for Construction in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.S.L.Tang

    2002-01-01

    A traditional construction contract requires all detal design works to be completed before tendering and subsequent construction works can commence,and therefor erequires a longer time for project completion.This paper describes a relatively new way of construction procurement using management contracts',which allow design construction overlap,and hence reduce project duration.There are advantages in management contracting,but there are disadvantages too.They are discussed in detal in this paper.Two management contracts executed in Hong Kong are used as case studies to illustrate the said advantages and disadvantages.Conclusion is then made and pssible further research work is alkso suggested.

  9. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  10. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  11. Crowd-funding for musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Pflughaupt, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The thesis aims at illustrating the financing and marketing opportunities crowd-funding provides to any kind of musical artist. Due to the changes in the music industry over the past decade, financing has become continuously more difficult and risky. Crowd-funding has, during the past few years, made a sudden rise and is now commonly used in financing projects of any kind. As a financing tool, it does not only lower financial risk, but does also allow small indie bands and artists to release ...

  12. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  13. A new method for determining allowable medium temperature during transient operation of thick-walled elements in a supercritical power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Piotr; Rząsa, Dariusz

    2010-09-01

    Construction elements of supercritical power plants are subjected to high working pressures and high temperatures while operating. Under these conditions high stresses in the construction are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stress limit. The goal is to find optimum operating parameters that can assure safe heating and cooling processes [1-5]. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the allowable stresses are not exceeded and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. In this work new numerical method for determining optimum working parameters is presented. Based on these parameters heating operations were conducted. Stresses were monitored during the entire processes. The results obtained were compared with the German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301.

  14. Structural safety during construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Mud, M.; Frijters, A.

    2014-01-01

    Structural safety during construction is a main concern for the building industry. Collapses of temporary structures or incomplete permanent structures are a threat for the safety of persons. Based on data from Dutch Labour Inspectorate this study concluded that approximately 20% of the fatalities d

  15. Shifting investments strategy from equity funds to money market funds – the case of Romanian open - end fund market during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds are one of the key suppliers of liquidity in Romanian capital market. This paper uses quarterly data on Romanian open-end funds starting with 2006 until 2010. We find that significant negative flows (outflows were registered beginning with the end of 2007 (equity funds, during 2008 (equity funds, balanced funds, other funds and bond funds in the last 2 quarters of the year and from 2009 to 2010 (in the case of money market funds. There is evidence that the changing market conditions attract differently the incoming flows in these mutual funds. This is the reason why such perturbations affect investors’ confidence for these investment vehicles and impose the reorientation of the investment funds and of their investors to other alternatives in order to preserve their capital.

  16. 76 FR 45208 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... that the children of employees' same-sex domestic partners fall within the definition of ``child'' for... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 792 RIN 3206-AL36 Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower... agencies' use of appropriated funds to provide child care subsidies for lower-income civilian employees,...

  17. Rethinking Sponge Bob and Ninja Turtles: Popular Culture as Funds of Knowledge for Curriculum Co-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Children's interest in popular culture was clear in my study of interests-based curriculum. Yet, perhaps unsurprisingly, it was a contentious site of curriculum co-construction. This article explores this tension. It argues that interpreting popular culture as "funds of knowledge" might assist teachers to consider a different view of this interest…

  18. Education Using ICT for Construction Management

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Soeiro

    2008-01-01

    A project carried through between institutions of higher education and construction companies was co-financed by the European Commission. The project lasted three years where the main objective was to develop the staff training in using and applying the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in construction management. The results of the project have been also used in a new course of the senior year in specialization area of construction of the Civil Engineering degree of the Univer...

  19. Fair fund distribution for a municipal incinerator using GIS-based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chen, Ho-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Burning municipal solid waste (MSW) can generate energy and reduce the waste volume, which delivers benefits to society through resources conservation. But current practices by society are not sustainable because the associated environmental impacts of waste incineration on urbanized regions have been a long-standing concern in local communities. Public reluctance with regard to accepting the incinerators as typical utilities often results in an intensive debate concerning how much welfare is lost for those residents living in the vicinity of those incinerators. As the measure of welfare change with respect to environmental quality constraints nearby these incinerators remains critical, new arguments related to how to allocate the fair fund among affected communities became a focal point in environmental management. Given the fact that most County fair fund rules allow a great deal of flexibility for redistribution, little is known about what type of methodology may be a good fit to determine the distribution of such a fair fund under uncertainty. This paper purports to demonstrate a system-based approach that helps any fair fund distribution, which is made with respect to residents' possible claim for fair damages due to the installation of a new incinerator. Holding a case study using integrated geographic information system (GIS) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) for finding out the most appropriate distribution strategy between two neighboring towns in Taipei County, Taiwan demonstrates the application potential. Participants in determining the use of a fair fund also follow a highly democratic procedure where all stakeholders involved eventually express a high level of satisfaction with the results facilitating the final decision making process. It ensures that plans for the distribution of such a fair fund were carefully thought out and justified with a multi-faceted nature that covers political, socio-economic, technical, environmental, public

  20. Use of Constructed-Response Questions to Support Learning of Cell Biology during Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong May Yeong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of class-response systems such as the Clickers to promote active-learning during lectures has been wide-spread. However, the often-used MCQ format in class activities as well as in assessments for large classes might lower students’ expectations and attitudes towards learning. Here, I describe my experience converting MCQs to constructed-response questions for in-class learning activities by removing cues from the MCQs. From the responses submitted, students seemed capable of providing answers without the need for cues. Using class-response systems such as Socrative for such constructed-response questions could be useful to challenge students to express their ideas in their own words. Moreover, by constructing their own answers, mis-conceptions could be revealed and corrected in a timely manner.

  1. 42 CFR 137.337 - What funding must the Secretary provide in a construction project agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction project agreement? 137.337 Section 137.337 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.337 What funding must the Secretary provide in a construction project agreement? The Secretary must provide funding for a construction project agreement...

  2. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.015-70 Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions. (a) Definitions. As used in this subsection— (1) Research...

  3. 48 CFR 236.274 - Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Division E), do not acquire, or allow a contractor to acquire, steel for any construction project or... of steel for use in military construction projects. 236.274 Section 236.274 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction...

  4. Poland - Electricity and gas marked development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Practical guidelines for using EU funds for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The present report is prepared as part of the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU - funds'. The EU structural and cohesion funds are presently considered the most relevant funds concerning support to energy projects. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly decentralized. The eligible project types to be supported from the various structural funds are described in a number of sector programmes. The sector programmes are described in vertical view, meaning that it is difficult to assess what kind of energy projects are eligible for support and, if eligible, then under which programme. This report presents a horizontal view of the various programmes in order to give an overview of the possibilities of support to energy related projects. The background for this report is a study of the following sector programmes: 1. Improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises. 2. Human resources development. 3. Restructuring and modernization of food sector and rural development. 4. Fisheries and fish processing. 5. Transport - maritime economy. 6. Integrated regional operational programme. 7. Technical assistance. Based on this review, it can be stated that energy projects in general have a low priority but can be supported under various measures within the programmes. (BA)

  5. Evaluating forensic DNA profiles using peak heights, allowing for multiple donors, allelic dropout and stutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puch-Solis, Roberto; Rodgers, Lauren; Mazumder, Anjali; Pope, Susan; Evett, Ian; Curran, James; Balding, David

    2013-09-01

    Increases in the sensitivity of DNA profiling technology now allow profiles to be obtained from smaller and more degraded DNA samples than was previously possible. The resulting profiles can be highly informative, but the subjective elements in the interpretation make it problematic to achieve the valid and efficient evaluation of evidential strength required in criminal cases. The problems arise from stochastic phenomena such as "dropout" (absence of an allele in the profile that is present in the underlying DNA) and experimental artefacts such as "stutter" that can generate peaks of ambiguous allelic status. Currently in the UK, evidential strength evaluation uses an approach in which the complex signals in the DNA profiles are interpreted in a semi-manual fashion by trained experts aided by a set of guidelines, but also relying substantially on professional judgment. We introduce a statistical model to calculate likelihood ratios for evaluating DNA evidence arising from multiple known and unknown contributors that allows for such stochastic phenomena by incorporating peak heights. Efficient use of peak heights allows for more crime scene profiles to be reported to courts than is currently possible. The model parameters are estimated from experimental data incorporating multiple sources of variability in the profiling system. We report and analyse experimental results from the SGMPlus system, run at 28 amplification cycles with no enhancements, currently used in the UK. Our methods are readily adapted to other DNA profiling systems provided that the experimental data for the parameter estimation is available. PMID:23948327

  6. Efficient photoionization for barium ion trapping using a dipole-allowed resonant two-photon transition

    OpenAIRE

    Leschhorn G.; Hasegawa T.; Schaetz T.

    2011-01-01

    Two efficient and isotope-selective resonant two-photon ionization techniques for loading barium ions into radio-frequency (RF)-traps are demonstrated. The scheme of using a strong dipole-allowed transition at \\lambda=553 nm as a first step towards ionization is compared to the established technique of using a weak intercombination line (\\lambda=413 nm). An increase of two orders of magnitude in the ionization efficiency is found favoring the transition at 553 nm. This technique can be implem...

  7. Rental fees for using the non-residential funds of the municipal fisc and factors of its growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul’ R. Yarullin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the theoretical bases of forming the rent fees for nonresidential funds which constitute the fisc of Ufa municipality and to identify the opportunities of revenues increase from its use. Methods abstractlogical dialectical comparative systematic and structural economic analysis and synthesis. Results the content is disclosed of the rental fees of nonresidential funds constituting the municipal fisc as a cash payment of compensatory and equivalent character for the use of the municipality fisc the necessity is grounded of increasing the budget effectiveness of the municipal nonresidential facilities rent which consists in the proper use of rental fees for maintenance investments in the renovation and construction of nonresidential facilities the availability of funds for their financing and the lack of growth in rents above the economically viable threshold the factors are analyzed which determine the budget revenues from rent affecting the fiscal efficiency of nonresidential facilities rent in Ufa city a number of problematic issues were identified of systemic character reduction of the number of rent contracts reduction of the rented space an excessive amount of the reduced rent arrears of tenants on rents insufficient quality of the information management system ways are propose to improve the budget efficiency and profitability of the nonresidential rent consisting in the transition of nonresidential buildings and premises which are in economic conducting or in operational administration or are unused unregistered into the rent regime with the establishment of feasible rental fees expanding the number of premises the rental fee for the use of which is determined by bidding reduction of benefits to commercial organizations for the rent payment providing full and timely transfer of the arrears from tenants to the budget acceleration of the formation of the automated system for mass valuation of real estate allowing to

  8. Use of Constructed Wetlands for Polishing Recharge Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, W.

    2009-12-01

    The use of constructed wetlands for waste water treatment is becoming increasingly popular as more focus is being shifted to natural means of waste treatment. These wetlands employ processes that occur naturally and effectively remove pollutants and can greatly minimize costs when compared to full scale treatment plants. Currently, wetland design is based on basic “rules-of-thumb,” meaning engineers have a general understanding but not necessarily a thorough knowledge of the intricate physical, biological, and chemical processes involved in these systems. Furthermore, there is very little consideration given to use the wetland as a recharge pond to allow the treated water to percolate and recharge the local groundwater aquifers. The City of Foley, located in Alabama, and the Utilities Board of the City of Foley partnered with Wolf Bay Watershed Watch to evaluate alternative wastewater effluent disposal schemes. Rather than discharging the treated water into a local stream, a pilot program has been developed to allow water from the treatment process to flow into a constructed wetlands area where, after natural treatment, the treated water will then be allowed to percolate into a local unconfined aquifer. The goal of this study is to evaluate how constructed wetlands can be used for “polishing” effluent as well as how this treated water might be reused. Research has shown that constructed wetlands, with proper design and construction elements, are effective in the treatment of BOD, TSS, nitrogen, phosphorous, pathogens, metals, sulfates, organics, and other substances commonly found in wastewater. Mesocosms will be used to model the wetland, at a much smaller scale, in order to test and collect data about the wetland treatment capabilities. Specific objectives include: 1. Determine optimum flow rates for surface flow wetlands where water treatment is optimized. 2. Evaluate the capabilities of constructed wetlands to remove/reduce common over the counter

  9. Way and device for estimation of constructions technical state during acoustic-emission control

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenkov, I. V.

    2007-01-01

    The search urgency of new non-destructive control methods for responsible constructions is proved. An acoustic-emission responsible structures control method is suggested which is based on invariants method and Mann-Whitney U-criterion. A generalization of analytical relations for invariants method is performed. A device for estimating the constructions destruction processes during acoustic-emission control using invariants method is described.

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.453 - What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? 301-10.453 Section 301-10.453 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Special Conveyances Rental Automobiles § 301-10.453 What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?...

  11. Using CETA Funds in Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilinger, Jim

    1980-01-01

    Focusing on the use of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) funds in vocational agriculture, this article presents suggestions for obtaining CETA funds for a local vocational agriculture program. In addition, the article describes how CETA funds were used in an Illinois high school and the advantages realized from their use. (LRA)

  12. Efficient photoionization for barium ion trapping using a dipole-allowed resonant two-photon transition

    CERN Document Server

    Leschhorn, G; Schaetz, T

    2011-01-01

    Two efficient and isotope-selective resonant two-photon ionization techniques for loading barium ions into radio-frequency (RF)-traps are demonstrated. The scheme of using a strong dipole-allowed transition at \\lambda=553 nm as a first step towards ionization is compared to the established technique of using a weak intercombination line (\\lambda=413 nm). An increase of two orders of magnitude in the ionization efficiency is found favoring the transition at 553 nm. This technique can be implemented using commercial all-solid-state laser systems and is expected to be advantageous compared to other narrowband photoionization schemes of barium in cases where highest efficiency and isotope-selectivity are required.

  13. Numerical method for determining the allowable medium temperature during transient operation of a thick-walled boiler element in power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.

  14. Anomalies as a Catalyst for Middle School Students' Knowledge Construction and Scientific Reasoning during Science Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Marissa

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge construction and scientific reasoning were examined during a unit in genetics, in which anomalies were used as a catalyst for student learning. Students used genetics simulation software to develop hypotheses and run tests of fruit fly crosses to develop mental models of simple dominance trait transmission. Instruction was intended to…

  15. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  16. NRC allows TVA to resume construction on unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article very briefly describes the construction status of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant unit 1. The project was halted by TVA for two years due to quality assurance issues. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved resumption of work, noting that corrective actions were adequate. The status of other TVA reactors is also noted

  17. 34 CFR 400.5 - Under what conditions may funds under the Act be used for the joint funding of programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 400.5 Under what conditions may... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what conditions may funds under the Act be used for the joint funding of programs? 400.5 Section 400.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  18. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  19. 77 FR 42905 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... regulations (76 FR 45208) revising part 792 of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations. This final rule makes... spousal benefits by entering into a Federally recognized marriage. That is because child care subsidies... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 792 RIN 3206-AL36 Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for...

  20. Use of social media for corporate communications by research-funding organisations in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Carim, L.; Warwick, C.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature on the corporate use of social media did not appear to examine the activity of organisations that fund academic research, nor to explore the variety of implications for an organisation’s business functions of adopting these channels. This study sought to shed light on these areas through primary research involving a survey and focus groups. Findings showed that most UK-based research-funding organisations have adopted social media channels for corporate communications p...

  1. Field and laboratory test methods for geomembranes during waste management facility construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous waste management facilities are required to use approved lining and leak detection systems to prevent the migration of waste into the environment. Synthetic flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have effectively served as the critical barrier for waste containment and fluid migration. The U.S. EPA has established minimum technology requirements for the construction of lined facilities that include detailed and documented Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) plans. The U.S. EPA (EPA) recognizes that CQA during field construction is imperative for successful completion of project work and long-term facility operation. This paper discusses the importance of CQA during FML installation and the practical aspects of implementing a successful CQA program. Standard methods used for FML evaluation, in both the field and laboratory, are discussed and specific aspects of seam testing and data evaluation are addressed. The general importance of comprehensive definition of geomembrane seam field failures is strongly emphasized so that an appropriate response to test failures can be recommended

  2. 25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the...

  3. A generalized threading model using integer programming that allows for secondary structure element deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellrott, Kyle; Guo, Jun-tao; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    Integer programming is a combinatorial optimization method that has been successfully applied to the protein threading problem. We seek to expand the model optimized by this technique to allow for a more accurate description of protein threading. We have developed and implemented an expanded model of integer programming that has the capability to model secondary structure element deletion, which was not possible in previous version of integer programming based optimization. PMID:17503397

  4. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  5. A Newfound Tool for College Fund Raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how, by sponsoring donor-advised funds, colleges are allowing contributors to enjoy tax breaks and philanthropic experience normally reserved for billionaires with their own foundations. (EV)

  6. Quality assurance during site construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants under consideration of pipe assembling. Flow of Quality Requirements during: - Desing - Construction - Procurement - Prefabrication - Site. Organizational Requirements and Measurements during Erection: - Incoming Control - Material Storage - Surveillance of Tools - Weld Surveillance - Nondestructive Testing - Cleaning - Final Documentation. Qualification and Training of QA Personnel. (orig.)

  7. Computational and Experimental Investigation for an Optimal Design of Industrial Windows to Allow Natural Ventilation during Wind-Driven Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritana Prueksakorn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With an increased awareness of sustainability issues, natural ventilation has become an elegant method for reducing the costs and environmental effects of the energy that is used to maintain comfortable indoor air quality rather than using mechanical ventilation. The windows in many industrial buildings are continuously open to exhaust pollutants and intake fresh air. Though windows are functional and efficient for natural ventilation, rainwater is able to penetrate through the windows during wind-driven rain. For industries in which the moisture content affects the quality of the product, the intrusion of a large amount of rainwater through windows must be prevented without compromising the effective ventilation. The aim of this research is to determine an innovative design for windows to accomplish the optimum of high ventilation and low rain penetration. For this purpose, windows are variously innovated and tested in full-scale measurements, reduced-scale wind-tunnel measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD. An artificial rain and wind velocity to mimic the average of the maximum values in Korea are created. The maximum reduction in rain penetration of over 98% compared to basic 90° open windows is attained with only a 4%–9% decrement of ventilation efficiency in the two recommended designs.

  8. 25 CFR 39.505 - What are the reporting requirements for the use of the contingency fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contingency fund? 39.505 Section 39.505 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.505 What are the reporting requirements for the use of the contingency fund? (a) At the end of each fiscal year, Bureau/OIEP shall send...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.215 - Federal and federally funded construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator for Procurement may exempt a construction project from this policy if, as of February 17, 2001— (1... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal and federally funded construction... construction projects. (a) In accordance with E.O. 13202 of February 17, 2001, “Preservation of...

  10. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Water Act. (i) Calcium hypochlorite. (ii) Chlorine dioxide. (iii) Sodium hypochlorite. (8) Electrolytes... use under 7 CFR part 205, the NOP requires that poloxalene only be used for the emergency treatment of... medical treatments as applicable. (1) Alcohols. (i) Ethanol-disinfectant and sanitizer only, prohibited...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.53 - Eligible use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definition of either moderate or substantial rehabilitation as defined in 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. (2) The..., solar, or other power sources for lighting and other features necessary for the housing. If such... to construct MFH. (b) Purchase and rehabilitate buildings. Funds may be used to purchase...

  12. Tunnel stability analysis during construction using a neuro-fuzzy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, José Luis; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Ayala, A. Gustavo; Cervantes, Francisco

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative strategy to evaluate the stability of tunnels during the design and construction stages based on a hybrid system, composed by neural, neuro-fuzzy and analytical solutions. A prototype of this system is designed using a database formed by 261 cases, 45 real and the rest synthetic. This system is capable of reproducing the displacements induced at the periphery of the tunnel before and after support installation. The stability of the excavation process is evaluated using a criterion that considers dimensionless parameters based on the shear strength of the media, the induced deformation level in the ground, the plastic radii and the advance of excavation without support. The efficiency and validity of the prototype is verified with two examples of actual tunnels, one included in the database used to train the system and the other not included. The results of both examples show a better approximation than other commonly used techniques. Copyright

  13. Fund Raising for Haiti

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

  14. VERTICAL PROJECTION EFFICIENCY OF PIVOT POINTS USING ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER DURING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterenok

    2015-01-01

    transfer to mounting horizon using inclined projection in the point with plane coordinates which differ from initial point coordinates within the limits of apparent standard graph area. Such point can be indicated with the help of dot L.E.D. located on standard graph. Its spatial polar and rectangular coordinates on horizontal plane are determined by angular measurements with readings along both bearing circles of the electronic tacheometer and projection height.Production practice and executed experiments have permitted to make the following conclusions: a modern electronic tacheometer equipped with ocular attachment for telescope sighting in the zenith direction can be and must be efficiently applied for vertical point projection of internal geodetic base of a constructed building or a structure. The mentioned device ensures transfer of geodetic base points to mounting horizon not only vertically but also with inclination of a projected beam within sequential visibility of openings in intermediate floors that allows to adapt projection trajectory to specific conditions of its passing.

  15. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.

  16. Three-dimensional laser scanning for geometry documentation and construction management of highway tunnels during excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered. PMID:23112655

  17. KT Fund: Five years of funding for impact

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic safety, ion beam therapy, event management for communities, emergency lighting… this year’s applications for funding through the Knowledge Transfer Fund demonstrate the breadth of possible applications of CERN technology beyond high-energy physics.     The use of high index glass spherical targets as retroreflectors for a 3D interferometer is the subject of one of the 2015 KT Fund Projects.   Following the 2015 selection committee held in January, the KT Fund has funded a total of seven new projects that aim to further develop CERN technologies to a level where they can be transferred and subsequently make a positive impact on society. “CERN’s ambitious scientific programme requires state-of-the-art technologies that are not always directly reusable by society because they were not designed with this purpose in mind,” explains David Mazur, Section Leader of the IP Dissemination Section. “Since 2011, the KT...

  18. Strain Measurement of Steel Roof Truss Using FBG Sensor during Construction of Reverse Shell Shaped Reinforced Concrete Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Woo [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hong Chul; Seo, Tae Seok [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Application of FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors to measure strain of steel roof trusses has been performed. This is to check and confirm the structural integrity of an unusually shaped, reverse shell structure made of reinforced concrete. The issue was to place sensors at proper location and compare the measured values to the results from structural analysis. It has been learned that a deliberate measurement scheme is needed in order to monitor a complex structure during construction. In this study, the measured values were within allowable range of strain, thus confirming the safety of the structure during measurement and construction.

  19. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction use on a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-04-17

    The 241-A-101 tank, a 22.9 meter 3,785,400 liter capacity SST, was constructed from the fourth generation of tank designs, which were capable of holding boiling or self-concentrating waste. Construction features a reinforced concrete shell, dome, and base with a mild steel liner covering the bottom and sidewalls. The tank has a flat bottom with a usable waste depth of approximately 9.4 meters. The tank was put into service in 1956 to store plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) high-level waste and organic wash waste. The waste was allowed to self-concentrate up until 1968. Tank sluicing was performed in 1969 and again in 1976 to reduce the amount of strontium and cesium, the two isotopes found to be the main heat generating sources in the tank. In 1978, the tank was reassigned for saltcake storage. The tank was taken out of service in November 1980 and partially isolated in 1982. Salt well pumping is a method used to interim stabilize SSTS. Interim stabilization is commenced once all the liquid above the solids has been removed (primary stabilization). Interim stabilization removes the gravity drainable liquid and the interstitial liquid between the solids from the SST and transfers the liquid to a double-shell tank (DST) or to a staging double-contained receiver tank (DCRT), which is subsequently transferred to a DST. Pumping is accomplished at very low flow rates, 15.1 liters per minute or less. Normally, salt well pumping is performed without the need of an exhauster. However, recent safety evaluations concluded that a minimum exhaust flow rate of 7.1 cubic meters per minute would be required to enhance the safety of the tank. Therefore, active ventilation will be part of this process for the 241-A-101 tank. This document details the Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the use of a portable exhauster on Tank 241-A-101 during salt well pumping and other routine activities.

  20. Characterization, description, and considerations for the use of funding acknowledgement data in Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Paul-Hus, Adele; Desrochers, Nadine; Costas, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Funding acknowledgements found in scientific publications have been used to study the impact of funding on research since the 1970s. However, no broad scale indexation of that paratextual element was done until 2008, when Thomson Reuters Web of Science started to add funding acknowledgement information to its bibliographic records. As this new information provides a new dimension to bibliometric data that can be systematically exploited, it is important to understand the characteristics of th...

  1. Countermeasure for Construction Machinery Produced using 5Why Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Gil SHIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of perspectives and opinions on the causes of construction machinery-related accidents were collected through a questionnaire survey and direct interviews with management supervisors, operators, etc. The accident causes will be analyzed using 5Whys technique for major construction machinery disaster case. Improvement ideas will be suggested with an aspect of technical training, management system in the study. In the case of tower cranes, some of the risk factors are being neglected in formal inspections. The reliability of the maintenance performed by rental companies is low. Moreover, in the case of big cranes, unsatisfactory installation and dismantling teams with insufficient expertise can be assigned to sites. There is no process for checking this onsite and management supervisors may just neglect the safety supervision of the installation/dismantling work due to insufficient experience. Excavator accidents cannot be eradicated, e.g. with buckets falling due to the lack of fixing of the bucket's safety device during operation. Crashing and jamming accidents involving workers and excavators have occurred due to the lack of placement of full-time guiders and the lack of excavator control around the sites.

  2. What Paradox? Referential Cues Allow for Infant Use of Phonetic Detail in Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Christopher T.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has uncovered a surprising paradox: Although 14-month-olds have exquisite phonetic discrimination skills (e.g., distinguishing [b] from [d]), they have difficulty using phonetic detail when mapping "novel" words to objects in laboratory tasks (confusing "bin" and "din"). While some have attributed infants' difficulty to immature word…

  3. Specification of properties and design allowables for copper alloys used in HHF components of ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinin, G.M.; Fabritziev, S.A.; Singh, B.N.;

    2002-01-01

    Two types of copper alloys, precipitation hardened (PH) Cu (CuCrZr-IG) and dispersion strengthened (DS) Cu (CuAl25-IG), are proposed as heat sink materials for the high heat flux (HHF) components of ITER. However, copper alloys are not included in any national codes, and properties of both Cu...

  4. Reach for Reference. Britannica Online School Edition: Will You Allow Students to Use It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article describes Brittanica's Web-based K-12 resource, "Britannica Online Student Edition." This reference contains three encyclopedia databases: "Britannica" for teachers and older students, the "Student Britannica," and the "Elementary Brittanica." These are supplemented with videos and other media, a spotlight feature, a world atlas, and…

  5. Specification of properties and design allowables for copper alloys used in HHF components of ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinin, G.M.; Fabritziev, S.A.; Singh, B.N.; Tähtinen, S.; Zinkle, S.J.

    Two types of copper alloys, precipitation hardened (PH) Cu (CuCrZr-IG) and dispersion strengthened (DS) Cu (CuAl25-IG), are proposed as heat sink materials for the high heat flux (HHF) components of ITER. However, copper alloys are not included in any national codes, and properties of both CuCrZr...

  6. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  7. Why we should use simpler models if the data allow this: relevance for ANOVA designs in experimental biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazic Stanley E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance (ANOVA is a common statistical technique in physiological research, and often one or more of the independent/predictor variables such as dose, time, or age, can be treated as a continuous, rather than a categorical variable during analysis – even if subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While this is not common, there are a number of advantages of such an approach, including greater statistical power due to increased precision, a simpler and more informative interpretation of the results, greater parsimony, and transformation of the predictor variable is possible. Results An example is given from an experiment where rats were randomly assigned to receive either 0, 60, 180, or 240 mg/L of fluoxetine in their drinking water, with performance on the forced swim test as the outcome measure. Dose was treated as either a categorical or continuous variable during analysis, with the latter analysis leading to a more powerful test (p = 0.021 vs. p = 0.159. This will be true in general, and the reasons for this are discussed. Conclusion There are many advantages to treating variables as continuous numeric variables if the data allow this, and this should be employed more often in experimental biology. Failure to use the optimal analysis runs the risk of missing significant effects or relationships.

  8. 26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in its trade or business of selling tangible personal property or services to the general public. The... property owned by the lessor (for purposes of depreciation under 168(e)(2)(B) and determining gain or...

  9. Statistical Methods of Strategic Portfolio Management for Fund of Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A 'fund of funds (FoF)' is an investment fund that invests in other investment funds rather than investing directly in shares, bonds, or other securities. Sometimes referred to as multi-manager funds, these investment funds pose 'apart from the challenges that arise for every portfolio to be managed' special problems to their management teams. Several concepts and statistical methods are applied to problems that one faces when managing a FoF, laying the focus on direct solutions.

  10. New Technology for Density Model Construction Using Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyshko, P. S.

    2010-12-01

    The construction process of density sections using gravity data leads to solution of linear inverse problem, which is the classical example of ill-posed problem as its solution is not unique and unstable. It is possible to choose the specific variant of density distribution if additional information is presented. In this article we discuss one approach for constructing three-dimensional density sections using gravity data. Here we suggest the algorithm of finding density distribution in the area of investigations using prior information about geological structures in the region, for example, obtained with seismic methods. This problem appears during constructing earth-crust and mantle models, and, also oil and gas exploration. As the practical investigation involve non-plate layers, new method for searching density distributions inside curve-edged layers was developed. Calculate two-dimension density distribution in these layers if there are no other density anomalies outside given layers. Technology of gravity field sources separation was completely described in [1,2]. Initial data for investigations are located usually on a non-regular grid. As far as all following procedures are developed for data arrays located on regular grids we have to calculate data onto a regular grid (with a uniform nodes spacing). For separating sources of gravity field in depths we based on upward and downward continuation by means Poisson’s formula. The problem of definition of density values in the layer leads to integral equation of the first kind Δg(x,y,0)=Bσ(x,y,), where B - is integral operator, density σ(x,y) is seeking function. Consider double integral in equation above as a sum of integrals over elementary rectangles Δx by Δy, i.e. we imagine layer separated into bars Δx Δy (H2(x,y)-H1(x,y)), each having constant density, and use discrete integral formula (for example, trapeziums formula). Then calculation of the integral comes to the multiplication of vector of

  11. 75 FR 70582 - Use of Public Housing Capital Funds for Financing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... the financing. This final rule followed a proposed rule published on July 18, 2007 (72 FR 39546), that... Capital Funds for Financing Activities (FR-4843-F-02), published in the Federal Register on October 21..., 2010 (75 FR 65198), HUD published a final rule that implements the Capital Fund Finance Program...

  12. Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Hyo Seon Park; Sewook Son; Se Woon Choi; Yousok Kim

    2013-01-01

    As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, a...

  13. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Langhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching autonomy, we had as a main objective the search for the chance to achieve progressive levels of teachers autonomy, according to its three teacher professionalization models, present in a critical and transformative perspective, relating them to the current formative paradigms: the contents based one, the humanist, the activist, the reflective and the technical (approaches we called CHART. Taking into consideration future physics teachers´ collective reflections about their own teaching practice, this research was supported by the following methodological instruments: focus group, coaching, self-confrontation and formative assessment, taking the discourse analysis as background. The outcomes of this research, which followed a sample of 40 future High School physics teachers during three semesters, through the use of five formative steps (planning, implementation, reflection, socialization, involvement and continuity, revealed the evidences of teachers autonomy construction, probably provided by their own teaching practice collective reflections, according to the analytical device used. This research showed that the reflections brakes provided during the process can allow the future teachers to position themselves critically in relation to their future pedagogical activities, even after their initial training. This experience leads us to rethink how subjects like Methodology and Teaching Practice have been teaching in the teachers’ education programs at

  14. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  15. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  16. 34 CFR 682.418 - Prohibited uses of the assets of the Operating Fund during periods in which the Operating Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... guaranty responsibilities under the HEA, including appropriate and reasonable advertising designed... acquired, whether the expenditures are classified as capital or operating expenses; (8) Public relations... used to promote or maintain a favorable image of the guaranty agency. The term “public relations”...

  17. Electrical measurements during magnet construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the construction phase of the cold mass for SSC magnets, electrical tests are made to determine that no faults in the coil structure have developed. These tests include ones designed to measure turn-to-turn voltage hold-off, hypot tests to ground, coil resistance, and instrumentation checks. These various tests will be described and the test parameters that are used will be covered. 4 figs

  18. The absorption of european funds for environmental protection during the period 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Political realities of the European Union regarding the environment protection segment formed the basis of a specific reorientation of cohesion policy, the including this area as one of the main priorities for obtaining grants. In other words, due to long-term challenges such as climate change, energy security, scarcity of resources (raw materials, water, biodiversity loss, environment protection has become one of the strategic priorities of the European Union. These challenges are coupled with short-term threats like increasing public debt of States Members, in particular as a result of loans contracted by these to eliminate or counteract the financial crisis effects and the the dimensioning of fiscal discipline, both internally and at Community level.

  19. The Use of Management Contracts for Construction in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. S.L. Tang

    2002-01-01

    A traditional construction contract requires all detail design works to be completed before tendering and subsequentconstruction works can commence, and therefore requires a longer time for project completion. This paper describes ahence reduce project duration. There are advantages in management contracting, but there are disadvantages too. They arediscussed in detail in this paper. Two management contracts executed in Hong Kong are used as case studies to illustrate thesaid advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion is then made and possible further research work is also suggested.

  20. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.8 Grant of essential use...

