Sample records for allowance for funds used during construction

  1. 34 CFR 361.61 - Limitation on use of funds for construction expenditures. (United States)


    ... REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Financing of State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.61 Limitation on use... rehabilitation program purposes. (Authority: Section 101(a)(17)(A) of the Act; 29 U.S.C. 721(a)(17)(A))...

  2. 13 CFR 305.6 - Allowable methods of procurement for construction services. (United States)


    ... design/build, construction management at risk and force account. If an alternate method is used, the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable methods of procurement... Approved Projects § 305.6 Allowable methods of procurement for construction services. (a) Recipients...

  3. 42 CFR 413.149 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. 413.149 Section 413.149 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE...

  4. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave. (United States)

    Walker, J R


    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  5. 44 CFR 208.26 - Accountability for use of funds. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accountability for use of funds. 208.26 Section 208.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.26 Accountability for use of funds. The Sponsoring Agency...

  6. 34 CFR 76.532 - Use of funds for religion prohibited. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds for religion prohibited. 76.532 Section 76.532 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.532 Use of funds for...

  7. 34 CFR 75.532 - Use of funds for religion prohibited. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds for religion prohibited. 75.532 Section 75.532 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.532 Use of funds for religion prohibited. (a) No...

  8. Should the Housing Provident Fund Be Used for Other Purposes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Recently, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region issued a trial regulation guiding the use of the housing provident fund (HPF). The regulation says, from 2010,money deposited at the fund can be withdrawn and be appfied to medical expenses if a depositor and/or his or her family members suffer from a major disease. This essentially means the fund has a second tier.

  9. 34 CFR 628.44 - When and for what purposes may a grantee use the endowment fund corpus? (United States)


    ... endowment fund corpus? 628.44 Section 628.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... for what purposes may a grantee use the endowment fund corpus? (a)(1) During the grant period, a grantee may not withdraw or spend any part of the endowment fund corpus. (2) If, during the grant...

  10. 34 CFR 400.5 - Under what conditions may funds under the Act be used for the joint funding of programs? (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what conditions may funds under the Act be used... funds under the Act be used for the joint funding of programs? (a) Funds made available under the Act... title III of the JTPA; or (2) The Wagner-Peyser Act. (b) Funds used to carry out paragraph (a) of...

  11. Financing Nonappropriated Fund (NAF) Major Construction. (United States)


    include Greyhound; Woolworth ; Howard Johnson; and the Army, Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES). The AAFES contract is for 185 units to be developed...J. W. Morris, Ltd ., from Delta Research Corp as a supplement to Delta’s Final Report, entitled Financing lonappropriated Fund, Major Construction...nofsso . - .iao 90 .oen .omo Ko er Ki Mot-.*. j. 1U.%c fto HOI..’ Z. J.Hl SENNETT. JR. Mdaf t 0ing April 12, 1985 Mr. Norman Howard J. W. Morris, Ltd

  12. Risk analytics for hedge funds (United States)

    Pareek, Ankur


    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  13. Site Characterization during Bridge Foundation Construction Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra V. Varnavina


    Full Text Available A shallow underground water-filled cavity was encountered in limestone bedrock during the construction of a new column footing for the Gasconade River Bridge over Interstate 44. Five electrical resistivity tomography (ERT profiles and borehole control were acquired in immediate proximity to the existing and the new column footings in order to assess the integrity of the rock beneath the foundation columns and characterize the encountered cavity. Two parallel southwest- northeast trending fracture zones were identified on the acquired ERT profiles and competent rock was differentiated from more extensively fractured rock. The volumetric extent of the void was mapped based on the interpretation of the ERT, borehole and injected grout data. A conceptual model for the development of the water-filled cavity was proposed.

  14. Constructing Multi-Strategy Fund of Hedge Funds


    Suppal, Kamal


    This paper aims to develop a systematic allocation methodology to combine multi-strategy hedge funds within a structure of fund of funds in a risk-controlled manner. This is particularly important since the traditional mean-variance optimization proves ineffective in addressing hedge fund return distributions that are asymmetric in nature. Moreover, unstable correlations among various hedge fund strategies also pose a challenge to a meaningful optimization to combine various hedge fund strate...

  15. Shifting investments strategy from equity funds to money market funds – the case of Romanian open - end fund market during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, I.


    Full Text Available Mutual funds are one of the key suppliers of liquidity in Romanian capital market. This paper uses quarterly data on Romanian open-end funds starting with 2006 until 2010. We find that significant negative flows (outflows were registered beginning with the end of 2007 (equity funds, during 2008 (equity funds, balanced funds, other funds and bond funds in the last 2 quarters of the year and from 2009 to 2010 (in the case of money market funds. There is evidence that the changing market conditions attract differently the incoming flows in these mutual funds. This is the reason why such perturbations affect investors’ confidence for these investment vehicles and impose the reorientation of the investment funds and of their investors to other alternatives in order to preserve their capital.

  16. Thue use of Management Contracts for Construction in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A traditional construction contract requires all detal design works to be completed before tendering and subsequent construction works can commence,and therefor erequires a longer time for project completion.This paper describes a relatively new way of construction procurement using management contracts',which allow design construction overlap,and hence reduce project duration.There are advantages in management contracting,but there are disadvantages too.They are discussed in detal in this paper.Two management contracts executed in Hong Kong are used as case studies to illustrate the said advantages and disadvantages.Conclusion is then made and pssible further research work is alkso suggested.

  17. Rethinking Sponge Bob and Ninja Turtles: Popular Culture as Funds of Knowledge for Curriculum Co-Construction (United States)

    Hedges, Helen


    Children's interest in popular culture was clear in my study of interests-based curriculum. Yet, perhaps unsurprisingly, it was a contentious site of curriculum co-construction. This article explores this tension. It argues that interpreting popular culture as "funds of knowledge" might assist teachers to consider a different view of this interest…

  18. An outline of the bibliometric indicator used for performancebased funding of research institutions in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg


    This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all their pub......This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all...

  19. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna


    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  20. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.


    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  1. 13 CFR 123.509 - What can't you use Military Reservist EIDL funds for? (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.509 What can't you use Military Reservist EIDL funds for? Your small business can not use Military Reservist EIDL funds... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What can't you use...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Gorrell


    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  3. Poland - Electricity and gas marked development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Practical guidelines for using EU funds for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The present report is prepared as part of the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU - funds'. The EU structural and cohesion funds are presently considered the most relevant funds concerning support to energy projects. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly decentralized. The eligible project types to be supported from the various structural funds are described in a number of sector programmes. The sector programmes are described in vertical view, meaning that it is difficult to assess what kind of energy projects are eligible for support and, if eligible, then under which programme. This report presents a horizontal view of the various programmes in order to give an overview of the possibilities of support to energy related projects. The background for this report is a study of the following sector programmes: 1. Improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises. 2. Human resources development. 3. Restructuring and modernization of food sector and rural development. 4. Fisheries and fish processing. 5. Transport - maritime economy. 6. Integrated regional operational programme. 7. Technical assistance. Based on this review, it can be stated that energy projects in general have a low priority but can be supported under various measures within the programmes. (BA)

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.453 - What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? (United States)


    ... unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? 301-10.453 Section 301-10.453 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Special Conveyances Rental Automobiles § 301-10.453 What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?...

  5. Use of Constructed-Response Questions to Support Learning of Cell Biology during Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong May Yeong


    Full Text Available The use of class-response systems such as the Clickers to promote active-learning during lectures has been wide-spread. However, the often-used MCQ format in class activities as well as in assessments for large classes might lower students’ expectations and attitudes towards learning. Here, I describe my experience converting MCQs to constructed-response questions for in-class learning activities by removing cues from the MCQs. From the responses submitted, students seemed capable of providing answers without the need for cues. Using class-response systems such as Socrative for such constructed-response questions could be useful to challenge students to express their ideas in their own words. Moreover, by constructing their own answers, mis-conceptions could be revealed and corrected in a timely manner.

  6. Rental fees for using the non-residential funds of the municipal fisc and factors of its growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul’ R. Yarullin


    Full Text Available Objective to develop the theoretical bases of forming the rent fees for nonresidential funds which constitute the fisc of Ufa municipality and to identify the opportunities of revenues increase from its use. Methods abstractlogical dialectical comparative systematic and structural economic analysis and synthesis. Results the content is disclosed of the rental fees of nonresidential funds constituting the municipal fisc as a cash payment of compensatory and equivalent character for the use of the municipality fisc the necessity is grounded of increasing the budget effectiveness of the municipal nonresidential facilities rent which consists in the proper use of rental fees for maintenance investments in the renovation and construction of nonresidential facilities the availability of funds for their financing and the lack of growth in rents above the economically viable threshold the factors are analyzed which determine the budget revenues from rent affecting the fiscal efficiency of nonresidential facilities rent in Ufa city a number of problematic issues were identified of systemic character reduction of the number of rent contracts reduction of the rented space an excessive amount of the reduced rent arrears of tenants on rents insufficient quality of the information management system ways are propose to improve the budget efficiency and profitability of the nonresidential rent consisting in the transition of nonresidential buildings and premises which are in economic conducting or in operational administration or are unused unregistered into the rent regime with the establishment of feasible rental fees expanding the number of premises the rental fee for the use of which is determined by bidding reduction of benefits to commercial organizations for the rent payment providing full and timely transfer of the arrears from tenants to the budget acceleration of the formation of the automated system for mass valuation of real estate allowing to

  7. Evaluating forensic DNA profiles using peak heights, allowing for multiple donors, allelic dropout and stutters. (United States)

    Puch-Solis, Roberto; Rodgers, Lauren; Mazumder, Anjali; Pope, Susan; Evett, Ian; Curran, James; Balding, David


    Increases in the sensitivity of DNA profiling technology now allow profiles to be obtained from smaller and more degraded DNA samples than was previously possible. The resulting profiles can be highly informative, but the subjective elements in the interpretation make it problematic to achieve the valid and efficient evaluation of evidential strength required in criminal cases. The problems arise from stochastic phenomena such as "dropout" (absence of an allele in the profile that is present in the underlying DNA) and experimental artefacts such as "stutter" that can generate peaks of ambiguous allelic status. Currently in the UK, evidential strength evaluation uses an approach in which the complex signals in the DNA profiles are interpreted in a semi-manual fashion by trained experts aided by a set of guidelines, but also relying substantially on professional judgment. We introduce a statistical model to calculate likelihood ratios for evaluating DNA evidence arising from multiple known and unknown contributors that allows for such stochastic phenomena by incorporating peak heights. Efficient use of peak heights allows for more crime scene profiles to be reported to courts than is currently possible. The model parameters are estimated from experimental data incorporating multiple sources of variability in the profiling system. We report and analyse experimental results from the SGMPlus system, run at 28 amplification cycles with no enhancements, currently used in the UK. Our methods are readily adapted to other DNA profiling systems provided that the experimental data for the parameter estimation is available.

  8. Education Using ICT for Construction Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Soeiro


    Full Text Available A project carried through between institutions of higher education and construction companies was co-financed by the European Commission. The project lasted three years where the main objective was to develop the staff training in using and applying the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in construction management. The results of the project have been also used in a new course of the senior year in specialization area of construction of the Civil Engineering degree of the University of Porto. Some conclusions of the diverse experiences of the project partners are also presented indicating future developments in this area.

  9. Capacity for Acceptance and use of Pre-accession Funds in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolche Jankulovski


    Full Text Available The integration process of the Republic of Macedonia towards European Union is clear and unambiguous interest and priority goal. Republic of Macedonia within the integration processes from 16.05.2007, has the status of a candidate for membership in the European Union. Thus it has the right to use financial funds from the pre-accession funds in order to meet the criteria for membership in the European Union, and harmonization of the national legislation within the European. The paper has a goal to give preliminary assessment of the current capacities in the Republic of Macedonia for absorption of resources from the EU funds.

  10. Use of social media for corporate communications by research-funding organisations in the UK


    Carim, L.; Warwick, C.


    Existing literature on the corporate use of social media did not appear to examine the activity of organisations that fund academic research, nor to explore the variety of implications for an organisation’s business functions of adopting these channels. This study sought to shed light on these areas through primary research involving a survey and focus groups. Findings showed that most UK-based research-funding organisations have adopted social media channels for corporate communications p...

  11. Efficient photoionization for barium ion trapping using a dipole-allowed resonant two-photon transition

    CERN Document Server

    Leschhorn, G; Schaetz, T


    Two efficient and isotope-selective resonant two-photon ionization techniques for loading barium ions into radio-frequency (RF)-traps are demonstrated. The scheme of using a strong dipole-allowed transition at \\lambda=553 nm as a first step towards ionization is compared to the established technique of using a weak intercombination line (\\lambda=413 nm). An increase of two orders of magnitude in the ionization efficiency is found favoring the transition at 553 nm. This technique can be implemented using commercial all-solid-state laser systems and is expected to be advantageous compared to other narrowband photoionization schemes of barium in cases where highest efficiency and isotope-selectivity are required.

  12. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.


    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  13. 25 CFR 170.135 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism, and trails program? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the...

  14. Numerical method for determining the allowable medium temperature during transient operation of a thick-walled boiler element in power plant (United States)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr


    Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.

  15. 75 FR 42747 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Applications for Essential Use Allowances for 2012... (United States)


    ... ongoing rulemakings by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concerning the essential use determination... not be available until after the control period ends on December 31, 2010, companies should not include this chart with their essential use applications in response to this notice. Instead,...

  16. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  17. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier


    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  18. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production. (United States)


    ... facility and processing equipment. (20) Phosphoric acid—allowed as an equipment cleaner, Provided, That, no... the hydrolysis of fats or oils. (13) Hydrogen peroxide. (14) Iodine. (15) Magnesium hydroxide (CAS... order of a licensed veterinarian. (16) Magnesium sulfate. (17) Oxytocin—use in...

  19. Visualization for Construction of Meaning during Study Time. (United States)

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Hsieh, Yi-chuan Jane

    This study investigated skills that lead to generation of facilitative visualizations during study time for college age students. Specifically, the study examined the effects of teacher encouragement to generate visualizations, the effects of teacher encouragement and orientation to visualization, and the effects of the use of each of four…

  20. 48 CFR 236.274 - Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects. (United States)


    ... of steel for use in military construction projects. 236.274 Section 236.274 Federal Acquisition....274 Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects. In accordance with..., Division E), do not acquire, or allow a contractor to acquire, steel for any construction project...

  1. 34 CFR 200.82 - Use of program funds for unique program function costs. (United States)


    ... recruitment of eligible migratory children; (b) Interstate and intrastate coordination of the State MEP and...; (c) Procedures for providing for educational continuity for migratory children through the timely...) Collecting and using information for accurate distribution of subgrant funds; (e) Development of a...

  2. Assessing biodiversity funding during the sixth extinction. (United States)

    Amato, George; DeSalle, Rob


    Funding for understanding biodiversity on this planet has had a checkered and unsatisfactory history. There have been some true successes in developing models for assessing biodiversity, but satisfactory governmental and international support has been piecemeal and unsatisfactory. A true solution to the biodiversity crisis will require greater attention from governmental and international funding agencies.

  3. 75 FR 65197 - Use of Public Housing Capital Funds for Financing Activities (United States)


    ... accounting, except for mixed-finance projects, the public housing property in any PHA's portfolio is all..., or that propose to use their Capital Fund financing proceeds in a mixed-finance development. The... limitation for the operation and modernization of mixed-finance housing, or housing that otherwise...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.94 - When do Presidential libraries allow other groups to use their public areas for events? (United States)


    ... libraries allow other groups to use their public areas for events? 1280.94 Section 1280.94 Parks, Forests... FACILITIES What Additional Rules Apply for Use of Facilities in Presidential Libraries? § 1280.94 When do Presidential libraries allow other groups to use their public areas for events? (a) Although...

  5. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? (United States)


    ... implement Language Development programs that demonstrate the positive effects of Native language programs on... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs §...

  6. Historical Construction and Australian Catholic Education: Accounting for School Funding Policy from the Cultural Politics of Australian Education (United States)

    Furtado, Michael


    This paper seeks to explain why the policy history of school funding in regard to Australian Catholic Education looks and sounds the way it does today through the production of a genealogy of the subject. The questions addressed are, first, why has the funding of Catholic schools in Australia become an occluded historical site since the 1970s,…

  7. Computational and Experimental Investigation for an Optimal Design of Industrial Windows to Allow Natural Ventilation during Wind-Driven Rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritana Prueksakorn


    Full Text Available With an increased awareness of sustainability issues, natural ventilation has become an elegant method for reducing the costs and environmental effects of the energy that is used to maintain comfortable indoor air quality rather than using mechanical ventilation. The windows in many industrial buildings are continuously open to exhaust pollutants and intake fresh air. Though windows are functional and efficient for natural ventilation, rainwater is able to penetrate through the windows during wind-driven rain. For industries in which the moisture content affects the quality of the product, the intrusion of a large amount of rainwater through windows must be prevented without compromising the effective ventilation. The aim of this research is to determine an innovative design for windows to accomplish the optimum of high ventilation and low rain penetration. For this purpose, windows are variously innovated and tested in full-scale measurements, reduced-scale wind-tunnel measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD. An artificial rain and wind velocity to mimic the average of the maximum values in Korea are created. The maximum reduction in rain penetration of over 98% compared to basic 90° open windows is attained with only a 4%–9% decrement of ventilation efficiency in the two recommended designs.

  8. Final Technical Report for ARRA Funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusack, Roger [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mans, Jeremiah [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Poling, Ronald [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Cushman, Priscilla [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Final technical report of the University of Minnesota experimental high energy physics group for ARRA support. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Experiment (CDMS) used the funds received to construct a new passive shield to protect a high purity germanium detector located in the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota from from cosmic rays. The BESIII and the CMS groups purchased computing hardware to assemble computer farms for data analysis and to generate large volumes of simulated data for comparison with the data collected.

  9. Fund Raising for Haiti

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel


    Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

  10. 7 CFR 205.601 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production. (United States)


    ... floating agents in postharvest handling. (1) Lignin sulfonate. (2) Sodium silicate—for tree fruit and fiber... summer oils. (7) Peracetic acid—for use to control fire blight bacteria. (8) Potassium bicarbonate....