  1. On Constructing, Grouping and Using Topical Ontology for Semantic Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; de Baer, Peter; Zhao, Gang; Meersman, Robert

    An ontology topic is used to group concepts from different contexts (or even from different domain ontologies). This paper presents a pattern-driven modeling methodology for constructing and grouping topics in an ontology (PAD-ON methodology), which is used for matching similarities between competences in the human resource management (HRM) domain. The methodology is supported by a tool called PAD-ON. This paper demonstrates our recent achievement in the work from the EC Prolix project. The paper approach is applied to the training processes at British Telecom as the test bed.

  2. Construction of Simulation Model for OTEC Plant Using Uehara Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Satoru; Motoshima, Yoshiki; Sugi, Takenao; Yasunaga, Takeshi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) converts heat energy into electricity using 20-27[°C] temperature difference between warm seawater at surface and cold seawater in depth. In this paper, a simulation model for an OTEC plant, which uses the Uehara cycle with an ammonia-water mixture as working fluid, is constructed based on the mass balance and the heat balance. Moreover, a method of the initial value determination for numerical simulation is developed. Accuracy of the simulation model was evaluated by comparing with the experimental results of a pilot OTEC plant.

  3. Quality assurance aspects during design, construction and operation of a repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance (QA) with regard to structures, systems and components is an important task during design, construction and operation of a repository for the final disposal of radioactive wastes. Therefore, an appropriate QA system has to be established and to be described in a general QA manual. A separate QA manual has to be prepared for the operational phase of a repository. A further QA activity is to classify the structures, systems and components of the repository into different areas (QA grading). This classification can be based on the results of a comprehensive safety assessment. Type and extent of the necessary documentation strongly depend on the relevance of the structures, systems and components to safety. Quality assurance procedures are necessary in the operational phase, especially in cases of deviations from the licensed status and of nonconformances. Changes during design, construction and operation are also categorized. (orig.)

  4. Risk Governance for funds

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Verlaine

    2010-01-01

    The typical portfolio theory does not distinguish investors and asset managers. Most of investments, however, are delegated to asset managers, which leads to an Agency problem. Moreover, the Agency problem faced by the investment industry is specific as the managers can manipulate the performance of funds. In that respect, the governance specificities of investment funds have not been adequately addressed by the academic literature. The aim of this paper is to rationalize the notion of benchm...

  5. Using Construction Management for Public and Institutional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Technology, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Construction management has been developed as an alternative to the traditional public building process and seeks to save an owner time and cost primarily through better activity coordination and project management. This report was developed to guide public agencies in their evaluation of construction management for their particular needs. It…

  6. Tunnels: different construction methods and its use for pipelines installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Tales; Soares, Ana Cecilia; Assis, Slow de; Bolsonaro, Ralfo; Sanandres, Simon [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In a continental dimensions country like Brazil, the pipeline modal faces the challenge of opening ROW's in the most different kind of soils with the most different geomorphology. To safely fulfill the pipeline construction demand, the ROW opening uses all techniques in earthworks and route definition and, where is necessary, no digging techniques like horizontal directional drilling, micro tunneling and also full size tunnels design for pipelines installation in high topography terrains to avoid geotechnical risks. PETROBRAS has already used the tunnel technique to cross higher terrains with great construction difficult, and mainly to make it pipeline maintenance and operation easier. For the GASBOL Project, in Aparados da Serra region and in GASYRG, in Bolivia, two tunnels were opened with approximately 700 meters and 2,000 meters each one. The GASBOL Project had the particularity of being a gallery with only one excavation face, finishing under the hill and from this point was drilled a vertical shaft was drilled until the top to install the pipeline section, while in GASYRG Project the tunnel had two excavation faces. Currently, two projects are under development with tunnels, one of then is the Caraguatatuba-Taubate gas pipeline (GASTAU), with a 5 km tunnel, with the same concepts of the GASBOL tunnel, with a gallery to be opened with the use of a TBM (Tunneling Boring Machine), and a shaft to the surface, and the gas pipeline Cabiunas-Reduc III (GASDUC III) project is under construction with a 3.7 km tunnel, like the GASYRG tunnel with two faces. This paper presents the main excavation tunneling methods, conventional and mechanized, presenting the most relevant characteristics from both and, in particular, the use of tunnels for pipelines installation. (author)

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1:l lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions

  8. Using large complex units for construction of the Kursk NPP third unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown taking as an example the construction of the third unit of the Kursk RBMK-1000 reactor NPP that enlargement of building structures permits to reduce duration and labour intensity of reactor room construction and to improve work quality. An assembly technology for complex blocks and new method for erection of dispencer collector box are presented. It is concluded that during erection of the most enlarged blocks time period of using main erecting cranes in a main vessel is saved

  9. Wireless laser range finder system for vertical displacement monitoring of mega-trusses during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Son, Sewook; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed. PMID:23648650

  10. Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed.

  11. Resonant Transmissive Modulator Construction for Use in Beam Steering Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Fork, Richard L.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Loehr, John P.

    1999-01-01

    An agile electronically configurable optical beam steering device for use in directional free-space transmission of optical signals is described. The device design employs an array of tunable resonant transmissive modulators constructed from multi-layered stacks of electro-optically active dielectric materials. Each modulator may be individually configured to transmit an optical signal with a specific amount of phase and group velocity modulation. The resulting diffractive interactions between modulator outputs provide a method for directional optical signal transmission. Of particular focus within this presentation is the optimized design of the individual modulator. It is widely known that periodic multi-layered stacks of dielectric materials exhibit reflective and transmissive resonances as described by the stack's transmission function. If an electric field is applied normal to the stack's layers, phenomena such as the electro-optic effect and/or the quantum-confined Stark effect may be employed to change the effective refractive index within the stack. This refractive index change alters the stack's transmission function and modulates the phase and group velocity of the transmitted optical signal. By varying the parameters that describe the stack's specific construction and operation, such as number of layers within the stack, refractive indexes of stack materials, layer thicknesses, and combinations of periodic verses non-periodic layer repetitions, custom transmittance functions may be generated. The transmitted optical signal carrier frequency and bandwidth must be carefully selected to maximize transmission and to minimize absorption. A computational optimization of the variables describing the stack's construction strives to maximize the amount of optical signal modulation verses applied voltage. Trade-offs between methods of increasing device performance verses the limitations of fabrication technologies are considered.

  12. Future prices and market for SO2 allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected price of SO2 emission allowances is an important issue in energy and integrated resource planning activities. For example, the expected price of SO2 allowances in needed in order to evaluate alternative strategies for meeting SO2 provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In addition, the expected SO2 allowance price is important to state public utility regulators who must provide guidance on rate-making issues regarding utility compliance plans which involve allowance trading and direct investment of SO2 control technologies. Last but not the least, the expected SO2 allowance price is an important determinant of the future market for natural gas and low sulfur coal. The paper develops estimates of SO2 allowance prices over time by constructing national supply and demand curves for SO2 reductions. Both the supply and demand for SO2 reductions are based on an analysis of the sulfur content of fuels burned in 1990 by utilities throughout the United States; and on assumptions about plant retirements, the rate of new capacity growth, the types of new and replacement plants constructed, the costs of SO2 reduction measures and legislation by midwest states to maintain the use of high sulfur coal to protect local jobs. The paper shows that SO2 allowance prices will peak around the year 2000 at about $500 per ton, and will eventually fall to zero by about the year 2020. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the price of SO2 allowances is relatively insensitive to assumptions regarding the availability of natural gas or energy demand growth. However, SO2 allowance prices tend to be quite sensitive to assumptions regarding regulations which may force early retirement of existing power plants and possible legislation which may reduce CO2 emissions

  13. 7 CFR 215.6 - Use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of funds. 215.6 Section 215.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.6 Use of funds. (a) Federal funds made available under the Program shall be...

  14. 42 CFR 137.343 - What happens to funds remaining at the conclusion of a fixed price construction project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of a fixed price construction project? 137.343 Section 137.343 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.343 What happens to funds remaining at the conclusion of a fixed price construction project? (a) For lump sum fixed price...

  15. Quality assurance during site construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the time of planing and construction of a nuclear power plant, the following proceeding is approved: - the deliverer of a nuclear power plant provides the reports fixing the quality assurance program, it means that he is responsible to write the safety analysis report, the specifications for the erection of the components, the working manuals and specifications for testing (eg nondestr. testing) - the manufacturing of components or systems will be controlled by an own independent quality assurance group, provided that this group was checked by the quality assurance group of the applicant - the TUeV with its independent assessors will fix the requirements relating to quality assurance in its assessment. On this basis the examination of the applicants specifications, working manuals, testing specifications will be done. The efficiency of quality assurance at the manufacturer and at the applicant will be checked by the TUeV specialists by considering specifications of modifications, repairs or tolerances. A mean point of the quality assurance in Germany is the dynamic adjustment, of an action on the latest state of engineering or science. If there exists a change of rules or guidelines, the quality assurance requirements have to be fit on this state in so far as it is feasible from the technical point of view. (orig./RW)

  16. Utilising a loop structure to allow a microfiber coupler with larger taper diameters to be used for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fangfang; Farrell, Gerald; Wu, Qiang; Semenova, Yuliya

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines a technique that utilizes a Sagnac loop with a microfiber coupler (MFC) as a coupler which allows the MFC to operate effectively as a sensor but with larger than normal tapered fiber diameters. The proposed structure is found to be suitable for temperature and refractive index (RI) sensing. It is shown that a variation in the surrounding of the MFC RI results in a shift of the output spectrum, while a temperature variation leads to changes in the intensity of the interference dips. A decrease in the waist diameter of the MFC results in an increase in the sensitivity to temperature. For MFC structures based on a 5.6 μm and a 3 μm fiber waist diameter, the minimum transmission power level of a selected spectral dip decreases by 1.7 dB and 5.03 dB respectively, as the temperature changes from 18 °C to 44 °C. A change in the surrounding RI from 1.334 to 1.395 results in the spectral redshift of 8 nm using a 5.6 μm fiber waist diameter. By functionalizing the surface of the MFC with various materials, the structure could potentially be used for sensing of other parameters.

  17. Analysis of the funds used during the three years of the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents general guidelines and a plan for financing the various activities of the RDP 2007-2013. An analysis of the use of financial resources under the priority axes of the activities forming the RDP 2007-2013 in the three years of the Programme. The source materials were Ministry of Agriculture Village and Development studies and reports. On the implementation of the RDP 2007-2013 Poland received financial support amounting to 17.2 billion Euros to June 2010 used 22.24% of the total budget. The largest share of financing by the action of axis 2 was related to the promotion and operation of the LFA areas Axis 1 Early retirement.

  18. Pension fund excellence creating value for stakeholders

    CERN Document Server

    Ambachtsheer, Keith P.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally recognized experts in the field introduce their "business excellence paradigm". In this book, two leading pension fund experts lay out a comprehensive plan for effective fund management. With the help of domestic and global case studies they critically assess current approaches to pension fund management and isolate what works and what doesn't using their unique critically acclaimed "run-it-like-a-business" model. Keith P. Ambachtsheer (Toronto, Canada) is principle at KPA Advisory Service, Inc., a pension fund management consulting firm. He runs The Ambachtsheer Letter and cofounded Cost Effective Measurement, Inc., which monitors the performance of 300 of the world's largest asset funds. D. Don Ezra (Toronto, Canada) is Director of European Consulting at Frank Russell Co. His previous books include The Struggle for Pension Fund Wealth.

  19. Using the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS) to Construct Files for Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Quaranta, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    The use of longitudinal historical micro-level demographic data for research presents many challenges. The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS) was developed to try to solve some of these challenges by facilitating the storing and sharing of such data. This article proposes an extension to the IDS, which allows the standardization and storage of constructed variables. It also describes how to produce a rectangular episodes file for statistical analysis from data stored in the IDS and presents pr...

  20. Allowing for population stratification in case-only studies of gene-environment interaction, using genomic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Lieb, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Krawczak, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Gene-environment interactions (G × E) have attracted considerable research interest in the past owing to their scientific and public health implications, but powerful statistical methods are required to successfully track down G × E, particularly at a genome-wide level. Previously, a case-only (CO) design has been proposed as a means to identify G × E with greater efficiency than traditional case-control or cohort studies. However, as with genotype-phenotype association studies themselves, hidden population stratification (PS) can impact the validity of G × E studies using a CO design. Since this problem has been subject to little research to date, we used comprehensive simulation to systematically assess the type I error rate, power and effect size bias of CO studies of G × E in the presence of PS. Three types of PS were considered, namely genetic-only (PSG), environment-only (PSE), and joint genetic and environmental stratification (PSGE). Our results reveal that the type I error rate of an unadjusted Wald test, appropriate for the CO design, would be close to its nominal level (0.05 in our study) as long as PS involves only one interaction partner (i.e., either PSG or PSE). In contrast, if the study population is stratified with respect to both G and E (i.e., if there is PSGE), then the type I error rate is seriously inflated and estimates of the underlying G × E interaction are biased. Comparison of CO to a family-based case-parents design confirmed that the latter is more robust against PSGE, as expected. However, case-parent trios may be particularly unsuitable for G × E studies in view of the fact that they require genotype data from parents and that many diseases with an environmental component are likely to be of late onset. An alternative approach to adjusting for PS is principal component analysis (PCA), which has been widely used for this very purpose in past genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, resolving genetic PS properly by PCA

  1. Using a very low level radioactive steel from decommissioning of nuclear installation for the construction of railway structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation, but especially during decommissioning (SW) of operation, there is a large amount of radioactive waste, whose activity only slightly exceeds the limits for unrestricted use, or for the unconditional release into the environment. In particular, metal and concrete debris. Processing, treatment and disposal of such waste would require considerable funds, and also storage space would be quickly filled up. A convenient way to use a large number of low-activity materials seems to be conditional release, which will reuse the materials for a particular purpose. The paper deals with use of a very low level of steel from decommissioning of nuclear installations for construction of the railway bridge. The task of the present paper is to review the impact of conditionally released steel on population and to determine what level of mass activity of the steel meets the limits prescribed by law. For impact assessment of conditionally released steel on population there was selected computing resource VISIPLAN 3D ALARA Planning Tool. (author)

  2. Using IND-CVA for constructing secure communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ZhenYu; JIANG JianChun; SUN FuChun

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of UC (universally composable) security, a general method is presented to con-struct a secure channel protocol with using IND-CVA (indistinguishability of encryption scheme under ciphertext verification attacks). A channel protocol with using the method first invokes an ideal key-exchange protocol to get a session key, and then computes the messages with an authenticated en-cryption scheme. The paper shows that a channel protocol is UC secure if and only if the underlying authenticated encryption scheme is both IND-CVA secure and INT-PTXT secure. The condition about secure channel protocol in this paper is much weaker than IND-CCA secure and INT-CTXT secure. The IND-CVA can be presented for describing the privacy requirements of secure channels in detail. More-over, the method for designing secure channel protocol in the paper reduces the UC security of secure channels, which are measured by action-simulation in the UC security framework, to the security of authenticated encryption schemes, which are measured semantically.

  3. Use of IQRF technology for detection of construction inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pies; Radovan, Hajovsky

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the application of wireless measurement of inclination of objects located at mining dumps. Measurement of inclination uses a set of sensors including a gyroscope, an accelerometer and a magnetometer. Measured data is processed by AHRS algorithm that, once applied, allows getting more precise information on rotation of the object in the area compared to unprocessed data from accelerometer or gyroscope. Measurement chain consists of two parts. The first one is a wireless module reading the data from particular sensors via I2C bus and sends it consequently to a computer that performs evaluation and visualization of inclination. Communication among particular devices is ensured by IQRF technology working within ISM band of 868MHz. Application of this approach for measurement of inclination is a reasonable choice in case of measurement of inclination by inclinometers.

  4. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  5. 34 CFR 657.33 - What are the limitations on the use of funds for overseas fellowships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the limitations on the use of funds for overseas fellowships? 657.33 Section 657.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND...

  6. Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and Health Emergency Preparedness for Business Occupational Respiratory Disease Surveillance ... Share Compartir Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and ...

  7. A Careful Blasting Technique During Construction of underground Openings for Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground nuclear waste repositories are constructed in natural rock formations, with heterogenous compound and structure, and should be accommodated in design and construction according to rock conditions. The quality insurance of underground repository, during and after construction, is most demanding in view of contour and category of excavation. the technology of drilling and blasting, regarding the mechanical excavation, is accommodated in sense of response to cross section magnitude of underground openings, the rock conditions and category, the support performance and other design demands. The high level rock damage around underground openings, that is in opposition with reaching quality insurance. Conventional construction technology can be successful by implementation of controlled blasting technique avoiding extensive rock weakness. (author)

  8. Artificial neural networks allow the use of simultaneous measurements of Alzheimer Disease markers for early detection of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardoni Fabrizio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that in platelets of mild Alzheimer Disease (AD patients there are alterations of specific APP forms, paralleled by alteration in expression level of both ADAM 10 and BACE when compared to control subjects. Due to the poor linear relation among each key-element of beta-amyloid cascade and the target diagnosis, the use of systems able to afford non linear tasks, like artificial neural networks (ANNs, should allow a better discriminating capacity in comparison with classical statistics. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of ANNs in AD diagnosis. Methods 37 mild-AD patients and 25 control subjects were enrolled, and APP, ADM10 and BACE measures were performed. Fifteen different models of feed-forward and complex-recurrent ANNs (provided by Semeion Research Centre, based on different learning laws (back propagation, sine-net, bi-modal were compared with the linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Results The best ANN model correctly identified mild AD patients in the 94% of cases and the control subjects in the 92%. The corresponding diagnostic performance obtained with LDA was 90% and 73%. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that the processing of biochemical tests related to beta-amyloid cascade with ANNs allows a very good discrimination of AD in early stages, higher than that obtainable with classical statistics methods.

  9. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    OpenAIRE

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2016-01-01

    Problem statement: Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material a...

  10. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Evernden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  11. The Swedish system for funding of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear activities in Sweden goes back to early 1950's. Research and development on spent fuel disposal in Sweden started in earnest with the report of the AKA-commission 1976, which outlined a complete system for the management of spent fuel and associated waste, including how to handle the costs. Components of the system, mentioned in the AKA-report, such as a sea transportation (MS Sigyn), a central spent fuel storage facility (CLAB) and a final repository for operational waste (SFR) have since been constructed and taken in operation. The research and planning for the additional facilities needed for a complete system is in an advanced stage. A nuclear waste fund has also been created, based on a special fee on nuclear power production. During the 1970's the nuclear power utilities established their own internal funds for future waste management expenses. These funds were transferred to the government-run financing system established in 1981 when the Swedish parliament passed the Act on the Financing of Future Expenses for Spent Nuclear Fuel etc. The fees to be paid into the Fund are to be based on the assumption that each reactor generates electricity for 25 years. These fees, plus the interest on the money already deposited in the Fund, must meet all expenses for handling spent fuel, dismantling facilities and for dealing with radioactive decommissioning waste. A guarantee shall compensate for the eventuality of a nuclear power plant being closed before the end of the 25-year earning period. The type of guarantee must be available until all nuclear waste has been placed in a repository and must cover contingencies for the waste programme. This guarantee will be used if expenses for future nuclear waste management become higher than expected, if these expenses have to be met earlier than expected, or if the actual amount in the Fund is lower than was estimated. The process of yearly cost calculations, review and determination of fees and guarantees is well

  12. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  13. ACR-1000 - Designed for constructability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the key aspects to be considered in the delivery of a Nuclear Power Plant is the security of the construction schedule and the need for lower construction costs. Many industries are using skids, modules and prefabrications to enhance construction productivity, reduce schedules and thus reduce costs. The leaders in this regard have traditionally been in the off-shore oil and gas, chemical, refinery and ship building industries. The concept of using modules has been utilized in Nuclear Power Plant design and construction. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has had considerable success at the Qinshan Nuclear Power project in China with the use of modularization, which proved extremely effective in the ability to organize parallel construction activities and shortening the schedule. Extensive use has been made of skids and modules in Japan and this also has proven effective in shortening schedules in the construction of nuclear power plants. Secondary benefits of modularization and prefabrication include decreased site congestion and logistical issues, increased worker safety and better quality control of fabrication. Modules and prefabrication allow work to be shifted to areas where skilled trades are more readily available from a site where skilled trades are very limited. One of the objectives of the ACR-1000 project is to produce a design that allows for a very secure construction schedule. The construction method and strategy, consisting of extensive use of prefabrication and modularization was defined very early in the ACR-1000 conceptual phase of the layout and design process. This has been achieved through a constructability programme that integrates the civil design with site erection and module installation. This approach takes the concept of modularization to an entirely new level, in which the use of modules is built into the design from the start, rather than backfitting modular construction into a conventionally designed plant. This

  14. The Use Of Computerized Tomographic (CT) Scans For 3-D Display And Prosthesis Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Beumer, John

    1985-06-01

    The construction of preformed cranial prostheses for large cranial bony defects is both error prone and time consuming. We discuss a method used for the creation of cranial prostheses from automatically extracted bone contours taken from Computerized Tomographic (CT) scans. Previous methods of prosthesis construction have relied on the making of a mold directly from the region of cranial defect. The use of image processing, bone contour extraction, and three-dimensional display allowed us to create a better fitting prosthesis while reducing patient surgery time. This procedure involves direct bone margin extraction from the digital CT images followed by head model construction from serial plots of the bone margin. Three-dimensional data display is used to verify the integrity of the skull data set prior to model construction. Once created, the model is used to fabricate a custom fitting prosthesis which is then surgically implanted. This procedure is being used with patients in the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Clinic at UCLA and this paper details the technique.

  15. Using real options to determine optimal funding strategies for CO2 capture, transport and storage projects in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several projects in the European Union (EU) are currently under development to implement the carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technology on a large scale and may be subject to public funding under EU support initiatives. These CCS projects may develop any combination of three types of operating levels: pilot, demonstration and full-scale, representing progressing levels of electric power generation capability. Several projects have commenced at the demonstration level, with full-scale commercial levels planned for approximately 2020. Taking the perspective of a funding agency, we employ a real options framework for determining an optimal project selection and funding strategy for the development of full-scale CCS plants. Specifically, we formulate and solve a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) for obtaining optimal funding solutions in order to achieve at least one successfully operating full-scale CCS plant by a target year. The model demonstrates the improved risk reduction by employing such a multi-stage competition. We then extend the model to consider two sensitivities: (1) the flexibility to spend that budget among the time periods and (2) optimizing the budget, but specifying each time period's allocation a priori. State size and runtimes of the SDP model are provided. - Highlights: • Projects implementing three different CCS technology types are described. • We obtain projects’ transition probabilities and costs from expert interviews. • We use a multi-stage real options model to obtain optimal funding strategies. • Using this approach, actual decision-makers could reduce risks in CCS development

  16. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  17. Economic impact of the European Funds in Extremadura during the period 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ramajo Hernández

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the evaluation of European Union regional policy is necessary to improve the effectiveness of the operational programmes, it is not usual to find studies comparing the efficiency of two programming periods for the case of a particular region. This could be explained by the fact that, at regional level, the study of the efficiency of the European funds during two different programming periods faces many different problems; for example, it entails the consideration of both adequate and homogeneous data, and similar methodology. The goal of this paper is twofold. The first goal is to estimate the economic impact of the European Union structural and cohesion funds received by Extremadura, a Spanish convergence objective NUTS II region, during the programming period 2007-2013. To this end, it is provided a multipliers analysis based on a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Extremadura for the year 2000. Secondly, the paper will compare the returns obtained in terms of output and employment by the European funds received in Extremadura during the periods 2000-2006 and 2007-2013. Our results allow quantifying the effects of the EU regional policy, showing and comparing the efficiency for these two programming periods.

  18. Motion Coordination for Construction Vehicles using Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kwok

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In a variety of tasks performed in construction sites, coordinated operations of multi-vehicles are foreshadowed to outperform the deployment of a single vehicle in terms of increased capacity and flexibility. This paper presents the application of the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm in deriving drive commands, speed and turning, for the vehicles such that they are steered into and maintained in desirable formations according to an assigned task. The PSO is adopted for its implementation simplicity and relaxing the need for analytical system models. To this end, the coordination of vehicles is posed as an optimization problem minimizing the translational and angular errors between the current vehicle positions and their corresponding targets. Inter-vehicle collisions are mitigated, in this work, by employing a behavioural-based reactive scheme together with a dynamical index rescheduling procedure. Simulation results for coordinated multi-vehicle motions, in benchmark formation patterns, are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Researching of the Construction of University Performance Evaluation System for the Special Fund%高校专项经费绩效评价指标体系的构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘洹

    2014-01-01

    专项经费是高校各类项目顺利开展的重要保障,对高校的发展及综合能力的提升有着至关重要的作用。近年来,我国高校教育事业在迅速发展的同时,高校专项经费也得到较快增长,而在专项经费绩效管理过程中高校存在诸多不足,影响了专项经费的使用效率,降低了专项经费的使用价值,因此高校在专项经费绩效管理过程中,应致力于构建科学、合理的专项经费绩效评价指标体系,尝试为学校的专项经费绩效管理提供一个较为全面、系统、科学的依据,以便能够对学校专项经费的投入、使用进行科学的参考,提高专项经费的使用效率。%Special fund is the important guarantee for all kinds of project carried out smoothly,and comprehen-sive ability of ascension to the development of colleges and universities have a vital role.In recent years,Chi-na′s rapid development of education of colleges and universities in career at the same time,the special fund of colleges and universities have been rapidly growth,the special fund in the process of performance management in colleges and universities has many deficiencies,affecting the efficiency of the use of special fund,reduce the use of special fund value,special fund in the process of performance management in colleges and universi-ties,therefore,must strengthen management.How to build a scientific and reasonable performance evaluation system for the special fund,special fund for the school performance management provides a comprehensive, systemic and scientific basis,to the investment of special fund for schools,use scientific reference and improve the efficiency of the use of special fund,has become a problem to be solved.

  20. 75 FR 13765 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... collection requirement regarding Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects. A request for public comments was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 33953, on July 14, 2009....

  1. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb. PMID:21411942

  2. 77 FR 69627 - Information Collection; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD...-0175, Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects''. Follow the instructions... ``Information Collection 9000-0175, Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects'' on...

  3. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  4. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  5. Constructing a Self-Funded Program Takes More than Just Dollars and Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Scott

    2012-01-01

    With a little ingenuity and a lot of dedication, the author created a self-funded construction program that is weathering the ups and downs of school funding; it enjoys great support from the community, is accomplishing more with less, and collaborative efforts between teachers are paying off. Creating such a program takes time, vision,…

  6. Voluntary Funding for Generic Advertising Using a Provision Point Mechanism: An Experimental Analysis of Option Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Poe, Gregory L.; Kaiser, Harry M.; Messer, Kent D.

    2006-01-01

    The mandatory nature of generic advertising funding remains a contentious issue. Theoretically and in laboratory environments, a provision point mechanism with a money-back guarantee offers an attractive voluntary alternative to the standard voluntary contribution mechanisms, yet in practice, few examples of multiple-round provision point mechanisms exist. A practical concern with applying these mechanisms is that even a slight shortfall in contributions relative to the designated funding thr...

  7. Hedge Fund Excess Returns Under Time-Varying Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Bird; Harry Liem; Susan Thorp

    2010-01-01

    We construct a time-varying factor model of hedge fund returns that accounts for market risk, leverage, illiquidity and tail events. We also adjust for database biases arising from voluntary self-reporting. Using a constant beta model, we find no evidence of excess returns for the average hedge fund manager between 1994 and 2009. Furthermore, we find no evidence of market timing skill. These conclusions are unchanged when we allow for time-varying beta, volatility clustering and leverage effe...

  8. Funding conservation through use and potentials for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-11-01

    The protected coral reefs off the coast of Malaysia receive numerous tourists, while also being as fishing grounds. These joint environmental pressures raise the need for additional costly conservation measures. It is natural to consider the potential for expanding the 'user pays' principle, already implemented in the form of various user fees. This study explores the potential for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan in Malaysia. The study applies a choice experiment to estimate scuba divers willingness to pay higher user fees for avoiding decreases of or getting improvements in environmental and recreational aspects of the diving experience. We investigate how sensitivity to fee size and hence willingness to pay vary with suitable selected characteristics of divers. We find potentials for a third degree price discrimination strategy exploiting higher willingness to pay among foreign divers (45%), male divers (16%) and people who has visited Sipadan several times (25%). Thus, revised pricing structures could significantly increase funds for the preservation of Sipadan. PMID:27521689

  9. REGRESSION DEPENDENCE CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR TRACTION CURVES USING LEAST SQUARE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ravino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available   The paper presents a methodology that permits to construct regression dependences for traction curves of various tractors while using different operational backgrounds. The dependence construction process is carried out with the help of Microsoft Excel.

  10. Energy-efficient office and administrative buildings. Pt. 1. Energy characteristics. Analyses and experience in the context of the public funding concept for energy-optimized building construction; Energieeffiziente Buero- und Verwaltungsbauten. T. 1. Energiekennwerte. Analysen und Erfahrungen im Kontext des Foerderkonzepts Energieoptimiertes Bauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, K.; Hoffmann, C. [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Bauphysik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung; Herkel, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Gruppe Solares Bauen; Wagner, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Fachgebiet Bauphysik und Technischer Ausbau; Loehnert, G. [solidar Architekten und Ingenieure, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Since 1995, the Federal Minister of Economy has been funding technology research and demonstration projects in the context of the funding concept 'Energy-optimized building construction'. The two-part contribution reports the energy characteristics achieved in demonstration projects and the experience gained in the use of heat pumps. (orig.)

  11. Is ondansetron safe for use during pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Question While I usually prescribe doxylamine-pyridoxine for morning sickness, some of my patients with severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) receive ondansetron in hospital. I have read some new precautions recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Is ondansetron safe to use during pregnancy?

  12. Surrogate waste streams for use in MWFA funded research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers developing technologies for treatment of mixed (both hazardous and radioactive) wastes are strongly encouraged to test using materials representative of the wastes targeted by their processes. Using actual wastes is essential for treatability studies and demonstrations prior to implementation, but is excessively costly and impractical during development. Thus, it is a responsibility of the focus area to provide researchers with surrogate recipes for use in development. Data from tests with standardized recipes will also facilitate comparison of results for competing technologies by potential end users and industry. Due to the wide range of waste materials in the DOE inventory and the scope of technology covered by the focus area, no one surrogate will accurately represent all wastes in all applications. The surrogates described are based on generic base compositions representative of that class of wastes, with variable constituents to be added over a recommended test range. Not all of the additives must be tested for each technology; focus should be directed to the constituents and physical forms present in the waste streams targeted by the developer. Excluding some parameters, or reducing the parametric testing rather than using the full range of concentration recommended simply limits the scope of potential application when the data is considered by a potential user. Surrogates are described for debris, sludges, and caustic scrub solution. Soils are recognized as a fourth class, and are considered too complex to represent with a surrogate. Descriptive text is also included to explain how the recipes were developed, and why each test additive is prescribed

  13. The Adaptation Fund: a model for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Harmeling, Sven; Kaloga, Alpha Oumar

    2009-08-15

    With millions of the poor already facing the impacts of a changing climate, adaptation is a globally urgent – and costly – issue. The Adaptation Fund, created under the Kyoto Protocol, has unique features that could herald a new era of international cooperation on adaptation. Its governance structure, for instance, offers a fresh approach to fund management under the UN climate convention. The Fund's Board has also developed a constructive working atmosphere, and further progress is expected before the 2009 climate summit in Copenhagen. But developing countries' demand for adaptation funding is huge: conservative estimates put it at US$50 billion a year. The Fund's current structure and funding base are clearly only a first step towards filling that gap. And despite its significant progress over the last 18 months, many countries, particularly in the developed world, remain sceptical about this approach. Looking in detail at the Fund's evolution offers insight into its future potential as a model for adaptation finance.

  14. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping and other routine activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 241-A-101 tank, a 22.9 meter 3,785,400 liter capacity SST, was constructed from the fourth generation of tank designs, which were capable of holding boiling or self-concentrating waste. Construction features a reinforced concrete shell, dome, and base with a mild steel liner covering the bottom and sidewalls. The tank has a flat bottom with a usable waste depth of approximately 9.4 meters. The tank was put into service in 1956 to store plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) high-level waste and organic wash waste. The waste was allowed to self-concentrate up until 1968. Tank sluicing was performed in 1969 and again in 1976 to reduce the amount of strontium and cesium, the two isotopes found to be the main heat generating sources in the tank. In 1978, the tank was reassigned for saltcake storage. The tank was taken out of service in November 1980 and partially isolated in 1982. Salt well pumping is a method used to interim stabilize SSTS. Interim stabilization is commenced once all the liquid above the solids has been removed (primary stabilization). Interim stabilization removes the gravity drainable liquid and the interstitial liquid between the solids from the SST and transfers the liquid to a double-shell tank (DST) or to a staging double-contained receiver tank (DCRT), which is subsequently transferred to a DST. Pumping is accomplished at very low flow rates, 15.1 liters per minute or less. Normally, salt well pumping is performed without the need of an exhauster. However, recent safety evaluations concluded that a minimum exhaust flow rate of 7.1 cubic meters per minute would be required to enhance the safety of the tank. Therefore, active ventilation will be part of this process for the 241-A-101 tank. This document details the Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the use of a portable exhauster on Tank 241-A-101 during salt well pumping and other routine activities

  15. Is ondansetron safe for use during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question While I usually prescribe doxylamine-pyridoxine for morning sickness, some of my patients with severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) receive ondansetron in hospital. I have read some new precautions recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Is ondansetron safe to use during pregnancy? Answer During the past decade ondansetron has been increasingly used in the United States for NVP, owing to the lack of an FDA-approved drug for this condition. While fetal safety data for doxylamine-pyridoxine are based on more than a quarter of a million pregnancies, the fetal safety data for ondansetron are based on fewer than 200 births. Moreover, a recent case-control study suggested there was an increased risk of cleft palate associated with ondansetron. Recently, the FDA issued a warning about potentially serious QT prolongation and torsade de pointes associated with ondansetron use; the warning included a list of precautions and tests that must be followed. The drug is not labeled for use in NVP in either the United States or Canada. Based on the data available today, ondansetron use cannot be assumed to be safe during pregnancy. PMID:23064917

  16. Untreated Chlorella homosphaera biomass allows for high rates of cell wall glucan enzymatic hydrolysis when using exoglucanase-free cellulases

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcoaurélio Almenara; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlorophyte microalgae have a cell wall containing a large quantity of cellulose Iα with a triclinic unit cell hydrogen-bonding pattern that is more susceptible to hydrolysis than that of the cellulose Iβ polymorphic form that is predominant in higher plants. This study addressed the enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated Chlorella homosphaera biomass using selected enzyme preparations, aiming to identify the relevant activity profile for the microalgae cellulose hydrolysis. Enzymes fro...