  11. KT Fund: Five years of funding for impact

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Cryogenic safety, ion beam therapy, event management for communities, emergency lighting… this year’s applications for funding through the Knowledge Transfer Fund demonstrate the breadth of possible applications of CERN technology beyond high-energy physics.     The use of high index glass spherical targets as retroreflectors for a 3D interferometer is the subject of one of the 2015 KT Fund Projects.   Following the 2015 selection committee held in January, the KT Fund has funded a total of seven new projects that aim to further develop CERN technologies to a level where they can be transferred and subsequently make a positive impact on society. “CERN’s ambitious scientific programme requires state-of-the-art technologies that are not always directly reusable by society because they were not designed with this purpose in mind,” explains David Mazur, Section Leader of the IP Dissemination Section. “Since 2011, the KT...

  12. The use of fund accounting and the need for single fund reporting by institutional healthcare providers. Principles and Practices Board Statement No. 8. Healthcare Financial Management Association. (United States)


    For many years, hospitals and other institutional healthcare providers used fund accounting as a basis for presenting their financial statements. Recently, authoritative literature has placed less emphasis on separate fund reporting. This is evidenced by the reduction of fund classifications specified in the literature. This trend seems to follow the recognition that institutional healthcare activities should be reported in a manner comparable to other businesses. The Principles and Practices Board (P&P Board) of the Healthcare Financial management Association believes that general purpose financial statements of institutional healthcare providers should be comparable to reporting by other businesses. That is, all assets, liabilities, and equity are presented in a single aggregated balance sheet without differentiation by fund. This form of presentation, referred to in this statement as single fund reporting, should be used by all institutional healthcare providers including those that are part of HMOs, universities, municipalities, and other larger entities when separate reports of the provider are issued. The P&P Board is studying other significant issues concerning the reporting of revenues and components of equity and changes therein. The conclusion in this statement can be implemented even though conclusions on these related subjects are not yet complete. The P&P Board recognizes that certain circumstances may require detailed records and reports for special purposes. This statement deals only with those general purpose financial statements on which an independent accountant's opinion is expressed.

  13. 75 FR 11115 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Interim Capital Construction Fund Agreement and... (United States)


    ... completion of construction/reconstruction, a certificate to that effect must be submitted. II. Method of... vessel's basis for depreciation by the amount withdrawn from the fund for its acquisition,...

  14. Use of Bitumen Emulsion for Flexible Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Singh Dhriyan


    Full Text Available In the present study bitumen is replaced by bitumen emulsion for the construction of flexible pavement. The conventional method of road construction involves the burning of bitumen which produces toxic gases which degrades the environment. In colder region it is difficult to maintain the paving temperature of hot mix. To overcome these problems and conserve the energy bitumen emulsion is considered as good option. Likewise emulsion can be used in the areas having higher rate of rainfall where the hot mix plant is closed most of the time because of rain. Emulsified bitumen can be used during rainy season and colder regions. To study the suitability of emulsion Marshal Test is carried out to find the stability value, flow value and optimum binder content. Experiments performed shows that bitumen emulsion (Cold Mix have high stability value therefore it can be used as binder.

  15. Can Using Rigorous Evidence to Guide Federal Education Funds Improve Student Achievement? Randomized Trials Show Encouraging Initial Results for DoED's Investing in Innovation Fund (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2014


    An important recent development in evidence-based policy is the federal government's use of a "tiered evidence" approach to allocating funding in grant programs such as the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation Fund (i3). A central feature of this approach is that the largest grants are awarded to fund large-scale…

  16. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina


    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  17. Exploring Opportunities for Efficiency and Joint Provision of Services Using Nonappropriated Funds (United States)


    Consolidated Service Center: This option would standardize all accounting , including the SGL, cost- center structures, and core feeder and financial ...C O R P O R A T I O N RESE ARCH BR IEF Exploring Opportunities for Efficiency and Joint Provision of Services Using Nonappropriated Funds The U.S...analyzed two of them: accounting and employee benefits. RAND assessed the rec- ommendations’ costs, detailed the potential challenges, and identified

  18. 25 CFR 39.110 - Can ISEF funds be distributed for the use of gifted and talented students? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be distributed for the use of gifted and talented students? 39.110 Section 39.110 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Programs § 39.110 Can ISEF funds be distributed for the use of gifted and talented students? Yes,...

  19. 11 CFR 114.14 - Further restrictions on the use of corporate and labor organization funds for electioneering... (United States)


    ... restrictions on the use of corporate and labor organization funds for electioneering communications. (a)(1... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Further restrictions on the use of corporate and labor organization funds for electioneering communications. 114.14 Section 114.14...

  20. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects. (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick


    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  1. 48 CFR 235.015-70 - Special use allowances for research facilities acquired by educational institutions. (United States)


    ... research facilities acquired by educational institutions. 235.015-70 Section 235.015-70 Federal Acquisition... acquired by educational institutions. (a) Definitions. As used in this subsection— (1) Research facility... 31.3. (b) Policy. (1) Educational institutions are to furnish the facilities necessary to...

  2. What Paradox? Referential Cues Allow for Infant Use of Phonetic Detail in Word Learning (United States)

    Fennell, Christopher T.; Waxman, Sandra R.


    Past research has uncovered a surprising paradox: Although 14-month-olds have exquisite phonetic discrimination skills (e.g., distinguishing [b] from [d]), they have difficulty using phonetic detail when mapping "novel" words to objects in laboratory tasks (confusing "bin" and "din"). While some have attributed infants' difficulty to immature word…

  3. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating... (United States)


    ...) of this section, additional design features, such as mechanical or composite crack arrestors and/or... surface of the plate/coil or pipe to identify imperfections that impair serviceability such as laminations... must be a hardness test, using Vickers (Hv10) hardness test method or equivalent test method, to...

  4. Specification of properties and design allowables for copper alloys used in HHF components of ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinin, G.M.; Fabritziev, S.A.; Singh, B.N.;


    Two types of copper alloys, precipitation hardened (PH) Cu (CuCrZr-IG) and dispersion strengthened (DS) Cu (CuAl25-IG), are proposed as heat sink materials for the high heat flux (HHF) components of ITER. However, copper alloys are not included in any national codes, and properties of both Cu......CrZr and CuAl25 are not yet fully characterised. The performed R&D gives a basis for the specification of physical and mechanical properties required for the design analysis in accordance with the ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). For both CuCrZr-IG and CuAl25-IG alloys...

  5. 34 CFR 682.418 - Prohibited uses of the assets of the Operating Fund during periods in which the Operating Fund... (United States)


    ..., accessories, or auxiliary apparatus necessary to make the asset usable for the purpose for which it was... used to promote or maintain a favorable image of the guaranty agency. The term “public relations”...

  6. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán


    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  7. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction. (United States)

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander


    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  8. Novel MLPA procedure using self-designed probes allows comprehensive analysis for CNVs of the genes involved in Hirschsprung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antiñolo Guillermo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hirschsprung disease is characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the enteric plexuses, due to a fail during enteric nervous system formation. Hirschsprung has a complex genetic aetiology and mutations in several genes have been related to the disease. There is a clear predominance of missense/nonsense mutations in these genes whereas copy number variations (CNVs have been seldom described, probably due to the limitations of conventional techniques usually employed for mutational analysis. In this study, we have looked for CNVs in some of the genes related to Hirschsprung (EDNRB, GFRA1, NRTN and PHOX2B using the Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach. Methods CNVs screening was performed in 208 HSCR patients using a self-designed set of MLPA probes, covering the coding region of those genes. Results A deletion comprising the first 4 exons in GFRA1 gene was detected in 2 sporadic HSCR patients and in silico approaches have shown that the critical translation initiation signal in the mutant gene was abolished. In this study, we have been able to validate the reliability of this technique for CNVs screening in HSCR. Conclusions The implemented MLPA based technique presented here allows CNV analysis of genes involved in HSCR that have not been not previously evaluated. Our results indicate that CNVs could be implicated in the pathogenesis of HSCR, although they seem to be an uncommon molecular cause of HSCR.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, David


    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  10. Three-dimensional laser scanning for geometry documentation and construction management of highway tunnels during excavation. (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis


    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.

  11. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas


    Full Text Available Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.

  12. Funds support the construction of control systems design (United States)

    Vlasov, V.; Tolokonsky, A.


    The experience of the creation tools to support the construction of control systems design skills to provide effective training for students of the Department of Automation MEPhI, to create management information systems based on PCS. Currently the control system have been widely used not only in industry, but also on research. Therefore, quite important question of training in research automation.

  13. Writing proposals for research funds. (United States)

    Singh, Mina D; Cameron, Cherylyn; Duff, Diane


    In this paper, we provide generic guidelines for writing proposals for research funds. These guidelines apply to quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research proposals. A proposal for research funding provides an overview of the planned research and is required by funding agencies. The proposal is submitted for evaluation and ranking by a review committee according to the criteria put forth by that particular agency. It may be necessary to submit proposals to more than one agency to acquire sufficient operating and infrastructure funding for a research project.

  14. 78 FR 59974 - Publication Procedures for Federal Register Documents During a Funding Hiatus (United States)


    ... human life or protection of property. Since it would be impracticable for the OFR to make case-by- case.... Since it would be impracticable for the OFR to make case-by-case determinations as to whether certain... Department of Justice, exempt functions and services would include activities such as those related to...

  15. The absorption of european funds for environmental protection during the period 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU


    Full Text Available Political realities of the European Union regarding the environment protection segment formed the basis of a specific reorientation of cohesion policy, the including this area as one of the main priorities for obtaining grants. In other words, due to long-term challenges such as climate change, energy security, scarcity of resources (raw materials, water, biodiversity loss, environment protection has become one of the strategic priorities of the European Union. These challenges are coupled with short-term threats like increasing public debt of States Members, in particular as a result of loans contracted by these to eliminate or counteract the financial crisis effects and the the dimensioning of fiscal discipline, both internally and at Community level.

  16. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  17. 78 FR 37106 - Streamlining Requirements Governing the Use of Funding for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and... (United States)


    ... majority of jurisdictions in the country through state or local adoption. Requiring smoke detectors is a... allow Section 202 costs of construction to cover designs in accordance with ``universal design... Response. The most current Section 202 guidelines encourage the use of universal design and consider it...

  18. Using Students' Representations Constructed during Problem Solving to Infer Conceptual Understanding (United States)

    Domin, Daniel; Bodner, George


    The differences in the types of representations constructed during successful and unsuccessful problem-solving episodes were investigated within the context of graduate students working on problems that involve concepts from 2D-NMR. Success at problem solving was established by having the participants solve five problems relating to material just…

  19. Educational Trends Shaping School Planning, Design, Construction, Funding and Operation (United States)

    Stevenson, Kenneth R.


    What does the future hold for educators and facilities professionals when it comes to planning, building, funding, and operating school facilities? No one can absolutely know beforehand. However, there are many, many indicators of where public education in the United States may well be destined. These indicators take the form of already occurring…

  20. Interpreting future physics teachers reflections on their professional practice during initial formation: the search for teaching autonomy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Langhi


    Full Text Available This research intends to answer the following main question: which traces of teacher autonomy construction are possible to achieve during reflective formative processes in disciplines like Methodology and Physics Teaching Practice carried out during three semesters, in an undergraduate program designed to physics teachers´ initial education? Using an analytical device based on teachers education research assumptions, which we called convergent formative triangulation for progressive teaching autonomy, we had as a main objective the search for the chance to achieve progressive levels of teachers autonomy, according to its three teacher professionalization models, present in a critical and transformative perspective, relating them to the current formative paradigms: the contents based one, the humanist, the activist, the reflective and the technical (approaches we called CHART. Taking into consideration future physics teachers´ collective reflections about their own teaching practice, this research was supported by the following methodological instruments: focus group, coaching, self-confrontation and formative assessment, taking the discourse analysis as background. The outcomes of this research, which followed a sample of 40 future High School physics teachers during three semesters, through the use of five formative steps (planning, implementation, reflection, socialization, involvement and continuity, revealed the evidences of teachers autonomy construction, probably provided by their own teaching practice collective reflections, according to the analytical device used. This research showed that the reflections brakes provided during the process can allow the future teachers to position themselves critically in relation to their future pedagogical activities, even after their initial training. This experience leads us to rethink how subjects like Methodology and Teaching Practice have been teaching in the teachers’ education programs at

  1. Galloping comparative analysis for transient main cables of suspension bridge during construction (United States)

    Li, Shengli; Peng, Gang; Zhang, Haiting; Chen, Huai


    The cross-sectional shapes of two construction projects for the transient main cables are non-circular cross-sections during construction of the long-span suspension bridge, so the transient main cables can experience galloping instabilities. The galloping coefficients of the several representative cases of two construction projects for the transient main cables without wind-resistant measures for the long-span suspension bridge were investigated for the first time by means of the CFD method, referring to an erecting suspension bridge. Results show that for the project 1, at the early stages of the main cables construction, the galloping instabilities can occur, but at the later stages of that, the galloping instabilities cannot occur. For the project 2, there exists a lot of wind attack angles whose galloping coefficients are less than 0 at the whole construction stages. From the perspective for galloping instability the project 1 is better 2.Through the analysis and comparison the galloping performance of two kinds of construction projects for the transient main cables, the advantage and disadvantage for two construction projects is explained theoretically from the perspective for whether can result in the galloping instability.

  2. Adequacy Model for School Funding (United States)

    Banicki, Guy; Murphy, Gregg


    This study considers the effectiveness of the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding. In looking at the Evidence-Based Adequacy model for school funding, one researcher has been centrally associated with the development and study of this model. Allen Odden is currently a professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy…

  3. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Construct Validation: An Empirical Review (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Hess, Brian


    This study investigated the psychological assessment literature to determine what applied researchers are using and reporting from confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies for evidence of construct validation. One hundred and one articles published in four major psychological assessment journals between 1990 and 2002 were systematically…

  4. Assessing the Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders in Construction Workers Using PATH, Case Study: Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban parhani


    Full Text Available Construction workers experience a high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders due to the nature of their jobs. This article aimed to evaluate the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers using Posture, Activity Tools and Handling (PATH. This is a sectional, descriptive-analytical study in a construction site in Tehran, Iran. Certain factors were identified namely body posture, weight of carried tools and objects, activities and tools, and their tasks and activities using PATH. PATH sheets were coded for a certain job. Descriptive data and Chi-square test were employed to analyze the data using SPSS.19. Identification and evaluation were performed in three most important stages of construction: foundation, carcass, finishing (elaborate work. The mean age was 33.08±8.97. Body posture included gentle bending posture (21.2%, severe bending (8.2%, bending and twisting (7% and 1.9%, respectively. Body positions, feet, hands, and weight of tools and objects were significantly different in the working stages (P

  5. Pension fund excellence creating value for stakeholders

    CERN Document Server

    Ambachtsheer, Keith P.


    Internationally recognized experts in the field introduce their "business excellence paradigm". In this book, two leading pension fund experts lay out a comprehensive plan for effective fund management. With the help of domestic and global case studies they critically assess current approaches to pension fund management and isolate what works and what doesn't using their unique critically acclaimed "run-it-like-a-business" model. Keith P. Ambachtsheer (Toronto, Canada) is principle at KPA Advisory Service, Inc., a pension fund management consulting firm. He runs The Ambachtsheer Letter and cofounded Cost Effective Measurement, Inc., which monitors the performance of 300 of the world's largest asset funds. D. Don Ezra (Toronto, Canada) is Director of European Consulting at Frank Russell Co. His previous books include The Struggle for Pension Fund Wealth.

  6. 24 CFR 1000.238 - What percentage of the IHBG funds can be used for administrative and planning expenses? (United States)


    ... can be used for administrative and planning expenses? 1000.238 Section 1000.238 Housing and Urban... administrative and planning expenses? The recipient can use up to 20 percent of its annual grant amount for administration and planning. The recipient shall identify the percentage of grant funds which will be used in...

  7. Investment Primer for Green Revolving Funds (United States)

    Weisbord, Dano


    Developing return-oriented green revolving funds (GRFs) is a rapidly growing trend at colleges and universities. A green revolving fund (GRF) is a special account designated for investment in on-campus projects that improve energy efficiency or decrease material use. GRFs invest in a variety of cost-saving initiatives, resulting in significant…

  8. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. (United States)


    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. 114.15 Section 114.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.15 Permissible use of...

  9. European funding for environment and mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Macaluso


    Full Text Available The "Guide on the European Programmes Funding for Energy, the Environment and Sustainable Mobility" is an overview of the most significant European funding programs (in the period 2007-2013 to promote the territory and mobility. The programs are aimed at financial measures and measures of environmental policy and governance, information and communication, product development, technical and research activities aimed at reducing CO2 emissions, reducing road congestion and pollution, for example by promoting media greener transport for the traffic of European goods. The total resources made ​​available by the programs is around 14 billion of euros, with financing arrangements and beneficiaries belonging to different geographical areas, including Italy and the Mediterranean. A peculiarity of these programs is to provide for notices (these calls usually published on an annual/six monthly, which allow recipients to plan participation in the call later. These programs represent an opportunity for developing regions, such as the Southern Regions “Mezzogiorno”, who need more support to align with the average levels of growth in Europe. The complete guide, was presented by ANCE (National Association of Builders and RENAEL (National Network of Local Energy Agencies, March 22, 2012, during EnergyMed (Exhibition and Conference on Renewable Sources and Energy Efficiency that held annually in Naples.

  10. 25 CFR 170.942 - Can a tribe use Federal funds for transportation services for a tribe's Welfare-to-Work... (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for transportation services for a tribe's Welfare-to-Work, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, and other quality-of-life... § 170.942 Can a tribe use Federal funds for transportation services for a tribe's...