  17. Constructional details for A simple atmospheric electrical instrument for educational use

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, A J

    2007-01-01

    Electricity in the atmosphere provides an ideal topic for educational outreach in environmental science. To support this objective, a simple instrument to measure real atmospheric electrical parameters has been developed and its performance evaluated. This project compliments educational activities undertaken by the Coupling of Atmospheric Layers (CAL) European research collaboration. The new instrument is inexpensive to construct and simple to operate, readily allowing it to be used in schools as well as at the undergraduate University level. It is suited to students at a variety of different educational levels, as the results can be analysed with different levels of sophistication. Students can make measurements of the fair weather electric field and current density, thereby gaining an understanding of the electrical nature of the atmosphere. This work was stimulated by the centenary of the 1906 paper in which C.T.R. Wilson described a new apparatus to measure the electric field and conduction current densi...

  18. Constructing a Geology Ontology Using a Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W.; Yang, L.; Yin, S.; Ye, J.; Clarke, K.

    2013-12-01

    relationship. Based on a Quaternary database of downtown of Foshan city, Guangdong Province, in Southern China, a geological ontology was constructed using the proposed method. To measure the maintenance of semantics in the conversation process and the results, an inverse mapping from the ontology to a relational database was tested based on a proposed conversation rule. The comparison of schema and entities and the reduction of tables between the inverse database and the original database illustrated that the proposed method retains the semantic information well during the conversation process. An application for abstracting sandstone information showed that semantic relationships among concepts in the geological database were successfully reorganized in the constructed ontology. Key words: geological ontology; geological spatial database; multiple inheritance; OWL Acknowledgement: This research is jointly funded by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (RFDP) (20100171120001), NSFC (41102207) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (12lgpy19).

  19. Improvement of Groundwater Quality Using Constructed Wetland for Agricultural Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to evaluate the performance of Constructed Wetlands (CW for groundwater quality improvement. In the first phase of this study, performance of CW planted with cattails for Manganese (Mn and Iron (Fe reduction was evaluated at 12, 24 and 48 hours of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT. Average efficiencies of all tested CW systems were higher than 90 and 75% for Mn and Fe concentration reduction. Subsequently, the efficiency of CW operated at 12 hours of HRT was investigated at different plant harvest intervals. In the second phase of study, Mn and Fe removal efficiencies were 75-100 and 48-99%, respectively. Both Mn and Fe removal efficiencies for the CW system were not different between 4, 6 and 8 weeks of harvest intervals. However, the efficiency obviously increased after the first plant harvest. Average Mn and Fe removal rates of the CWs operated at the tested harvest intervals were 0.068 to 0.092 and 0.383 to 0.432 g/m2/d, respectively. Fe removal rate was not significantly different under the various test conditions. However the highest Mn removal rate was obtained in CWs operated with a harvest interval of 4 weeks. Mn accumulation rates in cattail shoots and roots were 0.04-8.25 and 0.83-23.14 mg/m2/d, respectively. Fe accumulation rates in those were 0.04-164.27 and 249.62-1,701.54 mg/m2/d, respectively. Obviously, cattail underground tissues accumulated both Mn and Fe at higher concentrations than those of the above ground tissue. These results show that CW can improve the quality of groundwater before agricultural irrigation.

  20. Why we should use simpler models if the data allow this: relevance for ANOVA designs in experimental biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lazic Stanley E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a common statistical technique in physiological research, and often one or more of the independent/predictor variables such as dose, time, or age, can be treated as a continuous, rather than a categorical variable during analysis – even if subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While this is not common, there are a number of advantages of such an approach, including greater statistical power due to increased precision, a simple...

  1. Best practice influence on project changes during the construction phase.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaravino, Brian Douglas.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS This thesis analyzes the influence of team building, constructability, and project change management best practices on the reduction of project changes during the construction phase. Construction Industry Institute Owner, Naval Facilities Command, and Construction Industry Institute Contractor data are separately evaluated to determine if a statistically significance relationship between best practice use and a reduction in the project change rate during construction exists. Conclus...

  2. Activities on the site during construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the work done on the site from site-opening till turn over of the plant to the client. After a short introduction to time schedules, manpower on site, site facilities and civil work and constructions, the commissioning and trial operation phase is discussed in detail. This phase begins with finishing the assembly of individual systems and components and ends with the trial operation and the acceptance measurement. During this period the subsystems are started-up in a useful sequence, first from cold, then from hot conditions and are finally operated as a total with nuclear energy. The single steps are: a) commissioning of indivudal systems; b) hot functional test 1 (without fuels) c) baseline inspection at the reactor pressure vessel; d) hot functional test 2 (with fuels); e) preparation for first criticality; f) postcriticality test program; g) trial operation: h) acceptance measurement. (HP)

  3. 32 CFR 37.675 - Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA? 37.675 Section 37.675 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF... Must I report when I enter into a TIA allowing a for-profit firm to use an IPA? Yes, you must...

  4. 77 FR 39468 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Capital Construction Fund-Deposit/Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Secretary of Commerce allowing deferral of Federal taxation on fishing vessel income deposited into the fund... agreement holders is required pursuant to 50 CFR part 259.35 and Public Law 99-514 (The Tax Reform Act,...

  5. Radiation monitoring during construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused high levels of surface contamination by radionuclides and gamma radiation exposure dose levels in excess of 400 R/h. Moreover, the radiation fields were uneven and inhomogeneous. This is due to the fact that, in addition to dispersed fuel, fragments of the reactor core were also ejected into the buildings and the area surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The dosimetric monitoring section monitored the radiation situation. Both traditional and specially developed methods were used to monitor the radiation situation, enabling the measurement of radiation risk factors, the determination of space-angular distribution of gamma radiation, and the detection of local contamination sources. Radiation situation monitoring results show that 75-80% of the gamma radiation was coming from nuclear fuel in the plant compound and not 'streamings' from the wreck of the Unit 4 reactor. The area has been covered with a protective layer thus reducing the gamma radiation levels by 7-20 times. After the encapsulation had been erected, gamma radiation levels in the vicinity of Unit 4 decreased by a factor of approximately 100. The concentration of radioactive aerosols at the work sites while the encapsulation was under construction was, at most, ten times the permitted concentration (PCA), and only when certain operations were being performed which raised a lot of dust did it reach 100-300 PCA. Owing to the high levels of gamma radiation, the danger of external irradiation of personnel was significantly greater than the danger from internal irradiation. Therefore staff were monitored individually for gamma radiation. A permissible dose level of 25 R for the whole period of work (1-2 months) was implemented for the purpose of individual dosimetric monitoring, and a control level of 1 R per shift. The mean exposure dose received by personnel directly involved in the construction of the encapsulation was 8.6 R, and 50.6% of

  6. Construction Safety Forecast for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    cadwallader, lee charles

    2006-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is poised to begin its construction activity. This paper gives an estimate of construction safety as if the experiment was being built in the United States. This estimate of construction injuries and potential fatalities serves as a useful forecast of what can be expected for construction of such a major facility in any country. These data should be considered by the ITER International Team as it plans for safety during the construction phase. Based on average U.S. construction rates, ITER may expect a lost workday case rate of < 4.0 and a fatality count of 0.5 to 0.9 persons per year.

  7. 36 CFR 1280.94 - When do Presidential libraries allow other groups to use their public areas for events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be consistent with the public perception of the library as a research and cultural institution. (c) To request the use of a library area, you must apply in writing to the library director (see 36 CFR... (3) Scheduled so as not to interfere with the normal operation of the library. (b) Your event at...

  8. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the...

  9. Real-world in-use activity, fuel use, and emissions for nonroad construction vehicles: a case study for excavators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Saeed; Frey, H Christopher; Kim, Kangwook; Rasdorf, William; Lewis, Phil; Pang, Shih-Hao

    2008-08-01

    A study design was developed and demonstrated for deployment of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for excavators. Excavators are among the most commonly used vehicles in construction activities. The PEMS measured nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and opacity-based particulate matter. Data collection, screening, processing, and analysis protocols were developed to assure data quality and to quantify variability in vehicle fuel consumption and emissions rates. The development of data collection procedures was based on securing the PEMS while avoiding disruption to normal vehicle operations. As a result of quality assurance, approximately 90% of the attempted measurements resulted in valid data. On the basis of field data collected for three excavators, an average of 50% of the total nitric oxide emissions was associated with 29% of the time of operation, during which the average engine speed and manifold absolute pressure were significantly higher than corresponding averages for all data. Mass per time emission rates during non-idle modes (i.e., moving and using bucket) were on average 7 times greater than for the idle mode. Differences in normalized average rates were influenced more by intercycle differences than intervehicle differences. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for intercycle variability in real-world in-use emissions to develop more accurate emission inventories. The data collection and analysis methodology demonstrated here is recommended for application to more vehicles to better characterize real-world vehicle activity, fuel use, and emissions for nonroad construction equipment. PMID:18720653

  10. Modelling borders of expediency of use of money funds for ensuring efficiency of marketing activity of industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Vereshchahіna Hanna V.; Strupynska Natalіya V.

    2013-01-01

    The article offers improvement of methods of determining the limit exceeding which additional attraction of money funds does not ensure efficiency of marketing activity. These methods are based on the use of theoretical approach based on analysis of change of marginal utility. This approach lies in: 1) the use of the correlation-regression analysis of dependency of change of indicators of efficiency of enterprise activity on change of the volume of resources (money funds) directed at conduct ...

  11. Conceptology: Using Concept Map for Knowledge Representation and Ontology Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Junge Yao; Ming Gu

    2013-01-01

    Tools on using concept map for knowledge representation, ontology for domain rule generation and conversion from concept map to ontology are invented over recent years. Some focus on graphical representation, such as concept map, of domain knowledge for better user understanding, while others introduce rules that concept map fails to represent to extend the contents of generated ontology. To combine both advantages, a tool Conceptology is presented. In the context of MVB (Multifunction Vehicl...

  12. Tunnel construction used as solution for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Teixeira, Andre N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The construction of tunnels for pipeline routes has started being adopted as a solution for technical, environmental and safety issues in the oil and gas industry. Although it is not yet a common practice, PETROBRAS decided to use this type of construction on part of 178 extension kilometers of the main line for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline located in the Gavioes mountains in the district of Cachoeiras de Macacu (RJ). The project implementation follows a growing trend of combining efficiency and environmental protection during its execution. Because the region is full of steep grades and is located in an environmentally sensitive area, the use of a tunnel connection removes some of the risks associated with that type of terrain. Among the many technical challenges involved in the project, one must include: access through dense forest, moving personnel, building material and equipment over step terrain and providing protection from corrosion. And as far as protecting the environment is concerned, the use of a pipeline results in a significant reduction in the loss of native vegetation and damage to the ecosystem. To increase these advantages, PETROBRAS seeks to adopt the kinds of construction methods that are most adequate for the challenge at hand, while producing the best results for the project. Whether using new or tried-and-true methods, the focus is always on perfecting the quality of service provided. (author)

  13. Constructions of the Average Rate of Return of Pension or Investment Funds Based on Chain Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Białek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of the proper construction of the average rate of return of pension (or investment funds. We refer to some economical postulates given by Gajek and Kaluszka (2000. We present, discuss and compare several measures of the average rate of return of funds. We also present alternative measures based on original chain indices. We take into consideration discrete and continuous time stochastic models.

  14. Constructions of the Average Rate of Return of Pension or Investment Funds Based on Chain Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Białek

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the proper construction of the average rate of return of pension (or investment) funds. We refer to some economical postulates given by Gajek and Kaluszka (2000). We present, discuss and compare several measures of the average rate of return of funds. We also present alternative measures based on original chain indices. We take into consideration discrete and continuous time stochastic models.

  15. E-Learning System for Design and Construction of Amplifier Using Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for the comprehensive understanding of electronic circuits with transistors. The proposed e-Learning system allows users to learn a wide range of topics, encompassing circuit theories, design, construction, and measurement. Given the fact that the amplifiers with transistors are an integral part of…

  16. Bitter Sweetness For Fund Managers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An influx of small investors eager to earn money puts heavy pressure on fund managers Fund managers control millions in capital and call the shots in the stock market. They can make a fortune from a single judgment. The debut of fund management operation

  17. Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Electricity sector analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is the final electricity sector analysis report in the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds'. As part of the project a number of quantitative analyses have been carried out for the electricity sector. The report presents the results of those electricity sector analyses. The present project aims at: 1. Identifying major issues relating to the restructuring and liberalization process in the Polish electricity and the gas sector, 2. Setting up an overview of the Polish electricity and natural gas sector, 3. Setting up scenarios for development of electricity and gas markets in the period to 2020, 4. Updating the Balmorel model with recent data for the Polish electricity system, 5. Analyzing future consequences of liberalization of energy markets for the producers, consumers and the Polish economy and society as a whole, 6. Presenting the possibilities and preparing a practical guide for using EU funds and community programmes for large infrastructure projects in the energy sector. (BA)

  18. The use of concrete-filled steel structures for modular construction of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. This paper presents the results of a research program which evaluated the use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The research program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules

  19. Using Dependency Parses to Augment Feature Construction for Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With the prevalence of large data stored in the cloud, including unstructured information in the form of text, there is now an increased emphasis on text mining. A broad range of techniques are now used for text mining, including algorithms adapted from machine learning, NLP, computational linguistics, and data mining. Applications are also multi-fold, including classification, clustering, segmentation, relationship discovery, and practically any task that discovers latent information from wr...

  20. PERSISTENCE IN PERFORMANCE FOR MUTUAL FUNDS IN PERIODS OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros KARGIDIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the persistence in performance for a sample of South European funds, domiciled in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain. Employing the Sharpe ratio, risk adjusted performance is measured in an attempt to judge the influence of the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis on funds’ inclination to persist in their previous returns record. Examination period extends from January 2004 to December 2010 incorporating stages of relative stability in the stock and bond markets while also capturing the early stages of the eurozone crisis. We categorize funds as winners and losers in consecutive 6-monthly periods, thus being able to judge persistence in the short run, while our results suggest that the identification of winners and losers could enable us to investigate the possibility to gain investment advantages through this finding. Overall results suggest evidence of persistent results, whether positive or negative, both during the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis, leading us to deduce that factors leading to performance persistence are not affected by market changes, since medium to long term persistence bypasses any temporary market mischief. This finding could be of use for fund managers aiming at establishing viable investment strategies, at their epicenter being the exploitation of such clues, suggesting persistence in returns. A fund of funds manager employing funds both in equities and fixed income could potentially choose to invest exclusively or more heavily in the winners of previous periods and avoid accordingly poor performers, thus achieving higher returns on average. For this purpose simple investment strategies are employed where we test the outcome of an investment strategy that would invest on fixed income securities by choosing those funds that were winners in the distribution of returns in the previous 6-monthly period, while disinvesting from poor performers and funds switching sides in performance

  1. Using genetic algorithms to construct a network for financial prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Devesh

    1996-03-01

    Traditional forecasting models such as the Box-Jenkins ARIMA model are almost all based on models that assume a linear relationship amongst variables and cannot approximate the non- linear relationship that exists amongst variables in real-world data such as stock-price data. Artificial neural networks, on the other hand, consist of two or more levels of nonlinearity that have been successfully used to approximate the underlying relationships of time series data. Neural networks however, pose a design problem: their optimum topology and training rule parameters including learning rate and momentum, for the problem at hand need to be determined. In this paper, we use genetic algorithms to determine these design parameters. In general genetic algorithms are an optimization method that find solutions to a problem by an evolutionary process based on natural selection. The genetic algorithm searches through the network parameter space and the neural network learning algorithm evaluates the selected parameters. We then use the optimally configured network to predict the stock market price of a blue-chip company on the UK market.

  2. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or open-quotes criticalclose quotes) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration

  3. Environmental implications of coal use for artificial reef construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out on ash derived from coal combustion ENEL power plant as a component for artificial reef blocks. After preliminary laboratory tests in order to establish the optimum block hydrated lime-coal ash ratio and to determine their in seawater leaching capability, systematic physical, chemical and biological tests have been carried out on reef models in experimental plant. Ash and concrete cubic blocks (20x20x20 cm), the latter used as reference, have been arranged in pyramid shaped reef models inside two trial tanks supplied with flowing seawater. After two year of tests encouraging results have been obtained. No weathering, volume variation or swelling have been found; marked compressive strength and sonic velocity increases have on the contrary been recorded. In tank (water and blocks) chemical tests have shown no significant leaching phenomena for chemical elements of environmental concern while laboratory tests showed a limited blocks leaching capability (ppm) for macrocomponents such as Al, Si, Ca and to a lesser extent (ppb) for hazardous elements like As, Cr, Se, Ti. Studies on biocolonization have clearly shown that bentonic settlement on ash blocks is more evident than on concrete ones with a major number of species and biomass quantity. Chemical tests have also shown no bioaccumulation phenomena. Research goes on; in 1992 a first pilot, ash reef is in progress in the Adriatic sea to confirm the feasibility and the environmental compatibility of this kind of artificial reef. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. External funding sources for radiology equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, J D

    1988-01-01

    External funding sources are available to your organization for the purchase of radiology equipment, yet they often remain untapped because organizations do not believe they are eligible. This article provides an introduction to the procedure for seeking such funds. Basic terminology, the three major sources for funding, and some examples of foundation awards are presented. PMID:3357928

  5. 40 CFR 278.3 - Criteria for use of chat in Federally funded transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Leaching Procedure (SPLP) tests are conducted on the proposed material using EPA SW-846 Method 1312... and the fresh water chronic National Recommended Water Quality Criterion for zinc of 120 µg/l; or (2... Recommended Water Quality Criterion for zinc of 120 µg/l in surface water; or (c) The use of chat has...

  6. 42 CFR 137.342 - What happens to funds remaining at the conclusion of a cost reimbursement construction project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of a cost reimbursement construction project? 137.342 Section 137.342 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.342 What happens to funds remaining at the conclusion of a cost reimbursement construction project? All funds, including...

  7. 42 CFR 137.371 - Who takes title to real property purchased with funds provided under a construction project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... funds provided under a construction project agreement? 137.371 Section 137.371 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.371 Who takes title to real property purchased with funds provided under a construction project agreement? The Self-Governance Tribe takes...

  8. 42 CFR 137.344 - May a Self-Governance Tribe reallocate funds among construction project agreements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction project agreements? 137.344 Section 137.344 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.344 May a Self-Governance Tribe reallocate funds among construction project agreements? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may reallocate funds...

  9. 42 CFR 137.47 - Do any provisions of Title I apply to compacts, funding agreements, and construction project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., funding agreements, and construction project agreements negotiated under Title V of the Act? 137.47... construction project agreements negotiated under Title V of the Act? (a) Yes, the provisions of Title I listed... compact, funding agreement and construction project agreement to the extent they are not in conflict...

  10. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  11. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  12. 25 CFR 170.436 - How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads...(j) or IRR Program construction funds; and (2) Public hearings for a tribe's long-range... title 23 U.S.C. 204(j) or IRR Program construction funds. (b) Public hearings for IRR projects...

  13. 78 FR 18348 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... estimate. As stated in the final rule in the Federal Register at 75 FR 19169 on April 10, 2010, Project...; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... identified by Information Collection 9000- 0175, Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal...

  14. 20 CFR 702.145 - Use of the special fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other current commitments from the special fund. If such an award is made, the employer shall be liable... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of the special fund. 702.145 Section 702... Commutation of Payments and Special Fund § 702.145 Use of the special fund. (a) Under section 10 of the...

  15. A Framework for Developing Indicators Linking Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Water Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, L.; Game, E.; Calvache, A.; Moreno, P.; Morales, A.; Rivera, B.; Rodriguez, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in the equity and sustainability of water funds and other investment in watershed services programs has spurred interest in evaluation of program impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, programs often lack a systematic framework to select indicators that are both important to stakeholders and relevant to hypothesized program impact. To fill this gap, we developed a participatory indicator selection methodology and piloted it in Fondo Agua por La Vida y la Sostenibilidad in the East Cauca Valley Colombia. We started by linking program activities to anticipated ecological and socio-economic impacts through stakeholder developed results chains. Using results chains as the framework, we constructed fuzzy cognitive models to explore the relative impact of program activities on social and ecological attributes. To prioritize indicators to monitor, we combined our fuzzy modelling results with an assessment of the perceived importance of different attributes for stakeholders in the water fund. We used the selected indicators to design a monitoring program that will allow the water fund to track and communicate its impact over the long-term.

  16. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  17. 25 CFR 170.407 - What happens to unobligated planning funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities... than August 15, the BIA regional office may use the remaining funds for construction after...

  18. Research funding for telemedicine: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Campbell, Megan J; Burns, Clare L

    2016-04-01

    Winning research funding is one of the most difficult challenges faced by researchers, especially with falling success rates and shrinking budgets. Telemedicine researchers can find it especially hard to win funding as they are often researching small changes to the health system that whilst important for patient care are often not as competitive as proposals that promise to cure diseases. In a climate of both tight health funding and tight research funding, telemedicine researchers should emphasise the potential for their research to add value and lower costs in order to increase their chances of winning funding. PMID:26116853

  19. Use of submitochondrial particle (SMP) assays for assessing wetlands constructed for sequestering acid mine runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of constructed wetlands to sequester metals from acid mine drainage is part of a USEPA SITE demonstration at Burleigh Tunnel near Silverplume, Colorado. Samples are collected on a seasonal basis for toxicity evaluation of two different pilot treatment systems. Water samples were obtained from the outflow of two experimental wetland cells utilizing either upflow and downflow treatment, as well as upstream and downstream of the discharge of Burleigh Tunnel to Clear Creek. Submitochondrial Particle (SMP), Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas acute bioassays were used to evaluate the water quality. The SMP bioassay is based on the electron transfer complex derived from mitochondria. Toxic responses result from subcellular perturbations of various subsets of enzyme systems contained in the complex. In prior work, a 0.79 r2 was reported between the SMP bioassay and P. promelas for 11 inorganics on the EPA Priority Pollutant list. The SMP bioassay provided data consistent with the whole organism results. The two most toxic samples: the Burleigh outflow, and the Clear Creek Upstream sample, gave C. dubia LC50s of 1.01% and 8.41%, respectively. The Burleigh outflow P. promelas LC50 was 1.55%. SMP EC50s for the Burleigh outflow and the Clear Creek Upstream sample were 0.63% and 1.63%, respectively. As the SMP bioassay requires 1 hour to run and costs approximately 1/10th of whole organism assays, it was feasible to determine EC50 values for 7 samples vs. the two sample LC50s determined using whole organism assays. The SMP bioassays can provide sufficient sampling density, at low cost, allowing effective delineation of wetland performance over time

  20. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Dulal; Benjamin Silver; Hua Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination syste...

  1. Energy use for building construction. Final report, March 1, 1976--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, B M; Stein, R G; Segal, B; Serber, D; Stein, C

    1976-12-01

    Total (direct and indirect) energy requirements of the construction industry for 1967 were determined in order to examine the potential for energy savings. The Energy Input/Output Model developed at the Center for Advanced Computation, University of Illinois, was expanded to include 49 building and non-building construction sectors (new and maintenance). Total energy intensities were determined for these sectors, as well as energy requirements to final demand. Overall, the construction industry required about 6000 trillion Btu, or about 9% of the total U. S. energy requirement in 1967. About 20% of this requirement was for direct energy. Energy requirements were further broken down according to goods and services purchased by individual construction sectors, and energy distribution patterns were determined within each construction sector. Energy cost per unit for various building materials were calculated, as well as 1967 energy cost per square foot for building sectors. Laboratories required the most energy per square foot (2,074,056 Btu/SF), while Farm Service required the least (149,071 Btu/SF). Comparative interchangeable building assemblies were evaluated for their energy costs, including initial construction and lifetime maintenance energy. Tradeoffs between construction and operational energy costs were determined for a selected wall frame assembly with different exterior finishes and varying degrees of insulation. A study was initiated to determine industries in which direct energy use led to a significant amount of the energy embodied in New Building Construction for 1967. The resulting Energy Flow Chart is included.

  2. Allowance for nonspecific retention of ions of metals during complexing study and determination of macromolecular ligand capacity by the membrane titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of defining capacity of macroligand and membrane coefficient by the curves of ultrafiltration titration is suggested. The method is employed for simulating the processes of europium(3) complexing with humic acid, as well as copper(2) complexing with polyacrylamidoxime. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Malawi; Use of Fund Resources—Request for Emergency Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses Malawi’s Use of IMF Resources and Request for Emergency Assistance. The food shortage in early 2002 in Malawi has caused immense human suffering. IMF staff endorses the authorities’ decision to undertake large-scale food imports to complement the humanitarian aid efforts. Moreover, as effective targeting mechanisms are not available, the IMF staff supports the provision of a price subsidy as the most efficient way of reaching the poor who do not benefit from humanitari...

  4. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  5. Three-dimensional bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with polycaprolactone protective layers for using various thermoplastic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Jang, Jinah; Chae, Suhun; Gao, Ge; Kong, Jeong-Sik; Ahn, Minjun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed constructs have been recognized as promising biological substitutes for tissue/organ regeneration. They provide tailored physical properties and biological cues via multi-material printing process. In particular, hybrid bioprinting, enabling to use biodegradable synthetic polymers as framework, has been an attractive method to support weak hydrogels. The constructs with controlled architecture and high shape fidelity were fabricated through this method, depositing spatial arrangement of multi-cell types into microscale constructs. Among biodegradable synthetic polymers, polycaprolactone (PCL) has been commonly chosen in fabrication of cell-printed constructs because of its low melting temperature of 60 °C to be dispensed with extrusion-based bioprinting system. However, in addition to PCL, various synthetic polymers have been widely applied for tissue regeneration. These polymers have distinctive characteristics essential for tissue/organ regeneration. Nevertheless, it is difficult to use some polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polylactic acid (PLA) with 3D bioprinting technology because of their high melting temperature to be dispensed, which can result in thermal damage to the cells in the printed constructs during the fabrication process. We present a novel bioprinting method to use various synthetic polymers in fabrication of cell-printed constructs. PCL was introduced as a protective layer to prevent thermal damage caused by high temperature of polymers during fabrication. Remarkable improvement in cellular activities in the printed constructs with PCL layers was observed compared with the construct without PCL. This bioprinting method can be applied to fabricate more tissue-like constructs through the use of various biomaterials. PMID:27550946

  6. Environmental management systems - before, during and after construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an operational environmental managment system (EMS) as developed by TransCanada PipeLines, including an example of the application and concomitant benefits. The focus will be on the planning, construction, inspection and post-construction monitoring programs, covering approximately 3,190 kilometers of large diameter pipeline constructed between 1990 and 1996, across a wide range of Canadian land-uses and ecosystems. With the implementation of such systems, governments have recognized that corporate responsibility and self-management on environmental matters can result in effective, environmentally sound programs that minimize impacts and allow for a more cost-effective and streamlined regulatory approach. (au)

  7. Environmental management systems - before, during and after construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, T.L. [TransCanada PipeLines (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an operational environmental managment system (EMS) as developed by TransCanada PipeLines, including an example of the application and concomitant benefits. The focus will be on the planning, construction, inspection and post-construction monitoring programs, covering approximately 3,190 kilometers of large diameter pipeline constructed between 1990 and 1996, across a wide range of Canadian land-uses and ecosystems. With the implementation of such systems, governments have recognized that corporate responsibility and self-management on environmental matters can result in effective, environmentally sound programs that minimize impacts and allow for a more cost-effective and streamlined regulatory approach. (au)

  8. Opportunities for Funding at NSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafafi, Zakya H.

    2009-03-01

    Materials science, inter- and multi-disciplinary in nature, provides the bridge to many areas of fundamental and applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering. Strong links that may exist between materials science and other disciplines, such as biology or chemistry or physics, very often lead to novel applications and enable technologies of great benefit to our society. The Division of Materials Research (DMR) invested 274.0 M in FY 2008 and is estimated to invest 324.6 M in FY 2009 funding research and education as well as enabling tools & instrumentation for individual investigators, groups, centers, and national facilities. DMR programs cover a wide spectrum of materials research and education ranging from condensed matter and materials physics, solid-state and materials chemistry, multifunctional, hybrid, electronic, photonic, metallic, ceramic, polymeric, bio-materials, composites and nanostructures to list a few. New modes of funding, research opportunities and directions, such as the recent SOLAR solicitation, will be described. This Solar Energy Initiative launched jointly by three divisions, namely Chemistry, Materials Research and Mathematical Science is aimed at supporting truly interdisciplinary efforts that address the scientific challenges of highly efficient harvesting, conversion, and storage of solar energy. The goal of this new program is to create a new modality of linking the mathematical with the chemical and materials sciences to develop transformative paradigms based on the integrated expertise and synergy from three disciplinary communities. DMR is also seeking new ways to transform materials science and education, and make it more attractive as a career for bright, young women & men. A description will be given of several workshops held this year and planned for next year with this purpose in mind. Outreach programs that emphasize how the innovations resulting from materials research

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit

  10. Use of photographic images to construct voxel phantoms for use in whole-body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of radioactivity in the body by in vivo bioassay uses counting efficiencies obtained from calibration from a phantom. Usually a standardised BOMAB (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom is employed for whole-body counting. The physical size of workers being counted, however, may differ from the calibration phantom, and can be a source of significant errors in dose estimates. A methodology was developed applying subject-specific efficiency data determined by Monte Carlo simulation based on a voxel phantom that was constructed from photographic images of the subject. This approach was demonstrated using a BOMAB phantom. The measured and calculated efficiencies agreed well, with maximum deviation of 30% at 1.836 MeV (Y-88 gamma-rays). The expected counting efficiencies for an obese volunteer appear higher compared with a BOMAB phantom. This is caused by a closer distance between the detector and the body surface. The fast construction technique of voxel phantoms will contribute to a reduction in uncertainty caused by variations in the counting geometry. (authors)

  11. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  12. Environmental monitoring of a wind park during the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy qualifies as green energy because of low gas emissions associated with energy production. However, in order to truly qualify as green, each phase of a wind energy project should be evaluated, including construction, the energy exploitation period, as well as the dismantling of the turbines. Environmental monitoring of wind turbine arrays during the construction and dismantling phases could reveal the environmental impact of a project. This article provided the example of a wind turbine array at l'Anse-a-Valleau, located in a forested territory on the north side of the Gaspe Peninsula along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. The park was configured to have 67 wind turbines of 1.5 MW each, for a total of 100.5 MW. The project was evaluated at $164 million, with regional economic spending of $65.8 million. During the height of construction, the project employed 240 workers. Ten full-time jobs will be created for the operation phase, scheduled for the end of 2007. The environmental monitoring at the construction site is deemed both technical and social. Good working conditions and communication must be established between the environmental supervisor and the site manager. They must work jointly to ensure good conduct and progress of the work at the construction site. The environmental supervisor must have the necessary authority to stop work upon a breach of regulations in the deforesting phase, since 60 per cent of the territory is on public domain. Environmental monitoring also includes surveillance of the road construction, soil quality, transportation of equipment, air quality, noise pollution, and residual matter management. It was concluded that wind energy is a true form of green energy, and methods used by developers during construction demonstrate responsibility towards the environment. It was suggested that the key to success is to have good pre-planning and good communication between all parties concerned. 4 figs

  13. 75 FR 65197 - Use of Public Housing Capital Funds for Financing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... of the proposed rule published on July 18, 2007, at 72 FR 39546-39547. II. This Final Rule As noted... information that may be required. Financing schedules, including debt service and sources and uses, are...)(3) to reflect the required financing schedules that must be submitted. These include the...

  14. Using Resources Effectively: An Overview of Funding Resources for Workforce Development Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, David

    2004-01-01

    One model for effective workforce development--long-term, comprehensive career pathways combining post-secondary education, customized training and paid work experience--is an expensive one, frequently difficult for workforce agencies or postsecondary institutions employing traditional policies and practices to implement. But, by rethinking the…

  15. Pension fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    At its June 2006 meeting, the Finance Committee approved the following amendment to Article 6a of the Regulations for elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, which will enter into force on 1.7.2006: Current text New text ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections and for issuing all relevant information. ... ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections by electronic voting or, if this method cannot be used, following the procedure outlined in Articles 6i., 6j. and 6k. below. He shall issue to the members of the Pension Fund all relevant information concerning the elections. The deadlines mentioned in paragraphs 6i. and 6j. below shall apply mutatis mutandis to electronic voting. ... The amendment will allow the Pension Fund to use an electronic voting procedure for the election of elected members to the Governing Board of the Fund. It will be included in a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulatio...