  11. The Use of Management Contracts for Construction in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. S.L. Tang


    A traditional construction contract requires all detail design works to be completed before tendering and subsequentconstruction works can commence, and therefore requires a longer time for project completion. This paper describes ahence reduce project duration. There are advantages in management contracting, but there are disadvantages too. They arediscussed in detail in this paper. Two management contracts executed in Hong Kong are used as case studies to illustrate thesaid advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion is then made and possible further research work is also suggested.

  12. 40 CFR 35.135 - Activities eligible for funding. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities eligible for funding. 35.135... Activities eligible for funding. (a) A recipient may use a Performance Partnership Grant, subject to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, to fund any activity that is eligible for funding under at...

  13. Development of a decision support system for residential construction using panellised walls: approach and preliminary results. (United States)

    Nussbaum, Maury A; Shewchuk, John P; Kim, Sunwook; Seol, Hyang; Guo, Cheng


    There is a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among residential construction workers, yet control in this industry can be difficult for a number of reasons. A decision support system (DSS) is described here to allow early assessment of both ergonomic and productivity concerns, specifically by designers. Construction using prefabricated walls (panels) is the focus of current DSS development and is based conceptually on an existing 'Safety in Construction Design' model. A stepwise description of the development process is provided, including input from end users, taxonomy development and task analysis, construction worker input, detailed laboratory-based simulations and modelling/solution approaches and implementation. Preliminary results are presented for several steps. These results suggest that construction activities using panels can be efficiently represented, that some of these activities involve exposure to high levels of WMSD risk and that several assumptions are required to allow for ease of mathematical and computational implementation of the DSS. Successful development of such tools, which allow for proactive control of exposures, is argued as having substantial potential benefit.

  14. Let's Get Funded. Guidelines for Outstanding Grants. (United States)

    Stopka, Christine Boyd; Beland, Robert M.


    This article provides guidelines for schools, agencies and individuals seeking funding for physical education-related programs and activities. Discussed are sources of funding, procedures for preparing grant proposals, and sources of information about available funds. (IAH)

  15. Analysis of the funds used during the three years of the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska


    Full Text Available The paper presents general guidelines and a plan for financing the various activities of the RDP 2007-2013. An analysis of the use of financial resources under the priority axes of the activities forming the RDP 2007-2013 in the three years of the Programme. The source materials were Ministry of Agriculture Village and Development studies and reports. On the implementation of the RDP 2007-2013 Poland received financial support amounting to 17.2 billion Euros to June 2010 used 22.24% of the total budget. The largest share of financing by the action of axis 2 was related to the promotion and operation of the LFA areas Axis 1 Early retirement.

  16. 11 CFR 9003.3 - Allowable contributions; General election legal and accounting compliance fund. (United States)


    ... computer system's software; (G) To make a loan to an account established pursuant to 11 CFR 9003.4 to... operation of the computer system's software. (4) All disbursements from this account shall be documented in... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable contributions; General election...

  17. Allowing for population stratification in case-only studies of gene-environment interaction, using genomic control. (United States)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Lieb, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Krawczak, Michael


    Gene-environment interactions (G × E) have attracted considerable research interest in the past owing to their scientific and public health implications, but powerful statistical methods are required to successfully track down G × E, particularly at a genome-wide level. Previously, a case-only (CO) design has been proposed as a means to identify G × E with greater efficiency than traditional case-control or cohort studies. However, as with genotype-phenotype association studies themselves, hidden population stratification (PS) can impact the validity of G × E studies using a CO design. Since this problem has been subject to little research to date, we used comprehensive simulation to systematically assess the type I error rate, power and effect size bias of CO studies of G × E in the presence of PS. Three types of PS were considered, namely genetic-only (PSG), environment-only (PSE), and joint genetic and environmental stratification (PSGE). Our results reveal that the type I error rate of an unadjusted Wald test, appropriate for the CO design, would be close to its nominal level (0.05 in our study) as long as PS involves only one interaction partner (i.e., either PSG or PSE). In contrast, if the study population is stratified with respect to both G and E (i.e., if there is PSGE), then the type I error rate is seriously inflated and estimates of the underlying G × E interaction are biased. Comparison of CO to a family-based case-parents design confirmed that the latter is more robust against PSGE, as expected. However, case-parent trios may be particularly unsuitable for G × E studies in view of the fact that they require genotype data from parents and that many diseases with an environmental component are likely to be of late onset. An alternative approach to adjusting for PS is principal component analysis (PCA), which has been widely used for this very purpose in past genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, resolving genetic PS properly by PCA

  18. Tunnels: different construction methods and its use for pipelines installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Tales; Soares, Ana Cecilia; Assis, Slow de; Bolsonaro, Ralfo; Sanandres, Simon [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In a continental dimensions country like Brazil, the pipeline modal faces the challenge of opening ROW's in the most different kind of soils with the most different geomorphology. To safely fulfill the pipeline construction demand, the ROW opening uses all techniques in earthworks and route definition and, where is necessary, no digging techniques like horizontal directional drilling, micro tunneling and also full size tunnels design for pipelines installation in high topography terrains to avoid geotechnical risks. PETROBRAS has already used the tunnel technique to cross higher terrains with great construction difficult, and mainly to make it pipeline maintenance and operation easier. For the GASBOL Project, in Aparados da Serra region and in GASYRG, in Bolivia, two tunnels were opened with approximately 700 meters and 2,000 meters each one. The GASBOL Project had the particularity of being a gallery with only one excavation face, finishing under the hill and from this point was drilled a vertical shaft was drilled until the top to install the pipeline section, while in GASYRG Project the tunnel had two excavation faces. Currently, two projects are under development with tunnels, one of then is the Caraguatatuba-Taubate gas pipeline (GASTAU), with a 5 km tunnel, with the same concepts of the GASBOL tunnel, with a gallery to be opened with the use of a TBM (Tunneling Boring Machine), and a shaft to the surface, and the gas pipeline Cabiunas-Reduc III (GASDUC III) project is under construction with a 3.7 km tunnel, like the GASYRG tunnel with two faces. This paper presents the main excavation tunneling methods, conventional and mechanized, presenting the most relevant characteristics from both and, in particular, the use of tunnels for pipelines installation. (author)

  19. Funding conservation through use and potentials for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan, Malaysia. (United States)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark


    The protected coral reefs off the coast of Malaysia receive numerous tourists, while also being as fishing grounds. These joint environmental pressures raise the need for additional costly conservation measures. It is natural to consider the potential for expanding the 'user pays' principle, already implemented in the form of various user fees. This study explores the potential for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan in Malaysia. The study applies a choice experiment to estimate scuba divers willingness to pay higher user fees for avoiding decreases of or getting improvements in environmental and recreational aspects of the diving experience. We investigate how sensitivity to fee size and hence willingness to pay vary with suitable selected characteristics of divers. We find potentials for a third degree price discrimination strategy exploiting higher willingness to pay among foreign divers (45%), male divers (16%) and people who has visited Sipadan several times (25%). Thus, revised pricing structures could significantly increase funds for the preservation of Sipadan.

  20. Operation and Funding of the Regional Wartime Construction Manager (United States)


    for 75 days, but construction requirements continue for a total of 90 days. a. Threat Forces The countries of Tiburon, Perro , Pared, Zorritos, of Perro through to the country of Cisnes. Concurrently, BP forces from their eastern command (Pared, Zorritos, Barco, and Mariposa) launch

  1. A Prototype System for Using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network): A NISE Funded Applied Research Project (United States)


    Technical Document 3276 September 2013 A Prototype System for using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A...point, it is difficult to employ directional antennas in a mobile ad hoc network ( MANET ) as most current radio and wireless networking protocols were...September 2013 Final A Prototype System for Using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A NISE funded Applied Research

  2. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  3. Artificial neural networks allow the use of simultaneous measurements of Alzheimer Disease markers for early detection of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardoni Fabrizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that in platelets of mild Alzheimer Disease (AD patients there are alterations of specific APP forms, paralleled by alteration in expression level of both ADAM 10 and BACE when compared to control subjects. Due to the poor linear relation among each key-element of beta-amyloid cascade and the target diagnosis, the use of systems able to afford non linear tasks, like artificial neural networks (ANNs, should allow a better discriminating capacity in comparison with classical statistics. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of ANNs in AD diagnosis. Methods 37 mild-AD patients and 25 control subjects were enrolled, and APP, ADM10 and BACE measures were performed. Fifteen different models of feed-forward and complex-recurrent ANNs (provided by Semeion Research Centre, based on different learning laws (back propagation, sine-net, bi-modal were compared with the linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Results The best ANN model correctly identified mild AD patients in the 94% of cases and the control subjects in the 92%. The corresponding diagnostic performance obtained with LDA was 90% and 73%. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that the processing of biochemical tests related to beta-amyloid cascade with ANNs allows a very good discrimination of AD in early stages, higher than that obtainable with classical statistics methods.

  4. Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Buildings During Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方东平; 耿川东; 张传敏; 祝宏毅; 刘西拉


    The safety analysis of reinforced concrete buildings during construction should be based on the comprehensive understanding of loads, load effects, structural resistance, and available safety index of the structure. This paper analyzes the characteristics and probabilistic models of resistance, loads, and load effects. A method was developed to calculate the probability of failure based on Monte Carlo simulation and models proposed in previous articles. Construction examples were used to analyze the influence of live load on the probability of failure. The results show that when the live load increases, the maximum probability of failure increases with acceleration. The results suggest that the construction live load should be carefully addressed during construction.

  5. Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park


    Full Text Available As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed.

  6. Direct chromatin PCR (DC-PCR: hypotonic conditions allow differentiation of chromatin states during thermal cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Vatolin

    Full Text Available Current methods to study chromatin configuration are not well suited for high throughput drug screening since they require large cell numbers and multiple experimental steps that include centrifugation for isolation of nuclei or DNA. Here we show that site specific chromatin analysis can be achieved in one step by simply performing direct chromatin PCR (DC-PCR on cells. The basic underlying observation was that standard hypotonic PCR buffers prevent global cellular chromatin solubilization during thermal cycling while more loosely organized chromatin can be amplified. Despite repeated heating to >90 °C, 41 of 61 tested 5' sequences of silenced genes (CDKN2A, PU.1, IRF4, FOSB, CD34 were not amplifiable while 47 could be amplified from expressing cells. Two gene regions (IRF4, FOSB even required pre-heating of cells in isotonic media to allow this differentiation; otherwise none of 19 assayed sequences yielded PCR products. Cells with baseline expression or epigenetic reactivation gave similar DC-PCR results. Silencing during differentiation of CD34 positive cord blood cells closed respective chromatin while treatment of myeloma cells with an IRF4 transcriptional inhibitor opened a site to DC-PCR that was occupied by RNA polymerase II and NFκB as determined by ChIP. Translation into real-time PCR can not be achieved with commercial real-time PCR buffers which potently open chromatin, but even with simple ethidium bromide addition to standard PCR mastermix we were able to identify hits in small molecules screens that suppressed IRF4 expression or reactivated CDKN2A in myeloma cells using densitometry or visual inspection of PCR plates under UV light. While need in drug development inspired this work, application to genome-wide analysis appears feasible using phi29 for selective amplification of open cellular chromatin followed by library construction from supernatants since such supernatants yielded similar results as gene specific DC-PCR.

  7. The Adaptation Fund: a model for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Harmeling, Sven; Kaloga, Alpha Oumar


    With millions of the poor already facing the impacts of a changing climate, adaptation is a globally urgent – and costly – issue. The Adaptation Fund, created under the Kyoto Protocol, has unique features that could herald a new era of international cooperation on adaptation. Its governance structure, for instance, offers a fresh approach to fund management under the UN climate convention. The Fund's Board has also developed a constructive working atmosphere, and further progress is expected before the 2009 climate summit in Copenhagen. But developing countries' demand for adaptation funding is huge: conservative estimates put it at US$50 billion a year. The Fund's current structure and funding base are clearly only a first step towards filling that gap. And despite its significant progress over the last 18 months, many countries, particularly in the developed world, remain sceptical about this approach. Looking in detail at the Fund's evolution offers insight into its future potential as a model for adaptation finance.

  8. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.


    Problem statement Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material and methods Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n = 15 each) according to investing method: plaster–plaster–plaster (P–P–P), plaster–stone–stone (P-S-S), and plaster–mix (P–M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I–I) and intermolar (M–M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor–molar (LI–LM and RI–RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to compare the results. Results M–M, LI–LM, and RI–RM movement was significantly greater in the P–P–P group than in the P–S–S and P–M groups; no significant difference in I–I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M–M and I–I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P–P–P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. Conclusion The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement. PMID:26792971

  9. 44 CFR 207.6 - Use of funds. (United States)


    ... SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.6 Use of funds. (a) The grantee or subgrantee must use management cost funds provided under this part in accordance with § 13.22 of this chapter and only for costs... accordance with § 207.8(f). (b) Indirect costs may not be charged directly to a project or...

  10. 42 CFR 403.808 - Use of transitional assistance funds. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of transitional assistance funds. 403.808 Section 403.808 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transitional Assistance Program § 403.808 Use of transitional assistance funds. (a) Individuals...

  11. On the use of photothermal techniques for monitoring constructed wetlands (United States)

    Gatts, C. E. N.; Faria, R. T.; Vargas, H.; Lannes, L. S.; Aragon, G. T.; Ovalle, A. R. C.


    Wetlands are a valued part of landscapes throughout the world. The steady increase of industrial facilities and disorganized urbanization processes, especially in developing countries, became a serious menace to these systems. The capability of wetlands to serve as a sink for nonpoint pollutants, particularly nutrients, is remarkable, but not limitless. For this reason, efforts to preserve them are considered a strategic issue for several countries. In addition, due to the exploding costs for sewage treatment, constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment (reed-bed systems) have been widely used under a variety of different conditions. Wetlands present unique characteristics related to biogeochemical cycles, the transport and transformation of chemicals due to interrelated physical, and chemical, and biological processes. Particularly, vegetated wetlands can act as a source for greenhouse gases through the emission of sediment-produced methane (CH4) to atmosphere. From studies concerning the behavior of Salvinia auriculata Aublet., we intend to demonstrate the potential use of photothermal techniques for monitoring gaseous emissions in wetlands.

  12. Using IND-CVA for constructing secure communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ZhenYu; JIANG JianChun; SUN FuChun


    Within the framework of UC (universally composable) security, a general method is presented to con-struct a secure channel protocol with using IND-CVA (indistinguishability of encryption scheme under ciphertext verification attacks). A channel protocol with using the method first invokes an ideal key-exchange protocol to get a session key, and then computes the messages with an authenticated en-cryption scheme. The paper shows that a channel protocol is UC secure if and only if the underlying authenticated encryption scheme is both IND-CVA secure and INT-PTXT secure. The condition about secure channel protocol in this paper is much weaker than IND-CCA secure and INT-CTXT secure. The IND-CVA can be presented for describing the privacy requirements of secure channels in detail. More-over, the method for designing secure channel protocol in the paper reduces the UC security of secure channels, which are measured by action-simulation in the UC security framework, to the security of authenticated encryption schemes, which are measured semantically.

  13. Use of IQRF technology for detection of construction inclination (United States)

    Martin, Pies; Radovan, Hajovsky


    This paper deals with the application of wireless measurement of inclination of objects located at mining dumps. Measurement of inclination uses a set of sensors including a gyroscope, an accelerometer and a magnetometer. Measured data is processed by AHRS algorithm that, once applied, allows getting more precise information on rotation of the object in the area compared to unprocessed data from accelerometer or gyroscope. Measurement chain consists of two parts. The first one is a wireless module reading the data from particular sensors via I2C bus and sends it consequently to a computer that performs evaluation and visualization of inclination. Communication among particular devices is ensured by IQRF technology working within ISM band of 868MHz. Application of this approach for measurement of inclination is a reasonable choice in case of measurement of inclination by inclinometers.

  14. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Evernden


    Full Text Available Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  15. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.


    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  16. Bitter Sweetness For Fund Managers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An influx of small investors eager to earn money puts heavy pressure on fund managers Fund managers control millions in capital and call the shots in the stock market. They can make a fortune from a single judgment. The debut of fund management operation

  17. An Investigation into the use and Construction Professionals` Preference for Migrant Craftsmen in Construction Project Delivery in Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanipekun Emmanuel Abiodun


    Full Text Available The paper investigated the extent of participation of migrant craftsmen in construction projects delivery in Ondo State; identified the countries of origin and the aspect of construction trades where they are involved, factors influencing the choice of migrant craftsmen by construction manager, as well as factors militating against the use of local craftsmen and the effect of using migrant craftsmen in the study area. A social survey strategy was adopted and questionnaire was used as an instrument to gather relevant data from practicing construction professionals in Ondo State. The data were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The result shows that migrant craftsmen from three major countries in West Africa namely Togo, Benin and Ghana were used on construction sites and they were commonly employed in the trades of tilling and interlocking. The dexterity of indigenous craftsmen (MS=4.20 was the major factor influencing the use of migrant craftsmen in these trades; cutting corners and rushing work while performing their responsibility, not keen on improving their training, alcoholism and drug abuse were ranked by the respondents as major factors militating against the use of local craftsmen. The result also indicates that the use and preference for Migrant craftsmen would increase unemployment rate for local craftsmen. The study concluded that migrant craftsmen were not predominantly used in construction projects delivery in Ondo State.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros KARGIDIS


    Full Text Available The study investigates the persistence in performance for a sample of South European funds, domiciled in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain. Employing the Sharpe ratio, risk adjusted performance is measured in an attempt to judge the influence of the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis on funds’ inclination to persist in their previous returns record. Examination period extends from January 2004 to December 2010 incorporating stages of relative stability in the stock and bond markets while also capturing the early stages of the eurozone crisis. We categorize funds as winners and losers in consecutive 6-monthly periods, thus being able to judge persistence in the short run, while our results suggest that the identification of winners and losers could enable us to investigate the possibility to gain investment advantages through this finding. Overall results suggest evidence of persistent results, whether positive or negative, both during the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis, leading us to deduce that factors leading to performance persistence are not affected by market changes, since medium to long term persistence bypasses any temporary market mischief. This finding could be of use for fund managers aiming at establishing viable investment strategies, at their epicenter being the exploitation of such clues, suggesting persistence in returns. A fund of funds manager employing funds both in equities and fixed income could potentially choose to invest exclusively or more heavily in the winners of previous periods and avoid accordingly poor performers, thus achieving higher returns on average. For this purpose simple investment strategies are employed where we test the outcome of an investment strategy that would invest on fixed income securities by choosing those funds that were winners in the distribution of returns in the previous 6-monthly period, while disinvesting from poor performers and funds switching sides in performance

  19. Constructions for Anonymous Secret Sharing Schemes Using Combinatorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-pu Deng; Li-feng Guo; Mu-lan Liu


    In an anonymous secret sharing scheme the secret can be reconstructed without knowledge of which participants hold which shares. In this paper some constructions of anonymous secret sharing schemes with 2 thresholds by using combinatorial designs are given. Let υ(t, ω, q) denote the minimum size of the set of shares of a perfect anonymous (t, ω) threshold secret sharing scheme with q secrets. In this paper we prove that υ(t, ω, q) = Θ(q) if t and ω are fixed and that the lower bound of the size of the set of shares in [4] is not optimal under certain condition.

  20. All-in-one construct for genome engineering using Cre-lox technology. (United States)

    Mariscal, Ana M; González-González, Luis; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume


    Mycoplasma genitalium is an appealing model of a minimal cell and synthetic biology study, and it was one of the first organisms whose genome was fully sequenced and chemically synthesized. Despite its usefulness as a model organism, many genetic tools well established for other microorganisms are not currently available in mycoplasmas. We have developed several vectors to adapt the Cre-lox technology for genome engineering in M. genitalium, providing an all-in-one construct that could be also useful to obtain unmarked genetic modifications in many other slow growing microorganisms. This construct contains a modified promoter sequence based in TetR system that exhibits an enhanced control on Cre recombinase expression, virtually abolishing the presence of this recombinase in the absence of inducer. This allows to introduce the Cre recombinase gene and the desired genetic modification in a single transformation step. In addition, this inducible promoter may be a very promising tool for a wide range of molecular applications.

  1. Accessing International Funding for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Ray, Aaron D.; Smith, Joel B.

    The primary aim of this guidebook is to provide countries participating in the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) Project with practical guidance that will help them secure financing for adaptation technology transfer project profiles identified in their Technology Action Plans (TAPs). The TNA...... of international public funding sources dedicated to adaptation investments (Chapter 3) • Seven fundamental eligibility criteria for accessing international public funding and guidance on how to apply these concepts to project ideas (Chapter 3) • A template (built on the abovementioned seven fundamental...... eligibility criteria) for developing/ presenting adaptation project ideas to international donors. Using this format when communicating project ideas to international donors and agencies is likely to facilitate greater interest and increase the chances of successfully accessing available funding (Chapter 3...

  2. 76 FR 45208 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees (United States)


    ... with'' requirement from the definition of ``biological child'' and changing the defined term from... relationships to either an employee, the employee's spouse, or the employee's domestic partner: (1) A biological... falsification, as well as constitute a criminal violation under 18 U.S.C. 1001, and that the method for...

  3. Research Funding: the Case for a Modified Lottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferric C. Fang


    Full Text Available The time-honored mechanism of allocating funds based on ranking of proposals by scientific peer review is no longer effective, because review panels cannot accurately stratify proposals to identify the most meritorious ones. Bias has a major influence on funding decisions, and the impact of reviewer bias is magnified by low funding paylines. Despite more than a decade of funding crisis, there has been no fundamental reform in the mechanism for funding research. This essay explores the idea of awarding research funds on the basis of a modified lottery in which peer review is used to identify the most meritorious proposals, from which funded applications are selected by lottery. We suggest that a modified lottery for research fund allocation would have many advantages over the current system, including reducing bias and improving grantee diversity with regard to seniority, race, and gender.

  4. Use of industrial amino acids to allow low protein concentrations in finishing diets for growing Muscovy ducks. (United States)

    Baeza, E; Leclercq, B


    1. Three experiments were performed to assess the effects of decreasing protein concentration in the finishing diets for growing Muscovy ducks (8 to 12 weeks of age) by adding 4 essential amino acids (AAs, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan). Experimental diets with crude protein (CP) contents from 105 to 142 g/kg, were compared with control diets providing 150 to 160 g/kg CP. In each trial, all diets were isocaloric. No significant modification in growth or carcase quality was observed when CP was greater than 124 g/kg in diets supplemented with the 4 essential AAs. 2. There was no advantages in supplying more than 4.3 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet (12.75 MJ ME/kg). When threonine was not added, breast yield decreased significantly (-4.3%), while omitting tryptophan supplementation did not influence performance. 3. Furthermore, the experiments confirmed that reducing CP had little or no effect on food conversion efficiency and fatness in Muscovy ducklings, unlike the observed situation in broiler chickens.

  5. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate. (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A


    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ravino


    Full Text Available   The paper presents a methodology that permits to construct regression dependences for traction curves of various tractors while using different operational backgrounds. The dependence construction process is carried out with the help of Microsoft Excel.

  7. Research funding for telemedicine: an Australian perspective. (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Campbell, Megan J; Burns, Clare L


    Winning research funding is one of the most difficult challenges faced by researchers, especially with falling success rates and shrinking budgets. Telemedicine researchers can find it especially hard to win funding as they are often researching small changes to the health system that whilst important for patient care are often not as competitive as proposals that promise to cure diseases. In a climate of both tight health funding and tight research funding, telemedicine researchers should emphasise the potential for their research to add value and lower costs in order to increase their chances of winning funding.

  8. Constructions of the Average Rate of Return of Pension or Investment Funds Based on Chain Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Białek


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of the proper construction of the average rate of return of pension (or investment funds. We refer to some economical postulates given by Gajek and Kaluszka (2000. We present, discuss and compare several measures of the average rate of return of funds. We also present alternative measures based on original chain indices. We take into consideration discrete and continuous time stochastic models.

  9. Constructional details for A simple atmospheric electrical instrument for educational use

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, A J


    Electricity in the atmosphere provides an ideal topic for educational outreach in environmental science. To support this objective, a simple instrument to measure real atmospheric electrical parameters has been developed and its performance evaluated. This project compliments educational activities undertaken by the Coupling of Atmospheric Layers (CAL) European research collaboration. The new instrument is inexpensive to construct and simple to operate, readily allowing it to be used in schools as well as at the undergraduate University level. It is suited to students at a variety of different educational levels, as the results can be analysed with different levels of sophistication. Students can make measurements of the fair weather electric field and current density, thereby gaining an understanding of the electrical nature of the atmosphere. This work was stimulated by the centenary of the 1906 paper in which C.T.R. Wilson described a new apparatus to measure the electric field and conduction current densi...




    The purpose of this article is to point out the poor absorption problem not only in Romania but also in other Member States of the European Union in terms of Structural and Cohesion Funds At the same time I will point out that the use of the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) has big flaws when it comes to funding public investment decisions in the EU cohesion policy. In terms of the Cost Benefit Analysis when dealing with the purpose of using ex-ante (that is a priority of any public commitment to ...

  11. Optical Orthogonal Code Construction Using Rejected Delays Reuse for Increasing SubWavelength-Switching Capacity (United States)

    Khattab, Tamer M. S.; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.


    Using a mathematical proof, the authors establish that in element-by-element greedy algorithms based on extended set representation of optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), smaller delay elements rejected during a construction step can be accepted in later steps. They design a novel algorithm that exploits this property and call it the rejected delays reuse (RDR) greedy algorithm. They show that employing the RDR method leads to code lengths that are shorter than those achieved for OOCs constructed using the classical greedy algorithm for the same code weight and the same number of simultaneous codes constraints. They then define a quantitative measure (factor) for OOCs efficiency based on its ability to expand subwavelength-switching capacity. They call this factor the expansion efficiency factor. They use this factor to show that reducing the code length, for the same code constraints, enhances the capacity of subwavelength optical code switched networks.

  12. [Štampar's contemporary Josip Šilović: the founder of the Colonization fund for orphans from hunger-stricken Croatian areas and the Fund for orphans of Croatian emigrants during World War I]. (United States)

    Szabo, Agneza


    This article gives a brief review of the scientific, academic, and political activity of Josip Šilović, and most importantly of his humanitarian work. He will be remembered for saving thousands of children who lost their fathers or brothers to World War I and who were left to starve to death. To this end Šilović and his associates established several funds and organisations, most notably Narodna zaštita. He continued with his humanitarian activities until he died in Zagreb in 1939.

  13. Fund my treatment!: A call for ethics-focused social science research into the use of crowdfunding for medical care. (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Mathers, Annalise; Crooks, Valorie A


    Crowdfunding involves raising money from large groups of individuals, often through the use of websites dedicated to this purpose. Crowdfunding campaigns aimed at raising money to pay for expenses related to receiving medical treatment are receiving increased media attention and there is evidence that medical crowdfunding websites are heavily used. Nonetheless, virtually no scholarly attention has been paid to these medical crowdfunding campaigns and there is no systematic evidence about how widely they are used and for what reasons, and what effects they have on the provision of medical care and individuals' relationships to their health systems. Ethical concerns have been raised in relation to these campaigns, focusing on issues for campaigners and donors such as exposure to fraudulent campaigns, loss of privacy, and fairness in how medical crowdfunding funds are distributed. Medical crowdfunding websites themselves have not been systematically studied, despite their significant influence on how these campaigns are developed and promoted. In this paper, we identify three very broad and pressing ethical questions regarding medical crowdfunding for social scientists to address and offer some preliminary insights into key issues informing future answers to each: Who benefits the most from medical crowdfunding and how does medical crowdfunding affect access to medical care; How does medical crowdfunding affect our understanding of the causes of inadequate access to medical care; and How are campaigner and donor privacy affected by website design? Our observations indicate the need for increased scholarly attention to the ethical and practical effects of medical crowdfunding for campaigners, recipients, donors, and the health system as a whole.

  14. Radiative data for allowed transitions in Ni XXV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tully, John A [Departement Cassiopee, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Chidichimo, Marita C [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    Using Hibbert's configuration interaction program CIV3, which allows for relativistic effects by means of the Breit-Pauli approximation, we have computed radiative data for the 272 optically allowed transitions between levels i = 2l{sub 1} 2l{sub 2} S'L'J' and j = 2l{sub 3} n{sub 4}l{sub 4} SLJ with n{sub 4} = 2, 3, 4 in Be-like Ni XXV. Oscillator strengths f, transition probabilities A, line wavelengths {lambda} and energies E{sub ij} in cm{sup -1} are tabulated. We make detailed comparisons with related work done by other authors during the period 1977 to 2000.

  15. Improvement of Groundwater Quality Using Constructed Wetland for Agricultural Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek


    Full Text Available This research was designed to evaluate the performance of Constructed Wetlands (CW for groundwater quality improvement. In the first phase of this study, performance of CW planted with cattails for Manganese (Mn and Iron (Fe reduction was evaluated at 12, 24 and 48 hours of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT. Average efficiencies of all tested CW systems were higher than 90 and 75% for Mn and Fe concentration reduction. Subsequently, the efficiency of CW operated at 12 hours of HRT was investigated at different plant harvest intervals. In the second phase of study, Mn and Fe removal efficiencies were 75-100 and 48-99%, respectively. Both Mn and Fe removal efficiencies for the CW system were not different between 4, 6 and 8 weeks of harvest intervals. However, the efficiency obviously increased after the first plant harvest. Average Mn and Fe removal rates of the CWs operated at the tested harvest intervals were 0.068 to 0.092 and 0.383 to 0.432 g/m2/d, respectively. Fe removal rate was not significantly different under the various test conditions. However the highest Mn removal rate was obtained in CWs operated with a harvest interval of 4 weeks. Mn accumulation rates in cattail shoots and roots were 0.04-8.25 and 0.83-23.14 mg/m2/d, respectively. Fe accumulation rates in those were 0.04-164.27 and 249.62-1,701.54 mg/m2/d, respectively. Obviously, cattail underground tissues accumulated both Mn and Fe at higher concentrations than those of the above ground tissue. These results show that CW can improve the quality of groundwater before agricultural irrigation.

  16. Researchers’ Adoption of an Institutional Central Fund for Open-Access Article-Processing Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pinfield


    Full Text Available This article analyzes researchers’ adoption of an institutional central fund (or faculty publication fund for open-access (OA article-processing charges (APCs to contribute to a wider understanding of take-up of OA journal publishing (“Gold” OA. Quantitative data, recording central fund usage at the University of Nottingham from 2006 to 2014, are analyzed alongside qualitative data from institutional documentation. The importance of the settings of U.K. national policy developments and international OA adoption trends are considered. Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT is used as an explanatory framework. It is shown that use of the central fund grew during the period from covering less than 1% of the University’s outputs to more than 12%. Health and Life Sciences disciplines made greatest use of the fund. Although highly variable, average APC prices rose during the period, with fully OA publishers setting lower average APCs. APCs were paid largely from internal funds, but external funding became increasingly important. Key factors in adoption are identified to be increasing awareness and changing perceptions of OA, communication, disciplinary differences, and adoption mandates. The study provides a detailed longitudinal analysis of one of the earliest central funds to be established globally with a theoretically informed explanatory model to inform future work on managing central funds and developing institutional and national OA policies.

  17. Iraq; Use of Fund Resources—Request for Emergency Post-Conflict Assistance


    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews Iraq’s Request for Emergency Post-Conflict Assistance (EPCA). The authorities’ main goals under the EPCA-supported program are to improve the general welfare of the Iraqi people and address Iraq’s external debt problem. The authorities’ program is to be underpinned by a prudent fiscal policy that aims to limit spending to available government revenues and external resources, the use of the exchange rate to anchor inflation expectations, and the planning and undertak...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification and calculation of a new methodological approach to the construction of a standard beach seine (502 / 302 х 3.75 with the use of the properties of mirror netting ensuring the saving of the netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance. Methodology. The carp age group selectivity of the constructed seine was assessed within fish fauna monitoring based on the catch analysis of monitoring gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-130 mm according to generally accepted methods [9, 10]. Calculation of netting materials and ropes was carried out according to generally accepted methods [12-14]. Seine resistance was calculated according to N. T. Senin formula for different netting materials and the angles of the movement of different seine parts in water [2]. The gear reliability and data processing were carried out according to standard methods [11, 14, 15]. Findings. A variant of the construction of the maximum lightweight beach lake seines made of mirror pattern netting taking into account the properties of the mirror pattern netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance has been proposed. The provided recalculation of the properties of a serial seine made of rhombic mesh for the mirror netting seine taking into account netting properties allowed: 1 reducing the seine drag resistance value by 1,4 times; 2 reducing the weight of netting materials by 16.3% compared to the prototype; 3 increasing the seine selectivity when fishing older age groups of carp in non-drainable ponds. Originality. We presented the method of the calculation and construction of lake beach seines made of mirror netting, analyzed the technological stages of the construction of mirror netting, determined main qualitative and technological parameters, which had effect on the conditions of the construction and reliability of such fishing gears. A new method of the use of an insert of the combined netting material cutting ensuring

  19. Using a Modular Construction Kit for the Realization of an Interactive Computer Graphics Course. (United States)

    Klein, Reinhard; Hanisch, Frank

    Recently, platform independent software components, like JavaBeans, have appeared that allow writing reusable components and composing them in a visual builder tool into new applications. This paper describes the use of such models to transform an existing course into a modular construction kit consisting of components of teaching text and program…

  20. Opportunities for Funding at NSF (United States)

    Kafafi, Zakya H.


    Materials science, inter- and multi-disciplinary in nature, provides the bridge to many areas of fundamental and applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering. Strong links that may exist between materials science and other disciplines, such as biology or chemistry or physics, very often lead to novel applications and enable technologies of great benefit to our society. The Division of Materials Research (DMR) invested 274.0 M in FY 2008 and is estimated to invest 324.6 M in FY 2009 funding research and education as well as enabling tools & instrumentation for individual investigators, groups, centers, and national facilities. DMR programs cover a wide spectrum of materials research and education ranging from condensed matter and materials physics, solid-state and materials chemistry, multifunctional, hybrid, electronic, photonic, metallic, ceramic, polymeric, bio-materials, composites and nanostructures to list a few. New modes of funding, research opportunities and directions, such as the recent SOLAR solicitation, will be described. This Solar Energy Initiative launched jointly by three divisions, namely Chemistry, Materials Research and Mathematical Science is aimed at supporting truly interdisciplinary efforts that address the scientific challenges of highly efficient harvesting, conversion, and storage of solar energy. The goal of this new program is to create a new modality of linking the mathematical with the chemical and materials sciences to develop transformative paradigms based on the integrated expertise and synergy from three disciplinary communities. DMR is also seeking new ways to transform materials science and education, and make it more attractive as a career for bright, young women & men. A description will be given of several workshops held this year and planned for next year with this purpose in mind. Outreach programs that emphasize how the innovations resulting from materials research

  1. Authorities and Options for Funding USSOCOM Operations (United States)


    Operations Forces SOR Statement of Requirements SPOC Single Point of Contact TSOC Theater Special Operations Command UFR Unfunded Requirement USAREUR...2 and MFP-11 funding (see Appendix A). – A dispute resolution process that designates a single point of contact ( SPOC ) for both the MILDEPs and...could serve as a useful model for MOAs that USSOCOM has with the Navy and the Air Force. 4. Include a Single Point of Contact ( SPOC ) for each MOA and

  2. Pension fund

    CERN Multimedia


    At its June 2006 meeting, the Finance Committee approved the following amendment to Article 6a of the Regulations for elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, which will enter into force on 1.7.2006: Current text New text ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections and for issuing all relevant information. ... ... 6a. The Administrator of the Fund shall be responsible for holding the elections by electronic voting or, if this method cannot be used, following the procedure outlined in Articles 6i., 6j. and 6k. below. He shall issue to the members of the Pension Fund all relevant information concerning the elections. The deadlines mentioned in paragraphs 6i. and 6j. below shall apply mutatis mutandis to electronic voting. ... The amendment will allow the Pension Fund to use an electronic voting procedure for the election of elected members to the Governing Board of the Fund. It will be included in a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulatio...