  16. Necessary measures for using the full hunting potential in the hunting fund no.3 Borlova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Moatar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Game species provides the feed in the habitat in which they live, which has a certain trophic capacity that can be related to the entire mass of consumers, but in practice has different value for each species or group of species that contribute to the same food source. Usually, each species habitat preserves a certain degree of individuality, divided only in a lesser degree with other species. Each species is characteristic of a lesser or greater extent a particular biotope, therefore further we present some preferences in terms of habitat for key species in the hunting No.3 Borlova.

  17. Funding strategies for emergency medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, D L; Dronen, S C; Gehrig, G; Zalenski, R J

    1998-02-01

    The importance of adequate funding for sustaining research efforts cannot be overemphasized. This article addresses funding strategies for emergency physicians, including the necessity of establishing a research track record, developing a well-written grant proposal, and anticipating the grant review process. Funding sources are reviewed with an emphasis on federal institute support and private foundations (including the Emergency Medicine Foundation) in the United States. Sources of current grant support information available from the Internet are provided. Recommendations for enhancing research funding in emergency medicine (EM) are made, including enhancement of formal research training, promotion of EM research and investigators, federal study section membership, and collaboration with established investigators. PMID:9492141

  18. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Zussblatt, Niels P; Plourde, Kenton J; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis-methods commonly applied in financial and operations management-to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios-combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results. PMID:26551015

  19. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  20. 17 CFR 1.22 - Use of customer funds restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of customer funds... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.22 Use of customer funds restricted. No futures commission merchant shall use, or permit the use of, the customer funds...

  1. Dark refraction shift with allowance for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.H. Gillan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show that the dark refraction shift (dark focus is a more complicated phenomenon than implied when presented as spherical. Methods: Fifty autorefractor measurements of refractive state of the right eye were obtained in light  and  dark  conditions.  Multivariate  methods were used to analyze the data and stereo-pair scat-ter plots, polar meridional profiles and other means of presenting results are used to show important characteristics of the dark refraction shift. Results: The complexity of the dark refrac-tion shift is indicated by stereo-pair scatter plots showing the amount of stigmatic and antistigmatic variation that occurs in light and dark conditions. The mean dark refraction shift is presented in a complete manner including all three components of refractive state. The greater variance and covari-ance under dark conditions is clearly shown by the term-by-term dark-light variance-covariance ratio and polar profiles  of variance and covariance.Conclusions: The  dark  refraction  shift  is  a more complicated phenomenon than implied by representations as purely spherical in nature.

  2. Work Safety Development for Russian Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Vorotnikov, Daniil

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to develop efficient arrangements for work safety in compliance with Russian norms. In addition, the task was to develop extra arrangements for work safety in compliance with Finnish norms. During the comparison of Russian and Finnish norms should be developed new arrangements for work safety for Russian construction companies, which can be useful for many different construction projects in Russia. The customer for this work was the construction company ZAO “SU-1...

  3. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the lecture deals with the Quality Assurance system on the construction site in general. Basic site-related problems during contract implementation and the QA system requirements resulting from them are presented. The compilation of these requirements in a QA program and its inclusion in the site manual in written form are explained. Site organization, personnel qualification and procedures are referred to. Whereas the first part shows what is to be done, the second part shows how it can be put into practice on the site. All the essential points for the assurance of quality are addressed. They include, e.g., review of documents, incoming goods control, in-process surveillance, store controls, identification of components and systems, dealing with changes and deviations, documentation control and audits. By means of examples taken form practice the necessity of a well-functioning QA system, and the importance of quality-assuring measures on the site are pointed out. (orig.)

  4. Especially using technology of virtual devices for construct and management of radioelectronic means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Smolyaninov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper is dedicated to providing the construct process and control electronic equipment by means of multi-purpose devices developed on the basis of modern information technologies that use virtual space and virtual instrumentation technology. The technology of virtual instrument. Technology acquisition and processing of information in the research process allows using virtual space and virtual instrument technology, combining them with real objects using multi-purpose devices (MPD. Designed MPD are software and hardware systems that can perform the function of measuring and electronic device and issue control signals of different shapes and configurations. Especially programming a virtual appliance. Virtual device based on a personal computer and created in software environment LabVIEW, fundamentally changes the technology re-search and management. The practical relevance of LabVIEW using graphical programming combines research programs with the real world, helping engineers and scientists to visualize theoretical concepts and physical objects implementing them in practical projects. Creation virtual booth for the study of electronic means. Simple user interface is created in the environment of LabVIEW. The front panel displays the virtual instrument that recreates the look of a real device. Thus to perform research it is only required computer skills with the ability to read and indications. Conclusions. Built with the help of virtual appliances MPD helps to ensure full implementation of research and design challenges. The skills with modern instrumentation and electronic equipment, modern principles of research were mastered. It allows to study the ac-tion of dangerous and harmful factors without contact with them, remotely to monitor and participate in industrial experiments on expensive electronic equipment.

  5. ASVCP guidelines: allowable total error guidelines for biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Flatland, Bente; Nabity, Mary; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2013-12-01

    As all laboratory equipment ages and contains components that may degrade with time, initial and periodically scheduled performance assessment is required to verify accurate and precise results over the life of the instrument. As veterinary patients may present to general practitioners and then to referral hospitals (both of which may each perform in-clinic laboratory analyses using different instruments), and given that general practitioners may send samples to reference laboratories, there is a need for comparability of results across instruments and methods. Allowable total error (TEa ) is a simple comparative quality concept used to define acceptable analytical performance. These guidelines are recommendations for determination and interpretation of TEa for commonly measured biochemical analytes in cats, dogs, and horses for equipment commonly used in veterinary diagnostic medicine. TEa values recommended herein are aimed at all veterinary settings, both private in-clinic laboratories using point-of-care analyzers and larger reference laboratories using more complex equipment. They represent the largest TEa possible without generating laboratory variation that would impact clinical decision making. TEa can be used for (1) assessment of an individual instrument's analytical performance, which is of benefit if one uses this information during instrument selection or assessment of in-clinic instrument performance, (2) Quality Control validation, and (3) as a measure of agreement or comparability of results from different laboratories (eg, between the in-clinic analyzer and the reference laboratory). These guidelines define a straightforward approach to assessment of instrument analytical performance. PMID:24320779

  6. Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-07-01

    The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.

  7. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  8. Method of Constructing Core Collection for Malus sieversii in Xinjiang, China Using Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-yu; CHEN Xue-sen; ZHANG Yan-min; YUAN Zhao-he; LIU Zun-chun; WANG Yan-ling; LIN Qun

    2009-01-01

    The method for constructing core collection of Malus sieversii based on molecular marker data was proposed. According to 128 SSR allele of 109 M. sieversii, an allele preferred sampling strategy was used to construct M. sieversii core collection, using the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group average method) cluster method according to Nei & Li, SM, and Jaccard genetic distances, by stepwise clustering, and compared with the random sampling strategy. The number of lost allele and t-test of Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were used to evaluate the representative core collections. The results showed that compared with the random sampling strategy, allele preferred sampling strategy could construct more representative core collections. SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances had no significant difference for construction of M. sieversii core collection. SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) data and morphological data showed that allele preferred sampling strategy was a good sampling strategy for constructing core collection of M. sieversii. Allele preferred sampling strategy combined with SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances using stepwise clustering was the suitable method for constructing M. sieversii core collection.

  9. Mechanisms of Funding for Universal Service Obligations: the Electricity Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabel, F; Poudou, J.-C.

    2003-01-01

    The transition towards a more competitive regime in network industries (and specially in electricity sector) raises the relevant question of funding for the Universal Service Obligations (USOs). Our paper focuses on two ways of funding for universal service and equal treatment obligations (Ubiquity and Non Discrimination constraints): the funding through access charge (CS regime) or taxation (T regime). Using a network model including competition between an historical monopoly (in charge for ...

  10. Implementation of a Pharmacist-Directed Cardiovascular Risk and Medication Management Program for Participants in a Construction Trade Benefit Trust Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Liu, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To report the results of a pharmacist-directed cardiovascular risk management program; and (2 to identify obstacles faced by the pharmacists in the program implementation. Methods: The collaborators in this study included two local unions, a health benefit consulting company, and a community pharmacy. A total of 750 union workers with cardiovascular risk were informed about the cardiovascular risk management program. The program lasted six months, and the participation was voluntary. There were three group educational sessions with each session followed by a medication management service. A staff person of the health benefit consulting company and two pharmacists were interviewed via telephone. The interview questions were created according to the Gaps Model of Service Quality. The Gaps Model theorizes five gaps among consumerexpectations, consumer perceptions, management perceptions of consumer expectations, service quality, service delivery, and external communications to consumers. The following data were collected: (1 types and quantity of drug therapy problems, (2 pharmacists’ recommendations and prescribers' response, (3 patients’ quality of life, disability days, and sick days, and (4 the experience of involved parties. Descriptive statistics were calculated.Results: Fifteen union workers participated in the program. For the participants, 35 drug-related problems were identified, with “need for additional therapy” and “dose too low” being the most common problems. To address these drug-related problems, pharmacists made 33 recommendations to prescribers, and prescribers accepted 55% of the recommendations. According to the interviews, there were three barriers faced by pharmacists to implement the program: lack of consensus about the recruitment, union workers’ unawareness of the program’s benefits, and limited support from the unions and the health benefitconsulting company.Conclusions: It was difficult to

  11. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dulal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.

  12. Alternative Funding Sources for Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Eugene

    Despite 1983 Elementary and Secondary Education ACT (ESEA) Title I federal funding of over $255 million for more than 3,000 projects for some 600,000 migrant children and youth, there is still need for alternate funding sources to overcome spiraling inflation and increasing program costs and numbers of eligible children. Other federal, state,…

  13. Ergonomic surgeon's chair for use during minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, M O; Buess, G F; Wieth, F; Saile, H J; Botsch, M

    1999-08-01

    The characteristic working situation in laparoscopic surgery involves elongated instruments and limited mobility of the surgeon during the operation. These circumstances require new technical solutions to enhance the surgeon's comfort. In other surgical fields with special ergonomic situations, such as microsurgery, some surgeons prefer to operate from a seated position at the operating room table. We developed a new surgeon's chair dedicated to the ergonomic and functional requirements of laparoscopic surgery. The chair allows the surgeon to maintain a semi-standing position during the operation. Foot pedals for high frequency and suction/irrigation are integrated into the base of the chair. The pedals are purposely aligned to be comparable to foot pedals in a car. The chair is driven by electromotors, controlled with a special foot switch that operates independent of assisting personnel during surgery. Initial clinical testing of the chair could prove the theory that supporting the surgeon with a cockpit type of operating room chair helps to avoid fatigue during long endoscopic procedures. Such assistance is especially important in combination with robotic devices for use during solo surgery. PMID:10871169

  14. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    construction delay of NPP. The main contribution of the work was the identification of main cause of NPP construction schedule delay for turnkey contractual approached international project in different level. The second contribution was a development of a multi-criteria decision making model for the prioritization of NPP construction delay risk factors. Finally, prioritization of delay factors in different levels of NPP construction delay risk factors were accomplished. The model is developed by using the AHP methodology. This study has produced results and insights that involve one of the most vital aspect which is the quantitative weights and ranking of factors that affect delay in NPP construction. Undoubtedly, it is a necessity in the NPP construction industry for the use of quantitative terms when it comes to schedule delay risk. The outcomes of this study confirm that the model is capable to support decision-makers to examine the strengths and weaknesses of factors in different level of the NPP construction phase. Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delay of NPP. This study finds the different party's importance in behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), Financial and Country Factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%).The results show that the top most important 5 sub factors according to global weight in level 2 are delayed regulatory approval, country factor, inadequate completion of design before start of construction, slow procurement, manufacturing of equipment and delivery to the site for installation, and financial matters. This study finds top most important 10 sub-sub factors in the lowest level which are uncompromising regulatory criteria and conflicting licensing documents with existing regulations, robust design documents

  15. Accessing International Funding for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Ray, Aaron D.; Smith, Joel B.;

    The primary aim of this guidebook is to provide countries participating in the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) Project with practical guidance that will help them secure financing for adaptation technology transfer project profiles identified in their Technology Action Plans (TAPs). The TNA...... project is being implemented by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on behalf of the Global Environment Facility (GEF). This guidebook provides a number of concrete tools and recommendations that will help TNA countries identify and access funding to implement their TAPs, such as: • An overview of...... eligibility criteria) for developing/ presenting adaptation project ideas to international donors. Using this format when communicating project ideas to international donors and agencies is likely to facilitate greater interest and increase the chances of successfully accessing available funding (Chapter 3...

  16. Solid-phase development of a L-hydroxybenzotriazole linker for heterocycle synthesis using analytical constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicinski, J J; Congreve, M S; Jamieson, C; Ley, S V; Newman, E S; Vinader, V M; Carr, R A

    2001-01-01

    The development of a 1-hydroxybenzotriazole linker for the synthesis of heterocyclic derivatives is described, utilizing analytical construct methodology to facilitate the analysis of resin samples. A UV-chromophore-containing analytical construct enabled the accurate determination of resin loading and the automated monitoring of key reactions using only small quantities of resin. The syntheses of an array of isoxazole derivatives are reported. PMID:11442396

  17. 75 FR 30908 - Notice of Funds Availability for FY 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... FR 38402). In addition, each Application must include a valid and current Employer Identification... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Funds Availability for FY 2010 Funding.... Through the FEC Pilot Program, the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund awards...

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chriso O. EMEROLE; Chidozie O. ANYIRO; K.C. OSONDU; A.N NWACHUKWU; K.K. MBUBAEGBU; G.M.C IBEZIM

    2013-01-01

    This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90) rural farm households of multi-type (varied) enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that ...

  19. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran; Oscar Balocchi; Fernando Wittwer; Rubén Pulido

    2016-01-01

    Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA) offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, an...

  20. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

  1. 45 CFR 2519.200 - How may grant funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE HIGHER EDUCATION INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS FOR COMMUNITY SERVICE Use of Grant Funds § 2519.200 How may grant funds be used? Funds under a higher education program grant may be used for the following activities: (a) Enabling an institution of higher education, a higher education partnership or...

  2. Juvenile psychopathy from a developmental perspective: implications for construct development and use in forensic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J

    2002-04-01

    D. Seagrave and T. Grisso (2002) provide a review of the emerging research on the construct of juvenile psychopathy and make the important point that use of this construct in forensic decision-making could have serious consequences for juvenile offenders. Furthermore, the existing literature on the construct of psychopathy in youth is not sufficient to justify its use for most forensic purposes. These basic points are very important cautions on the use of measures of psychopathy in forensic settings. However, in this response, several issues related to the reasons given for why concern over the potential misuse of measures of psychopathy should be greater than that for measures of other psychopathological constructs used to make decisions with potentially serious consequences are discussed. Also, the rationale for some of the standards proposed to guide research on measures of juvenile psychopathy that focus on assumptions about the construct of psychopathy that are not clearly articulated and that are only peripherally related to validating their use in forensic assessments is questioned. PMID:11985301

  3. Constructing indices representing supportiveness of the physical environment for walking using the Rasch measurement model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikora Terri J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to use the Rasch model to 1 assess the psychometric properties of a physical environmental audit instrument and 2 to develop indices of interrelated environmental attributes that summarize environmental supportiveness for walking. Methods A set of items were derived representing two conceptual physical environmental constructs: 1 functional/safety, and; 2 aesthetics. Ad hoc criteria based on point-biserial and Rasch-based fit statistics were used to examine the construct validity and internal reliability of the two constructs. Results The Rasch-based fit statistics assisted in identifying 12 items that belonged to the functional/safety construct and 4 items that belonged to the aesthetic construct. The reliability of the two constructs were low to moderate (functional/safety rβ = 0.19 and aesthetics rβ = 0.35. Conclusion Given the vast number of built environmental attributes, a means of developing summary indices is essential. Future studies should assess the reliability and validity of indices that summarize physical environmental characteristics conducive to walking before testing them in predictive models of physical activity. More research examining procedures for measuring the built environment and techniques for analyzing environmental data are needed to guide future research in this area.

  4. Forecasting the market for SO2 emission allowances under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which are briefly reviewed here, provide for about twice as many SO2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral, or potential speculators in the allowance market, are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by utilities that are risk averse. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions. 1 fig

  5. New Mexico's Model for Funding School Facilities' Greatest Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Robert; Salamone, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Public Schools Facilities Authority (NM-PSFA) is a relatively small state agency (50 staff members) that manages the allocation of funding for public school facilities in the state while assisting school districts and state-chartered charter schools in facility planning, construction, and maintenance. Like the majority of other…

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to 'other activities' throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the 'time at risk' while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped

  7. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  8. Knowledge-Based Query Construction Using the CDSS Knowledge Base for Efficient Evidence Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Afzal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Finding appropriate evidence to support clinical practices is always challenging, and the construction of a query to retrieve such evidence is a fundamental step. Typically, evidence is found using manual or semi-automatic methods, which are time-consuming and sometimes make it difficult to construct knowledge-based complex queries. To overcome the difficulty in constructing knowledge-based complex queries, we utilized the knowledge base (KB of the clinical decision support system (CDSS, which has the potential to provide sufficient contextual information. To automatically construct knowledge-based complex queries, we designed methods to parse rule structure in KB of CDSS in order to determine an executable path and extract the terms by parsing the control structures and logic connectives used in the logic. The automatically constructed knowledge-based complex queries were executed on the PubMed search service to evaluate the results on the reduction of retrieved citations with high relevance. The average number of citations was reduced from 56,249 citations to 330 citations with the knowledge-based query construction approach, and relevance increased from 1 term to 6 terms on average. The ability to automatically retrieve relevant evidence maximizes efficiency for clinicians in terms of time, based on feedback collected from clinicians. This approach is generally useful in evidence-based medicine, especially in ambient assisted living environments where automation is highly important.

  9. 34 CFR 675.18 - Use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Paying administrative expenses as provided for in 34 CFR 673.7; (3) Meeting the cost of a Work-Colleges... reading tutors for children who are preschool age or are in elementary school; or (ii) Family literacy... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds. 675.18 Section 675.18...

  10. A new award for the CERN Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the CERN Pension Fund was awarded the 2013 Investment and Pensions Europe (IPE) Award for “Best Use of Equities”. IPE is the leading European Pension Fund industry publication.   The award recognized CERN’s implementation of capital preservation principles in equities, referring in particular to CERN’s innovation with the development of “asymmetric” equity strategies. The awards were judged by a panel of 65 European pension fund executives, experts and consultants. In addition, CERN was selected by the judges as a finalist for “Best Public Pension Fund” in Europe.  This award was won by the UK government’s Pension Protection Fund.

  11. 25 CFR 163.30 - Revocable road use and construction permits for removal of commercial forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocable road use and construction permits for removal... Revocable road use and construction permits for removal of commercial forest products. (a) In accordance... revocable road use and construction permits to users for the purpose of removing forest products. (b) When...

  12. Finnish guidance for the use of secondary products in earth and road construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroueh, U.M.; Maekelae, E.; Wahlstroem, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kauppila, J.; Sorvari, J.; Puolanne, J. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Juvankoski, M.; Tammirinne, M. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, P.; Salminen, R. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    In the project 'Secondary products in earth construction - assessment of applicability' guidance was developed for the assessment of the environmental and technical applicability of secondary products for use in earth and road construction. The project was a part of the Finnish Environmental Geotechnology Programme. The preparation of the guidance was a collaboration involving several research institutes. The guidance presents the legislative requirements for the utilisation of secondary products in earthworks, recommendations for the investigation of environmental and technical applicability, recommendations for environmental and technical criteria of the utilisation in earthworks and recommendations for product quality control procedures. A tiered system is presented for the assessment of environmental compliance. The assessment levels are (1) Concentrations of harmful components, (2) Leaching of harmful components from unpaved and paved constructions, (3) Risk assessment. (orig.)

  13. Belize: Use of Fund Resources: Request for Emergency Assistance: Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Belize

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    The staff report for Belize’s use of Fund Resources and Request for Emergency Assistance is examined. Economic growth has been sustained largely by rising oil production, while inflation has remained under control. Despite rising oil production, economic growth has been low in 2007, in part because of the impact of Hurricane Dean. The authorities are confident that the banking system is stable and adequately capitalized, and largely insulated from international market turmoil.

  14. Allowed Parameter Regions for a Tree-Level Inflation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xin-He

    2001-01-01

    The early universe inflation is well known as a promising theory to explain the origin of large-scale structure of universe and to solve the early universe pressing problems. For a reasonable inflation model, the potential during inflation must be very flat, at least, in the direction of the inflaton. To construct the inflaton potential all the known related astrophysics observations should be included. For a general tree-level hybrid inflation potential, which is notdiscussed fully so far, the parameters in it are shown how to be constrained via the astrophysics data observed and to be obtained to the expected accuracy, and to be consistent with cosmology requirements.``

  15. 42 CFR 137.338 - Must funds from other sources be incorporated into a construction project agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a construction project agreement? 137.338 Section 137.338 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.338 Must funds from other sources be incorporated into a construction project agreement? Yes, at the request of the Self-Governance Tribe,...

  16. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  17. Preventive measures for radioactive contamination in iron and steel used as construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of July 1992, Atomic Energy Council (AEC) received tips-off from Taipei local residents, saying some buildings in Taipei had their rebar been contaminated by radioactive materials. Regarding causes and sources of those radioactively contaminated rebar, views from every aspects were pointing toward that scraps mixed with radioactive source smelting in the steel mill as the most possible reason. After investigating houses and constructors, AEC found that most contaminated buildings were constructed during the period of 1982 and 1984. For protection of public rights, AEC then actively undertook nation-wide survey of more than forty thousand buildings constructed between 1982 and 1984. Thermal Luminescent Dosimeters (TLD) and house by house surveying were major methods to investigate houses contamination. Finally, it was found that radiation contaminated houses are concentrated in Taipei City, Taipei County, Tauoyen County, Keelung County. According to data collected up to December 31, 1999, there were 180 cases, with a total of 1601 contaminated housing units. Based on information data of dose assessment, distribution of annual dose are as the following: higher than 15 mSv -143 housing units (9.21%), 5-15 mSv -117 housing units (7.53%), less than 5 mSv -1293 housing units (83.26%). Except actively conducting remodeling of contaminated houses and granting compensation to house owners, AEC has established following measures to prevent rebars from being radioactively contaminated. (1) Radiation detection training of iron and steel detectors (2) Strengthening controls over radioactive sources (3) Enforcing examination of radioactive levels for imported rebars (4) Requesting domestic steel companies establish radiation detection capability (5) Promoting installation of portal type radiation detectors for steel companies having smelting furnace (6) Enforcing no-radioactive contamination certificate system. The radiation detection training of iron and steel

  18. The Use of CAX Systems as a Tool for Modeling Construction Element in the Aviation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kužma, Dalibor; Korba, Peter; Hovanec, Michal; Dulina, Ľuboslav

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the adjustment of the wing selected part of the plane Viper SD-4 from slovak producer with using environment of software Siemens NX9. The adjustment is carried out after consultation with the test pilots of this plane and tries to take into account the observations made during the test flights. The first part of the article is focused on the current construction of the wings and its parts. The second part describes how digitalize the real wing by using reverse engineeri...

  19. Probabilistic measurement of non-physical constructs during early childhood: Epistemological implications for advancing psychosocial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruczko, N.; Fatani, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    Social researchers commonly compute ordinal raw scores and ratings to quantify human aptitudes, attitudes, and abilities but without a clear understanding of their limitations for scientific knowledge. In this research, common ordinal measures were compared to higher order linear (equal interval) scale measures to clarify implications for objectivity, precision, ontological coherence, and meaningfulness. Raw score gains, residualized raw gains, and linear gains calculated with a Rasch model were compared between Time 1 and Time 2 for observations from two early childhood learning assessments. Comparisons show major inconsistencies between ratings and linear gains. When gain distribution was dense, relatively compact, and initial status near item mid-range, linear measures and ratings were indistinguishable. When Time 1 status was distributed more broadly and magnitude of change variable, ratings were unrelated to linear gain, which emphasizes problematic implications of ordinal measures. Surprisingly, residualized gain scores did not significantly improve ordinal measurement of change. In general, raw scores and ratings may be meaningful in specific samples to establish order and high/low rank, but raw score differences suffer from non-uniform units. Even meaningfulness of sample comparisons, as well as derived proportions and percentages, are seriously affected by rank order distortions and should be avoided.

  20. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.miederer@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Lutz, Beat [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55128 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  1. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [18F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL templates

  2. DIY series of genetic cassettes useful in construction of versatile vectors specific for Alphaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Adamczuk, Marcin; Szuplewska, Magdalena; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2011-08-01

    We have developed a DIY (Do It Yourself) series of genetic cassettes, which facilitate construction of novel versatile vectors for Alphaproteobacteria. All the cassettes are based on defined genetic modules derived from three natural plasmids of Paracoccus aminophilus JCM 7686. We have constructed over 50 DIY cassettes, which differ in structure and specific features. All of them are functional in eight strains representing three orders of Alphaproteobacteria: Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales and Caulobacterales. Besides various replication and stabilization systems, many of the cassettes also contain selective markers appropriate for Alphaproteobacteria (40 cassettes) and genetic modules responsible for mobilization for conjugal transfer (24 cassettes). All the DIY cassettes are bordered by different types of polylinkers, which facilitate vector construction. Using these DIY cassettes, we have created a set of compatible Escherichia coli-Alphaproteobacteria mobilizable shuttle vectors (high or low copy number in E. coli), which will greatly assist the genetic manipulation of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:21569803

  3. Direct evidence of advantage of using nanosized zeolite Beta for ISFET-based biosensor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical characteristics of urease- and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)- based ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) biosensors were investigated by the incorporation of zeolite Beta nanoparticles with varying Si/Al ratios. The results obtained by the zeolite-modified ISFET transducers suggested that the Si/Al ratio strongly influenced the biosensor performances due to the electrostatic interactions among enzyme, substrate, and zeolite surface as well as the nature of the enzymatic reaction. Using relatively small nanoparticles (62.7 ± 10, 76.2 ± 10, and 77.1 ± 10 nm) rather than larger particles, that are widely used in the literature, allow us to produce more homogenous products which will give more control over the quantity of materials used on the electrode surface and ability to change solely Si/Al ratio without changing other parameters such as particle size, pore volume, and surface area. This should enable the investigation of the individual effect of changing acidic and electronic nature of this material on the biosensor characteristics. According to our results, high biosensor sensitivity is evident on nanosize and submicron size particles, with the former resulting in higher performance. The sensitivity of biosensors modified by zeolite particles is higher than that to the protein for both types of biosensors. Most significantly, our results show that the performance of constructed ISFET-type biosensors strongly depends on Si/Al ratio of employed zeolite Beta nanoparticles as well as the type of enzymatic reaction employed. All fabricated biosensors demonstrated high signal reproducibility and stability for both BuChE and urease.

  4. 20 CFR 663.730 - May funds provided to employers for OJT of customized training be used to assist, promote, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May funds provided to employers for OJT of customized training be used to assist, promote, or deter union organizing? 663.730 Section 663.730 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE...

  5. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for internal funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, utilities have exercised sole responsibility for reinvesting capital funds collected from ratepayers. Capital provided by ratepayers, whether for recovery of invested capital or for removal costs, reduces the magnitude of future borrowings - dollar for dollar. If regulatory commissions require utilities to place these collections in separate, inaccessible investment accounts (as in external funding methods), then utilities will be denied the use of these funds. Ratepayers, in turn, will be denied both their usual interest credit and the cost-saving benefits afforded by utilities having readily accessible cash to use instead of having to resort to borrowing. Such benefits can be attained only through internal-funding methods that keep rate payer contributions under unrestricted utility control. While state regulatory commissions currently favor external funding for financial assurance, the author feels the extra cost to ratepayers and the utilities is too high a price to pay

  6. IAEA Nobel Peace fund schools for nutrition. Combating child malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Dhaka, Bangladesh - Malnutrition remains the world's most serious health problem and the single biggest contributor to child deaths in the developing world, according to the World Bank. Now, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is using its Nobel Peace Prize earnings to promote the use of nuclear techniques to combat malnutrition during the earliest years of life. 'One out of every ten children born in developing countries will die before his or her fifth birthday,' explains IAEA nutrition expert Lena Davidsson. 'That's more than 10 million dead children each year. And the vast majority of these child deaths in developing countries are preventable with a combination of good care, adequate nutrition and appropriate medical treatment,' explains Dr. Davidsson. 'This brings us hope that unacceptably high childhood mortality can be substantially reduced with effective and well-targeted nutritional interventions.' Undernutrition is an important factor in more than half of all child deaths worldwide. The high prevalence of infants born with low birth weight and undernutrition among Asian children, especially in South Asia, emphasizes the urgent need to develop effective nutrition interventions within 'the window of opportunity', i.e., to target young women before pregnancy as well as infants and young children during the first 2 years of life. The IAEA Nobel Peace Prize Fund School for Nutrition for Asia will be held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, April 22-26, 2007. It will focus on Interventions to combat undernutrition during early life and seeks to disseminate information about the usefulness of stable isotope techniques in intervention programs that reduce malnutrition, in particular in infants and children. The event is hosted by the Government of Bangladesh through the International Centre for Health and Population Research (ICDDR, B) and the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC). The IAEA is assisting some of the world's poorest countries in their

  7. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  8. Next Step: State Funding for the Parties?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 marked the most comprehensive and radical overhaul of British party finance for over 100 years. It instituted reforms in many areas, with the notable exception of the comprehensive extension of state funding for political parties. However, despite the radicalism of the Act, questions have already arisen as to whether further state funding should occur. This article argues that in order to examine the case for more comprehensive state f...

  9. Impressive Performance: New Disposable Digital Ureteroscope Allows for Extreme Lower Pole Access and Use of 365 μm Holmium Laser Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Emily Fell

    2016-01-01

    for more than 4000 pulses at 15 W, producing mucoid debris and fragments. A 1.9F nitinol basket was, then, used to extract the fragments, and the patient was rendered stone free. Treatment success was confirmed by plain abdominal film obtained 1 week after stent removal. Conclusion: The LithoVue system single-use digital flexible ureteroscope provides an economical advantage over both reusable digital and fiber-optic ureteroscopes. The LithoVue system uses the enhanced image resolution of the digital complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, similar to other reusable digital ureteroscopes, while maintaining the small ureteroscope size of a flexible fiber-optic ureteroscope, allowing for consistent and effective lower pole access. Deflection characteristics are maintained even when thicker laser fibers are passed through the working channel.

  10. Perceptions on Barriers to the Use of Burnt Clay Bricks for Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Baiden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burnt clay bricks can be readily manufactured in Ghana as all ten regions have significant clay deposits with the Ashanti region having the highest estimated deposit of 37.1 million metric tonnes. In recent times, burnt clay bricks have been regarded as old fashioned and replaced by other perceived modern walling units within Kumasi, the metropolitan capital of Ashanti Region, despite its availability, unique advantages (aesthetics, low maintenance cost, etc., and structural and nonstructural properties. This study involved a questionnaire survey of 85 respondents made up of architects, brick manufacturing firms, and brick house owners or occupants in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana and sought to examine their perceptions on barriers to the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction. The findings revealed that the key factors inhibiting the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction are low material demand, excessive cost implications, inappropriate use in construction, noncompatibility of burnt clay bricks with other materials, unreliable production, and transportation problems. The findings however provide a platform for stakeholders to address the barriers to enable the extensive use of clay bricks in housing constructions.

  11. Cost effective manufacturing processes and materials used for the construction of the Superbus

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, A; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Superbus, rendered in Figure 1, is a new concept for public transportation. It is sustainable, fast, economic, and appealing and transports passengers and goods from point to point and drives at high speed (250 km/h) on its dedicated and relatively cheap infrastructure. In this paper the material used, the cost effective tooling and manufacturing processes for the construction of the Superbus are presented. First, the materials used for the achievement of the structural design targets in ...

  12. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Adina-Simona

    2013-01-01

    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  13. Successfully maintaining program funding during trying times: lessons from tobacco control programs in five states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David E; Reynolds, Jennifer H; Luke, Douglas A; Mueller, Nancy B; Eischen, Monica H; Jordan, Jerelyn; Lancaster, R Brick; Marcus, Stephen E; Vallone, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Despite negative financial conditions in recent years, several states were able to successfully maintain funding for tobacco prevention and control, which provided an opportunity to understand the factors associated with success. One explanation may be the level of long-term program sustainability in some states. According to a model developed by Saint Louis University researchers, the five elements critical to tobacco control sustainability are state political and financial climate; community awareness and capacity; program structure and administration; funding stability and planning; and surveillance and evaluation. Five states (Nebraska, New York, Indiana, Virginia, and Colorado) maintained funding for their tobacco control programs. Four of these states gained additional legislative appropriations or prevented a massive reduction; Colorado used a statewide ballot initiative to increase funding. On the basis of the sustainability framework, case studies, and prior research, the major lessons learned for maintaining funding were the importance of (1) strong and experienced leadership, (2) broad and deep organizational and community ties, (3) coordinated efforts, (4) strategic use of surveillance and evaluation data, (5) active dissemination of information about program successes, and (6) policy maker champions. The sustainability framework and lessons learned may provide valuable insights for other public health programs facing funding threats. PMID:17984716

  14. Development of wireless sensor network using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) for construction noise monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Josie; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the development of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for construction noise identification and sound locating is investigated using the novel application of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). Three WSNs using different system-on-chip (SoC) devices and networking protocols have been prototyped using a Raspberry Pi as the gateway in the network. The functionality of the system has been demonstrated with data logging experiments and comparisons has been made between the different WSN syst...