  3. 25 CFR 170.301 - Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans? (United States)


    ... or pay back loans? 170.301 Section 170.301 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Financing § 170.301 Can a tribe use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds or pay back loans? (a) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to leverage other funds. (b) A tribe can use IRR Program funds to pay...

  4. Ready to Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone & Cartilage Trauma (United States)


    supplied cell- permeable green fluorescent dye (Ex/Em = 488/518 nm) and propidium iodide (PI), a cell non- permeable red fluorescent dye (Ex/Em = 488/615...fixation is commonly used for forearm bone fractures. For femur and tibia, intramedullary nailing is a common choice of internal fixation. For the...humerus, both plate and screws and intramedullary nailing are used. However, for skeletal defects following resection of malignant tumors, intramedullary

  5. E-Learning System for Design and Construction of Amplifier Using Transistors (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi


    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for the comprehensive understanding of electronic circuits with transistors. The proposed e-Learning system allows users to learn a wide range of topics, encompassing circuit theories, design, construction, and measurement. Given the fact that the amplifiers with transistors are an integral part of…

  6. Funding conservation through use and potentials for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark


    The protected coral reefs off the coast of Malaysia receive numerous tourists, while also being as fishing grounds. These joint environmental pressures raise the need for additional costly conservation measures. It is natural to consider the potential for expanding the ‘user pays’ principle...

  7. Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita


    The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.

  8. Estimating study costs for use in VOI, a study of dutch publicly funded drug related research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asselt, A.D.; Ramaekers, B.L.; Corro Ramos, I.; Joore, M.A.; Al, M.J.; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Postma, M.J.; Vemer, P.; Feenstra, T.F.


    Objectives: To perform value of information (VOI) analyses, an estimate of research costs is needed. However, reference values for such costs are not available. This study aimed to analyze empirical data on research budgets and, by means of a cost tool, provide an overview of costs of several types

  9. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor


    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  10. Use of electrospinning to construct biomaterials for peripheral nerve regeneration. (United States)

    Quan, Qi; Chang, Biao; Meng, Hao Ye; Liu, Ruo Xi; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shi Bi; Peng, Jiang; Zhao, Qing


    A number of limitations associated with the use of hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) require further discussion. Most importantly, the functional recovery outcomes after the placement of hollow NGCs are poor even after the successful bridging of peripheral nerve injuries. However, nerve regeneration scaffolds built using electric spinning have several advantages that may improve functional recovery. Thus, the present study summarizes recent developments in this area, including the key cells that are combined with the scaffold and associated with nerve regeneration, the structure and configuration of the electrospinning design (which determines the performance of the electrospinning scaffold), the materials the electrospinning fibers are composed of, and the methods used to control the morphology of a single fiber. Additionally, this study also discusses the processes underlying peripheral nerve regeneration. The primary goals of the present review were to evaluate and consolidate the findings of studies that used scaffolding biomaterials built by electrospinning used for peripheral nerve regeneration support. It is amazing that the field of peripheral nerve regeneration continues to consistently produce such a wide variety of innovative techniques and novel types of equipment, because the introduction of every new process creates an opportunity for advances in materials for nerve repair.

  11. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska


    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  12. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs. (United States)


    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  13. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs. (United States)


    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  14. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation


    Gikas, Vassilis


    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the...

  15. 28 CFR 33.23 - Limitations on fund use. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on fund use. 33.23 Section 33.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Allocation of Funds § 33.23 Limitations on fund use. In order to insure the...

  16. An Instructional Playground for the Handicapped Using Tires as Inexpensive Playground Equipment: Activity and Construction Manual. (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Special Education Instructional Materials Center.

    The manual explains how special education students in an occupational program used tires to construct an inexpensive instructional playground for handicapped elementary school pupils. Presented in two sections with accompanying pictures or diagrams are activity ideas for using the tires in a variety of configurations (Part 1) and construction and…

  17. New Mexico's Model for Funding School Facilities' Greatest Needs (United States)

    Gorrell, Robert; Salamone, Frank


    The New Mexico Public Schools Facilities Authority (NM-PSFA) is a relatively small state agency (50 staff members) that manages the allocation of funding for public school facilities in the state while assisting school districts and state-chartered charter schools in facility planning, construction, and maintenance. Like the majority of other…

  18. Preliminary discussion on construction fund supervision of water conservancy projects%水利工程基本建设项目资金监管问题初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    围绕南水北调中线水源工程建设资金管理问题,分析了目前国家大型基本建设项目资金管理存在的薄弱环节;针对南水北调中线水源工程建设实际,提出了确保资金安全的应对措施。包括提高内控制度执行力度,加强资金管理;加强资金使用成本核算,提高资金使用效率;大力推行项目法人责任制,建立激励机制;完善制度建设,使资金管理有法可依等。由于加强了对工程建设项目资金的监管,始终将资金监管工作贯穿于工程建设的全过程,目前尚无一例贪腐案件发生,有效确保了资金安全。%Aiming at the weak links in construction fund supervision in large infrastructure construction, and according to the problems existed in construction fund supervision of water sources project for Middle Route Project of South to North Water Diver-sion, we present some countermeasures to ensure the construction fund safety, such as strengthening the internal control of con-struction fund supervision and the fund management, improving the cost accounting of construction fund utilization to increase construction fund using efficiency, promoting the responsibility system of legal person and establishing incentive mechanism, fur-ther perfecting the relevant systems and rules to realize regulation by laws. By implementing the construction fund supervision through the whole construction process, the construction fund safety was guaranteed and no corruption occurred.

  19. Chlorine dioxide project allows Stora to clean up, use hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, G.


    Effluent fouling into the Strait of Canso between Nova Scotia mainland and Cape Breton Island has caused Stora Forest Industries Ltd. to develop a $5.6 million solution to its chlorine and acid problems. In 1987, Stora produced about 160,000 tonnes of market pulp where their resource base increasingly consisted of hardwood. The company uses hardwood chips for a growing percentage of its annual pulp production and for its hog fuel boiler, but became faced with having to use more local hardwoods which contributes to the resin problem. Their solution was to construct a 12-tpd chlorine dioxide generator, a process using dry sodium chlorate added to concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, The products are chlorine dioxide and highly concentrated sulphuric acid resulting from the elimination of water at the starting point. This will eliminate the acid effluent from the generator and the sulphuric acid will be recycled to the top of the chlorine dioxide generation process. In the new process, ClCO/sub 2/ replaces 70% of the chlorine in the first stage, with 100% substitution a goal. In addition to eliminating the chlorine, other benefits include an increase in pulp production, a nominal increase in pulp strength, lower production costs, and an economic incentive to harvest the area's mixed-wood stands.

  20. A new award for the CERN Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Recently, the CERN Pension Fund was awarded the 2013 Investment and Pensions Europe (IPE) Award for “Best Use of Equities”. IPE is the leading European Pension Fund industry publication.   The award recognized CERN’s implementation of capital preservation principles in equities, referring in particular to CERN’s innovation with the development of “asymmetric” equity strategies. The awards were judged by a panel of 65 European pension fund executives, experts and consultants. In addition, CERN was selected by the judges as a finalist for “Best Public Pension Fund” in Europe.  This award was won by the UK government’s Pension Protection Fund.

  1. 24 CFR 590.19 - Use of section 810 funds. (United States)


    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND.... Participants receiving Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds may charge eligible administrative... administrative funds, provided such administrative expenditures would satisfy other title I requirements....

  2. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs. (United States)


    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  3. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs. (United States)


    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  4. A Fascinating Application of Steiner's Theorem for Trapezium: Geometric Constructions Using Straightedge Alone (United States)

    Stupel, Moshe; Ben-Chaim, David


    Based on Steiner's fascinating theorem for trapezium, seven geometrical constructions using straight-edge alone are described. These constructions provide an excellent base for teaching theorems and the properties of geometrical shapes, as well as challenging thought and inspiring deeper insight into the world of geometry. In particular, this…

  5. Using (green) bricks and mortar for dialysis clinic construction. (United States)

    Bednar, Bob


    The completed dialysis unit demonstrates that building green means creating and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout a building's life cycle. The common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the environment on human health and the natural environment by: using energy, water and other resources more efficiently; protecting patient health while improving staff productivity; reducing waste.

  6. Characterization of a modified ROCK2 protein that allows use of N6-ATP analogs for the identification of novel substrates


    Couzens, Amber L.; Gill, R. Montgomery; Scheid, Michael P.


    Background The Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase-2 (ROCK2) is an important signaling transducer in the transmission of extracellular signals effecting organization of the actin cytoskeleton. ROCK2 has been implicated in numerous pathologies and the current focus is on understanding the molecular events that couple ROCK2 activity to biological function. To aid in the search for new ROCK2 substrates, we have developed an analog-sensitive (AS) ROCK2 protein that allows the use of selective ATP a...

  7. 34 CFR 628.45 - How much endowment fund income may a grantee use and for what purposes? (United States)


    ... total aggregate endowment fund income to do so if the grantee demonstrates that the expenditure is... period, a grantee— (1) May withdraw and spend up to 50 percent of the total aggregate endowment fund income earned prior to the date of expenditure; (2) May spend the endowment fund income for— (i)...

  8. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing this notice for use of, and to solicit public comment on the draft Interim...

  9. Has aid for AIDS raised all health funding boats? (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Berlan, David; Hafner, Tamara


    Global health analysts have debated whether donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS control has lifted all boats, raising attention and funding levels for health issues aside from HIV/AIDS. We investigate this question, considering donor funding for 4 historically prominent health agendas-HIV/AIDS, health systems strengthening, population and reproductive health, and infectious disease control-over the decade 1998-2007. We employ funding data from the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which tracks donor aid. The data indicate that HIV/AIDS may have helped to increase funding for the control of other infectious diseases; however, there is no firm evidence that other health issues beyond the control of infectious diseases have benefited. Between 1998 and 2007, funding for HIV/AIDS control rose from just 5.5% to nearly half of all aid for health. Over the same period, funding for health systems strengthening declined from 62.3% to 23.9% of total health aid and that for population and reproductive health declined from 26.4% to 12.3%. Also, even as total aid for health tripled during this decade, aid for health systems strengthening largely stagnated. Overall, the data indicate little support for the contention that donor funding for HIV/AIDS has lifted all boats.

  10. Ready to Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone & Cartilage Trauma (United States)


    hopefully lead to the development of new military technology products and utilities for the definitive and preventive orthopaedic care of military personnel...leg weight bearing, the incision site was erythematous, swollen, and hot to touch. The treatment with additional antibiotic was initiated. On the...When torsion loading was to be applied, the ball was removed and the square tube, coated with grease to prevent axial loading, was placed into the

  11. Funding, Funding (United States)

    Altman, Micah


    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  12. 23 CFR 661.35 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and... (United States)


    ... BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? 661.35 Section 661.35 Highways... RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.35 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for use on BIA and Tribally owned IRR bridges, and non-BIA owned IRR bridges? (a) Up to 80 percent of the available...

  13. Energy use for building construction. Final report, March 1, 1976--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, B M; Stein, R G; Segal, B; Serber, D; Stein, C


    Total (direct and indirect) energy requirements of the construction industry for 1967 were determined in order to examine the potential for energy savings. The Energy Input/Output Model developed at the Center for Advanced Computation, University of Illinois, was expanded to include 49 building and non-building construction sectors (new and maintenance). Total energy intensities were determined for these sectors, as well as energy requirements to final demand. Overall, the construction industry required about 6000 trillion Btu, or about 9% of the total U. S. energy requirement in 1967. About 20% of this requirement was for direct energy. Energy requirements were further broken down according to goods and services purchased by individual construction sectors, and energy distribution patterns were determined within each construction sector. Energy cost per unit for various building materials were calculated, as well as 1967 energy cost per square foot for building sectors. Laboratories required the most energy per square foot (2,074,056 Btu/SF), while Farm Service required the least (149,071 Btu/SF). Comparative interchangeable building assemblies were evaluated for their energy costs, including initial construction and lifetime maintenance energy. Tradeoffs between construction and operational energy costs were determined for a selected wall frame assembly with different exterior finishes and varying degrees of insulation. A study was initiated to determine industries in which direct energy use led to a significant amount of the energy embodied in New Building Construction for 1967. The resulting Energy Flow Chart is included.

  14. Analysis of OPLA scaffolds for bone engineering constructs using human jaw periosteal cells. (United States)

    Alexander, Dorothea; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Munz, Adelheid; Friedrich, Björn; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Reinert, Siegmar


    For bone regeneration constructs using human jaw periosteal cells (JPC) the extent of osteoinductive ability of different three-dimensional scaffolds is not yet established. We analyzed open-cell polylactic acid (OPLA) scaffolds for their suitability as bone engineering constructs using human JPC. Cell adhesion and spreading was visualized on the surface of scaffolds by scanning electron microscopy. JPC proliferation within OPLA scaffolds was compared with proliferation within collagen and calcium phosphate scaffolds. We found a significant increase of proliferation rates in OPLA scaffolds versus Coll/CaP scaffolds at three time points. Live-measurements of oxygen consumption within the cell-seeded scaffolds indicate that the in vitro culturing time should not exceed 12-15 days. OPLA scaffolds, which were turned out to be the most beneficial for JPC growth, were chosen for osteogenic differentiation experiments with or without BMP-2. Gene expression analyses demonstrated induction of several osteogenic genes (alkaline phosphatase, osterix, Runx-2 and insulin-like growth factor) within the 3D-scaffolds after 12 days of in vitro culturing. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of arising nodules during osteogenesis demonstrated that JPC growing within OPLA scaffolds are able to form CaP particles. We conclude that OPLA scaffolds provide a promising environment for bone substitutes using human JPC.

  15. Three-dimensional bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with polycaprolactone protective layers for using various thermoplastic polymers. (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Jang, Jinah; Chae, Suhun; Gao, Ge; Kong, Jeong-Sik; Ahn, Minjun; Cho, Dong-Woo


    Three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed constructs have been recognized as promising biological substitutes for tissue/organ regeneration. They provide tailored physical properties and biological cues via multi-material printing process. In particular, hybrid bioprinting, enabling to use biodegradable synthetic polymers as framework, has been an attractive method to support weak hydrogels. The constructs with controlled architecture and high shape fidelity were fabricated through this method, depositing spatial arrangement of multi-cell types into microscale constructs. Among biodegradable synthetic polymers, polycaprolactone (PCL) has been commonly chosen in fabrication of cell-printed constructs because of its low melting temperature of 60 °C to be dispensed with extrusion-based bioprinting system. However, in addition to PCL, various synthetic polymers have been widely applied for tissue regeneration. These polymers have distinctive characteristics essential for tissue/organ regeneration. Nevertheless, it is difficult to use some polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polylactic acid (PLA) with 3D bioprinting technology because of their high melting temperature to be dispensed, which can result in thermal damage to the cells in the printed constructs during the fabrication process. We present a novel bioprinting method to use various synthetic polymers in fabrication of cell-printed constructs. PCL was introduced as a protective layer to prevent thermal damage caused by high temperature of polymers during fabrication. Remarkable improvement in cellular activities in the printed constructs with PCL layers was observed compared with the construct without PCL. This bioprinting method can be applied to fabricate more tissue-like constructs through the use of various biomaterials.

  16. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid


    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  17. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea


    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  18. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds



    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  19. Barriers to the implementation of medication-assisted treatment for substance use disorders: the importance of funding policies and medical infrastructure. (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J; Oser, Carrie B


    Despite growing interest in the use of evidence-based treatment practices, adoption of pharmacotherapies for treating substance use disorders (SUDs) remains modest. Using data from telephone interviews with 250 administrators of publicly funded SUD treatment programs, this study estimated a model of adoption of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for SUDs and examined the relative importance of regulatory, cultural, medical resource, patient-level, and funding barriers to MAT implementation. MAT-adopting programs had significantly greater medical resources, as measured by the employment of physicians and nurses, than non-adopting programs. Administrators of non-adopting programs were asked to rate the importance of 18 barriers to MAT implementation. The most strongly endorsed barriers were regulatory prohibitions due to the program's lack of medical staff, funding barriers to implementing MAT, and lack of access to medical personnel with expertise in delivering MAT. Barriers related to insufficient information about MAT and unsupportive staff attitudes were not widely endorsed. These findings suggest that efforts to promote the implementation of MAT that are inattentive to funding barriers and weaknesses in medical infrastructure may achieve sub-optimal results.

  20. Social Security Funds Clamor for Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzed the institutional deficiencies inherent in China’s social security system based on a dissection of various social security fund violations. It holds that the unscientific design in social security system is the root cause for social security fund violations, which is reflected in low level of social security unification, irrational investment system and legislative loopholes etc. Currently, China’s social security funds are facing risks in management and in system; The key of risk control lies in the reforming of the overall framework of social security system through the following aspects: 1) readjust the unified account system structure to raise the level of unification; 2) reform funds investment system to boost ROI; 3) speeding up legislative to regulate the administrative costs and the behaviors of its entities.

  1. Allowed Parameter Regions for a Tree-Level Inflation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xin-He


    The early universe inflation is well known as a promising theory to explain the origin of large-scale structure of universe and to solve the early universe pressing problems. For a reasonable inflation model, the potential during inflation must be very flat, at least, in the direction of the inflaton. To construct the inflaton potential all the known related astrophysics observations should be included. For a general tree-level hybrid inflation potential, which is notdiscussed fully so far, the parameters in it are shown how to be constrained via the astrophysics data observed and to be obtained to the expected accuracy, and to be consistent with cosmology requirements.``

  2. On the Methods for Calculating Annual Allowable Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sokolov


    Full Text Available Crisis in supplying regions and the country related to available forest resources and low profitability of forest sector, as a whole, is an indicator of failure of the existing model of forest management and forest use organization in Russia at the present time. Many Russian regions, which are traditionally considered as forest industrial territories, face the challenge of lack of economically accessible forests. The forests are decreasing against a background of under exploitation of the annual allowable cut. This situation occurs in Siberia as well. In many cases, using calculated allowable cut will result in unsustainable harvest levels and a future decrease of accessible forest resources. Thus, the statement that «a volume of wood resource utilization is determined by allowable cut represented the scientifically grounded norm of sustainable forest use» is considered as no more than the declarative proposition. Modeling the normal forest, and using a formula of allowable cut calculation estimated for some decades based on the modeling, is totally unreliable and unreal. The long-term forecast should use analog methods, but it will hardly be sufficiently accurate and adequate to set norms. In order to estimate ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources, an algorithm was made, and a method and model were developed. This model is based on GIS-database and makes it possible to estimate accessibility of forest resources and to map it as well. The conclusion on necessity to determine annual allowable cut in two varieties was drawn following the procedures for calculating annual allowable cut. The first variety is silvicultural (according the currently used methods and the other one is economically accessible allowable cut, which could provide economic effective use of tradable mature wood, taking in to account ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources.

  3. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs (United States)

    Bardzell, Michael


    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  4. Design Methodology for Automated Construction Machines (United States)


    positioning of structural members, and tunneling [3,5]. U.S. construction firms typically allocate little or no funding for R & D; progress to date...addition, four general purpose robots for building construction tasks [1] and the automation of sandblasting and concrete formwork cleaning have been

  5. Especially using technology of virtual devices for construct and management of radioelectronic means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Smolyaninov


    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper is dedicated to providing the construct process and control electronic equipment by means of multi-purpose devices developed on the basis of modern information technologies that use virtual space and virtual instrumentation technology. The technology of virtual instrument. Technology acquisition and processing of information in the research process allows using virtual space and virtual instrument technology, combining them with real objects using multi-purpose devices (MPD. Designed MPD are software and hardware systems that can perform the function of measuring and electronic device and issue control signals of different shapes and configurations. Especially programming a virtual appliance. Virtual device based on a personal computer and created in software environment LabVIEW, fundamentally changes the technology re-search and management. The practical relevance of LabVIEW using graphical programming combines research programs with the real world, helping engineers and scientists to visualize theoretical concepts and physical objects implementing them in practical projects. Creation virtual booth for the study of electronic means. Simple user interface is created in the environment of LabVIEW. The front panel displays the virtual instrument that recreates the look of a real device. Thus to perform research it is only required computer skills with the ability to read and indications. Conclusions. Built with the help of virtual appliances MPD helps to ensure full implementation of research and design challenges. The skills with modern instrumentation and electronic equipment, modern principles of research were mastered. It allows to study the ac-tion of dangerous and harmful factors without contact with them, remotely to monitor and participate in industrial experiments on expensive electronic equipment.

  6. Constructing entanglement measures for fermions (United States)

    Johansson, Markus; Raissi, Zahra


    In this paper we describe a method for finding polynomial invariants under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) for a system of delocalized fermions shared between different parties, with global particle-number conservation as the only constraint. These invariants can be used to construct entanglement measures for different types of entanglement in such a system. It is shown that the invariants, and the measures constructed from them, take a nonzero value only if the state of the system allows for the observation of Bell-nonlocal correlations. Invariants of this kind are constructed for systems of two and three spin-1/2 fermions and examples of maximally entangled states are given that illustrate the different types of entanglement distinguished by the invariants. A general condition for the existence of SLOCC invariants and their associated measures is given as a relation between the number of fermions, their spin, and the number of spatial modes of the system. In addition, the effect of further constraints on the system, including the localization of a subset of the fermions, is discussed. Finally, a hybrid Ising-Hubbard Hamiltonian is constructed for which the ground state of a three-site chain exhibits a high degree of entanglement at the transition between a regime dominated by on-site interaction and a regime dominated by Ising interaction. This entanglement is well described by a measure constructed by the introduced method.

  7. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber


    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  8. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria (United States)

    Gruber, M.


    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  9. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding. (United States)


    ... funding. 3432.771 Section 3432.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 3432.771 Provision for incremental funding. The contracting officer shall insert the provision in...

  10. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dulal


    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.

  11. Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation and Dynamic Portfolio Strategy Design Using Value at Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Traditional evaluation techniques for mutual funds are based on CAPM or APT. Propose a new measure benefiting from Value at Risk is proposed in this paper.We show how to apply the VAR dynamics to the evaluation of mutual funds. Meanwhile,we applied the idea to the design of dynamic portfolio construction strategies. As for the portfolio weight adjusting, this paper is focused on the optimal adjusting strategies with cost happens and those on concrete time points.

  12. Method of Constructing Core Collection for Malus sieversii in Xinjiang, China Using Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-yu; CHEN Xue-sen; ZHANG Yan-min; YUAN Zhao-he; LIU Zun-chun; WANG Yan-ling; LIN Qun


    The method for constructing core collection of Malus sieversii based on molecular marker data was proposed. According to 128 SSR allele of 109 M. sieversii, an allele preferred sampling strategy was used to construct M. sieversii core collection, using the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group average method) cluster method according to Nei & Li, SM, and Jaccard genetic distances, by stepwise clustering, and compared with the random sampling strategy. The number of lost allele and t-test of Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were used to evaluate the representative core collections. The results showed that compared with the random sampling strategy, allele preferred sampling strategy could construct more representative core collections. SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances had no significant difference for construction of M. sieversii core collection. SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) data and morphological data showed that allele preferred sampling strategy was a good sampling strategy for constructing core collection of M. sieversii. Allele preferred sampling strategy combined with SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances using stepwise clustering was the suitable method for constructing M. sieversii core collection.

  13. Statistical Downscaling for Rainfall Forecasts Using Modified Constructed Analog Method in Thailand (United States)

    Anuchaivong, Patchalai; Sukawat, Dusadee


    The simulations of rainfall from historical data were created in this study by using statistical downscaling. Statistical downscaling techniques are based on a relationship between the variables that are solved by the General Circulation Models (GCMs) and the observed predictions. The Modified Constructed Analog Method (MCAM) is a technique in downscaling estimation, suitable for rainfall simulation accuracy using weather forecasting. In this research, the MCAM was used to calculate the Euclidean distance to obtain the number of analog days. Afterwards, a linear combination of 30 analog days is created with simulated rainfall data which are determined by the corresponding 5 days from the adjusted weights of the appropriate forecast day. This method is used to forecast the daily rainfall and was received from the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) from the period during 1979 to 2010 at thirty stations. The experiment involved the use of rainfall forecast data that was combined with the historical data during the rainy season in 2010. The result showed that the MCAM gave the correlation value of 0.8 resulting in a reduced percentage error of 13.66%. The MCAM gave the value of 1094.10 mm which was the closest value to the observed precipitation of 1119.53 mm. PMID:28317010

  14. When a general morphology allows many habitat uses. (United States)

    Tulli, María J; Cruz, Félix B; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Abdala, Virginia


    During the last decades the study of functional morphology received more attention incorporating more detailed data corresponding to the internal anatomy that together contribute for a better understanding of the functional basis in locomotion. Here we focus on 2 lizard families, Tropiduridae and Liolaemidae, and use information related to muscle-tendinous and external morphology traits of hind legs. We investigate whether the value of the traits analyzed tend to exhibit a reduced phenotypic variation produced by stabilizing selection, and whether species showing specialization in their habitat use will also exhibit special morphological features related to it. As a result, we identified that evolution of hind limb traits is mainly explained by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, suggesting stabilizing selection. Liolaemids and tropidurids show clear ecomorphological trends in the variables considered, with sand lizards presenting the most specialized morphological traits. Some ecomorphological trends differ between the 2 lineages, and traits of internal morphology tend to be more flexible than those of external morphology, restricting the ability to identify ecomorphs shared between these 2 lineages. Conservative traits of external morphology likely explain such restriction, as ecomorphs have been historically defined in other lizard clades based on variation of external morphology.

  15. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden


    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  16. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Barnieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries, and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status, or with age (in 15 countries. Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. CONCLUSIONS: There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  17. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation. (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert


    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits.

  18. Construction of Foundation for 15-Foot Spin Tunnel (United States)


    Completed foundation for the outer housing for the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000.

  19. Silica dust exposures during selected construction activities. (United States)

    Flanagan, Mary Ellen; Seixas, Noah; Majar, Maria; Camp, Janice; Morgan, Michael


    This study characterized exposure for dust-producing construction tasks. Eight common construction tasks were evaluated for quartz and respirable dust exposure by collecting 113 personal task period samples for cleanup; demolition with handheld tools; concrete cutting; concrete mixing; tuck-point grinding; surface grinding; sacking and patching concrete; and concrete floor sanding using both time-integrating filter samples and direct-reading respirable dust monitors. The geometric mean quartz concentration was 0.10 mg/m(3) (geometric standard deviation [GSD]=4.88) for all run time samples, with 71% exceeding the threshold limit value. Activities with the highest exposures were surface grinding, tuck-point grinding, and concrete demolition (GM[GSD] of 0.63[4.12], 0.22[1.94], and 0.10[2.60], respectively). Factors recorded each minute were task, tool, work area, respiratory protection and controls used, estimated cross draft, and whether anyone nearby was making dust. Factors important to exposure included tool used, work area configuration, controls employed, cross draft, and in some cases nearby dust. More protective respirators were employed as quartz concentration increased, although respiratory protection was found to be inadequate for 42% of exposures. Controls were employed for only 12% of samples. Exposures were reduced with three controls: box fan for surface grinding and floor sanding, and vacuum/shroud for surface grinding, with reductions of 57, 50, and 71%, respectively. Exposures were higher for sweeping compound, box fan for cleanup, ducted fan dilution, and wetted substrate. Construction masons and laborers are frequently overexposed to silica. The usual protection method, respirators, was not always adequate, and engineering control use was infrequent and often ineffective.

  20. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Jr., Hugh [CDH Energy Corp., Beijing (China)


    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  1. Quasi-Newton Method for Optimal Blank Allowance Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Manyi


    A balancing technique for casting or forging parts to be machined is presented in this paper. It allows an optimal part setup to make sure that no shortage of material (undercut) will occur during machining. Particularly in the heavy part industry, where the resulting casting size and shape may deviate from expectations, the balancing process discovers whether or not the design model is totally enclosed in the actual part to be machined. The alignment is an iterative process involving nonlinear constrained optimization, which forces data points to lie outside the nominal model under a specific order of priority. Newton methods for non-linear numerical minimization are rarely applied to this problem because of the high cost of computing. In this paper, Newton methods are applied to the balancing of blank part. The aforesaid algorithm is demonstrated in term of a marine propeller blade, and result shows that The Newton methods are more efficient and accurate than those implemented in past research and have distinct advantages compared to the registration methods widely used today.

  2. The Attention and Research of Domestic Academia on Public Cultural Service ---Based on the Analysis of National Social Fund Project during Recent 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yongsheng


    The construction of public cultural service is a practical way that safeguard people’s basic cultural rights and interests,which is a upper design to construct a powerful cul-ture of socialist country. It is of great significance to build a whole well-off society. The arti-cle is based on some cases of National Social Science Fund on the aspects of Public Cultural Service Project during 1994 to 2015 and put forward some advice and ideas in order to offer reference and lessons for the theoretical research and exploration of our country’s Public Cul-tural Service.

  3. Implementing a Student-Based Funding Policy: Considerations for School Districts (United States)

    Shambaugh, Larisa S.; Chambers, Jay G.


    As education budgets continue to tighten, increased attention is focused on how school districts can best distribute existing funds to schools and how schools can best use these funds. Student-based funding (SBF)--sometimes referred to as a weighted student formula--is one approach that school districts have taken during the past decade. SBF…

  4. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa’a M. Salloum


    Conclusion: The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement.

  5. Purification, stability, and immunogenicity analyses of five bluetongue virus proteins for use in development of a subunit vaccine that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. (United States)

    Anderson, Jenna; Bréard, Emmanuel; Lövgren Bengtsson, Karin; Grönvik, Kjell-Olov; Zientara, Stéphan; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Hägglund, Sara


    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes bluetongue disease, a vector-borne disease of ruminants. The recent northerly spread of BTV serotype 8 in Europe resulted in outbreaks characterized by clinical signs in cattle, including unusual teratogenic effects. Vaccination has been shown to be crucial for controlling the spread of vector-borne diseases such as BTV. With the aim of developing a novel subunit vaccine targeting BTV-8 that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, five His-tagged recombinant proteins, VP2 and VP5 of BTV-8 and NS1, NS2, and NS3 of BTV-2, were expressed in baculovirus or Escherichia coli expression systems for further study. Optimized purification protocols were determined for VP2, NS1, NS2, and NS3, which remained stable for detection for at least 560 to 610 days of storage at +4°C or -80°C, and Western blotting using sera from vaccinated or experimentally infected cattle indicated that VP2 and NS2 were recognized by BTV-specific antibodies. To characterize murine immune responses to the four proteins, mice were subcutaneously immunized twice at a 4-week interval with one of three protein combinations plus immunostimulating complex ISCOM-Matrix adjuvant or with ISCOM-Matrix alone (n = 6 per group). Significantly higher serum IgG antibody titers specific for VP2 and NS2 were detected in immunized mice than were detected in controls. VP2, NS1, and NS2 but not NS3 induced specific lymphocyte proliferative responses upon restimulation of spleen cells from immunized mice. The data suggest that these recombinant purified proteins, VP2, NS1, and NS2, could be an important part of a novel vaccine design against BTV-8.

  6. A novel protocol that allows short-term stem cell expansion of both committed and pluripotent hematopoietic progenitor cells suitable for clinical use. (United States)

    Astori, G; Malangone, W; Adami, V; Risso, A; Dorotea, L; Falasca, E; Marini, L; Spizzo, R; Bigi, L; Sala, P; Tonutti, E; Biffoni, F; Rinaldi, C; Del Frate, G; Pittino, M; Degrassi, A


    To obtain long-term engraftment and hematopoiesis in myeloablated patients, the cell population used for hematopoietic reconstitution should include a sufficient number of early pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), along with committed cells from the various lineages. For this purpose, the small subset of CD34+ cells purified from different sources must be expanded ex vivo. Since cytokines may induce both proliferation and differentiation, expansion would provide a cell population comprising committed as well as uncommitted cells. Optimization of HSC expansion methods could be obtained by a combination of cytokines able to sustain renewal of pluripotent cells yet endowed with poor differentiation potential. We used variations of the combinations of cytokines described by Brugger et al. [W. Brugger, S. Heimfels, R. J. Berenson, R. Mertelsmann, and L. Kanz (1995) N. Engl. J. Med. 333, 283-287] and Piacibello et al. [W. Piacibello, F. Sanavio, L. Garetto, A. Severino, D. Bergandi, J. Ferrario, F. Fagioli, M. Berger, and M. Aglietta (1997) Blood 89, 2644-2653] to expand UCB CD34+ cells and monitored proliferation rate and phenotype after 14 days of culture. Several hematopoietic lineage-associated surface antigens were evaluated. Our data show that flt3L and thrombopoietin in combination with IL-3, while sustaining a high CD34+ proliferation rate, provide a relatively low enrichment in very early uncommitted CD34+/CD38- cells. Conversely, in the absence of IL-3, they are less effective in inducing proliferation yet significantly increase the number of CD34+/CD38- cells. A combination of the above protocols, applied simultaneously to aliquots of the same sample, would allow expansion of both committed and pluripotent HSC. This strategy may represent a significant improvement for clinical applications.

  7. Stock investment funds in Brazil: performance and management expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Faustino Matos


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the stock investment fund market in Brazil and proposes dynamic rankings constructed from different risk-return metrics, during the period from 1998 to 2009. We find an uncommon level of persistence, mainly among the best performing funds, due to the expertise of the managers. The quadrimestral rebalancing of the portfolios based on these rankings permits inferring that in scenarios characterized as economic booms or recovery of financial markets, the strategies with equal participation in winner funds provides significantly higher average monthly gains, reduction of risk associated with diversification and consequently enhanced performance in relation to market or sector benchmarks. This evidence is robust to the use of different performance metrics for fund selection, indicating that active investors in winning funds demand good performance not only in terms of the Sharpe ratio, but also with respect to other metrics, such as the Treynor, Calmar and Sortino ratios. In these optimistic scenarios, only the industrial sector index (INDX provided returns compatible with those of these fund’s portfolios. However, during periods of crisis, no strategy involving the funds managed to provide hedge levels characteristic of the electric energy sector index (IEE, so it can be said that the majority of investing strategies are dominated in gain-risk criteria by sector or market indexes, with the exception of value-weighted portfolios composed of losing funds, a signal that the usual passive investors in large funds indexed to the Ibovespa can be presenting a greater level of inertia.

  8. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)


    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  9. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social

  10. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia


    Cheong Ai Theng; Tong Seng Fah; Khoo Ee Ming


    Abstract Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is no...

  11. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on...

  12. Indian Education: Funding Sources for Public Schools. (United States)

    Lockart, Barbetta L.

    Although provisions in countless treaties have mandated Indian educational services, federal and state governments were for many years unenthusiastic about accepting the responsibility for educating the Indian people. Inadequately funded educational services provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs did little to reflect the realities and needs of…

  13. DRAFT One Year Extension of the Short-Term National Product Waiver for Stainless Steel Nuts and Bolts used in Pipe Couplings, Restraints, Joints, Flanges and Saddles for State Revolving Fund Projects (United States)

    DRAFT one year extension of the short-term national product waiver for stainless steel nuts and bolts used in pipe couplings, restraints, joints, flanges and saddles for State Revolving Fund projects.

  14. Private Funds for Public Schools. (United States)

    Addonizio, Michael F.


    Discusses sources of nontraditional revenue for public school systems: the result of donor activities (the solicitation of goods, services, and money via direct and indirect donations); enterprise activities (the selling or leasing of services or facilities); and shared or cooperative activities (pooling functions with other agencies or…

  15. Obtaining Funding and Support for Undergraduate Research (United States)

    Dorff, Michael; Narayan, Darren A.