  15. 25 CFR 170.942 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for transportation services for a tribe's Welfare-to-Work...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... IRR Program funds: (1) To coordinate transportation-related activities to help provide access to jobs... members; and (2) As the matching share for other Federal, State, and local mobility programs (b) To the... transportation and personal mobility program grants and funds....

  16. Quasi-Newton Method for Optimal Blank Allowance Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Manyi

    2006-01-01

    A balancing technique for casting or forging parts to be machined is presented in this paper. It allows an optimal part setup to make sure that no shortage of material (undercut) will occur during machining. Particularly in the heavy part industry, where the resulting casting size and shape may deviate from expectations, the balancing process discovers whether or not the design model is totally enclosed in the actual part to be machined. The alignment is an iterative process involving nonlinear constrained optimization, which forces data points to lie outside the nominal model under a specific order of priority. Newton methods for non-linear numerical minimization are rarely applied to this problem because of the high cost of computing. In this paper, Newton methods are applied to the balancing of blank part. The aforesaid algorithm is demonstrated in term of a marine propeller blade, and result shows that The Newton methods are more efficient and accurate than those implemented in past research and have distinct advantages compared to the registration methods widely used today.

  17. Design, construction and application of a neutron shield for the treatment of diffuse lung metastases in rats using BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of multiple lung metastases in BDIX rats is under study at CNEA (Argentina) to evaluate the feasibility of BNCT for multiple, non-surgically resectable lung metastases. A practical shielding device that comfortably houses a rat, allowing delivery of a therapeutic, uniform dose in lungs while protecting the body from the neutron beam is presented. Based on the final design obtained by numerical simulations, the shield was constructed, experimentally characterized and recently used in the first in vivo experiment at RA-3. - Highlights: • A practical shielding device that comfortably houses a rat is presented. • The shield allows a uniform and useful dose in the rat thoracic area. • A novel computational dosimetry in animals based on Multicell is presented. • Experimental characterization evidences the good performance of the shield. • An irradiation based on a diffuse lung metastases model in rats was performed

  18. Social Security Funds Clamor for Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秉文

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed the institutional deficiencies inherent in China’s social security system based on a dissection of various social security fund violations. It holds that the unscientific design in social security system is the root cause for social security fund violations, which is reflected in low level of social security unification, irrational investment system and legislative loopholes etc. Currently, China’s social security funds are facing risks in management and in system; The key of risk control lies in the reforming of the overall framework of social security system through the following aspects: 1) readjust the unified account system structure to raise the level of unification; 2) reform funds investment system to boost ROI; 3) speeding up legislative to regulate the administrative costs and the behaviors of its entities.

  19. A probabilistic method for constructing wave time-series at inshore locations using model scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous time-series of wave characteristics (height, period, and direction) are constructed using a base set of model scenarios and simple probabilistic methods. This approach utilizes an archive of computationally intensive, highly spatially resolved numerical wave model output to develop time-series of historical or future wave conditions without performing additional, continuous numerical simulations. The archive of model output contains wave simulations from a set of model scenarios derived from an offshore wave climatology. Time-series of wave height, period, direction, and associated uncertainties are constructed at locations included in the numerical model domain. The confidence limits are derived using statistical variability of oceanographic parameters contained in the wave model scenarios. The method was applied to a region in the northern Gulf of Mexico and assessed using wave observations at 12 m and 30 m water depths. Prediction skill for significant wave height is 0.58 and 0.67 at the 12 m and 30 m locations, respectively, with similar performance for wave period and direction. The skill of this simplified, probabilistic time-series construction method is comparable to existing large-scale, high-fidelity operational wave models but provides higher spatial resolution output at low computational expense. The constructed time-series can be developed to support a variety of applications including climate studies and other situations where a comprehensive survey of wave impacts on the coastal area is of interest.

  20. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  1. Ratemaking and accounting for allowances and compliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory treatment of compliance costs and allowances will significantly affect both the utility's CAAA compliance decisions and the cost of compliance. Sections in this chapter include ratemaking treatment of allowances, utility buy-ins, the market test of compliance costs and utility incentive, FERC account classification, measuring the value of allowances, inventory methods for allowances, expense recognition of allowances, regulatory-created assets and liabilities, and application of the FERC proposal. 8 refs., 1 tab

  2. Construction of Codes for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Elsenhans, Andreas-Stephan; Wassermann, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas of K\\"otter and Kschischang we use constant dimension subspaces as codewords in a network. We show a connection to the theory of q-analogues of a combinatorial designs, which has been studied in Braun, Kerber and Laue as a purely combinatorial object. For the construction of network codes we successfully modified methods (construction with prescribed automorphisms) originally developed for the q-analogues of a combinatorial designs. We then give a special case of that method which allows the construction of network codes with a very large ambient space and we also show how to decode such codes with a very small number of operations.

  3. Energy use for bulding construction: supplement. Final report, February 1, 1977--October 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, B M; Stein, R G; Segal, B Z; Deibert, P F; Buckley, M; Nathan, D

    1977-10-01

    This supplement amplifies the information contained in the basic report, Energy Use for Building Construction (December, 1976). With the addition of the information on energy per unit of component in major areas not covered by the original report, broad audits of energy embodied in buildings can now be made. Major areas added are metal doors and windows, plastics, plumbing fixtures, plumbing fittings, heating equipment, electrical equipment, copper pipe and wire, aluminum pipe and wire, and asphalt. An examination of energy distribution in typical 1-family residential construction shows that a greater percentage of the total energy required is in the general construction (as opposed to plumbing, heating, ventilating, and electrical) than in the dollar percentage divisions. The largest single category of energy use in new building construction is direct energy (the energy brought to and expended on the job site). It is almost totally in the form of refined petroleum, which represents almost 15 percent of all energy required to build buildings. Of this, 59 percent is in asphalt, 14 percent in gasoline, 23 percent in diesel fuel, and the balance in fuel oil and liquid petroleum. In broad categories, building construction is more labor-intensive per dollar than non-building construction, and alterations and additions are more labor-intensive per dollar than new building. This is in reverse order from energy intensivity in these categories. These relationships do not apply consistently in examining detailed examples. In two specific comparisons of assemblies meeting equal performance standards, the more energy-intensive were also the more labor-intensive.

  4. An Analysis of the Use of Information Technology for Project Management in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Wilkinson

    2012-01-01

    Effective information technology use can be a key cause of the success of a construction project. Technology used for project management in the New Zealand construction industry is discussed in this paper. The results reveal on many levels a lack of understanding of current available information technology to assist with overall management and control of the construction projects in New Zealand. This paper discusses the results of a survey to construction companies in the New Zealand which pr...

  5. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G) coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73) than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5) when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9) when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research use in policymaking

  6. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbins Maureen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73 than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5 when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9 when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research

  7. Aquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing, but not for purification in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    TANG, Yingying; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; Kempen, Monique M. L.; Verbaarschot, Evi J. H.; Loeffen, Laury M. J. M.; Roelofs, Jan G.M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The sequestration of nutrients from surface waters by aquatic macrophytes and soils provides an important service of both natural and constructed wetlands. While emergent species take up nutrients from the soil, submerged and floating macrophytes filter nutrients directly from the surface water, which may be more efficient in constructed wetlands. It remains unclear, however, whether their efficiency is sufficient for wastewater purification, and how plant species and nutrient loading affects...

  8. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    construction delay of NPP. The main contribution of the work was the identification of main cause of NPP construction schedule delay for turnkey contractual approached international project in different level. The second contribution was a development of a multi-criteria decision making model for the prioritization of NPP construction delay risk factors. Finally, prioritization of delay factors in different levels of NPP construction delay risk factors were accomplished. The model is developed by using the AHP methodology. This study has produced results and insights that involve one of the most vital aspect which is the quantitative weights and ranking of factors that affect delay in NPP construction. Undoubtedly, it is a necessity in the NPP construction industry for the use of quantitative terms when it comes to schedule delay risk. The outcomes of this study confirm that the model is capable to support decision-makers to examine the strengths and weaknesses of factors in different level of the NPP construction phase. Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delay of NPP. This study finds the different party's importance in behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), Financial and Country Factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%).The results show that the top most important 5 sub factors according to global weight in level 2 are delayed regulatory approval, country factor, inadequate completion of design before start of construction, slow procurement, manufacturing of equipment and delivery to the site for installation, and financial matters. This study finds top most important 10 sub-sub factors in the lowest level which are uncompromising regulatory criteria and conflicting licensing documents with existing regulations, robust design documents

  9. Measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs for use in yoga research

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald Douglas; Friedman Harris

    2009-01-01

    This article presents information on standardized paper-and-pencil measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs that hold promise for use in yoga research. Nine instruments are discussed at length including the Assessment Schedule for Altered States of Consciousness, Ego Grasping Orientation, Expressions of Spirituality Inventory, Hindu Religious Coping Scale, Measures of Hindu Pathways, Self-Expansiveness Level Form, Spiritual Orientation Inventory, Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and t...

  10. #The #use of constructed wetland for dye-rich textile wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Griessler Bulc, Tjaša; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to examine the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands (CW) for the dye-rich textile wastewater with special focus on colour reduction. Preliminary, a series of dynamic experiments were performed in the CW model packed with gravel, sand, and zeolitic tuff on three synthetically-prepared wastewaters using chemically differ dyestuffs, auxiliaries and chemicals, in order to investigate the potential of low-cost materials as media for textile dye-bath w...

  11. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  12. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  13. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  14. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on welfare indicators in Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Rodriguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24; 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24 and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24] and two lairage treatments (TL during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36 vs feeding (FEED; n=36] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05. SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001 while increased LDH (p<0.001. Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05 of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001 in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage.

  15. Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

  16. 78 FR 25339 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Tribal Transportation Program Safety Funds; and Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... FR 47868) is eligible to apply for TTPSF. B. Eligible Uses of Funds Under section 202(e), projects... larger project with prior investment. (Maximum five sentences.) The project abstract would succinctly... safety needs and prioritize safety projects. The remaining proposed allocation amounts were...

  17. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Barnieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries, and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status, or with age (in 15 countries. Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. CONCLUSIONS: There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  18. 40 CFR 74.49 - Calculation for deducting allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation for deducting allowances. 74.49 Section 74.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....49 Calculation for deducting allowances. (a) Allowance deduction formula. The following formula...

  19. Financing Public Library Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Robert H.; Stoffel, Lester L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews financing options available to Illinois public libraries for construction or expansion, including general obligation bonds, mortgage funds, building reserve funds, building fund levies, lease back arrangements, sale of air or ground development rights, interest on special funds, gift funds and grants, Library Service and Construction Act…

  20. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P≤0.05) in BOD5, TAN and NO2-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P≤0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

  1. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  2. Construction and Characterization of Mini-ruthenium-Carbon Eutectic Cells for Industrial Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diril, A.; Bourson, F.; Parga, C.; Sadli, M.

    2015-12-01

    High-temperature eutectic fixed points have proved to be convenient tools for temperature scale dissemination and thermometer calibrations/checks at temperatures above 1100°C. In order to investigate the feasibility of metal-carbon eutectic cells in industrial applications as a means for assessing the traceability of non-contact thermometers, a batch of cells was constructed at LNE-Cnam, NPL, and TUBITAK UME. Compared to the usual dimensions of high-temperature fixed point cells (45 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter), a new cell design was created to fit with industrial applications. TUBITAK UME constructed and characterized five ruthenium-carbon (Ru-C) eutectic cells of dimensions 24 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter. One of these cells has been selected and characterized at CEA premises. Ru-C eutectic cells have been evaluated in terms of short-term repeatability, reproducibility, furnace effect, sharp temperature ramps, and the effect of cell location. Measurements at TÜBİTAK UME have been performed with a transfer standard pyrometer calibrated at the copper point and a BB3500pg high-temperature blackbody furnace was used for construction and measurement. For the measurements at CEA, a Land Standard—HIMERT S1 radiation thermometer and a VITI induction furnace were used. In this article results of the measurements at TÜBİTAK UME and CEA will be presented. The possible use of these mini-eutectic cells as industrial temperature standards will be discussed.

  3. Performance evaluation using a three compartment mass balance for the removal of volatile organic compounds in pilot scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Eva M; Reiche, Nils; Kuschk, Peter; Borsdorf, Helko; Kaestner, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    To perform a general assessment of treatment efficiency, a mass balance study was undertaken for two types of constructed wetlands (CWs), planted gravel filters and plant root mat systems, for treating VOC (benzene; MTBE) polluted groundwater under field conditions. Contaminant fate was investigated in the respective water, plant, and atmosphere compartments by determining water and atmospheric contaminant loads and calculating contaminant plant uptake, thereby allowing for an extended efficiency assessment of CWs. Highest total VOC removal was achieved during summer, being pronounced for benzene compared to MTBE. According to the experimental results and the calculations generated by the balancing model, degradation in the rhizosphere and plant uptake accounted for the main benzene removal processes, of 76% and 13% for the gravel bed CW and 83% and 11% for the root mat system. Volatilization flux of benzene and MTBE was low (balances that allow for conclusive quantitative estimation of contaminant elimination and distribution processes (e.g., total, surface, and phytovolatilization, plant uptake, rhizodegradation) in CWs under field conditions. PMID:21848285

  4. On the Use of Latency Graphs for the Construction of Tor Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Perez, Sergio; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The use of anonymity-based infrastructures and anonymisers is a plausible solution to mitigate privacy problems on the Internet. Tor (short for The onion router) is a popular low-latency anonymity system that can be installed as an end-user application on a wide range of operating systems to redirect the traffic through a series of anonymising proxy circuits. The construction of these circuits determines both the latency and the anonymity degree of the Tor anonymity system. While some circuit...

  5. Constructing Consumer Sentiment Index for U.S. Using Google Searches

    OpenAIRE

    Della Penna, Nicolas; Huang, Haifang

    2009-01-01

    We construct a consumer sentiment index for the U.S. using the popularity trends of selected Google searches. The final index consists of four components and is highly correlated with the Index of Consumer Sentiment from the University of Michigan and the Consumer Confidence Index from the Conference Board. Among the three sentiment indices, the Google search-based index (SBI) leads in time and predicts other indices. In terms of forecasting consumer spending, the SBI outperforms both the ICS...

  6. Measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs for use in yoga research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Douglas A; Friedman, Harris L

    2009-01-01

    This article presents information on standardized paper-and-pencil measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs that hold promise for use in yoga research. Nine instruments are discussed at length including the Assessment Schedule for Altered States of Consciousness, Ego Grasping Orientation, Expressions of Spirituality Inventory, Hindu Religious Coping Scale, Measures of Hindu Pathways, Self-Expansiveness Level Form, Spiritual Orientation Inventory, Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Vedic Personality Inventory. As well, a listing of an additional 14 measures, along with primary citations, is provided. In conclusion, the authors proffer recommendations for the use of psychometric tests and provide a general proposal for programmatic research. PMID:21234209

  7. Measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs for use in yoga research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information on standardized paper-and-pencil measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs that hold promise for use in yoga research. Nine instruments are discussed at length including the Assessment Schedule for Altered States of Consciousness, Ego Grasping Orientation, Expressions of Spirituality Inventory, Hindu Religious Coping Scale, Measures of Hindu Pathways, Self-Expansiveness Level Form, Spiritual Orientation Inventory, Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Vedic Personality Inventory. As well, a listing of an additional 14 measures, along with primary citations, is provided. In conclusion, the authors proffer recommendations for the use of psychometric tests and provide a general proposal for programmatic research.

  8. Methodology for construction of hollow spheres for use in physical phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In positron emission tomography (PET), quantitative evaluation of spatial resolution/object size, attenuation and scatter effects is often performed using phantoms with hollow spheres. Fillable, plastic-walled spheres are commercially available in several sizes. Radioactive solutions in any concentration can be injected into the spheres. Hollow spheres have several desirable traits, including repeatable, consistent use, and standardization across measurements at different institutions, since identical items are distributed by a single manufacturer. The objective of this work is to describe a methodology for construction of hollow spheres using rapid prototyping. It was used the software SolidWork (2014) to create five 3D models of the hollow spheres with inner diameters of 10 mm, 13 mm, 17 mm, 22 mm, and 28 mm. These models were based on hollow spheres of NEMA/IEC PET body phantom. It was used a Cubex Duo 3D printer (3D Systems) to build the hollow spheres. The material used was the ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) resin. (authors)

  9. CONSTRUCTION OF NATURAL NEUTRALIZATION FACILITIES FOR ALKALINE TUNNEL SEEPAGE USING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Yoshinobu; Igarashi, Toshihumi; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Okawa, Ryo

    Neutralization with liquefied carbon dioxide for alkaline tunnel seepage after construction is one of the issues to be solved by considering the costs of gas and neutralization units and management in the long run. One promising method is to neutralize it by natural processes using atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this study, the hydrological survey and dissolution experiments of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the laboratory and in situ conditions were conducted. Based on the results, natural neutralization facilities using atmospheric carbon dioxide were constructed. The pH of the effluent from the facilities was reduced by 0.13 to 0.18, indicating that the double film theory was effective in predicting the reduction of pH.

  10. Innovativeness in housing construction and the role of the Housing Fund: From residence to an integral living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Mlinar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to contribute to clarification of the conditions and actors impacting innovativeness in housing construction and the management of space. It concentrates on the role of the Slovenian national Housing Fund, which is too restricted and lacks appropriate legal bases and means, and also – according to some evaluations – the aspiration to assert its innovative and developmental role. The Fund is focussed on the financial-economic aspects of providing non-profit housing and housing for the market. Currently attention is primarily directed towards its legal-organizational structure and its transformation into an independent company. This neglects broader consideration of socio-spatial change, developmental directions and values in the context of the information age (Lisbon Strategy, which call for innovative sociological, architectural and urbanistic solutions. Mindsets, legal norms and institutions in Slovenia are lagging behind these changes. Thus, housing is still mainly treated as a discrete segment. In order to perform their task in this new framework, which demands more integral treatment of the everyday living environment and reintegration of living, work and recreation, the mandate of the housing funds must no longer be confined merely to housing. Several examples of innovative design as well as their limitations are presented, together with examples of good international practice.

  11. Recycling construction waste and re – use in road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Kumlanc, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Construction activities have a huge harmful influence on environment, caused by the explotation of natural resourcess, production and transportation of materials, construction and demolition and finally the building itself. To minimize construction activities on environment, we need to reduce usage of primary sources and attend to prepare secundary sources. The present work describes recycling construction and demolition waste and re-using in building roads and other construction. In Diploma ...

  12. Feasibility for the use of coal tar as a new material for road surfaces (pavement) construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Farfán, M. A.; Murillo Vega, H. E.; Trujillo Pinto, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stabilization products often used to improve the support of granular layers in the construction of road surfaces may be expensive and difficult to get. Therefore, it is necessary to test different materials, which are cheap and easy to obtain, and which will enhance the physical and mechanical properties of pavement layers. This document evaluates the use of coal tar, as a stabilizer for granular subbase. Initially, with a description of tar properties, determining the optimal conditions for the granular subbase material compaction, by means of modified proctor tests and the calculation of the resistance of the unaltered material by using CBR lab tests (California Bearing Ratio). Afterwards, with the design and development of granular material mixes with different percentages of coal tar and determining its CBR as comparative parameter with that of the unaltered material. Finally, by calculating the optimal coal tar percentage in order to stabilize the subbase granular, the results showed an improvement in the resistance of the granular material and a decrease in its expansion due to the use of coal tar.

  13. Use of communication technologies in document exchange for the management of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesároš Peter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies represent a set of people, processes, technical and software tools providing collection, transport, storage and processing of data for distribution and presentation of information. Particularly communication systems are the main tool for information exchange. Of the other part, these technologies have a broad focus and use. One of them is the exchange of documents in the management of construction projects. Paper discusses the issue of exploitation level of communication technologies in construction project management. The main objective of this paper is to analyze exploitation level of communication technologies. Another aim of the paper is to compare exploitation level or rate of document exchange by electronic communication devices and face-to-face communication.

  14. Use of communication technologies in document exchange for the management of construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Information and communication technologies represent a set of people, processes, technical and software tools providing collection, transport, storage and processing of data for distribution and presentation of information. Particularly communication systems are the main tool for information exchange. Of the other part, these technologies have a broad focus and use. One of them is the exchange of documents in the management of construction projects. Paper discusses the issue of exploitation level of communication technologies in construction project management. The main objective of this paper is to analyze exploitation level of communication technologies. Another aim of the paper is to compare exploitation level or rate of document exchange by electronic communication devices and face-to-face communication.

  15. Establishing construct and predictive validity of the prison inmate inventory for use with female inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgio, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    This study establishes the validity of the Prison Inmate Inventory for use among female inmates (N = 628). Contrast groups were used to establish construct validity; negative binomial regression analysis was used to confirm predictive validity. Female inmates who were arrested at a younger age demonstrated more severe problems with violence, antisocial traits, distress, adjustment to prison life, and judgment. Results from the negative binomial analysis revealed that inmate risk (low and severe) predicted expected counts of probation revocations, parole revocation, and escape attempts. Expected counts were not related to race/ethnicity in this sample. PMID:24122019

  16. Stock investment funds in Brazil: performance and management expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Faustino Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the stock investment fund market in Brazil and proposes dynamic rankings constructed from different risk-return metrics, during the period from 1998 to 2009. We find an uncommon level of persistence, mainly among the best performing funds, due to the expertise of the managers. The quadrimestral rebalancing of the portfolios based on these rankings permits inferring that in scenarios characterized as economic booms or recovery of financial markets, the strategies with equal participation in winner funds provides significantly higher average monthly gains, reduction of risk associated with diversification and consequently enhanced performance in relation to market or sector benchmarks. This evidence is robust to the use of different performance metrics for fund selection, indicating that active investors in winning funds demand good performance not only in terms of the Sharpe ratio, but also with respect to other metrics, such as the Treynor, Calmar and Sortino ratios. In these optimistic scenarios, only the industrial sector index (INDX provided returns compatible with those of these fund’s portfolios. However, during periods of crisis, no strategy involving the funds managed to provide hedge levels characteristic of the electric energy sector index (IEE, so it can be said that the majority of investing strategies are dominated in gain-risk criteria by sector or market indexes, with the exception of value-weighted portfolios composed of losing funds, a signal that the usual passive investors in large funds indexed to the Ibovespa can be presenting a greater level of inertia.

  17. Constructing a water-use model for input to the water cloud backscatter model

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Alastair; Harris, Ray

    2003-01-01

    International audience Satellite monitoring for agriculture using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is useful for calculating crop moisture values. The semi-empirical water cloud model has been used in the past to derive moisture values but the form of the equation means it is limited to a given point in space and time. A crop specific water-use model (CHIPS) has been developed to improve the output of the backscatter model for use with ERS-2 SAR data and to allow temporal profiles to be...

  18. 17 CFR 245.101 - Prohibition of insider trading during pension fund blackout periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of insider trading during pension fund blackout periods. 245.101 Section 245.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-Blackout Trading Restriction) § 245.101 Prohibition of insider trading during pension fund blackout...

  19. CS-AUV: an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) for survey construction support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    For several years, AUV development have been successfully focused on general inspection or pre-engineering survey activities. Development of the market will allow new generation to be validate: inspection and intervention AUV, this particularly for field construction support application. Survey construction support is a major market for AUV developments. Advanced subsea and its partners, promotes the development of construction support AUV covering 95% of current tasks performed by ROV during field development. CS AUV, deployed from construction vessels or drilling rigs, is able to perform pre-lay, as-laid survey, TDP monitoring, free-span inspection, LBL arrays deployment work, allowing to dramatically reduce the use of DP 2 ROV support vessel during field installation work. In addition, CS-AUV is supported by an ambitious innovation and development program. (author)

  20. Construction of an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation using semidefinite programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, G., E-mail: gf910@ic.ac.uk; Wynn, A., E-mail: a.wynn@imperial.ac.uk

    2015-01-02

    A method to construct systematically an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation is developed by formulating the classical problem as an optimisation problem. In particular, we show that the infinite-dimensional problem can be rewritten as a finite-dimensional convex semidefinite problem, which is solved to construct a background profile and to obtain an upper bound on the energy of the solution ‖u‖ that applies to the infinite-dimensional PDE. The results are compared to existing analytical results, and support the fact that limsup{sub t→∞}‖u‖≤O(L{sup 3/2}) is the optimal estimate achievable with the background profile method and a quadratic Lyapunov function. - Highlights: • Optimal background profiles are constructed for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation. • Analytical L{sup 2} bounds for the solution are found using convex optimisation. • The optimal background profile is a double shock profile. • Results attest that L{sup 1.5} scaling is optimal within the classic Lyapunov argument. • We improve the proportionality constant of the scaling law for the attracting set.

  1. Using Revolving Loan Funds to Finance Energy Savings Performance Contracts in State and Local Agency Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Knutson, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Regenthal, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Numerous pre-existing and newly emerging state- and locally-managed revolving loan funds (RLFs) are being used in conjunction with energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) as an option for financing of energy efficiency projects. This document presents an overview of ESPCs and how they fit within the RLF framework. There are a variety of options available to state and local governments to catalyze the disbursement of available capital from RLFs and increase the number of ESPC projects within their jurisdictions. To demonstrate the implementation of this type of financing program in action, this report concludes with four program case studies of state-sponsored RLFs where ESPCs are an allowed use of funds.

  2. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social

  3. Funding Mechanisms for Ecosystem Services Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem services projects ideally should be funded through commoditized markets. Where those markets do not exist financing directly from interested private sector parties can be a direct link between business interested in fulfilling sustainability goals and project implementers. Challenges exist, however in 1) linking those interests; 2) carefully quantifying the services produced, their true costs to implement and meeting protocol standards; 3) measuring the success of projects, especially over lengthy periods of time; and 4) balancing issues related to multiple spatial scales for projects and funding to make a difference. Examples from National Forest Foundation's experience implementing carbon and water projects with multiple private sector funders and the USDA Forest Service will highlight experiences and lessons learned in funding and implementing ecosystem service projects.

  4. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

    2013-01-01

    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  5. [Measurement of energy expenditure in a group of construction workers during work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, F; Borleri, D; Mosconi, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the results obtained from measuring energy expenditure (EE) during work in a group of male construction workers through a new portable device of practical use and low cost. The instrument consists of an electronic bracelet multisensor system for measuring EE, which is called Armband Sensewear Pro2 and is produced by Body Media. The disposal has 5 steel hypoallergenic sensors which detect the skin and the near body temperature, the environment temperature, the electrical skin conductance, and an internal two axes accelerometer which detects the transverse and longitudinal acceleration. The analysis of these parameters through software allows you to derive the individual EE. The study describes the results obtained by applying Armband to a group of 10 construction workers performing the following jobs: bricklayer, tiler, crane driver and "rock climber". The results allow to assess and confirm the high EE related to the work of the subjects enrolled in the study. In conclusion the authors argue that Armband, already validated experimentally in several areas of Medicine, can be a useful tool available to the Occupational Physician, in order to determine the EE for workers who perform heavy tasks, such as those that exist in the construction industry, which are characterised by high levels of EE and poor reproducibility of tasks. Moreover, Armband appears to be an useful tool in connection with the dual possibility on the one hand to assess fatigue related to certain skills and jobs, and on the other side to contribute to the metabolic evaluation of cardiac patients during rehabilitation at work. PMID:18409925

  6. Instruments and practices concerning the absorption and use of structural and cohesion funds in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani MATEI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In view to improve the competitiveness and economic growth as well as to diminish the gaps between Romania and the EU developed states, the Structural and Cohesion Funds represent an outstanding source of investment. The operationalisation of the structural instruments is paramount for a sustainable socio- economic development. After Romania joined the European Union, during the programming period 2007-2013, Romania has been allocated approximately 19.21 billion euro from Structural and Cohesion Funds and Romania’s contribution (including private sources to complement the EU investments was forecasted to reach at least 5.6 billion euro. The absorption of Structural and Cohesion Funds has represented one of the major priorities of the Government of Romania since the approval of the Operational Programmes, Romania being among the first Member States whose Operational Programmes were approved by the European Commission. The difficulties faced since the very beginning of implementatio n have overlapped with the effects of the economic and financial crisis, thus the absorption rate was under the previous expectations. The management authorities and the beneficiaries have also faced multiple and complex problems. The current paper aims to present the institutional mechanisms, instruments and practices for the absorption and use of structural funds in Romania, focusing on the main problems and challenges during the implementation process.

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriso O. EMEROLE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90 rural farm households of multi-type (varied enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that positively influenced decisions to source farm investment fund to include level of education, gender, membership of cooperative society, interest charge, land acquisition method, and ease of getting loan. Other factors that negatively influenced decisions include farming as major occupation, household savings, household size, and distance of farmers’ home to source of credit. Proprietor withdrawal decisions were positively influenced by household level variables like taking farming as major occupation, payment of school fees for children of farmers, and amount of credit so far repaid by a farm household. Other factors namely household size, being member of cooperative society or savings group, interest charges on loan, off-farm income, and household savings had negative influences on proprietor withdrawal decisions. We recommended that small-scale farmers should not borrow their start-up capital from outside their households but as their farm businesses stabilize, they could decide to take loans from outside to cover their working capital and/or expand their farms and be prepared to repay such loans according to contractual agreements.

  8. Paying for hospital care: the experience with implementing activity-based funding in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Busse, Reinhard; Häkkinen, Unto; Or, Zeynep; Street, Andrew; Wiley, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Following the US experience, activity-based funding has become the most common mechanism for reimbursing hospitals in Europe. Focusing on five European countries (England, Finland, France, Germany and Ireland), this paper reviews the motivation for introducing activity-based funding, together with the empirical evidence available to assess the impact of implementation. Despite differences in the prevailing approaches to reimbursement, the five countries shared several common objectives, albeit with different emphasis, in moving to activity-based funding during the 1990s and 2000s. These include increasing efficiency, improving quality of care and enhancing transparency. There is substantial cross-country variation in how activity-based funding has been implemented and developed. In Finland and Ireland, for instance, activity-based funding is principally used to determine hospital budgets, whereas the models adopted in the other three countries are more similar to the US approach. Assessing the impact of activity-based funding is complicated by a shortage of rigorous empirical evaluations. What evidence is currently available, though, suggests that the introduction of activity-based funding has been associated with an increase in activity, a decline in length of stay and/or a reduction in the rate of growth in hospital expenditure in most of the countries under consideration. PMID:22221929

  9. A semantic portal for fund finding in the EU: Semantic upgrade, integration and publication of heterogeneous legacy data

    OpenAIRE

    Barrasa Rodríguez, Jesús; Corcho, Oscar; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ

    2006-01-01

    FundFinder is a Semantic Web portal that allows searching for and navigating through information about funding opportunities. This application has been created following a set of techniques and using a set of tools for the upgrade of legacy content to the Semantic Web, including databases and semi-structured documents. This process consists in extracting and populating knowledge from heterogeneous information sources and making it available on the Web.

  10. Monitoring Customer Perceived Service Quality and Satisfaction during the Construction Process

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Forsythe

    2015-01-01

    Service quality has been studied across many construction related disciplines but little has been done concerning how it effects customer satisfaction during the day-to-day dynamics of onsite construction services. The research explores this setting in Australian housing construction projects. A highly detailed single case study methodology was used with a view to facilitating theory development for a targeted customer type displaying service quality oriented expectations, high involvement, b...

  11. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  12. Strategic School Funding for Improved Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jay G.; Brown, James R.; Levin, Jesse; Jubb, Steve; Harper, Dorothy; Tolleson, Ray; Manship, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article features Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project, a new joint initiative of the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Pivot Learning Partners (PLP) aimed at improving school finance, human resources, and management systems in large urban school districts. The goal of the project is to develop and implement more…

  13. An Analysis of the Use of Information Technology for Project Management in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Wilkinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective information technology use can be a key cause of the success of a construction project. Technology used for project management in the New Zealand construction industry is discussed in this paper. The results reveal on many levels a lack of understanding of current available information technology to assist with overall management and control of the construction projects in New Zealand. This paper discusses the results of a survey to construction companies in the New Zealand which profess to offer project management as one of their main services. Amongst others, the findings suggest an awareness of the technology available, but a reluctance to invest time and money in it. The paper will assess the reasons for this reservation and provide advice for use of alternative methods for project management planning and control for the New Zealand construction industry. Valuable lessons from this research are translated to the international construction industry.