    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in undergraduate research activities at colleges and universities nationwide. However, this comes at a time when budgets are being tightened and some institutions do not have the resources to pursue new initiatives. In this article we present some ideas for obtaining funding and support for…

  16. Risk Measures for Autocorrelated Hedge Fund Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Di Cesare (Antonio); Ph.A. Stork (Philip); C.G. de Vries (Casper)


    textabstractStandard risk metrics tend to underestimate the true risks of hedge funds because of serial correlation in the reported returns. Getmansky et al. (2004) derive mean, variance, Sharpe ratio, and beta formulae adjusted for serial correlation. Following their lead, adjusted downside and glo

  17. Alternative Funding For Public Goods Provision


    Kodrat Wibowo


    Finding alternatives in public good financing is one of the most recent issues in the government sector. Tax-financed for pure public good is well known results further problems like externalities and economic inequity. This paper only addresses the qualitative analysis in discussing benefits and costs of the society in applying some alternatives in funding public good provisions, pure and impure one.

  18. Financing of the Construction Strategy of Leningrad During the Siege (1941-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Anastasiya Valeryevna


    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of archival documents the strategy of public authorities aimed at organizing in Leningrad construction, rehabilitation and repair works carried out in 1941-1944, is investigated, the activity of Leningrad lending institutions (Leningrad communal Bank and Agricultural Bank, which provided loans to enterprises, institutions and residents of Leningrad on various types of construction, is analyzed. Leningrad banks performed two main functions: control over the licit distribution of funds in construction organizations that were responsible for operational and residential buildings in Leningrad and providing citizens with affordable loans to buy and build houses. The author presents statistical information on the number of building and installation companies on the eve of the Great Patriotic War and during the siege of Leningrad. In the article the dynamics of building frames in different periods of the war is traced, the sharp deterioration in the training associated with the fact that most of the builders went into the Red army is noted. The article also notes the role of banks in preventing unfair wage calculation, which was carried out by the construction organizations. On the basis of study of experience of Leningrad banks activity in the extreme conditions of the siege, the author makes a conclusion about the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by the Central government and the local authorities on lending to government organizations and individuals. The author points to the important experience of enterprises, which become guarantors for their employees to banks. As a result, the employees received money at a lo interest rate. The author believes that this contributed to increased responsibility of workers for the results of their work that eventually affected the efficiency of enterprises. According to the author, it is necessary to use the historical experience of financing of enterprises, institutions and

  19. Use of plasma enhanced ALD to construct efficient interference filters for astronomy in the FUV (United States)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Nemanich, Robert; Eller, Brianna; Yu, Hongbin; Mooney, Tom; Beasley, Matt


    Over the past few years the advent of atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology has opened new capabilities to the field of coatings deposition for use in optical elements. At the same time, there have been major advances in both optical designs and detector technologies that can provide orders of magnitude improvement in throughput in the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) passbands. Recent review work has shown that a veritable revolution is about to happen in astronomical diagnostic work for targets ranging from protostellar and protoplanetary systems, to the intergalactic medium that feeds gas supplies for galactic star formation, and supernovae and hot gas from star forming regions that determine galaxy formation feedback. These diagnostics are rooted in access to a forest of emission and absorption lines in the ultraviolet (UV)[1], and all that prevents this advance is the lack of throughput in such systems, even in space-based conditions. We outline an approach to use a range of materials to implement stable optical layers suitable for protective overcoats with high UV reflectivity and unprecedented uniformity, and use that capability to leverage innovative ultraviolet/optical filter construction to enable astronomical science. These materials will be deposited in a multilayer format over a metal base to produce a stable construct. Specifically, we will employ the use of PEALD (plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition) methods for the deposition and construction of reflective layers that can be used to construct unprecedented filter designs for use in the ultraviolet.

  20. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Lutz, Beat [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55128 (Germany)


    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  1. Assessment of the service life of structural steels by using degradation models with allowance for fatigue and creep of the material (United States)

    Volkov, I. A.; Egunov, V. V.; Igumnov, L. A.; Kazakov, D. A.; Korotkikh, Yu. G.; Mitenkov, F. M.


    A mathematical model is developed within the framework of equations of damaged medium mechanics to describe the processes of viscoplastic straining and damage accumulation in structural steels with allowance for fatigue and creep of the material. A model of damage summation due to interaction of low-cycle fatigue and creep of the material is proposed. Material parameters and scalar functions of equations of mechanics of damaged media are determined. Viscoplastic straining and fatigue-induced damage accumulation in 08Kh18N10T and 12Kh18N9 are studied numerically, and the data obtained are compared with available results of physical experiments.

  2. Designing a Forex Trading and Equity Investment Strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund


    Malik, Rizvan


    Construct the investment strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund. Identify profit making opportunities in Foreign Exchange (Forex) & Equities using both conventional and non-conventional indicators. The author is to articulate and document his current knowledge in the chosen area in order to stimuate ideas in creating potential investment strategies. Justify knowledge with actual results in a genuine live investment. Critique and evluate the effectiveness of the proposed investment ...

  3. 50 CFR 86.21 - What activities are ineligible for funding? (United States)


    ... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Funding State Grant Proposals § 86.21 What activities are ineligible for funding... janitorial maintenance of the facility; (g) Construct, renovate, or maintain boating infrastructure...

  4. 77 FR 39468 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Capital Construction Fund-Deposit/Withdrawal... (United States)


    .../withdrawal requirements established in program regulations and properly accounting for fund activity on their... 34-82. Type of Review: Regular submission (extension of a current information collection). Affected... Time per Response: 20 minutes. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours: 667. Estimated Total Annual Cost...

  5. Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1997 (United States)


    This technical memorandum contains brief technical papers describing research and technology development programs sponsored by the Ames Research Center Director's Discretionary Fund during fiscal year 1997 (October 1996 through September 1997). Appendices provide administrative information for each of the sponsored research programs.

  6. Directors's Discretionary Fund Report For Fiscal Year 1995 (United States)


    This technical memorandum contains brief technical papers describing research and technology development programs sponsored by the Ames Research Center Director's Discretionary Fund during the fiscal year 1995 (October 1994 through September 1995). An appendix provides administrative information for each of the sponsored research programs.

  7. Director's discretionary fund report for fiscal year 1994 (United States)


    This technical memorandum contains brief technical papers describing research and technology development programs sponsored by the Ames Research Center Director's Discretionary Fund during fiscal year 1991 (October 1993 through September 1994). An appendix provides administrative information for each of the sponsored research programs.

  8. Using Domain Ontology in a Semantic Blogging System for Construction Professionals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cynthia Changxin Wang; Dongbai Xue


    Smooth communication is essential for the success of construction projects. As an easy-to-use,context-rich, and high-capacity communication tool, blogging is gaining popularity in construction industry. In this paper, the features of biogging technology and how it could benefit construction organizations are pre-sented. To further improve the effectiveness of blogging technology in information and knowledge sharing,an ontology-based semantic blogging system is proposed. Semantic blogging is an extension of conven-tional blogging and ontology is the key enabling technology for it. Domain-ontology-based semantic blogging site is composed of a network of concepts, which are cleady defined and interlinked according to their con-text and bound to certain behaviors. This paper reports how the e-Cognos ontology was implemented into a blogging system and how the system functions to process its contents. The paper concludes that using on-tology-based semantic blogging site can greatly enhance information sharing between construction profes-sionals and it is a very promising tool for construction communities to publish and share their experience.

  9. Innovativeness in housing construction and the role of the Housing Fund: From residence to an integral living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Mlinar


    Full Text Available This article attempts to contribute to clarification of the conditions and actors impacting innovativeness in housing construction and the management of space. It concentrates on the role of the Slovenian national Housing Fund, which is too restricted and lacks appropriate legal bases and means, and also – according to some evaluations – the aspiration to assert its innovative and developmental role. The Fund is focussed on the financial-economic aspects of providing non-profit housing and housing for the market. Currently attention is primarily directed towards its legal-organizational structure and its transformation into an independent company. This neglects broader consideration of socio-spatial change, developmental directions and values in the context of the information age (Lisbon Strategy, which call for innovative sociological, architectural and urbanistic solutions. Mindsets, legal norms and institutions in Slovenia are lagging behind these changes. Thus, housing is still mainly treated as a discrete segment. In order to perform their task in this new framework, which demands more integral treatment of the everyday living environment and reintegration of living, work and recreation, the mandate of the housing funds must no longer be confined merely to housing. Several examples of innovative design as well as their limitations are presented, together with examples of good international practice.

  10. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan


    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  11. Overview: Permanent University Fund (PUF)/Higher Education Fund (HEF) (United States)

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009


    All public institutions of higher education except community colleges and the Texas A&M University System College of Dentistry receive funding for construction and other capital purposes from the Permanent University Fund (PUF) or the Higher Education Fund (HEF) (sometimes referred to as the Higher Education Assistance Fund or HEAF). The…

  12. Constructing quantum circuits for maximally entangled multi-qubit states using the genetic algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zheyong; Goertzel, Ben; Ren, Zhongzhou; Zeng, Huabi


    Numerical optimization methods such as hillclimbing and simulated annealing have been applied to search for highly entangled multi-qubit states. Here the genetic algorithm is applied to this optimization problem -- to search not only for highly entangled states, but also for the corresponding quantum circuits creating these states. Simple quantum circuits for maximally (highly) entangled states are discovered for 3, 4, 5, and 6-qubit systems; and extension of the method to systems with more qubits is discussed. Among other results we have found explicit quantum circuits for maximally entangled 5 and 6-qubit circuits, with only 8 and 13 quantum gates respectively. One significant advantage of our method over previous ones is that it allows very simple construction of quantum circuits based on the quantum states found.

  13. Use of linear mixed models for genetic evaluation of gestation length and birth weight allowing for heavy-tailed residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrick Dorian J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of residual effects in linear mixed models in animal breeding applications is typically assumed normal, which makes inferences vulnerable to outlier observations. In order to mute the impact of outliers, one option is to fit models with residuals having a heavy-tailed distribution. Here, a Student's-t model was considered for the distribution of the residuals with the degrees of freedom treated as unknown. Bayesian inference was used to investigate a bivariate Student's-t (BSt model using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in a simulation study and analysing field data for gestation length and birth weight permitted to study the practical implications of fitting heavy-tailed distributions for residuals in linear mixed models. Methods In the simulation study, bivariate residuals were generated using Student's-t distribution with 4 or 12 degrees of freedom, or a normal distribution. Sire models with bivariate Student's-t or normal residuals were fitted to each simulated dataset using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. For the field data, consisting of gestation length and birth weight records on 7,883 Italian Piemontese cattle, a sire-maternal grandsire model including fixed effects of sex-age of dam and uncorrelated random herd-year-season effects were fitted using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. Residuals were defined to follow bivariate normal or Student's-t distributions with unknown degrees of freedom. Results Posterior mean estimates of degrees of freedom parameters seemed to be accurate and unbiased in the simulation study. Estimates of sire and herd variances were similar, if not identical, across fitted models. In the field data, there was strong support based on predictive log-likelihood values for the Student's-t error model. Most of the posterior density for degrees of freedom was below 4. Posterior means of direct and maternal heritabilities for birth weight were smaller in the Student's-t model

  14. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on welfare indicators in Merino lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozar, A.; Rodriguez, A.I.; Garijo, P.; Calvo, L.; Vergara, H.


    A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA) during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24); 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24) and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24)] and two lairage treatments (TL) during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36) vs feeding (FEED; n=36)] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05). SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001) while increased LDH (p<0.001). Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05) of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001) in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage. (Author)

  15. Using the Reputation Score Management for Constructing Fair P2P File Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Han


    Full Text Available This paper has used the reputation score management for constructing a fair P2P file sharing system, the system design principle is simple and easy to realize, and every node entering into the P2P network obtains a certain reputation score, and obtains the corresponding resources reward according to the score. This paper has described the fair sharing strategies facing node network bandwidth and TTL, and these strategies can be used independently or be combined with other reputation score managements of P2P network. These two strategies have been discussed in the specific reputation score management system of P2P network Eigen Trust, and the test results indicate that: compared with a common P2P network, the fair sharing strategies of this paper have faster file download speed and can decrease the network message communication amount during the process looking for resources. It can also be combined with another reputation management system. it is simple and easy to be realized, its main purposes are to fairly share network bandwidth and to decrease information communication volume, and it can suppress the free riding behavior to some extent.

  16. Design, Construction, and Qualification of a Microscale Heater Array for Use in Boiling Heat Transfer (United States)

    Rule, T. D.; Kim, J.; Kalkur, T. S.


    Boiling heat transfer is an efficient means of heat transfer because a large amount of heat can be removed from a surface using a relatively small temperature difference between the surface and the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms that govern boiling heat transfer are not well understood. Measurements of wall temperature and heat flux near the wall would add to the database of knowledge which is necessary to understand the mechanisms of nucleate boiling. A heater array has been developed which contains 96 heater elements within a 2.5 mm square area. The temperature of each heater element is held constant by an electronic control system similar to a hot-wire anemometer. The voltage that is being applied to each heater element can be measured and digitized using a high-speed A/D converter, and this digital information can be compiled into a series of heat-flux maps. Information for up to 10,000 heat flux maps can be obtained each second. The heater control system, the A/D system and the heater array construction are described in detail. Results are presented which show that this is an effective method of measuring the local heat flux during nucleate and transition boiling. Heat flux maps are obtained for pool boiling in FC-72 on a horizontal surface. Local heat flux variations are shown to be three to six times larger than variations in the spatially averaged heat flux.

  17. Chances dim for fiscal '97 boost in AIDS drug funds. (United States)


    Congressional leaders rejected a proposal to supplement Federal funding for State-run AIDS drug assistance programs (ADAP), and President Clinton refused to intervene. A proposal by Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) that included $68 million in additional ADAP funding was part of a supplemental appropriations bill aimed largely at paying for flood relief. Some State ADAP programs remain financially sound following the latest round of Ryan White CARE Act grant allocations. Several States have curtailed new enrollments or adopted other cost-saving measures. Almost all of the States' budgets are being rapidly depleted as more people demand access to expensive medicines. The worst problem is in Mississippi, where State funds are not used to cover AIDS programs. AIDS policy advocates and State public health officials were disappointed that President Clinton declined to support Rep. Pelosi's request. The President's AIDS policy director, Sandra Thurman, explained that the funding request could not be developed without taking into account two factors. First, the Department of Health and Human Services is seeking ways to extend Medicaid eligibility to more low-income people living with HIV, reducing the ADAP budget. Second, upcoming treatment guidelines could affect the amount of funding needed to adequately fund the ADAPs. The guidelines are expected to recommend combination drug therapy using a protease inhibitor.

  18. 7 CFR 3403.14 - Use of funds; changes. (United States)


    ... Supplementary Information § 3403.14 Use of funds; changes. (a) Delegation of fiscal responsibility. Unless the... consolidation; and the incorporation of a proprietorship or partnership, or the formation of a partnership....

  19. Innovative Carbon Allowance Allocation Policy for the Shenzhen Emission Trading Scheme in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye


    Full Text Available The initial allocation of tradable carbon emission allowances is among the most contentious issues in developing an emission trading scheme (ETS. China faces serious dilemmas of system complexity and information incompleteness and asymmetry in allocating carbon allowance among enterprises. As one of the pilot ETS regions, Shenzhen has launched the first regional cap-and-trade ETS (SZ ETS in China. Adhering to the overall plan and classification analysis, SZ ETS intends to solve the aforementioned dilemmas by developing innovative allowance allocation policies. A fundamental principle is to allocate allowances based on carbon intensity and actual output, according to which a two-step allocation procedure is constructed. A competitive game mechanism is introduced for allowance allocation among manufacturing enterprises. Empirical results indicate the following: (1 Carbon allowance allocation based on carbon intensity and actual output can mitigate carbon emission growth by reducing CO2 emitted per unit output, and, thus, buffer the shocks of unexpected economic fluctuations to ETS stability; (2 Competitive game allocation may contribute to improving the use of scattered information to enhance the efficiency of information and emission resource allocation. Exploring SZ ETS may provide a reference for formulating future national carbon allowance allocation policies in China and other developing regions.

  20. Controlling for the use of extreme weights in bank efficiency assessments during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Zhu, Minyan


    the financial crisis, we illustrate the impact of the proposed weight restrictions in two different efficiency models; one related to banks’ funding mix and one related to their asset mix. The results show that using a more balanced set of weights tend to reduce the estimated efficiency scores more for those...... banks which were bailed out during the crisis, which confirms the potential bias within standard DEA that does not control for extreme weights applied by highly risky banks. We discuss the use of the proposed method as a regulatory tool to constrain discretion when complying with regulatory capital...... benchmarks such as the Basel regulatory capital ratios....

  1. Perceptions on Barriers to the Use of Burnt Clay Bricks for Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Baiden


    Full Text Available Burnt clay bricks can be readily manufactured in Ghana as all ten regions have significant clay deposits with the Ashanti region having the highest estimated deposit of 37.1 million metric tonnes. In recent times, burnt clay bricks have been regarded as old fashioned and replaced by other perceived modern walling units within Kumasi, the metropolitan capital of Ashanti Region, despite its availability, unique advantages (aesthetics, low maintenance cost, etc., and structural and nonstructural properties. This study involved a questionnaire survey of 85 respondents made up of architects, brick manufacturing firms, and brick house owners or occupants in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana and sought to examine their perceptions on barriers to the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction. The findings revealed that the key factors inhibiting the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction are low material demand, excessive cost implications, inappropriate use in construction, noncompatibility of burnt clay bricks with other materials, unreliable production, and transportation problems. The findings however provide a platform for stakeholders to address the barriers to enable the extensive use of clay bricks in housing constructions.

  2. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.


    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.



    Lucia Lizarazu


    The paper aims to identify the main points of consensus and disagreement between monetary theory in Marx and the quantity theory of money, and motivation as a contribution to debate on the need and scope for monetary planning in socialist construction. The study allows us to conclude that monetary planning in socialist construction must ensure compliance with the law of the amount of paper money needed in the circulation and the general law of circulation, so as to guarantee the function of m...

  4. Risky business. Organizations tackle infection control during construction. (United States)

    Burmhal, Beth


    Construction projects, no matter how minor, can be dangerous for patients who are especially sensitive to infection. Guidelines from three prominent organizations are finally helping hospitals understand how to prevent infections during those projects.