  14. An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

  15. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  16. Use of target-date funds in 401(k) plans, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig

    2009-03-01

    WHAT THEY ARE: Target-date funds (also called "life-cycle" funds) are a type of mutual fund that automatically rebalances its asset allocation following a predetermined pattern over time. They typically rebalance to more conservative and income-producing assets as the participant's target date of retirement approaches. WHY THEY'RE IMPORTANT AND GROWING: Of the 401(k) plan participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database who were found to be in plans that offeredtarget-date funds, 37 percent had at least some fraction of their account in target-date funds in 2007. Target-date funds held about 7 percent of total assets in 401(k) plans and the use of these funds is expected to increase in the future. The Pension Protection Act of 2006 made it easier for plan sponsors to automatically enroll new workers in a 401(k) plan, and target-date funds were one of the types of approved funds specified for a "default" investment if the participant does not elect a choice. BRI/ICI 401(K) DATABASE: This study uses the unique richness of the data in the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, which has almost 22 million participants, to examine the choices and characteristics of participants whose plans offer target-date funds. EFFECT OF AGE, SALARY, JOB TENURE, AND ACCOUNT BALANCE: Younger workers are significantly more likely to invest in target-date funds than are older workers: Almost 44 percent of participants under age 30 had assets in a target-date fund, compared with 27 percent of those 60 or older. Target-date funds appeal to those with lower incomes, little time on the job, and with few assets. On average, target-date fund investors are about 2.5 years younger than those who do not invest in target-date funds, have about 3.5 years less tenure, make about $11,000 less in salary, have $25,000 less in their account, and are in smaller plans. EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC ENROLLMENT: While the EBRI/ICI database does not contain specific information on whether

  17. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Paquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (Psystems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8 +/-1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (Precirculating system. PMID:12663210

  18. Downhole cuttings injection allows use of oil-base muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that of the potential methods for handling oily drill cuttings, the most attractive is their injection downhole. This approach, which has been used by BP on its Gyda platform in the North Sea where stringent new environmental regulations are expected, will enable operators to enjoy the economic advantages of using oil-based muds. The discharge of oil-based-mud-contaminated cuttings form offshore drilling operations has a significant, though localized, environmental impact. This is despite the change from diesel-based fluids to less toxic, low aromatic, base oils which occurred in the late 1970s

  19. The use of virtual reality for training in carotid artery stenting: a construct validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, M.; Reznick, R.; Lystig, T.;

    2008-01-01

    difference in video-gaming habits was demonstrated. Conclusion: With the exception of the metrics of performance time and fluoroscopic use, construct validity of the Procedicus-VIST carotid metrics were not confirmed. Virtual reality simulation as a training method was valued more by novices than by...... recorded), tool/vessel ratio, coverage percentage, and placement accuracy or residual stenosis. Contrast measurement metrics were found to be too imprecise for statistical analysis. Experienced and novice opinions differed significantly for six of 10 subjective parameters. No statistically significant...

  20. Experimental and computational tools useful for (re)construction of dynamic kinase-substrate networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chris Soon Heng; Linding, Rune

    2009-01-01

    kinases. This is important for (re)constructing transient kinase-substrate interaction networks that are essential for mechanistic understanding of cellular behaviors and therapeutic intervention, but has largely eluded high-throughput protein-interaction studies due to their transient nature and strong...... dependencies on cellular context. Here, we surveyed some of the computational approaches developed to dissect phosphorylation data detected in systematic proteomic experiments and reviewed some experimental and computational approaches used to map phosphorylation sites to their effector kinases in efforts...... aimed at reconstructing biological signaling networks....

  1. Pre- and post-construction analysis of a wetland used for mine drainage control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.39 ha constructed wetland in Athens County, Ohio is being evaluated for its ability to remove contaminants from acidic mine drainage. The wetland receives water flow from Lick run stream which is contaminated by two major abandoned underground mine seeps. The wetland effluent is then directed back into Lick Run, a tributary of the Hocking River. Data were collected 1.5 years prior to construction and 11 months following completion of the passive wetland system. Preconstruction data reported average spring quarter 1991 and 1992 iron concentrations in the stream at the future wetland influent and effluents sites to be 330 and 106 mg/l, while spring quarter 1993 showed iron levels at the wetland influent and effluent to be 64 and 3 mg/l, respectively. Iron removal percentages were 68% prior to the construction of the wetland and 95% following its completion. Preconstruction data were analyzed using a dynamic computer model and preliminary comparison with the first 11 months of the wetland data show the actual iron removal rates to be 4 g/m2 day1 compared to the predicted value of 6.5 g/m2 day1 (based on data collected from April 1991--March 1992, under similar hydrologic conditions)

  2. Designing a Forex Trading and Equity Investment Strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Rizvan

    2008-01-01

    Construct the investment strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund. Identify profit making opportunities in Foreign Exchange (Forex) & Equities using both conventional and non-conventional indicators. The author is to articulate and document his current knowledge in the chosen area in order to stimuate ideas in creating potential investment strategies. Justify knowledge with actual results in a genuine live investment. Critique and evluate the effectiveness of the proposed investment ...

  3. Flood of applications for state funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete prospects are offered by the Laender programmes of Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein which both intend to grant funds for 1000 MW until the year 2000. At present there are 68 wind power plants with a total capacity of 11 MW in operation in these two Laender. (DG)

  4. Essays in State Funding for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupal, Senay D.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a combination of two papers studying the effect of state funding for higher education on the price of education and student enrollment at institutions. The first paper evaluates the effectiveness of student aid in decreasing the price of higher education by investigating what portion of student aid dollars reach targeted students…

  5. Predicting crack formation in solid concrete dams in severe climatic conditions during construction period

    OpenAIRE

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich; Nguen Hoang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to create a mathematical temperature model of concreting in lifts, that depends on the various fundamental factors. The use of such a model will help to determine concrete composition (cement consumption and heat generation) and the technological scheme of building solid concrete dams. As a result of the analysis of various factors influence on the temperature during a construction concreting, we obtained a mathematical model, allowing to determine the maximum tempera...

  6. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  7. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  8. Funding for Performance and Equity: Student Success in English Further Education Colleges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Jaquette

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of performance funding on community college student outcomes is a contested issue. Performance funding policies in most U.S. states involve too small a proportion of funding to change college behavior. English further education colleges are similar to U.S. community colleges. 1992 policy reforms in England centralized policy control, and implemented a per-pupil funding formula; 10% of all funding is based on student success but other components of the funding formula pay colleges more money for enrolling disadvantaged students. This research uses five years of student level data to test the impact of these policies. Overall student success rates rose by 10% during the five-year period, with the largest gains made by ethnic minorities, adult basic education students, and students from disadvantaged neighborhoods. Although the English system depends on regulatory agencies that do not exist in the U.S., the major assertion of this research is that market-based funding policies˜if properly designed˜can promote equity in educational achievement.

  9. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  10. Comparison of Response Surface Construction Methods for Derivative Estimation Using Moving Least Squares, Kriging and Radial Basis Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2005-01-01

    Response construction methods using Moving Least Squares (MLS), Kriging and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) are compared with the Global Least Squares (GLS) method in three numerical examples for derivative generation capability. Also, a new Interpolating Moving Least Squares (IMLS) method adopted from the meshless method is presented. It is found that the response surface construction methods using the Kriging and RBF interpolation yields more accurate results compared with MLS and GLS methods. Several computational aspects of the response surface construction methods also discussed.

  11. Interim radon-resistant construction guidelines for use in Florida-1989. Final report, August 1987-June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives results of a project to investigate, analyze, and develop radon-resistant construction guidelines that are consistent with other building codes and that could be applied to Florida. A literature search resulted in information on radon remediation techniques, new construction methods, and existing radon-resistant building codes such as those in Sweden and Canada. The identified techniques were amended, modified, or supplemented for incorporation into draft model guidelines for new construction in format consistent with the Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc.'s Standard Building Code. A technical review advisory committee formed during development of the guidelines, provided input and recommended changes to the draft guidelines. Although the project has resulted in guidelines for recommended construction practices, they should be coupled with a carefully planned and implemented program of experimentation. Eventually, this approach will lead to building code provisions that are scientifically defensible, cost effective, reliable, and easily incorporated into standard construction practice

  12. 19 CFR 159.8 - Allowance for loss, injury, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance for loss, injury, etc. 159.8 Section 159.8 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF..., etc. Allowance in duties for any merchandise which is lost, stolen, destroyed, injured, abandoned,...

  13. Prerequisites for an effective use of ashes in road construction; Foerutsaettningar foer att askor kommer till anvaendning i vaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, Erik; Moeffaert, Denis van [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjurstroem, Henrik; Berg, Magnus [AaF Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svedberg, Bo [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project was to compile how different EU-countries have overcome the obstacles for the use of ashes in road constructions and conclude what has to be done in Sweden. An assumption and starting point for the study is that the use of ashes is beneficial. The study is focused on other EU countries through interviews with relevant actors in Belgium, Netherlands, France, England, Finland and Denmark. The conditions in these countries vary. Netherlands and Denmark were pioneers and have today many years of experience of using ashes in road construction. At the time for this investigation there were however drawbacks - in Netherlands due to mismanagement of ashes in large road constructions and in Denmark because of the introduction of stricter regulations. Belgium and England are making efforts towards recycling of ashes although only small amounts have been used hitherto. In some regions of France, ashes are used to a vast degree, which is mainly due to a strong network of material suppliers marketing ashes together. In Finland, finally, a comprehensive program for research and development were undertaken during the 1990s. An output of this program was guidelines, which facilitate the use of ashes. Typical obstacles for the use of recycled materials in constructions in Sweden have in previous projects been identified as 1) ambiguous laws and regulations, 2) lack of experiences, 3) weak economical incentives, 4) material-related decisions are made too late in project planning and, 5) lack of methods for showing the benefits of recycling. The experiences from the studied countries confirm that points 1, 3 and partly 2 also are valid there. Lack of competence can only be reconciled by active marketing. Point 5 can be overcome by the use of environmental system analysis (ESA) in which both the road construction and alternative management (e.g. disposal) of ashes are included. This type of analyses has not been carried out in the studied countries (except a

  14. Use of shredded tires as support medium for subsurface flow constructed wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Miguel Roston; Andréia de Barros Collaço

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluated shredded tires as a medium for constructed wetlands, treating domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted utilizing effluent of a small Sewage Treatment Plant. Two tanks with 10 m2 each, with dimensions of 2 m wide, 5 m long and 1 m height were built above soil level using cement bricks. One of the tanks was filled out entirely with crushed stone (diameter 55 to 90 mm), while in the other tank the medium was shredded tires reaching the height of 0.80 m. Above the tir...

  15. Project and construction of a spectrometer for alpha particles using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project, construction, tests and some applications of a system for alpha and beta spectrometry, using surface barrier detector are described. The device includes a solid state detector ORTEC-Series F coupled to a system for amplifying the charges produced by passage of an ionizing particle through the detector. The amplifying system is composed by a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, which employs an operational amplifier CA 3140, and a low noise linear amplifier, which is based on the operational amplifiers CA 3140 and LM 301. The pre-amplifier stage input impedance is on the order of TΩ and produces output pulses which heights are proportional to total charge produced by passage of particle through the detector sensitive volume. The main advantage to use charge sensitive system lies in obtention of independent pulse heights of the distributed capacity of connecting cable between the detector and the pre-amplifier. The total system amplification ca reach a maximum of 50.000 in the linear region. Pulses are analysed in a multichannel system ORTEC, model 6240. The amplifier system is easily constructed and low cost using components available in the national market, and it can be employed with ionization chambers, proportional counters, scitillation counters and semiconductor detectors. The results of spectrometer application for alpha spectrometry of AM241 source were compared to systems made with imported stages. (Author)

  16. Use of shredded tires as support medium for subsurface flow constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Miguel Roston

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated shredded tires as a medium for constructed wetlands, treating domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted utilizing effluent of a small Sewage Treatment Plant. Two tanks with 10 m2 each, with dimensions of 2 m wide, 5 m long and 1 m height were built above soil level using cement bricks. One of the tanks was filled out entirely with crushed stone (diameter 55 to 90 mm, while in the other tank the medium was shredded tires reaching the height of 0.80 m. Above the tires, a 0.10 m gravel layer to complete the total height (1 m and avoid floating. The aquatic macrophytes utilized were from Typha species distributed uniformly over the beds. The following parameters were monitored: suspended solids, pH, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen. The results were submitted to a statistical analysis in order to verify if significant difference existed (to 1 % and 5% of significance between the two treatments. The results demonstrate no significant difference for the parameter NH3-N, while for suspended solids and pH, were found significant differences to 1% and 5% of significance. For COD was found significant difference to 5% of significance. The results indicated a potential use of shredded tires to substitute the conventional media utilized for subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

  17. Removal of the acyl donor residue allows the use of simple alkyl esters as acyl donors for the dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, Gerard K.M.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Broxterman, Quirinus B.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols using a lipase and a ruthenium catalyst required some improvements to make it suitable for its use in an industrial process. The use of p-chlorophenyl acetate as acyl donor is not desirable in view of the toxicity of the side product. We herein re

  18. Allowing for surface preparation in stress corrosion cracking modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a 600 alloy component is significantly deformed during installation, by welding, rolling, bending, its stress corrosion cracking in Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor's primary coolant, is significantly changed by the initial surface treatment. Therefore, the crack initiated time may be reduced by several orders of magnitude for certain surfaces preparations. Allowing for cold working of the surface, for which modelling is proposed, depends less on the degree of cold work then on the depths of the hardened layers. Honing hardens the metal over depths of about one micron for vessel head penetrations, for example, and has little influence on subsequent behaviour after the part deforms. On the other hand, coarser turning treatment produces cold worked layers which can reach several tens of microns and can very significantly reduce the initiation time compared to fine honing. So evaluation after depths of hardening is vital on test pieces for interpreting laboratory results as well as on service components for estimating their service life. Suppression by mechanical or chemical treatment of these layers, after deformation, seems to be the most appropriate solution for reducing over-stressing connected with surface treatment carried out before deformation. (author)

  19. Constructed Wetlands: Potential for their Use in Treatment of Grey Water in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, Cynthia Gitiri

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are cost-effective, nature oriented alternatives for wastewater treatment that have gained acceptance worldwide. For Kenyan small communities in particular, constructed wetlands offer opportunities for wastewater reuse and resource recovery as well as improvements in local environmental health conditions. These communities generally lack conventional centralized waste water treatment systems. This thesis aims to identify peri- urban and rural areas suitable for the establ...

  20. 75 FR 81979 - Proposed Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) for Social Innovation Fund 2011 Awards; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE Proposed Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) for Social Innovation Fund 2011 Awards... Social Innovation Fund Awards. SUMMARY: The Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) is releasing a draft of the Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) for the 2011 Social Innovation...

  1. Resolving inadequacies of the Navy Industrial Fund cost accounting system to enable its use in the RAMP SMP facility

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Joseph William.

    1988-01-01

    The Navy is constructing an automated manufacturing facility which incorporates flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) and computer integrated manufacturing (CIM). The facility, which is known as the RAMP SMP facility, will operate within the Navy Industrial Fund (NIF) system. Previous research concluded that several elements of the NIF cost accounting system were inadequate for use in the RAMP facility. Inadequate areas included direct and indirect cost definitions, indirect cost allocations, ...

  2. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  3. Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Anderson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1962, Clark and Lyons proposed incorporating the enzyme glucose oxidase in the construction of an electrochemical sensor for glucose in blood plasma. In their application, Clark and Lyons describe an electrode in which a membrane permeable to glucose traps a small volume of solution containing the enzyme adjacent to a pH electrode, and the presence of glucose is detected by the change in the electrode potential that occurs when glucose reacts with the enzyme in this volume of solution. Although described nearly 50 years ago, this seminal development provides the general structure for constructing electrochemical glucose sensors that is still used today. Despite the maturity of the field, new developments that explore solutions to the fundamental limitations of electrochemical glucose sensors continue to emerge. Here we discuss two developments of the last 15 years; confining the enzyme and a redox mediator to a very thin molecular films at electrode surfaces by electrostatic assembly, and the use of electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs to leverage the electrocatalytic effect of the CNTs to reduce the oxidation overpotential of the electrode reaction or for the direct electron transport to the enzyme.

  4. A concise iterative method using the Bezier technique for baseline construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanjie; Zhou, Xiaoguang; Yu, Yude

    2015-12-01

    A novel approach, coined the Corner-Cutting method (CC, for short), is presented in this paper which affords the efficient construction of the baseline for analytical data streams. It was derived from techniques used in computer aided geometric design, a field established to produce curves and surfaces for the aviation and automobile industries. This corner-cutting technique provided a very efficient baseline calculation through an iterative process. Furthermore, a terminal condition was developed to make the process fully automated and truly non-parametric. Finally, we employed a Bezier curve to convert the iterating result into a smooth baseline solution. Compared to other iterative schemes used for baseline detection, our method was significantly efficient, easier to implement, and had a broader range of applications. PMID:26517702

  5. Using blocked fractional factorial designs to construct discrete choice experiments for healthcare studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, Jessica; Wong, Weng-Kee; Xu, Hongquan

    2016-07-10

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used for studying and quantifying subjects preferences in a wide variety of healthcare applications. They provide a rich source of data to assess real-life decision-making processes, which involve trade-offs between desirable characteristics pertaining to health and healthcare and identification of key attributes affecting healthcare. The choice of the design for a DCE is critical because it determines which attributes' effects and their interactions are identifiable. We apply blocked fractional factorial designs to construct DCEs and address some identification issues by utilizing the known structure of blocked fractional factorial designs. Our design techniques can be applied to several situations including DCEs where attributes have different number of levels. We demonstrate our design methodology using two healthcare studies to evaluate (i) asthma patients' preferences for symptom-based outcome measures and (ii) patient preference for breast screening services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26823156

  6. Construction of an ortholog database using the semantic web technology for integrative analysis of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Hirokazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of biological data, including genomic sequences, have been rapidly accumulating. To discover biological knowledge from such growing heterogeneous data, a flexible framework for data integration is necessary. Ortholog information is a central resource for interlinking corresponding genes among different organisms, and the Semantic Web provides a key technology for the flexible integration of heterogeneous data. We have constructed an ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology, aiming at the integration of numerous genomic data and various types of biological information. To formalize the structure of the ortholog information in the Semantic Web, we have constructed the Ortholog Ontology (OrthO). While the OrthO is a compact ontology for general use, it is designed to be extended to the description of database-specific concepts. On the basis of OrthO, we described the ortholog information from our Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD) in the form of Resource Description Framework (RDF) and made it available through the SPARQL endpoint, which accepts arbitrary queries specified by users. In this framework based on the OrthO, the biological data of different organisms can be integrated using the ortholog information as a hub. Besides, the ortholog information from different data sources can be compared with each other using the OrthO as a shared ontology. Here we show some examples demonstrating that the ortholog information described in RDF can be used to link various biological data such as taxonomy information and Gene Ontology. Thus, the ortholog database using the Semantic Web technology can contribute to biological knowledge discovery through integrative data analysis. PMID:25875762

  7. Opportunities for enhanced lean construction management using Internet of Things standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Bhargav; Kubler, Sylvain; Främling, Kary; Koskela, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, production control on construction sites has been challenging, and still remains challenging. The ad-hoc production control methods that are usually used, most of which are informal, foster uncertainty that prevents smooth production flow. Lean construction methods such as the Last Planner System have partially tackled this problem by involving site teams into the decision making process and having them report back to the production management system. However, such systems have...

  8. Risk informed decision making for the allowed outage times changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods for risk informed evaluation of the allowed outage times. Applications of the methods are also provided for the safety related equipment of the J. Bohunice V2 NPP. (author)

  9. Risk informed decision making for the allowed outage times changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methods for risk informed evaluation of the allowed outage times. Applications of the methods are also provided for the safety related equipment of the J.Bohunice V2 NPP. (author)

  10. Administrative Circular No. 20 (Rev. 2) – Re-evaluation of the kilometre allowance when using a private vehicle for journeys on official duty

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 21 March 2011, the kilometre allowance was increased from 0,65 CHF/km to 0,70 CHF/km as from 11 April 2011 which is the first date of the new overtime period. Department Head Office

  11. The Influence of Anomalies on Knowledge Construction and Scientific Reasoning during Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Marissa

    The knowledge construction and scientific reasoning of two classes of seventh grade students (22 to 24 students in each class) were examined during a 3-week inquiry unit in genetics, in which anomalies were used as a catalyst for conceptual change. During the unit, students used genetics simulation software to mate fruit flies that varied on a…

  12. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  13. Optimal Portfolio Allocation for Corporate Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, David; Miles, David K

    2007-01-01

    We model the asset allocation decision of a defined benefit pension fund using a stochastic dynamic programming approach. Our model recognizes the fact that asset allocation decisions are made by trustees who are mandated to act in the best interests of beneficiaries - not by sponsoring employers - and that trustees face payoffs that are linked in an indirect way to the value of the underlying assets. This is because of the presence of pension insurance - which may cover a portion of deficits...

  14. Construction Zero Cross Correlation Code using Permutation Matrix for SAC-OCDMA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper present a new method for constructing zero cross correlation code with the help of permutation matrices. The benefits of this newly proposed code are easy way code construction, the code weight exist for every natural number and the code length is acceptable. The numerical comparison shows that the proposed code has better or compatible code length compared with other existing zero cross correlation code in Optical Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (OSCDMA) systems.

  15. GPU seeks new funding for TMI cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Public Utilities (GPU) wants approval for annual transfer of money from base rate increases in other accounts to pay for the cleanup at Three Mile Island (TMI) until TMI-1 returns to service or the public utility commission takes further action. This proposal confirms fears of a delay in TMI-1 startup and demonstrates that the January negotiated settlement will produce little funding for TMI-2 cleanup. A review of the settlement terms outlines the three-step process for base rate increases and revenue adjustments after the startup of TMI-1, and points out where controversy and delays due to psychological stress make a new source of money essential. GPU thinks customer funding will motivate other parties to a broad-based cost-sharing agreement

  16. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  17. FINAL REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by 2 December 2005 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from 1 September 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  18. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  19. Construction safety management guide for use with DOE Order 440.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Order (DOE O) 440.1, Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees, establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program to reduce or eliminate accidental losses, injuries, and illnesses by providing workers with places of employment free of recognized hazards. In addition to prescribing program requirements applicable to all activities performed by DOE and its contractors, DOE O 440.1 provides specific requirements applicable only to construction activities. The intent of these construction-specific requirements is to compel the proactive management of construction safety on a project-by-project basis and, to the greatest extent possible, integrate the management of safety and health, both in terms of project personnel and management methodologies, with the management of the other primary elements of construction project performance: quality, cost and schedule

  20. Lisbon and access to justice for environmental NGOs: A watershed? A case study using the setting of the Total Allowable Catches under the Common Fisheries Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, C

    2010-01-01

    Before the Lisbon Treaty, environmental non-governmental organisations could rarely or not satisfy the admissibility test to gain access to the European courts. This contribution examines whether the rules on locus standi under the Lisbon Treaty will facilitate their access to justice. Attention will be given to what is understood by a 'regulatory act', the EU obligations under the Aarhus Convention and whether the new perspectives within the Lisbon Treaty will allow environmental non-governm...

  1. 25 CFR 170.130 - How can tribes use Federal highway funds for toll and ferry facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... To initiate construction of a . . . A tribe must . . . (1) Toll highway, bridge, or tunnel (i) Meet... into a self-tunnel governance agreement or self-determination contract with the Secretary of...

  2. Constructive use of holographic projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der FU, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  3. Constructive use of holographic projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  4. Classification of Photogrammetric Point Clouds of Scaffolds for Construction Site Monitoring Using Subspace Clustering and PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Tuttas, S.; Heogner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM). The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  5. Construction project selection with the use of fuzzy preference relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadov, Nabi

    2016-06-01

    In the article, author describes the problem of the construction project variant selection during pre-investment phase. As a solution, the algorithm basing on fuzzy preference relation is presented. The article provides an example of the algorithm used for selection of the best variant for construction project. The choice is made basing on criteria such as: net present value (NPV), level of technological difficulty, financing possibilities, and level of organizational difficulty.

  6. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  7. VIEWPOINT: Diaspora bonds for funding education

    OpenAIRE

    Suhas L. Ketkar; Dilip Ratha

    2011-01-01

    Diaspora bonds represent a debt instrument issued by a country – or potentially a private corporation – to raise financing from its overseas diaspora. They offer governments a flexible mechanism for raising large scale funding to support national budgets and fill financing gaps in development programs, including provision of quality education. However, there is limited awareness about this financing vehicle. While India and Israel have been at the forefront in issuing diaspora bonds, many oth...

  8. Funding models for Open Access Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Collins, S.; Frost, D

    2015-01-01

    Across jurisdictions and domains (academia, government, business) there has been much recent attention paid to open forms of knowledge production (e.g., open-source software, open data/metadata, open infrastructures) and the creation of open digital repositories for the unrestricted sharing of data, publications and other resources. This report focuses on the latter, documenting and critically examining 14 different funding streams, grouped into six classes (institutional...

  9. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  10. Using single-item measures for construct measurement in management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christoph; Diamantopoulos, Adamantios

    2009-01-01

    The use of single-item measures in management research has been subject to heavy debate in recent literature. This paper provides researchers with concrete guidelines on how to assess the extent to which a single-item measure can be legitimately used to operationalize the focal construct. We first...

  11. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scope of 'Site Construction concerning Electrical Equipment' (Installation, erection, commissioning, operation): tasks and organization of Siemens-Field Services Division; organization on site; receiving, incoming inspection and storage of material; installation, erection; (drawings, instructions, documents / execution of installation / personnel qualification). Non conformance and corrective actions; quality records; internal audits. (orig.)

  12. Time in construction contracts: A comparison of selected general conditions provisions for construction contracts as used by various public and private agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Bryce C.

    1990-01-01

    CIVINS Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited A research study was conducted to examine the methods being used by selected Federal agencies, State Departments of Transportation, and Cities to address time in their contract documents. The data for this study was obtained by review of construction contract general provisions as provided by the various contracting offices. This study examines the general conditions provisions of various owner, compares and analyzes each ...

  13. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  14. 77 FR 18723 - Streamlining Requirements Governing the Use of Funding for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... program and implementing the AHEO Act, was published on December 1, 2003 (68 FR 67316). HUD followed publication of the interim rule with a final rule, published on September 13, 2005 (70 FR 54200), that took... for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and Persons With Disabilities Programs AGENCY: Office of...

  15. Radiation safety during construction of the encapsulation at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the main radiation safety problems which were solved during design and construction of the encapsulation for Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant which was destroyed in the accident of 26 April 1986. Information is given on the conditions under which large scale restoration work was performed, and on the design stipulations laid down for construction of the encapsulation for the destroyed unit. The paper discusses the technical, organizational and health measures which were used to ensure that radiation safety regulations and standards were observed during construction. The problems of organizing a radiation safety service inside the construction and assembly organization which built the encapsulation are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn with regard to the experience which has been gained in the area of radiation safety implementation during large scale post-accident restoration work under problematic radiation conditions such as those at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant site. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  16. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  17. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative transitions for photo-excitations and de-excitations in Fe XXII are studied in the relativistic Breit-Pauli approximation. A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for electric dipole (E1), same spin multiplicity and intercombination, fine structure transitions is presented. These are obtained from the first calculations in the close coupling approximation using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method for this ion, all existing theoretical results having been obtained from various other atomic structure calculations. The present work obtains a set of 771 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 1/2 ≤ J ≤ 17/2, only 52 of which have been observed. The f, S, and A values are reported for 70,372 allowed E1 transitions, exceeding by far those published previously. The calculated fine structure levels have been identified spectroscopically using a procedure based on quantum defect analysis. The energies agree with the available observed energies to within less than one to a few percent. The A values for E1 transitions are in good agreement with other existing values for most transitions. Using the atomic structure code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS), S and A values are also presented for 38,215 forbidden transitions of the types electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) among 274 fine structure levels formed from 25 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 4f. Some of these levels lie above the ionization limit and hence can form autoionizing lines. Such lines for 1s-2p Kα transitions have been observed in experiments. The energies from the SS calculations agree with observed energies within a few percent. The A values for E2 and M1 transitions agree very well with the available values. The atomic parameters for both allowed and forbidden transitions should be applicable for diagnostics as well as complete

  18. On the use of simplex methods in constructing quadratic models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hua ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quadratic approximation methods. After studying the basic idea of simplex methods, we construct several new search directions by combining the local information progressively obtained during the iterates of the algorithm to form new subspaces. And the quadratic model is solved in the new subspaces. The motivation is to use the information disclosed by the former steps to construct more promising directions. For most tested problems, the number of function evaluations have been reduced obviously through our algorithms.

  19. Dobutamine use for arrhythmia induction during electrical programmed heart stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    isoproterenol is the traditionally used drug for incrementing arrhythmia induction when this induction is not achieved during electric programmed heart stimulation under basal conditions. Dobutamine is an adrenergic agent, chemical precursor of isoproterenol, which can be an alternative for inducing arrhythmia during electrical programmed heart stimulation (PES). Patients and methods: a retrospective comparative study of the experience with dobutamine for inducing arrhythmia during electrical programmed heart stimulation was performed. The following data were collected: number of studies, data about the patient (medical record, age, gender, and study indication) protocol of programmed electrical stimulation, basal and under dobutamine or isoproterenol, and result of the study. Isoproterenol was used in doses of 1 to 3 micrograms per minute until the basal heart rate was incremented at least in 25%. Dobutamine was used in doses of 10 to 40 micrograms per kg of body weight, until obtaining the same increment in the basal heart rate. Results: 1054 electrophysiological studies were evaluated. In 144 patients (group A) isoproterenol was used and in 140, dobutamine (group B). In A group the mean age was 39.2 ± 16.2 and 58.3% were females. In-group B, mean age was 41.9 ± 18.6 and 51% were females. The most frequent symptom was palpitation and the most commonly induced arrhythmia was AV nodal reentry tachycardia in both groups. The induction of arrhythmia during the electrical programmed heat stimulation under drugs was similar in-group A (isoproterenol) respect to group B (dobutamine). Conclusions: There were no statistical significant differences in the induction of arrhythmia during electrical programmed heart stimulation using dobutamine or isoproterenol. Dobutamine may be safe and may be successfully used as an alternative to isoproterenol for arrhythmia induction during electrical programmed stimulation

  20. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    Full Text Available We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride (11.1% w/w and poly(ethyleneglycol 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL and highest (35 μg/mL Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration

  1. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Brady, Aaron J; Eltayib, Eyman; Meng, Teng; Alonso-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Torrisi, Barbara M; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Mooney, Karen; Jones, David S; Bell, Steven E J; McCoy, Colin P; McCarthy, Helen O; McElnay, James C; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) (11.1% w/w) and poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w) and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min) analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL) and highest (35 μg/mL) Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration extracted

  2. ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.

  3. Metabolic profiling of plant extracts using direct-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allows for high-throughput phenotypic characterization according to genetic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Flores, Martín; Juárez-Colunga, Sheila; García-Casarrubias, Adrián; Trachsel, Samuel; Winkler, Robert; Tiessen, Axel

    2015-01-28

    In comparison to the exponential increase of genotyping methods, phenotyping strategies are lagging behind in agricultural sciences. Genetic improvement depends upon the abundance of quantitative phenotypic data and the statistical partitioning of variance into environmental, genetic, and random effects. A metabolic phenotyping strategy was adapted to increase sample throughput while saving reagents, reducing cost, and simplifying data analysis. The chemical profiles of stem extracts from maize plants grown under low nitrogen (LN) or control trial (CT) were analyzed using optimized protocols for direct-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DIESI-MS). Specific ions significantly decreased or increased because of environmental (LN versus CT) or genotypic effects. Biochemical profiling with DIESI-MS had a superior cost-benefit compared to other standard analytical technologies (e.g., ultraviolet, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection) routinely used for plant breeding. The method can be successfully applied in maize, strawberry, coffee, and other crop species. PMID:25588121

  4. Tools for Social Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    divide. However, within some domains, the balance is shifting, with girls using mobile phones and social networking sites more than boys. New digital media should explore and support this shift.             New pervasive technologies offer possibilities to tie activities to the physical, informational.......             The theoretical concepts and analyses are based on theories of play and games and on the activity-based digital habitat framework. The design activities result in experimental prototypes which realize the concepts and, in turn, allow for iterative evaluation and validation of the theoretical models......In this dissertation, I propose a new type of playful media for children. Based on field work, prototypes, and theoretical development, I define, build, and explore a distinct cross-section of existing and new digital media, tools, and communication devices in order to assess the characteristics...

  5. Sustainable Construction for Urban Infill Development Using Engineered Massive Wood Panel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Prefabricated engineered solid wood panel construction systems can sequester and store CO2. Modular cross-laminated timber (CLT, also called cross-lam panels form the basis of low-carbon, engineered construction systems using solid wood panels that can be used to build residential infill developments of 10 storeys or higher. Multi-apartment buildings of 4 to 10 storeys constructed entirely in timber, such as recently in Europe, are innovative, but their social and cultural acceptance in Australia and North America is at this stage still uncertain. Future commercial utilisation is only possible if there is a user acceptance. The author is part of a research team that aims to study two problems: first models of urban infill; then focus on how the use of the CLT systems can play an important role in facilitating a more livable city with better models of infill housing. Wood is an important contemporary building resource due to its low embodied energy and unique attributes. The potential of prefabricated engineered solid wood panel systems, such as CLT, as a sustainable building material and system is only just being realised around the globe. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, solid wood panel construction offers the opportunity of carbon engineering, to turn buildings into ‘carbon sinks’. Thus some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction can be turned around with CLT construction on brownfield sites.

  6. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  7. Construction Solutions For Historical Object Foundations In The Context Of Changing Their Functional Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwizdała Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Properly executed renovation and adaptation of a grade listed property not only ensures its constructional safety, but may also highlight the object’s historical value. Taking into consideration various factors, such as divergence of interests, or technical and legal determinants, it is safe to say that the renovation and adaptation of grade listed properties for new purposes is a complex process. The authors of the paper wish to discuss the problem of renovation based on selected properties, with special regard to constructional solutions for foundations. The presented examples will illustrate the issue of foundation enhancements resulting from the adaptation of buildings for new purposes. Through individual constructional solutions, such as jet grouting, it was possible to ensure the stability of degraded properties and safe transfer of increased values of usage load.

  8. Construction Solutions For Historical Object Foundations In The Context Of Changing Their Functional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwizdała, Kazimierz; Florkowska, Sylwia

    2015-12-01

    Properly executed renovation and adaptation of a grade listed property not only ensures its constructional safety, but may also highlight the object's historical value. Taking into consideration various factors, such as divergence of interests, or technical and legal determinants, it is safe to say that the renovation and adaptation of grade listed properties for new purposes is a complex process. The authors of the paper wish to discuss the problem of renovation based on selected properties, with special regard to constructional solutions for foundations. The presented examples will illustrate the issue of foundation enhancements resulting from the adaptation of buildings for new purposes. Through individual constructional solutions, such as jet grouting, it was possible to ensure the stability of degraded properties and safe transfer of increased values of usage load.

  9. Fabrication and optimization of alginate hydrogel constructs for use in 3D neural cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional (2D) culture systems provide useful information about many biological processes. However, some applications including tissue engineering, drug transport studies, and analysis of cell growth and dynamics are better studied using three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. 3D culture systems can potentially offer higher degrees of organization and control of cell growth environments, more physiologically relevant diffusion characteristics, and permit the formation of more extensive 3D networks of cell-cell interactions. A 3D culture system has been developed using alginate as a cell scaffold, capable of maintaining the viability and function of a variety of neural cell types. Alginate was functionalized by the covalent attachment of a variety of whole proteins and peptide epitopes selected to provide sites for cell attachment. Alginate constructs were used to entrap a variety of neural cell types including astroglioma cells, astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Neural cells displayed process outgrowth over time in culture. Cell-seeded scaffolds were characterized in terms of their biochemical and biomechanical properties, effects on seeded neural cells, and suitability for use as 3D neural cell culture models.

  10. Fabrication and optimization of alginate hydrogel constructs for use in 3D neural cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, J P; Hynd, M R; Shain, W [Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12210 (United States); Shuler, M L, E-mail: jf7674@albany.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 270 Olin Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) culture systems provide useful information about many biological processes. However, some applications including tissue engineering, drug transport studies, and analysis of cell growth and dynamics are better studied using three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. 3D culture systems can potentially offer higher degrees of organization and control of cell growth environments, more physiologically relevant diffusion characteristics, and permit the formation of more extensive 3D networks of cell-cell interactions. A 3D culture system has been developed using alginate as a cell scaffold, capable of maintaining the viability and function of a variety of neural cell types. Alginate was functionalized by the covalent attachment of a variety of whole proteins and peptide epitopes selected to provide sites for cell attachment. Alginate constructs were used to entrap a variety of neural cell types including astroglioma cells, astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Neural cells displayed process outgrowth over time in culture. Cell-seeded scaffolds were characterized in terms of their biochemical and biomechanical properties, effects on seeded neural cells, and suitability for use as 3D neural cell culture models.

  11. Tissue microarray design and construction for scientific, industrial and diagnostic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In 2013 the high throughput technology known as Tissue Micro Array (TMA will be fifteen years old. Its elements (design, construction and analysis are intuitive and the core histopathology technique is unsophisticated, which may be a reason why has eluded a rigorous scientific scrutiny. The source of errors, particularly in specimen identification and how to control for it is unreported. Formal validation of the accuracy of segmenting (also known as de-arraying hundreds of samples, pairing with the sample data is lacking. Aims: We wanted to address these issues in order to bring the technique to recognized standards of quality in TMA use for research, diagnostics and industrial purposes. Results: We systematically addressed the sources of error and used barcode-driven data input throughout the whole process including matching the design with a TMA virtual image and segmenting that image back to individual cases, together with the associated data. In addition we demonstrate on mathematical grounds that a TMA design, when superimposed onto the corresponding whole slide image, validates on each and every sample the correspondence between the image and patient′s data. Conclusions: High throughput use of the TMA technology is a safe and efficient method for research, diagnosis and industrial use if all sources of errors are identified and addressed.

  12. 25 CFR 170.152 - What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... IRR Program funding? 170.152 Section 170.152 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... funding? Transit facilities and activities eligible for IRR Program funding include, but are not limited... facilities for use in mass transportation; (f) Third-party contracts for otherwise eligible...

  13. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for combined sewer overflow treatment - Design optimization using computational tools

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the work done on the experimental monitoring of vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow in order to develop a software to help dimensioning this structure. The goal of my internship at Irstea Lyon-Villeurbanne was to monitor a full-scale site of vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow to make a first calibration of the model based on the field data. A sensitivity analysis was realized to identify parameters which...

  14. Security Architecture for On-Line Mutual Funds Trading With Multiple Mobile Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala C R & V.Ramaswamy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a security architecture for the transaction procedure of On-Line MutualFund Trading system which is implemented using multi mobile agents that helps an individual,who is a kind of Do It yourself investor to invest her/his money in mutual funds online. Here, wemodify, design and implement the global standard which provides security for transactionprocessing in E-Commerce i.e. Secure Electronic Transactions (SET). This eliminates the fraudthat normally occurs during mon...

  15. Naïve Bayesian Classifier for Selecting Good/Bad Projects during the Early Stage of International Construction Bidding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, revenues generated by Korean contractors in international construction have increased rapidly, exceeding USD 70 billion per year in recent years. However, Korean contractors face significant risks from market uncertainty and sensitivity to economic volatility and technical difficulties. As the volatility of these risks threatens project profitability, approximately 15% of bad projects were found to account for 74% of losses from the same international construction sector. Anticipating bad projects via preemptive risk management can better prevent losses so that contractors can enhance the efficiency of bidding decisions during the early stages of a project cycle. In line with these objectives, this paper examines the effect of such factors on the degree of project profitability. The Naïve Bayesian classifier is applied to identify a good project screening tool, which increases practical applicability using binomial variables with limited information that is obtainable in the early stages. The proposed model produced superior classification results that adequately reflect contractor views of risk. It is anticipated that when users apply the proposed model based on their own knowledge and expertise, overall firm profit rates will increase as a result of early abandonment of bad projects as well as the prioritization of good projects before final bidding decisions are made.

  16. Japan Special Fund and Japanese Trust Fund for Consultancy Services Annual Report 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report details the the activities of the Japanese Special Fund and the Japanese Trust Fund for Consultancy Services for 2001. In 1988 the Government of Japan (GoJ) created the Japan Special Fund (JSF) to provide financial assistance for the Bank's technical cooperation (TC) activities in the Latin American and Caribbean region. In April, 2001, the GoJ set aside US$30 millions from the JSF resources for the Poverty Reduction Program (JPO). A total of 29 JSF/JPO projects for US$16.6...

  17. Environmental guidelines for use of ashes for construction purposes - Part 1; Miljoeriktlinjer foer nyttiggoerande av askor i anlaeggningsbyggande - del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Karsten; Wik, Ola; Bendz, David; Helgesson, Helena; Lind, Bo [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    In this project effects of laws and regulations on the potential of use of ashes have been studied. At first it can be noted that for all construction purposes the opening clause in the Swedish Environmental Code and general rules of consideration (2 ch) are applicable. The general design and the adjustments that must be taken into account regarding the environment are the same no matter if conventional materials are to be used or if ashes are used. The same concern for the environment is at hand irrespective of if the used ashes are regarded as waste, chemical products or a commodity. The formal demands on pre-examination brought forward by authorities and on documentation, however, differs strongly dependent on the way ashes are regarded. Incineration ashes that are recycled with the purpose of being used for construction are affected by regulations for classification of waste, transport of waste and documentation of waste. The Environmental Code and its consequential decrees on chemical products comprise incineration ashes that are classified as products. The code for chemical products is very comprehensive and contains detailed demands on e.g. environmental and health investigations, product information, packaging and storage, reports to registers and overview of investigations. As a rule this demands concerns only hazardous products i.e. products that have properties corresponding to hazardous waste, even though it is expected that demands on information and documentation will increase in the future. Ashes are useful products for construction purposes, among other things some of the qualities are a direct advantage compared to conventional materials e.g. the low density and their ability to harden make them technically very suitable for some construction purposes. In a project parallel to this, performed by SP investigations on the possibilities for ashes to fulfill functional demands as road construction material are being done. Other types of testing

  18. 47 CFR 32.1171 - Allowance for doubtful accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uncollectible amounts related to accounts receivable and notes receivable included in Account 1170, Receivables... or directly to Account 6790, Provision for uncollectible notes receivable, as appropriate. (c....1171 Allowance for doubtful accounts. (a) This account shall be credited with amounts charged...

  19. 32 CFR 534.3 - Allowable expenses for witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each day's attendance and for the time necessarily occupied in going to and returning from the same... going to and returning from the place of attendance. In lieu of the mileage allowance provided for... continental United States, will be entitled to the actual expenses of travel at the lowest first-class...

  20. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control during the assembly of an pressure water reactor containment: 1.) Fundamental principles of the quality control: short explanation to the specification and job instruction. 2.) Quality control during the assembly: welding control, non destructive material test. 3.) Quality deviations: explanation of an repair-plan. 4.) Documentation: join together the workshop- and site documentation. (orig.)

  1. An advanced algorithm for construction of Integral Transport Matrix Method operators using accumulation of single cell coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Transport Matrix Method (ITMM) has been shown to be an effective method for solving the neutron transport equation in large domains on massively parallel architectures. In the limit of very large number of processors, the speed of the algorithm, and its suitability for unstructured meshes, i.e. other than an ordered Cartesian grid, is limited by the construction of four matrix operators required for obtaining the solution in each sub-domain. The existing algorithm used for construction of these matrix operators, termed the differential mesh sweep, is computationally expensive and was developed for a structured grid. This work proposes the use of a new algorithm for construction of these operators based on the construction of a single, fundamental matrix representing the transport of a particle along every possible path throughout the sub-domain mesh. Each of the operators is constructed by multiplying an element of this fundamental matrix by two factors dependent only upon the operator being constructed and on properties of the emitting and incident cells. The ITMM matrix operator construction time for the new algorithm is demonstrated to be shorter than the existing algorithm in all tested cases with both isotropic and anisotropic scattering considered. While also being a more efficient algorithm on a structured Cartesian grid, the new algorithm is promising in its geometric robustness and potential for being applied to an unstructured mesh, with the ultimate goal of application to an unstructured tetrahedral mesh on a massively parallel architecture. (authors)

  2. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... of the Secretary Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and... Defense has determined that the obligation and expenditure of Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) funds for... further determined that these cooperative threat reduction activities will be completed within a...

  3. Construction of a multi-vender fieldbus system for PC-based control using soft PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Park, Y. J.; Choi, J. M.; Park, J. S. [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The relationship between the IEC 61131-3 programming language and the fieldbus application that became necessary as an outcome of the recent automation technology was described.An educational text for the field users on the integration of the Input/Output (I/O) modules and on the IEC 61131-3 programming language was prepared. An attempt was made to include description of the various kind of the fieldbuses and promote understanding of the CAN and the AS-I bus using a practical approach. The profibus is most widely used in the world, and thus is an important and a standardized tool in the area of the process control. A method of integrating the profibus with the most commonly used I/O modules in the field was suggested. The most essential characteristics of the IEC 61131-3 programming language was also described. A method for the construction of the multi-vender I/O modules by the Soft PLC 4C of the softings was suggested. Various technical steps are necessary for the integration of the I/O modules by the soft PLC. An additional software is needed for the more intelligent devises possessing complex technical functions, such as the control valve, the AC driver among others. The 4C control by the softing which is an important industrial solution for the soft PLC was specifically designed for the profibus. So, an OPC server is needed to exchange between the other fieldbuses while the optimum performance is only achieved by using the profibus card by softing. This implies that the business aspect has played a major role for developing the profibus by softing and the domestic users need to pay careful attention to this point additional software tools, such as the PDM or the comuwinn II, are necessary in the process control area to operate a complex and instruments using the DP/PA segment coupler. 13 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  4. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  5. Constructing Phenetic and Phylogenetic Relationship Using Clad'97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estri Laras Arumningtyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship construction has a very important position in classification process for arranging taxonomy of organism. In the world of taxonomy, there are two the most familiar relationship diagram, cladogram and phenogram. In every construction activity, a researcher is always facing character state data from taxa that becomes components of the diagram. Calculation that is used for construction is often incorporate iterative or repetitive process that needs time and precision. The existence of calculating tools that produces both text and graphical output are hopefully decrease time and error during construction. Basic algorithm that is used in calculation is for phylogenetic construction by Kluge and Farris in 1969,for phenetic construction using cluster analysis with slight modification. Basic common algorithm used in the software is by calculating two dimensional arrays of taxa x characters matrix and creating distance or similarity matrix. In more detail the program creates one dimensional array of taxonomical object and each object has some other one dimensional array containing data commonly exist in a taxonomic unit. The relationship between one object and theother are regulated by an object that created by class representing taxonomic tree. Cladogram is constructed by calculating nearest distance between each taxon (OTU and creating one HTU in every bifurcation. Phenogram is constructed agglomeratively by searching highest similarity between taxon then grouped into new taxon. Program calculates numerical data after we do character scoring. Final result for each user may be different; this may be due to decision by user during construction process. This paper hopefully attracts people from systematic computation to develop further into open source software and multi-platform feature.

  6. Methodology for the Construction of a Rule-Based Knowledge Base Enabling the Selection of Appropriate Bronze Heat Treatment Parameters Using Rough Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Górny Z.; Kluska-Nawarecka S.; Wilk-Kołodziejczyk D.; Regulski K.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions regarding appropriate methods for the heat treatment of bronzes affect the final properties obtained in these materials. This study gives an example of the construction of a knowledge base with application of the rough set theory. Using relevant inference mechanisms, knowledge stored in the rule-based database allows the selection of appropriate heat treatment parameters to achieve the required properties of bronze. The paper presents the methodology and the results of exploratory r...

  7. Determination of allowable fluid temperature during start-up operation of outlet header under the assumption of constant and temperature-dependent material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.

  8. MGMT testing allows for personalised therapy in the temozolomide era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullea, A; Marignol, L

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemoradiation is the standard of care for most glioblastoma patients (GBMs); however, a large proportion of these patients do not respond to TMZ. Silencing of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is thought to induce chemosensitivity, and testing for methylation may allow for patient stratification; however, this has yet to become routine clinical practice despite an abundance of literature on the subject. The databases PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Science Direct and Medline were searched for relevant articles published between 1999 and 2015. Articles utilising MGMT testing in glioblastomas, and treatment of glioblastomas with temozolomide were assessed. Immunohistochemistry, methylation-specific PCR (MSP), reverse transcriptase PCR, pyrosequencing and bisulphite sequencing were the main testing methods identified. Nested-MSP techniques produced poor correlation with survival, whilst bisulphite sequencing showed no evident benefit over MSP. Testing is limited by sample quality and contamination; however, efforts are made to minimise this. Strong evidence for MGMT-based personalised therapy was presented in the elderly but remains controversial in the entire GBM population. MGMT testing presents many obstacles yet to be overcome, and these warrant attention prior to the routine implementation of MGMT testing to aid decision making in GBMs. However, there is evidence to support its use, particularly in the elderly. PMID:26518768

  9. Construction of small plasmid vectors for use in genetic improvement of the extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianzhou; Wang, Huiyan; Liu, Xiangmei; Lin, Jianqun; Pang, Xin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2013-10-01

    The genetic improvement of biomining bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus could facilitate the bioleaching process of sulfur-containing minerals. However, the available vectors for use in A. caldus are very scanty and limited to relatively large broad-host-range IncQ plasmids. In this study, a set of small, mobilizable plasmid vectors (pBBR1MCS-6, pMSD1 and pMSD2) were constructed based on plasmid pBBR1MCS-2, which does not belong to the IncQ, IncW, or IncP groups. The function of the tac promoter on 5.8-kb pMSD2 was determined by inserting a kanamycin-resistant reporter gene. The resulting recombinant pMSD2-Km was successfully transferred by conjugation into A. caldus MTH-04 with transfer frequency of 1.38±0.64×10(-5). The stability and plasmid copy number of pMSD2-Km in A. caldus MTH-04 were 75±2.7% and 5-6 copies per cell, respectively. By inserting an arsABC operon into pMSD2, an arsenic-resistant recombinant pMSD2-As was constructed and transferred into A. caldus MTH-04 by conjugation. The arsenic tolerance of A. caldus MTH-04 containing pMSD2-As was obviously increased up to 45mM of NaAsO2. These vectors could be applied in genetic improvement of A. caldus as well as other bioleaching bacteria. PMID:23639949

  10. Construction of a versatile SNP array for pyramiding useful genes of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Yusuke; Noda, Tomonori; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn; Sunohara, Hidehiko; Uehara, Kanako; Furuta, Tomoyuki; Nagai, Keisuke; Jena, Kshirod Kumar; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Doi, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    DNA marker-assisted selection (MAS) has become an indispensable component of breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are the most frequent polymorphism in the rice genome. However, SNP markers are not readily employed in MAS because of limitations in genotyping platforms. Here the authors report a Golden Gate SNP array that targets specific genes controlling yield-related traits and biotic stress resistance in rice. As a first step, the SNP genotypes were surveyed in 31 parental varieties using the Affymetrix Rice 44K SNP microarray. The haplotype information for 16 target genes was then converted to the Golden Gate platform with 143-plex markers. Haplotypes for the 14 useful allele are unique and can discriminate among all other varieties. The genotyping consistency between the Affymetrix microarray and the Golden Gate array was 92.8%, and the accuracy of the Golden Gate array was confirmed in 3 F2 segregating populations. The concept of the haplotype-based selection by using the constructed SNP array was proofed. PMID:26566831

  11. Can Naturoptics, Inc. Provide Self-funding Mentored Awards for Students, Research, Athletics, Schools, and Minority use of Natural Medicine Protocols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Thomas; McLeod, Roger David

    2008-05-01

    Naturoptics, Inc. is issuing awards nurturing causes that its late officer and board member David Matthew Mc Leod had actively participated in until his death. The patented property ``Naturopathic method for recovery of healthy vision'' has been directed entirely toward activities indicated, with all proceeds currently going to awardees and academic entities for stated purposes. The process includes mentoring and teaching awardees their impaired vision can be quickly reversed by reengaging self-repairing feedback control features that visual abuse had thwarted. Various percentages are allotted to different stages of mentored student progression; remainders will initially be directed to mutually agreed academic entities' needs, with scholarship funding a top priority. Some activity involving research into natural tornado and earthquake events is hoped for, along with foundational questions in physics. Present board members hope that benefit to participating institutions and individuals can be brought to levels over 100,000 per year; hoped-for final benefits being allowed to proceed to at least ten times that. The process/method competes with billion dollar a year industries.

  12. Analysis of Communication Patterns During Construction Production Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Somik

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry ranks high in the number of occupational incidents due to the complex and interdependent nature of the tasks. However, construction firms using lean construction have reported better safety performance than the rest. The situation reflects the limitation of traditional planning methods used in construction firms focusing on project level planning, at the expense of production level planning. Lean construction involves participants in the formal production planning pr...

  13. Construction and characterization in vitro of a bicistronic retroviral vector coding endostatin and interleukin-2 for use in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene therapy has been used in preclinical studies and clinical trials in order to alleviate or cure a disease. Retroviral vectors are a tool for gene transfer is widely used. Bicistronic vectors are an attractive alternative for treatment of complex diseases. A variety of options exists to simultaneously express two genes in genetically modified cells. The most common approach relies on bicistronic vectors in which the genes are linked to each other by an internal ribosome entry site allowing co-translational expression of both cistrons. Endostatin, the C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. At present, ES has been widely used in anti-angiogenic in a variety of experimental tumor models, and clinical trials to test it as an anti-tumor agent are already under way. Immunotherapy has been used as adjuvant treatment for tumors and has been used in several preclinical studies and clinical trials. The objective of this project was to construct and characterize 'in vitro' an IRES-based bicistronic retroviral vector encoding endostatin and interleukin-2. The construction of the vector was performed in three stages, the final construction was analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. Packaging cells were prepared. The endostatin and interleukin-2 levels were determined by Dot blot. Monocistronic and bicistronic mRNA expression were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Bicistronic vector showed high levels of virus trites, ranging from 4.20x105 to 1.53x106UFC/ml. Secreted levels of endostatin and interleukin-2 ranged from 1.08 to 2.08μg/106cells.24h and 0.66 - 0.89μg/106cells.24h, respectively. The mRNA expression of ES in the NIH3T3 clone pLend-IRES-IL2SN was 2 times higher than the level presented by the NIH3T3 clone pLendSN. The endostatin promoted inhibition (40%) of endothelial cell proliferation. Interleukin-2 promoted a proliferation of 10.6% lymphocytes CD4 and 8.9% of CD8. We conclude that the IRES bicistronic vector provides a

  14. Classification of EEG signals using a greedy algorithm for constructing a committee of weak classifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greedy algorithm has been proposed for the construction of a committee of weak EEG classifiers, which work in the simplest one-dimensional feature spaces. It has been shown that the accuracy of classification by the committee is several times higher than the accuracy of the best weak classifier

  15. Selected Methods for Locking Screw Joints, Including the Use of Adhesives, Used in the Helicopter Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Anna; Cisz, Sławomir; Warda, Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the problems of preventing screw joints from self-loosening on one of helicopter. The research examines selected locking methods used in aircraft produced by different manufacturers. Experimental tests were performed to investigate the loosening torque of screw joints locked by various devices: cotter pin, locknut, centre punching, self-locking nut and adhesive. A comparative analysis of the investigated locking methods is made with respect to their locking strength and efficiency.

  16. Patentometrics As Performance Indicators for Allocating Research Funding to Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    This paper is part of a preliminary investigation of potential indicators on the performance of universities and other public research institutions to be used for allocating general and other research funding. The paper will describe and discuss potential patentometrics and how they can be used in...... different types of analyses and evaluations in general and relating to universities and other public research institutions. Further, the relevance and possibility of including some patentometrics in the allocation of research funding is discussed. Also, other metrics regarding academic linkages with...

  17. Use of limited data to construct Bayesian networks for probabilistic risk assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina M.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2013-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a fundamental part of safety/quality assurance for nuclear power and nuclear weapons. Traditional PRA very effectively models complex hardware system risks using binary probabilistic models. However, traditional PRA models are not flexible enough to accommodate non-binary soft-causal factors, such as digital instrumentation&control, passive components, aging, common cause failure, and human errors. Bayesian Networks offer the opportunity to incorporate these risks into the PRA framework. This report describes the results of an early career LDRD project titled %E2%80%9CUse of Limited Data to Construct Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Risk Assessment%E2%80%9D. The goal of the work was to establish the capability to develop Bayesian Networks from sparse data, and to demonstrate this capability by producing a data-informed Bayesian Network for use in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) as part of nuclear power plant Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This report summarizes the research goal and major products of the research.

  18. The use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Matějovský, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis deals with the possibility of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Wetlands for wastewater treatment are a good alternative for treating waste water from small sources of pollution. The Bachelor Thesis consists of four parts. The first part describes constructed wetlands and wastewater treatment in KČOV (wetland for wastewater treatment) according to studies of scientific publications. The second part characterizes the plants suitable for planting roots in wastewater treatm...

  19. Evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections is estimated by evaluation procedure for straight pipe, the applicability of this procedure has not been clear. That was discussed in this study. The buckling pressure of branch pipe connections was estimated by linear eigenvalue analysis with FEA (Finite Element Analysis). The types of branch pipe connections were T-joints and T-pipes. The ranges of configurations in branch pipe connections for FEA were determined by survey of branch pipe connections in the Japanese nuclear power plants. The results of the FEA showed that the buckling strength of branch pipe was found sufficiently to be superior to that of straight piping from comparisons of estimations by FEA for branch pipe connections and those by formula for straight pipe in the design code. It was concluded that the formula for straight pipe is applicable for the evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections. (author)

  20. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  1. Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection Web site is a searchable database of financial assistance sources (grants, loans) available to fund a...

  2. EVALUATION OF THERMAL INSULATION FOR THREE DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION OF EXTERNAL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summers increasingly hot are bringing large thermal problems within homes and businesses, leading to increased demand for installation of air conditioners and the consequent high energy consumption. Constructions with thermal insulation on its external walls thatcould reduce energy use or even supply the use of such equipment. Due to these factors the present study was to evaluate the insulation in three boxes built with different materials, one made of wooden boards with plain walls, and two built with plywood, wall insulation andinterior walls filled with rice husk and Styrofoam®. The boxes were built after placed in drying oven at 40 °C, then noted the temperature inside the same interval every five minutes using a digital thermometer. The box with inner Styrofoam® showed the lowest variation among the three evaluated, followed by the box of rice husk. These two materials also showed good thermal initial, unlike the box built only with wood, which showed a large interiorheating, lay in a drying oven.

  3. Guidance manual for constructed wetlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John Bryan; Shutes, R. Brian E.; Revitt, D. Mike

    2003-01-01

    This Guidance Manual was produced to provide up to date information on the design, costs, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands used for the treatment of highway runoff. Information is provided on the different types of wetlands and their mode of operation, the design and planting of a wetland system and the retrofitting of treatment structures, the performance and costs of wetlands and their operation and maintenance requirements. The benefits of wetlands in encoura...

  4. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanda Chuersuwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 , nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2 fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF and free water surface flow (FWS CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p<0.05 while pollutant removal efficiencies of both CWs were not significantly different. The average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes from SF-CWs were 2.9±3.5, 1.0±1.7, and 15.2±12.3 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, corresponding to the average global warming potential (GWP of 392 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. For FWS-CWs, the average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes were 5.9±4.8, 1.8±1.0, and 29.6±20.2 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, having an average GWP of 698 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. Thus, FWS-CWs have a higher GWP than SF-CWs when they were used as a system for domestic water improvement.

  5. Consistent empirical physical formula construction for recoil energy distribution in HPGe detectors using artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray tracking technique is one of the highly efficient detection method in experimental nuclear structure physics. On the basis of this method, two gamma-ray tracking arrays, AGATA in Europe and GRETA in the USA, are currently being developed. The interactions of neutrons in these detectors lead to an unwanted background in the gamma-ray spectra. Thus, the interaction points of neutrons in these detectors have to be determined in the gamma-ray tracking process in order to improve photo-peak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios of the gamma-ray peaks. Therefore, the recoil energy distributions of germanium nuclei due to inelastic scatterings of 1-5 MeV neutrons were obtained both experimentally and using artificial neural networks. Also, for highly nonlinear detector response for recoiling germanium nuclei, we have constructed consistent empirical physical formulas (EPFs) by appropriate layered feed-forward neural networks (LFNNs). These LFNN-EPFs can be used to derive further physical functions whic...

  6. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B - Allowable Uses of IRR Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and project development activities associated with border crossings on or affecting tribal lands. 25... transportation system hardware, etc. 47. Tribal, cultural, historical, and natural resource monitoring.... Cultural access roads. 65. Other eligible items as approved by the Federal Highway Administration...

  7. The utility of intensified environmental surveillance for pathogenic moulds in a stem cell transplantation ward during construction work to monitor the efficacy of HEPA filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihtinen, A; Anttila, V-J; Richardson, M; Meri, T; Volin, L; Ruutu, T

    2007-09-01

    A 12-week environmental study was performed to ensure that the patient rooms of an SCT ward with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration remained uncontaminated by moulds during close-by construction work. The sampling included measuring the ventilation channel pressure, particle count measurements, air sampling, settled dust analysis and fungal cultures from the oral and nasal cavities of the patients. No changes in the air pressure occurred. Median particle counts in patient rooms were 63-420 particles/l. The mean particle count of the outside air was 173,659 particles/l. Patient room air samples were negative for aspergilli in 32 of 33 cases. All samples of the outside air were positive for moulds. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at the beginning of excavation works at the construction area and in two of 33 dust samples from patient rooms. All 70 nasal samples were negative. Of 35 mouth samples, one sample was positive for A. niger in a patient with a previously diagnosed aspergillus infection. During a median follow-up of 214 days, no invasive aspergillus infections were diagnosed in the 55 patients treated during the construction period. In conclusion, the HEPA filters seemed to have performed well in preventing an aspergillosis outbreak. PMID:17589532

  8. Construction of a controlled-release delivery system for pesticides using biodegradable PLA-based microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoxia; Wang, Yan; Yang, Fei; Wang, Xing; Shen, Hong; Cui, Haixin; Wu, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    Conventional pesticides usually need to be used in more than recommended dosages due to their loss and degradation, which results in a large waste of resources and serious environmental pollution. Encapsulation of pesticides in biodegradable carriers is a feasible approach to develop environment-friendly and efficient controlled-release delivery system. In this work, we fabricated three kinds of polylactic acid (PLA) carriers including microspheres, microcapsules, and porous microcapsules for controlled delivery of Lambda-Cyhalothrin (LC) via premix membrane emulsification (PME). The microcapsule delivery system had better water dispersion than the other two systems. Various microcapsules with a high LC contents as much as 40% and tunable sizes from 0.68 to 4.6μm were constructed by manipulating the process parameters. Compared with LC technical and commercial microcapsule formulation, the microcapsule systems showed a significantly sustained release of LC for a longer period. The LC release triggered by LC diffusion and matrix degradation could be optimally regulated by tuning LC contents and particle sizes of the microcapsules. This multi-regulated release capability is of great significance to achieve the precisely controlled release of pesticides. A preliminary bioassay against plutella xylostella revealed that 0.68μm LC-loaded microcapsules with good UV and thermal stability exhibited an activity similar to a commercial microcapsule formulation. These results demonstrated such an aqueous microcapsule delivery system had a great potential to be further explored for developing an effective and environmentally friendly pesticide-release formulation. PMID:27062215

  9. Development of Innovative Construction Technologies for ABWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an effort by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) to shorten the construction time in a drastic manner for the Advanced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWR), thereby aiming at reducing construction costs. First an outline of the actual construction records for the five BWR Units and the two ABWR Units at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa site is introduced along with the construction methods employed for these units. There is a continued trend in the reduction of construction time from Unit 1 to 7 owing to a number of improvements made to these units, and in particular it is noteworthy that the drastic reduction was accomplished due to the change in reactor type from BWR to ABWR. Explained next is an on-going effort for the next ABWR and the following next generation of ABWRs to further shorten construction time. In this effort an emphasis is laid on the development of innovative construction methods by the adoption of steel plate/concrete composite structures (SC Structure), and the application of those structures even to containment vessel (so-called SCCV). This work is being conducted as part of TEPCO's research and development for the next generation ABWRs (ABWR II). Presently it is expected that the construction time from bedrock inspection to fuel loading could be shortened in a stepwise fashion to 38 and 31.5 months for the next ABWR and finally to 23 months for the next generation ABWR II, thus enabling a greatly reduced power generating cost and enhanced safety during construction. In addition to the above effort, a preliminary study has been performed concerning the application of base isolation systems to ABWR plants. From this study which is aimed at standardization, lowered cost and mitigation of engineering work, it was found that base isolation system effectively reduces seismic response and is instrumental in achieving the above-mentioned objectives. Therefore it can be said that the use of this system gives more freedom in selecting sites

  10. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for bound-bound transitions in Fe XV is presented. The allowed electric dipole (E1) transitions were obtained from the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method which is based on the close coupling approximation. A total of 507 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 0 ≤ J ≤ 10 are found. They agree within 1% with the available observed energies. These energy levels yield a total of 27,812 E1, same-spin multiplets and intercombination transitions. The A values are in good agreement with those compiled by NIST and other existing values for most transitions. Forbidden transitions are obtained from a set of 20 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 5f using the relativistic code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS) in the Breit-Pauli approximation. From a set of 123 fine structure levels, a total of 6962 S and A values are presented for forbidden electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions. The energies from SS calculations agree with observed energies to within 1-3%. A values for E2, M1 transitions agree very well with the available values for most transitions while those for M2 transitions show variable agreement. The large set of transition parameters presented should be applicable for both diagnostics and spectral modeling in the X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical regions of astrophysical plasmas.

  11. Design and Construction of Power System for Induction Heating (IH) Cooker Using Resonant Converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction Heating (IH) systems using electromagnetic induction are developed in many industrial applications in Myanmar. Many industries have benefited from this new breakthrough by implementing induction heating for melting, hardening, and heating. Induction heating cooker is based on high frequency induction heating,electrical and electronic technologies. From the electronic point of view, induction heating cooker is composed of four parts.They are rectifier, filter, high frequency inverter, and resonant load. The purpose of this research is mainly objected to developed an induction heating cooker. The rectifier module is considered as full-bridge rectifier. The second protion of the system is a capacitive filter. The ripple components are minimized by this filter. The third is a high frequency converter to convert the constant DC to high frequency AC by switching the devices alternately. In this research, the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) will be used as a power source, and can be driven by the pulse signals from the pulse transformer circuit. In the resonant load, the power consumption is about 500W. Construction and testing has been carried out. The merits of this research work is that IH cooker can be developed because of having less energy consumption, safe, efficient, quick heating, and having efficiency of 90% or more

  12. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Sukanda Chuersuwan; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Nares Chuersuwan

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs) used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF) and free water surface flow (FWS) CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p

  13. Mechanical resistance properties of gravel used in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: implications for clogging

    OpenAIRE

    Pedescoll Albacar, Anna; Passos, Fabiana Lopes del Rei; Alba, Elisenda; García Serrano, Joan; Puigagut Juárez, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Gravel constitutes the filter medium in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) and its porosity and hydraulic conductivity decrease over time (clogging), limiting the lifespan of the systems. Using gravel of poor quality accelerates clogging in wetlands. In this study, gravel samples from six different wetland systems were compared with regards to their mineral composition and mechanical resistance properties. Results showed that both mineralogy and texture are related to mechanica...

  14. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.20 Section 82.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production...

  15. 40 CFR 82.9 - Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of production allowances in addition to baseline production allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.9 Section 82.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production...

  16. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.10 Section 82.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production...

  17. The utilization of a suture bridge construct for tibiofibular instability during transtibial amputation without distal bridge synostosis creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Louis R; Tintle, Scott M; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Potter, Benjamin K

    2013-10-01

    Symptomatic distal tibiofibular instability is a known complication of trauma-related transtibial amputations. Overt proximal tibiofibular dislocations, which are easily recognized on routine radiographs, may occur concurrently with the traumatic injury or amputation. More commonly, however, the proximal tibiofibular joint remains structurally intact in the presence of distal instability due to the loss of the distal syndesmotic structures and damage to the interosseous membrane, resulting in fibular angulation and distal tibiofibular diastasis. Some authors have espoused treating this instability with the creation of a distal tibiofibular bridge synostosis (the so-called Ertl procedure or modifications there of) to prevent potentially painful discordant motion and to minimize the prominence of the residual distal fibula. Recent studies, however, have suggested an increase in complication and reoperation rates in transtibial amputations that received a bridge synostosis compared with standard transtibial amputations. Additionally, although there are several described techniques for bridge synostosis creation, most are dependent on having sufficient remaining fibula to construct the bone bridge without unnecessary shortening of the tibia; however, sufficient residual fibula is not always available after traumatic and trauma-related amputations. We propose a technique utilizing a suture bridge to restore tibiofibular stability when performing transtibial amputations in patients with proximal tibiofibular dislocations or distal diastasis, avoiding the potential need for a distal bridge synostosis. PMID:23429174

  18. A lattice vibrational model using vibrational density of states for constructing thermodynamic databases (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M. H.; Van Den Berg, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Thermodynamic databases are indispensable tools in materials science and mineral physics to derive thermodynamic properties in regions of pressure-temperature-composition space for which experimental data are not available or scant. Because the amount of phases and substances in a database is arbitrarily large, thermodynamic formalisms coupled to these databases are often kept as simple as possible to sustain computational efficiency. Although formalisms based on parameterizations of 1 bar thermodynamic data, commonly used in Calphad methodology, meet this requirement, physically unrealistic behavior in properties hamper the application in the pressure regime prevailing in the Earth's lower mantle. The application becomes especially cumbersome when they are applied to planetary mantles of massive super earth exoplanets or in the development of pressure scales, where Hugoniot data at extreme conditions are involved. Methods based on the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye formalism have the advantage that physically unrealistic behavior in thermodynamic properties is absent, but due to the simple construction of the vibrational density of states (VDoS), they lack engineering precision in the low-pressure regime, especially at 1 bar pressure, hampering application of databases incorporating such formalism to industrial processes. To obtain a method that is generally applicable in the complete stability range of a material, we developed a method based on an alternative use of Kieffer's lattice vibrational formalism. The method requires experimental data to constrain the model parameters and is therefore semi-empirical. It has the advantage that microscopic properties for substances, such as the VDoS, Grüneisen parameters and electronic and static lattice properties resulting from present-day ab-initio methods can be incorporated to constrain a thermodynamic analysis of experimental data. It produces results free from physically unrealistic behavior at high pressure and temperature

  19. Gambling for Dollars: Strategic Hedge Fund Manager Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Dan; Nosal, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Hedge fund managers differ in ability and investors want to distinguish good ones from bad. Via the design of their investment strategies, better fund managers want to ease this inference problem while worse fund managers want to complicate it. We impose only the minimal restrictions on the nature the investment strategies that, on average, returns reflect the hedge fund manager's ability and that returns be bounded from below, and solve for the set of equilibria that emerge. We then show tha...

  20. Construction and use of recombinant Escherichia coli strains for the synthesis of toluene cis-glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, L P; Gokhale, D; Minter, S; Stephens, G M

    1996-09-01

    The toluene dioxygenase genes derived from Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 11767 were subcloned from a previously constructed recombinant plasmid, pIG, using pUC18 as the cloning vector and E. coli TG2 as the host strain. The resulting strain, E. coli TG2 (p1/1), produced toluene cis-glycol when grown in LB broth or minimal medium in the presence of toluene. Restriction mapping and partial DNA sequencing provided evidence for the presence of ORFs with extensive homology to parts of the tod operon from P. putida F1. The clones exhibited some residual toluene cis-glycol dehydrogenase activity which resulted in the formation of small amounts of 3-methylcatechol. Expression of the dioxygenase was induced by toluene, but was not directed by the lac promoter within the cloning vector. The clones were assessed for toluene cis-glycol production in pH-controlled batch cultures, and the maximum product concentration obtained was 1.02 g l-1. Product formation was dependent upon the presence of glucose in the culture medium. Although the substrate was toxic, the biotransformation was apparently limited by the supply of toluene. The results suggest that it should be possible to improve toluene cis-glycol production by recombinants substantially by improving both the strain and fermentation process. PMID:8987488

  1. Managing risks during the construction of a power generation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a power generation facility is a substantial undertaking that involves considerable risks to all parties involved. While contractors are accustomed to dealing with risks, construction owners are typically more naive about not only the risks they are assuming in the construction of a project, but also about the role they play on the project itself. Owners and developers of power facilities must understand at the outset that their role during the construction of a project is as integral to the success of the project as that of the designer and contractor. In addition, owners should also understand that there are virtually no risks on a construction project that cannot be shifted among the contracting parties as part of the business deal. Consequently, an owner may contractually be assuming the risks of (1) unusually severe weather, (2) unexpected subsurface conditions, (3) strikes at the turbine supplier's plant or (4) changes in law - as well as the increases in price and delays to project completion associated with such risks. In light of this, a prudent owner will evaluate more than just whether there is sufficient financing to complete the construction of a contemplated project. Prudent owners will conduct a risk management review of the project structure and the contracting terms, with the primary focus being (1) the identification and analysis of the most significant risks faced, (2) a determination of how such risks can be either mitigated or eliminated, and (3) the assessment of the financial exposure to the owner should the potential risk become a reality. This paper will present the framework that owners and developers of power generation projects can use in undertaking such a risk management review

  2. Characterisation of MSWI bottom ash for potential use as subbase in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The waste management situation in Greenland needs to be improved. Most waste in towns is incinerated with only limited separation prior to incineration and the bottom ash residue is disposed of at uncontrolled disposal sites. The bottom ash could be a valuable resource within the expansion of...... infrastructure due to increased oil and mineral exploitation. Thus, in this study MSWI bottom ash from a Greenlandic incinerator was tested for possible reuse as subbase in road construction. The mechanical properties (grain size distribution, wear resistance and bearing capacity) showed that the bottom ash was...... acceptable for reuse after some small adjustments in the grain size distribution to prevent frost sensitivity. Results obtained from heavy metal content and heavy metal leaching complied with the Danish guideline values for reuse of waste materials in construction. Leaching of Cu and Cr was high from small...

  3. Sustainable funding for biocuration: The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as a case study of a subscription-based funding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Leonore; Berardini, Tanya Z; Li, Donghui; Muller, Robert; Strait, Emily M; Li, Qian; Mezheritsky, Yarik; Vetushko, Andrey; Huala, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Databases and data repositories provide essential functions for the research community by integrating, curating, archiving and otherwise packaging data to facilitate discovery and reuse. Despite their importance, funding for maintenance of these resources is increasingly hard to obtain. Fueled by a desire to find long term, sustainable solutions to database funding, staff from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), founded the nonprofit organization, Phoenix Bioinformatics, using TAIR as a test case for user-based funding. Subscription-based funding has been proposed as an alternative to grant funding but its application has been very limited within the nonprofit sector. Our testing of this model indicates that it is a viable option, at least for some databases, and that it is possible to strike a balance that maximizes access while still incentivizing subscriptions. One year after transitioning to subscription support, TAIR is self-sustaining and Phoenix is poised to expand and support additional resources that wish to incorporate user-based funding strategies. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org. PMID:26989150

  4. 45 CFR 309.150 - What start-up costs are allowable for Tribal IV-D programs carried out under § 309.65(b) of this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What start-up costs are allowable for Tribal IV-D... ENFORCEMENT (IV-D) PROGRAM Tribal IV-D Program Funding § 309.150 What start-up costs are allowable for Tribal... $500,000, unless additional funding is provided pursuant to § 309.16(c). Allowable start-up costs...

  5. Measuring Instrument Constructs of Return Factors for Green Office Building Investments Variables Using Rasch Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Mona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary study on rationalising green office building investments in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is attempt to introduce the application of Rasch measurement model analysis to determine the validity and reliability of each construct in the questionnaire. In achieving this objective, a questionnaire survey was developed consists of 6 sections and a total of 106 responses were received from various investors who own and lease office buildings in Kuala Lumpur. The Rasch Measurement analysis is used to measure the quality control of item constructs in the instrument by measuring the specific objectivity within the same dimension, to reduce ambiguous measures, and a realistic estimation of precision and implicit quality. The Rasch analysis consists of the summary statistics, item unidimensionality and item measures. A result shows the items and respondent (person reliability is at 0.91 and 0.95 respectively.

  6. Comparative researches concerning cleaning chosen construction materials surface layer using UV and IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents comparative research studies of cleaning out of deposits and pollution disposals on different constructional materials like; steel, cast iron, aluminium, copper by using UV and IR laser radiation of wavelength λ =1.064 μm; λ = 0.532 μm; λ = 0.355 μm and λ = 0.266 μm and also impulse laser TEA CO2 at radiation λ = 10.6 μm were used for the experiments. Achieved experimental results gave us basic information on parameters and conditions and application of each used radiation wavelength. Each kind of pollution and base material should be individually treated, selecting the length of wave and radiation energy density. Laser microtreatment allows for broad cleaning application of the surface of constructional materials as well as may be used in future during manufacturing processes as: preparation of surface for PVD technology, galvanotechnics, cleaning of the surface of machine parts etc. (author)

  7. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Mačková, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  8. Study for relaxation of seismic allowable criteria of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, details of the seismic design methods of the nuclear power plants are based upon the 'Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants (JEAG-4601)' established in 1984. For piping systems, because the evaluation methods of the current guideline have large margins against the fracture limit based on the elasto-plastic behavior, it is essential to make the methods more rational and practical in the confirmation of aseismic reliability of piping. Therefore, Japanese utilities and manufacturers have started experimental and theoretical evaluations as a joint study, in order to clarify the margins of the current seismic design code for piping, and to develop new allowable criteria. On the other hand, in the US, in 1994, ASME drew up the new criteria of allowable stresses based on the elasto-plastic behavior of piping, and the discussions about the criteria are still kept on with NRC. In the joint study, it was confirmed through piping material and piping element tests that damage on piping by an earthquake turned out to be low-cycle fatigue involving ratcheting and that the damage limits were sufficiently higher than the present. This report will discuss the concept of relaxation of allowable stresses for piping and present a test program of the joint study. (author)

  9. Constructing 3D microtubule networks using holographic optical trapping

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, J.; Osunbayo, O.; Vershinin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to assemble nanoscale structures is a major scientific and engineering challenge. We report a technique which allows precise positioning and manipulation of individual rigid filaments, enabling construction of custom-designed 3D filament networks. This approach uses holographic optical trapping (HOT) for nano-positioning and microtubules (MTs) as network building blocks. MTs are desirable engineering components due to their high aspect ratio, rigidity, and their ability t...

  10. A Proposed Collaborative Framework for Prefabricated Housing Construction Using RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnwasununth, Phatsaphan; Yabuki, Nobuyoshi; Tongthong, Tanit

    Despite the popularity of prefabricated housing construction in Thailand and many other countries, due to the lack of collaboration in current practice, undesired low productivity and a number of mistakes are identified. This research proposes a framework to raise the collaborative level for improving productivity and reducing mistake occurrences at sites. In this framework, RFID system bridges the gap between the real situation and the design, and the proposed system can cope with the unexpected construction conditions by generating proper alternatives. This system is composed of PDAs, RFID readers, laptop PCs, and a desktop PC. Six main modules and a database system are implemented in laptop PCs for recording actual site conditions, generating working alternatives, providing related information, and evaluating the work.

  11. Construction of the Jacobian matrix for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2012-03-01

    Image formation in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography is critically dependent on construction of the Jacobian matrix. For clinical and preclinical applications, because of the highly heterogeneous characteristics of the medium, Monte Carlo methods are frequently adopted to construct the Jacobian. Conventional adjoint Monte Carlo method typically compute the Jacobian by multiplying the photon density fields radiated from the source at the excitation wavelength and from the detector at the emission wavelength. Nonetheless, this approach assumes that the source and the detector in Green's function are reciprocal, which is invalid in general. This assumption is particularly questionable in small animal imaging, where the mean free path length of photons is typically only one order of magnitude smaller than the representative dimension of the medium. We propose a new method that does not rely on the reciprocity of the source and the detector by tracing photon propagation entirely from the source to the detector. This method relies on the perturbation Monte Carlo theory to account for the differences in optical properties of the medium at the excitation and the emission wavelengths. Compared to the adjoint methods, the proposed method is more valid in reflecting the physical process of photon transport in diffusive media and is more efficient in constructing the Jacobian matrix for densely sampled configurations.

  12. Research of Medication Use during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Websites About Us Medications and Pregnancy Pregnancy Research Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Pregnant woman ... when taken during pregnancy. Centers for Birth Defects Research and Prevention Studies CDC funds the Centers for ...

  13. Construction Project Forecasting "Practical Use of EV Metrics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda Abbas Sabry

    2014-01-01

    During this professional research--Construction Project Forecasting (Practical Use of EV Metrics), which criticize earned value management as a most distinguished methodology for forecasting the project expected end dates and expecting budget at completion, the field for the research is construction field and specially the projects which content different phases without repetitive tasks. Forecasting for construction project is a complicated process need more than applying one equation only. As assuming that, project performance during finishing stage will be similar to project performance during concrete stage is totally wrong. The case study techniques have been used to prove an important idea and also to implement a suggested protocol which actually implemented and tested and it should be considered as a research finding. The project used in this case study is "Hurgadah Intemational Airport--New Terminal Building", while executing this complex construction projects with different stages the forecasting for the project end date and final end budget were completely not realistic. The above leads to questioning the next: "Is it true that using the earned value indexes for forecasting construction projects end date and final budget is the right way? And if not, what is the right process that should be used in order to reach acceptable forecasting method?" We implement the EV measurements by the normal technique and also implement in the same month the suggested protocol for forecasting, comparing the results proof the effectiveness of the suggested protocol. The findings prove that, the construction projects need special treatment when use the EVM for forecasting. The earned value indexes created to serve the projects which have repeated tasks or can say which got one stage only, like information technology (IT) projects as those projects depending on manpower productivity and also based on few different qualifications. On such type of projects

  14. Nitrogen transformations and balance in constructed wetlands for slightly polluted river water treatment using different macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Wei, Rong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Cong; Xie, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen removal processing in different constructed wetlands treating different kinds of wastewater often varies, and the contribution to nitrogen removal by various pathways remains unclear. In this study, the seasonal nitrogen removal and transformations as well as nitrogen balance in wetland microcosms treating slightly polluted river water was investigated. The results showed that the average total nitrogen removal rates varied in different seasons. According to the mass balance approach, plant uptake removed 8.4-34.3 % of the total nitrogen input, while sediment storage and N(2)O emission contributed 20.5-34.4 % and 0.6-1.9 % of nitrogen removal, respectively. However, the percentage of other nitrogen loss such as N(2) emission due to nitrification and denitrification was estimated to be 2.0-23.5 %. The results indicated that plant uptake and sediment storage were the key factors limiting nitrogen removal besides microbial processes in surface constructed wetland for treating slightly polluted river water. PMID:22707115

  15. Construction for fissionable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations. (Auth.)

  16. Amendment to the Solomon Islands National Provident Fund Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    On 6 June 1988 the Solomon Islands National Provident Fund Act was amended to allow the Solomon Islands National Provident Fund Board to grant loans to members of the Fund. In November 1989 under authority of this amendment the Board implemented a housing scheme for members of the Fund. It instituted loans for the purchase of residential homes from property owners, the construction of residential houses, and the redemption of bank loans obtained for purchase or construction of residential houses. To qualify for the loan the applicant must be a permanent employee, be an active member of the Fund, and less than 50 years old, and the house sought to be purchased or built must be on registered land. PMID:12344585

  17. Preventing Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy Using a Seasonal Window of Opportunity for Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Micaela Elvira

    2016-07-01

    It has come to light that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can result in trans-placental transmission to the fetus along with fetal death, congenital microcephaly, and/or Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. There are projected to be >9,200,000 births annually in countries with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In response to the ZIKV threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) is strategically targeting prevention of infection in pregnant women and funding contraception in epidemic regions. I propose that the damaging effects of ZIKV can be reduced using a seasonal window of opportunity for conception that may minimize maternal exposure. Like other acute viral infections-including the related flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)-the transmission of ZIKV is anticipated to be seasonal. By seasonally planning pregnancy, this aspect of pathogen ecology can be leveraged to align sensitive periods of gestation with the low-transmission season. PMID:27467271

  18. Preventing Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy Using a Seasonal Window of Opportunity for Conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    It has come to light that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can result in trans-placental transmission to the fetus along with fetal death, congenital microcephaly, and/or Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. There are projected to be >9,200,000 births annually in countries with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In response to the ZIKV threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) is strategically targeting prevention of infection in pregnant women and funding contraception in epidemic regions. I propose that the damaging effects of ZIKV can be reduced using a seasonal window of opportunity for conception that may minimize maternal exposure. Like other acute viral infections—including the related flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)—the transmission of ZIKV is anticipated to be seasonal. By seasonally planning pregnancy, this aspect of pathogen ecology can be leveraged to align sensitive periods of gestation with the low-transmission season. PMID:27467271

  19. Brand Aid Funding for Educating Public Humanitarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    ambiguity? The evolving role of corporations and foundations in the Global Partnership for Education Francine Menashy (University of Massachussets) 5. Entrepreneurial Influence in Brazilian Education Policies: The Case of Todos Pela Educação Erika Moreira Martins and Nora Rut Krawczyk 6. Brand Aid Funding...... policymaking in EnglandHelen Gunter, University of Manchester and Collin Mills (University of Manchester) 9. Donors, Private Actors and Contracts: Recasting the Making and Ownership of Education Policy in Pakistan Shailaja Fennell and Rabea Malik 10. Teach for All, Public-Private Partnerships, and the Erosion...... Carolina Junemann 13. Unbundling the University and Making Higher Education Markets Susan Robertson and Janja Komljenovic 14. Education outside the public limelight: The ‘parallel universe’ of ICT certifiers Eva Hartmann 15. Questioning the Global Scaling-up of Low-fee Private Schooling: The Nexus between...

  20. Construction of a new GFP vector and its use for Fusaruim oxysporum transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhao, Baixia; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui; Huang, Xinyang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the gfp fragment as a reporter gene had integrated into the form plasmid vector pBC-hygro which contains an expressive promoter of the fungus to facilitate the transformation of Fusarium oxysporum. The resultant plasmid pBC-hygro-GFP was identified by digestion with enzymes. Binary plasmids pBC-hygro-GFP were transformed into F. oxysporum by using the PEG–CaCl2 mediated transformation technique. Results show that the recombinant plasmid pBC-hygro-GFP was constructed correctly. ...

  1. Predicting crack formation in solid concrete dams in severe climatic conditions during construction period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we attempt to create a mathematical temperature model of concreting in lifts, that depends on the various fundamental factors. The use of such a model will help to determine concrete composition (cement consumption and heat generation and the technological scheme of building solid concrete dams. As a result of the analysis of various factors influence on the temperature during a construction concreting, we obtained a mathematical model, allowing to determine the maximum temperature inside the concrete block body and temperature variations.

  2. Hybrid Wall Evaluation for Ten New Construction Homes in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachco, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the design and construction of 10 new houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for new construction at these homes.

  3. Hybrid Wall Evaluation for Ten New Construction Homes in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report details the design and construction of 10 new houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-lead consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for new construction at these homes.

  4. Towards a theory for diffusive coupling functions allowing persistent synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study synchronization properties of networks of coupled dynamical systems with interaction akin to diffusion. We assume that the isolated node dynamics possesses a forward invariant set on which it has a bounded Jacobian, then we characterize a class of coupling functions that allows for uniformly stable synchronization in connected complex networks—in the sense that there is an open neighbourhood of the initial conditions that is uniformly attracted towards synchronization. Moreover, this stable synchronization persists under perturbations to non-identical node dynamics. We illustrate the theory with numerical examples and conclude with a discussion on embedding these results in a more general framework of spectral dichotomies. (paper)

  5. Mechanisms of Funding for Universal Service Obligations: the Electricity Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition towards a more competitive regime in network industries (and specially in electricity sector) raises the relevant question of funding for the Universal Service Obligations (USOs). Our paper focuses on two ways of funding for universal service and equal treatment obligations (?Ubiquity and Non Discrimination constraints?): the funding through access charge (CS regime) or taxation (T regime). Using a network model including competition between an historical monopoly (in charge for the USOs) and an entrant, we obtain some results concerning gains and losses of social welfare due to those mechanisms. We show that most of the time it is socially better to let the historical monopoly be active whatever the type of funding for USOs applying, and whatever profitability of the firms is. However, when the entrant is active, we can highlight that the introduction of the T regime (compared to the CS one) implies either welfare deterioration or an entry prevention strategy by the historical firm. Therefore, the T regime could not be an argument for the regulator to promote vertical separation of the historical firm (according to the European community line). (authors)

  6. Mapping algorithm for freeform construction using non-ideal light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Michaelis, D.; Schreiber, P.; Dick, L.; Bräuer, A.

    2015-09-01

    Using conventional mapping algorithms for the construction of illumination freeform optics' arbitrary target pattern can be obtained for idealized sources, e.g. collimated light or point sources. Each freeform surface element generates an image point at the target and the light intensity of an image point is corresponding to the area of the freeform surface element who generates the image point. For sources with a pronounced extension and ray divergence, e.g. an LED with a small source-freeform-distance, the image points are blurred and the blurred patterns might be different between different points. Besides, due to Fresnel losses and vignetting, the relationship between light intensity of image points and area of freeform surface elements becomes complicated. These individual light distributions of each freeform element are taken into account in a mapping algorithm. To this end the method of steepest decent procedures are used to adapt the mapping goal. A structured target pattern for a optics system with an ideal source is computed applying corresponding linear optimization matrices. Special weighting factor and smoothing factor are included in the procedures to achieve certain edge conditions and to ensure the manufacturability of the freefrom surface. The corresponding linear optimization matrices, which are the lighting distribution patterns of each of the freeform surface elements, are gained by conventional raytracing with a realistic source. Nontrivial source geometries, like LED-irregularities due to bonding or source fine structures, and a complex ray divergence behavior can be easily considered. Additionally, Fresnel losses, vignetting and even stray light are taken into account. After optimization iterations, with a realistic source, the initial mapping goal can be achieved by the optics system providing a structured target pattern with an ideal source. The algorithm is applied to several design examples. A few simple tasks are presented to discussed

  7. Surface Analytical Observations During Construction and Initial Operation of TCSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankut, A.; Vlases, G. C.; Miller, K. E.; Ohuchi, F. S.

    2009-06-01

    To minimize radiation-loss effects, preparation and in-situ conditioning of plasma-facing surfaces in the Translation Confinement and Sustainment Upgrade experiment (TSCU) was carried out with utmost attention. To assess the condition of the TCSU first walls during the construction and operation, chemical and morphological surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized. Here we present a summary of the preliminary and ongoing work performed for TCSU wall-conditioning, including preparation of UHV compatible surfaces, glow discharge cleaning (GDC), and siliconization. Effective techniques were developed for cleaning various plasma-facing components, including Al flux rings, stainless steel chambers and components, and quartz surfaces, prior to their installation. Helium-GDC was tested and proved to be useful in reducing the plasma impurities; however, extended periods of GDC resulted in the coating of quartz surfaces due to the sputtering of neighboring stainless steel walls by energetic glow particles. In addition, as a wall conditioning technique, siliconization has been examined in a separate system dedicated for detailed analysis of the process.

  8. Employees' use of social media for private reasons during working hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to find out: Whether Icelandic organizations allowed open access to social media (SM), whether the respondents used SM for private reasons during working hours, which SM they used, how much time they devoted to such use, and what was the attitude of managers and the employees themselves towards such use. The respondents were asked to disclose whether they worked in the private or the public sector and the type of organization that they worked for. This was a two-dimensional study: A questionnaire sent to an internet panel and a telephone survey both based on a random sample selected from the National Registry in February 2013. A similar study has not been performed in Iceland before. Foreign studies of the same nature are not known, only related research. The main findings were that about half of the organizations allowed open access to SM, just below 50% of respondents took advantage of SM for personal use during working hours and the great majority used Facebook. Employees used a considerable part of their working hours for personal use of SM. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that managers objected to the use of SM during working hours and a larger majority believed that such use of themselves was unacceptable. The survey adds valuable information for a better understanding of the status of SM at places of work. The results could be of value to organizations that want to evaluate the pros and cons of SM for the organization.

  9. Construction and economy of plant stems as revealed by use of the Bic-method

    OpenAIRE

    Kull, Ulrich; Herbig, Astrid; Otto, Frei

    1992-01-01

    The Bic-method, developed by F. Otto for the investigation and classification of light-weight structures in architecture and then also applied to constructions in nature, can be used for mechanical analysis of plants. It allows statements on tension and pressure stability of plant stems and a direct comparison of stems with different anatomy. The multiplication of the Bic-value by an energy value (construction cost or energy content of the plant organ) results in a dimensionless constructive ...

  10. Investigation of the in vitro culture process for skeletal-tissue-engineered constructs using computational fluid dynamics and experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Chen, X B; Bergstrom, D J

    2012-12-01

    The in vitro culture process via bioreactors is critical to create tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) to repair or replace the damaged tissues/organs in various engineered applications. In the past, the TEC culture process was typically treated as a black box and performed on the basis of trial and error. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has demonstrated its potential to analyze the fluid flow inside and around the TECs, therefore, being able to provide insight into the culture process, such as information on the velocity field and shear stress distribution that can significantly affect such cellular activities as cell viability and proliferation during the culture process. This paper briefly reviews the CFD and experimental methods used to investigate the in vitro culture process of skeletal-type TECs in bioreactors, where mechanical deformation of the TEC can be ignored. Specifically, this paper presents CFD modeling approaches for the analysis of the velocity and shear stress fields, mass transfer, and cell growth during the culture process and also describes various particle image velocimetry (PIV) based experimental methods to measure the velocity and shear stress in the in vitro culture process. Some key issues and challenges are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research. PMID:23363205

  11. Recommendation for maximum allowable mesh size for plant combustion analyses with CFD codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Used mesh size has to be small enough to resolve all pressure waves relevant for the structural response analyses. ► Maximum allowable mesh size for a combustion pressure load calculation decreases with increasing relevant natural frequency of the structure. ► Maximum allowable mesh size for a combustion pressure load calculation increases with increasing of the speed of the sound in the gas mixture. ► Maximum allowable mesh size can be calculated from the developed analytical formula. - Abstract: The selection of the maximum allowable mesh size for a fluid dynamic calculation with Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes is essential for the reliability of the results assuming suitable physical and numerical models are used. Calculations with CFD codes are necessary for the assessment of the consequences of pressure loads on containment structures due to possible hydrogen combustion in nuclear power plants in a severe accident and on piping system due to pressure wave propagation in case of a pipe break accident or fast closing of a valve in a pipe with forced flow. CFD simulations of the transport and distribution of the released hydrogen/steam as well as the possible combustion during the transient in the containment require an appropriate mesh size to resolve the relevant phenomena and loads. The determination of the mesh size has to take into account: •adequate delineation of the containment geometry for accurate hydrogen distribution calculations, •sufficient conservative resolution of the combustion phenomena for the determination of pressure wave propagation and pressure loads, •no loss of pressure wave loads with relevant frequencies for the structural response analysis of the containment during the combustion calculation. In this paper, it is found that the accuracy of the calculated pressure wave associated with its frequency depends on the mesh size and a simple and easily useable analytical formula for the determination of

  12. Recommendation for maximum allowable mesh size for plant combustion analyses with CFD codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movahed-Shariat-Panahi, M.A., E-mail: Mohammad-Ali.Movahed@areva.com [AREVA GmbH Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Used mesh size has to be small enough to resolve all pressure waves relevant for the structural response analyses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum allowable mesh size for a combustion pressure load calculation decreases with increasing relevant natural frequency of the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum allowable mesh size for a combustion pressure load calculation increases with increasing of the speed of the sound in the gas mixture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum allowable mesh size can be calculated from the developed analytical formula. - Abstract: The selection of the maximum allowable mesh size for a fluid dynamic calculation with Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes is essential for the reliability of the results assuming suitable physical and numerical models are used. Calculations with CFD codes are necessary for the assessment of the consequences of pressure loads on containment structures due to possible hydrogen combustion in nuclear power plants in a severe accident and on piping system due to pressure wave propagation in case of a pipe break accident or fast closing of a valve in a pipe with forced flow. CFD simulations of the transport and distribution of the released hydrogen/steam as well as the possible combustion during the transient in the containment require an appropriate mesh size to resolve the relevant phenomena and loads. The determination of the mesh size has to take into account: Bullet adequate delineation of the containment geometry for accurate hydrogen distribution calculations, Bullet sufficient conservative resolution of the combustion phenomena for the determination of pressure wave propagation and pressure loads, Bullet no loss of pressure wave loads with relevant frequencies for the structural response analysis of the containment during the combustion calculation. In this paper, it is found that the accuracy of the calculated pressure wave associated with its

  13. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of public funds; other uses... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or... be paid to the Secretary. Any net loss from an investment or other use of public funds will...

  14. Multi-objective portfolio optimization of mutual funds under downside risk measure using fuzzy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund is one of the most popular techniques for many people to invest their funds where a professional fund manager invests people's funds based on some special predefined objectives; therefore, performance evaluation of mutual funds is an important problem. This paper proposes a multi-objective portfolio optimization to offer asset allocation. The proposed model clusters mutual funds with two methods based on six characteristics including rate of return, variance, semivariance, turnover rate, Treynor index and Sharpe index. Semivariance is used as a downside risk measure. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy variables for return rate and semivariance. A multi-objective fuzzy mean-semivariance portfolio optimization model is implemented and fuzzy programming technique is adopted to solve the resulted problem. The proposed model of this paper has gathered the information of mutual fund traded on Nasdaq from 2007 to 2009 and Pareto optimal solutions are obtained considering different weights for objective functions. The results of asset allocation, rate of return and risk of each cluster are also determined and they are compared with the results of two clustering methods.

  15. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 100.29, to those outside the restricted class unless the communication is susceptible of no... by 11 CFR 104.20. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and...

  16. Re-use of construction and demolition residues and industrial wastes for the elaboration or recycled eco-efficient concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of residues from industries and construction and demolition sectors has increased during last years. The total amount of debris produced according to different estimations reaches values close to 42 million tonnes yr-1. Much of this waste has been thrown to landfill, without considering its potential for reuse, recycling or valuation. The aim of this research is to describe some of the physical and mechanical properties of different laboratory-mixed concretes, using various proportions of additional materials recovered from industrial waste and demolition rubble. The added materials are included either as admixtures (forestry residues, cork dust, steel fibre) or in partial substitution of natural aggregates (wire from electrical residues, tyre rubber, white ceramic, sanitary porcelain or shale). The laboratory tests have followed the standard En protocols. Assay results were variable according to the nature of the material added to the mix: organic materials and shale, despite the steel fibre reinforcement, reduce the compression strength, but are suitable for the manufacture of lightweight concrete for agricultural pavements, with certain flexion resistance and a relatively good behaviour to impact. The substitution of natural aggregates with ceramic and porcelain wastes produces a significant increase in compression resistance, making them suitable for the manufacture of concrete with characteristic resistances above 40 MPa, which can be used both for structures or other agricultural elements: separators, feeders, slat floors. As a conclusion can be stated the possibility of reuse these wastes for the production of structural or non-structural concrete, with different applications in agricultural engineering. (Author) 36 refs.

  17. Control measures for NDE and quality in project construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projects are constructed with huge investments in money, time and effort and therefore it is essential that they perform well during the intended life period. The reliability so expected can only be ensured by achieving the desired quality in construction. Quality mainly depends upon the effective controlling of materials used in construction, work procedures adopted, personnel performing the important functions and work environment and also ensuring proper documentation. The above fact has been well recognized during construction of the Project at Kalpakkam under Dept. of Atomic Energy. The control measures which have been designed and successfully implemented for achieving the quality are presented. (author)

  18. 13 CFR 119.12 - What criteria will SBA use to evaluate applications for funding under the PRIME program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, the following: (a) Applications for Technical Assistance Grants: (1) Applicants will compete... of capacity building, its historical effectiveness with the microenterprise development industry,...

  19. 11 CFR 114.14 - Further restrictions on the use of corporate and labor organization funds for electioneering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of which is to pay for an electioneering communication that is not permissible under 11 CFR 114.15... electioneering communication that is not permissible under 11 CFR 114.15. (2)(i) Any person other than a... for any electioneering communication permissible under 11 CFR 114.15 shall be required to only...

  20. Incentive Contracting For Venture Capital Fund Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisen, Dietmar P. J.

    2009-09-01

    It is well-known in the VC literature that VCs should provide so-called value-adding activities that nurture their venture companies. This paper presents a model of the VC market that takes account of the so-called carried interest on the choice of the risk level and actions. We determine the optimal actions of the fund managers and what would be the desired actions of the fund's investors. Conflicts of interest between the parties will be documented.