  5. 34 CFR 365.20 - What are the authorized uses of funds? (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the authorized uses of funds? 365.20 Section 365.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... For What Purpose Are Funds Authorized or Required To Be Used? § 365.20 What are the authorized uses...

  6. Process Analysis of Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH) Within the Military Personnel, Marine Corps (MPMC) Appropriation (United States)



  7. Dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete frame structure during construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ming-ge; YI Wei-jian


    The effects of concrete's time-variant elastic modulus, casting structural components, assembling temporary shoring framework system, and shock by operating construction equipment on dynamic behavior of the reinforced concrete frame structure during construction were investigated. The dynamic tests of an eight-storey reinforced concrete frame structure during full-scaled stages of the sixth storey construction cycle were carried out by ambient vibration. Natural frequencies, corresponding mode shapes and damping ratio were determined by power spectrum processing the tested signal data in frequency domain. The changes of frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios at different construction stages were given. The results show that natural frequencies and modal damping ratios reach the maximum at stage of casting fresh concrete, especially for higher modes. Modal damping ratios at each construction stage are less than 5% of those during usage.

  8. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbins Maureen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73 than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5 when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9 when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research

  9. Student use of a Learning Management System for group projects: A case study investigating interaction, collaboration, and knowledge construction (United States)

    Lonn, Steven D.

    Web-based Learning Management Systems (LMS) allow instructors and students to share instructional materials, make class announcements, submit and return course assignments, and communicate with each other online. Previous LMS-related research has focused on how these systems deliver and manage instructional content with little concern for how students' constructivist learning can be encouraged and facilitated. This study investigated how students use LMS to interact, collaborate, and construct knowledge within the context of a group project but without mediation by the instructor. The setting for this case study was students' use in one upper-level biology course of the local LMS within the context of a course-related group project, a mock National Institutes of Health grant proposal. Twenty-one groups (82 students) voluntarily elected to use the LMS, representing two-thirds of all students in the course. Students' peer-to-peer messages within the LMS, event logs, online surveys, focus group interviews, and instructor interviews were used in order to answer the study's overarching research question. The results indicate that students successfully used the LMS to interact and, to a significant extent, collaborate, but there was very little evidence of knowledge construction using the LMS technology. It is possible that the ease and availability of face-to-face meetings as well as problems and limitations with the technology were factors that influenced whether students' online basic interaction could be further distinguished as collaboration or knowledge construction. Despite these limitations, students found several tools and functions of the LMS useful for their online peer interaction and completion of their course project. Additionally, LMS designers and implementers are urged to consider previous literature on computer-supported collaborative learning environments in order to better facilitate independent group projects within these systems. Further research is

  10. Enabling Quality: Electronic Health Record Adoption and Meaningful Use Readiness in Federally Funded Health Centers. (United States)

    Wittie, Michael; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie; Shi, Leiyu; Nair, Suma


    The Health Resources and Services Administration has supported the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) by federally funded health centers for over a decade; however, little is known about health centers' current EHR adoption rates, progress toward Meaningful Use, and factors related to adoption. We analyzed cross-sectional data from all 1,128 health centers in 2011, which served over 20 million patients during that year. As of 2011, 80% of health centers reported using an EHR, and high proportions reported using many advanced EHR functionalities. There were no indications of disparities in EHR adoption by census region, urban/rural location, patient sociodemographic composition, physician staffing, or health center funding; however, there were small variations in adoption by total patient cost and percent of revenue from grants. Findings revealed no evidence of a digital divide among health centers, indicating that health centers are implementing EHRs, in keeping with their mission to reduce health disparities.

  11. Energy use for bulding construction: supplement. Final report, February 1, 1977--October 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, B M; Stein, R G; Segal, B Z; Deibert, P F; Buckley, M; Nathan, D


    This supplement amplifies the information contained in the basic report, Energy Use for Building Construction (December, 1976). With the addition of the information on energy per unit of component in major areas not covered by the original report, broad audits of energy embodied in buildings can now be made. Major areas added are metal doors and windows, plastics, plumbing fixtures, plumbing fittings, heating equipment, electrical equipment, copper pipe and wire, aluminum pipe and wire, and asphalt. An examination of energy distribution in typical 1-family residential construction shows that a greater percentage of the total energy required is in the general construction (as opposed to plumbing, heating, ventilating, and electrical) than in the dollar percentage divisions. The largest single category of energy use in new building construction is direct energy (the energy brought to and expended on the job site). It is almost totally in the form of refined petroleum, which represents almost 15 percent of all energy required to build buildings. Of this, 59 percent is in asphalt, 14 percent in gasoline, 23 percent in diesel fuel, and the balance in fuel oil and liquid petroleum. In broad categories, building construction is more labor-intensive per dollar than non-building construction, and alterations and additions are more labor-intensive per dollar than new building. This is in reverse order from energy intensivity in these categories. These relationships do not apply consistently in examining detailed examples. In two specific comparisons of assemblies meeting equal performance standards, the more energy-intensive were also the more labor-intensive.

  12. Department Director's Fund for Earthquake Relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ On May 30,2008,NSFC Department of Chemical Sciences launched its Director's Fund Emergency Program"Technologies for the collection and analysis of the bacteria and viruses in the air of earthquake stricken areas",which was undertaken by Prof.Zhu Tong and his research group from the Environment and Health Research Center and the College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering of Peking University.

  13. Performance and Persistence of Brazilian Hedge Funds During the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Passarelli Giroud Joaquim


    Full Text Available This study investigates the performance and persistence of the Brazilian hedge fund market using daily data from September 2007 to February 2011, a period marked by what was characterized by many as the world’s worst financial crisis since the great depression of the 1930s. Despite the financial turmoil, the results indicate the existence of a representative group of funds with abnormal returns and evidence of a joint persistence of funds with time frames of one to three months. Individual evaluations of the funds, however, indicate a reduced number of persistent funds.

  14. New constructs and assessments for relapse and continued use potential in the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria. (United States)

    Gastfriend, David R; Rubin, Amy; Sharon, Estee; Turner, Winston M; Anton, Raymond F; Donovan, Dennis M; Gorski, Terence; Marlatt, G Alan; Maisto, Steven; Schultz, Terry K; Shulman, Gerald D


    One area of intensive study in recent years in addiction research is the characterization and prediction of relapse risk. Given the growing list of findings and assessment tools in this area, in preparation for the second edition, revised volume of the Patient Placement Criteria (PPC) of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), a workgroup of the Coalition for National Criteria was assigned the task of creating a revised conceptual organization for Dimension 5: Relapse/Continued Use Potential. The workgroup conducted a review of the previous Dimension 5 constructs and criteria, including a decision analysis of the previous Dimension 5 decision rules. Following that analysis, field data from the ASAM Criteria Validity Study at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School were analyzed from a large cohort of public and indigent patients in eastern Massachusetts. After determining the concurrent validity of the Dimension 5 decision rules and their limitations, the decision rules were rewritten to gain improved validity. This exercise revealed techniques that can and should be used to improve the discrimination of levels of care among all Dimensions. Finally, the workgroup expanded and refined the constructs that should comprise a revised Dimension 5. This revised list of constructs is sequential and hierarchical. It offers face validity on several levels of current basic and clinical research knowledge: behavioral pharmacology, behavioral psychology, learning theory and psychopathology. While the Second Edition-Revised volume of the ASAM PPC (PPC-2R) does not go so far as to propose final decision rules for Dimension 5 based on these new constructs, it does recommend pilot adoption of several new assessment tools for this dimension and provides the framework incorporating those constructs and assessments in the next complete PPC edition.

  15. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    construction delay of NPP. The main contribution of the work was the identification of main cause of NPP construction schedule delay for turnkey contractual approached international project in different level. The second contribution was a development of a multi-criteria decision making model for the prioritization of NPP construction delay risk factors. Finally, prioritization of delay factors in different levels of NPP construction delay risk factors were accomplished. The model is developed by using the AHP methodology. This study has produced results and insights that involve one of the most vital aspect which is the quantitative weights and ranking of factors that affect delay in NPP construction. Undoubtedly, it is a necessity in the NPP construction industry for the use of quantitative terms when it comes to schedule delay risk. The outcomes of this study confirm that the model is capable to support decision-makers to examine the strengths and weaknesses of factors in different level of the NPP construction phase. Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delay of NPP. This study finds the different party's importance in behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), Financial and Country Factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%).The results show that the top most important 5 sub factors according to global weight in level 2 are delayed regulatory approval, country factor, inadequate completion of design before start of construction, slow procurement, manufacturing of equipment and delivery to the site for installation, and financial matters. This study finds top most important 10 sub-sub factors in the lowest level which are uncompromising regulatory criteria and conflicting licensing documents with existing regulations, robust design documents

  16. Improving Fund Risk Management by Using New Software Tools Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Papadamou


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new MATLAB-based toolbox for Computer Aided mutual fund risk evaluation. In the age of computerized trading, financial services companies and independent investors must quickly investigate fund investment style and market risk. The Fund Risk toolbox is a financial software that includes a set of functions based on value at risk (VaR and expected tail loss (ETL methodology for graphical presentation of risk forecasts, evaluation of different risk models and identification of fund investment style. The sample of historical data can be divided to an estimation rolling window and the back-testing period. MATLAB?s vast built-in mathematical and financial functionality along with the fact that is both an interpreted and compiled programming language make this toolbox easily extendable by adding new complicated risk models with minimum programming effort.

  17. The use of constructed wetland for dye-rich textile wastewater treatment


    Griessler Bulc, Tjaša; Ojstršek, Alenka


    The objective of the present paper was to examine the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands (CW) for the dye-rich textile wastewater with special focus on colour reduction. Preliminary, a series of dynamic experiments were performed in the CW model packed with gravel, sand, and zeolitic tuff on three synthetically-prepared wastewaters using chemically differ dyestuffs, auxiliaries and chemicals, in order to investigate the potential of low-cost materials as media for textile dye-bath w...

  18. 78 FR 49680 - Streamlining Requirements Governing the Use of Funding for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and... (United States)


    ... for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and Persons With Disabilities Programs; Correction AGENCY... for the Elderly (Section 202) and the Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons with Disabilities...--SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  19. Allowable carbon emissions for medium-to-high mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Annan, James D.; Kawamiya, Michio [Research Inst. for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, (Japan)], e-mail:; Huntingford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)


    Using an ensemble of simulations with an intermediate complexity climate model and in a probabilistic framework, we estimate future ranges of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to follow three medium-high mitigation concentration pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and SCP4.5 to 2.6. Uncertainty is first estimated by allowing modelled equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within widely accepted ranges. Results are then constrained by comparison against contemporary measurements. For both constrained and unconstrained projections, our calculated allowable emissions are close to the standard (harmonised) emission scenarios associated with these pathways. For RCP4.5, which is the most moderate scenario considered in terms of required emission abatement, then after year 2100 very low net emissions are needed to maintain prescribed year 2100 CO{sub 2} concentrations. As expected, RCP2.6 and SCP4.5 to 2.6 require more strict emission reductions. The implication of this is that direct sequestration of carbon dioxide is likely to be required for RCP4.5 or higher mitigation scenarios, to offset any minimum emissions for society to function (the 'emissions floor'). Despite large uncertainties in the physical and biogeochemical processes, constraints from model-observational comparisons support a high degree of confidence in predicting the allowable emissions consistent with a particular concentration pathway. In contrast the uncertainty in the resulting temperature range remains large. For many parameter sets, and especially for RCP2.6, the land will turn into a carbon source within the twenty first century, but the ocean will remain as a carbon sink. For land carbon storage and our modelling framework, major reductions are seen in northern high latitudes and the Amazon basin even after atmospheric CO{sub 2} is stabilised, while for ocean carbon uptake, the tropical ocean regions will be a

  20. Administrative Circular No. 20 (Rev. 2) – Re-evaluation of the kilometre allowance when using a private vehicle for journeys on official duty

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 21 March 2011, the kilometre allowance was increased from 0,65 CHF/km to 0,70 CHF/km as from 11 April 2011 which is the first date of the new overtime period. Department Head Office

  1. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise (United States)


    ... Noise and Construction Noise AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of this regulation, certain analysis requirements, and the use of Federal funds for noise abatement measures....

  2. 77 FR 18723 - Streamlining Requirements Governing the Use of Funding for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and... (United States)


    ... for Supportive Housing for the Elderly and Persons With Disabilities Programs AGENCY: Office of the... proposed rule would amend HUD's regulations governing the Section 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly... create attractive and affordable supportive housing developments for the elderly and for persons...

  3. Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists (United States)

    Wiener, Richard


    This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

  4. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ömer faruk tan


    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE, thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, whether fund managers show better or worse performance than the market. Methodology/Methods: In order to evaluate fund manager performances, Jensen alpha (1968 is computed, which depicts selectivity skills of fund managers. For determining market timing ability of fund managers, Treynor&Mazuy (1966 regression analysis and Henriksson&Merton (1981 regression analysis are applied. Fund performances are evaluated using Warsaw Stock Exchange Index as the benchmark index. Scientific aim: In this study, we have tried to evaluate selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers. A total of 14 equity fund managers’ performances are analysed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with quantitative easing. Findings: Jensen (1968 alphas indicate that over this period fund managers did not have selective ability, as none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive alphas. Furthermore, Treynor&Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson&Merton (1981 regression analysis indicate that over the same period fund managers did not also have market timing ability, as again none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive coefficients. Conclusion: In this work, we can detect that in the era of quantitative easing, although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, the fund returns were

  5. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y


    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  6. Allowing for heterogeneity in monetary subjective well-being valuations. (United States)

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil


    Recent research on 'happiness' regression equations has shown how monetary values can be put on the well-being effects of many life events (like health problems, marriage or the death of a spouse). Potentially, such work has practical implications for policy-makers and the courts. However, this article argues that we need to be careful in such work to use the appropriate statistical method. It goes beyond previous research and allows for heterogeneity in the subjective well-being scales. Using less restrictive models than the current literature, the article argues that standard linear or ordered response models seem consistently to overstate valuations. With data from the UK, it provides new monetary estimates of the well-being consequences of a number of health problems, social capital indicators, marital status changes and social relationships.

  7. Construction and Characterization of Mini-ruthenium-Carbon Eutectic Cells for Industrial Use (United States)

    Diril, A.; Bourson, F.; Parga, C.; Sadli, M.


    High-temperature eutectic fixed points have proved to be convenient tools for temperature scale dissemination and thermometer calibrations/checks at temperatures above 1100°C. In order to investigate the feasibility of metal-carbon eutectic cells in industrial applications as a means for assessing the traceability of non-contact thermometers, a batch of cells was constructed at LNE-Cnam, NPL, and TUBITAK UME. Compared to the usual dimensions of high-temperature fixed point cells (45 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter), a new cell design was created to fit with industrial applications. TUBITAK UME constructed and characterized five ruthenium-carbon (Ru-C) eutectic cells of dimensions 24 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter. One of these cells has been selected and characterized at CEA premises. Ru-C eutectic cells have been evaluated in terms of short-term repeatability, reproducibility, furnace effect, sharp temperature ramps, and the effect of cell location. Measurements at TÜBİTAK UME have been performed with a transfer standard pyrometer calibrated at the copper point and a BB3500pg high-temperature blackbody furnace was used for construction and measurement. For the measurements at CEA, a Land Standard—HIMERT S1 radiation thermometer and a VITI induction furnace were used. In this article results of the measurements at TÜBİTAK UME and CEA will be presented. The possible use of these mini-eutectic cells as industrial temperature standards will be discussed.

  8. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors. (United States)


    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Allowances... average 1 per 30 ozs 4 or more in any sample unit Sample average 1 per 20 ozs. Defects: 100 cherries...

  9. CS-AUV: an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) for survey construction support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    For several years, AUV development have been successfully focused on general inspection or pre-engineering survey activities. Development of the market will allow new generation to be validate: inspection and intervention AUV, this particularly for field construction support application. Survey construction support is a major market for AUV developments. Advanced subsea and its partners, promotes the development of construction support AUV covering 95% of current tasks performed by ROV during field development. CS AUV, deployed from construction vessels or drilling rigs, is able to perform pre-lay, as-laid survey, TDP monitoring, free-span inspection, LBL arrays deployment work, allowing to dramatically reduce the use of DP 2 ROV support vessel during field installation work. In addition, CS-AUV is supported by an ambitious innovation and development program. (author)

  10. Measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs for use in yoga research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald Douglas


    Full Text Available This article presents information on standardized paper-and-pencil measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs that hold promise for use in yoga research. Nine instruments are discussed at length including the Assessment Schedule for Altered States of Consciousness, Ego Grasping Orientation, Expressions of Spirituality Inventory, Hindu Religious Coping Scale, Measures of Hindu Pathways, Self-Expansiveness Level Form, Spiritual Orientation Inventory, Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Vedic Personality Inventory. As well, a listing of an additional 14 measures, along with primary citations, is provided. In conclusion, the authors proffer recommendations for the use of psychometric tests and provide a general proposal for programmatic research.

  11. An assessment of elephant home ranges and movement patterns during construction of Hulu Terengganu hydroelectric dam, Terengganu using GPS satellite collars (United States)

    Magintan, D.; Shukorb, M. N.; Lihan, Tukimat; Campos, Ahimza-arceiz; Saaban, Salman; Husin, Shahril Mohd; Ahmad, Mohd Noh


    Home ranges and movement patterns of elephants during construction of hydroelectric dams were carried out in Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Two elephants from two herds were captured, collared and released in the catchment area four to five months before inundation started in early October 2014. The two elephants were identified as Puah (female) and Sireh (male). The home range size of each individual during the construction of dams was estimated at 96.53 km2 for Puah and 367.99 km2 for Sireh. The monthly estimates of ranging for Puah was between 5.1 km2 and 38.4 km2 with average monthly ranging of 19.2 ± 4.7, while for Sireh, the monthly ranging estimates were between 20.6 km2 and 184.7 km2 with average monthly ranging at 79.9 ± 34.7. The movement mean rate (based on distance per day) for Puah and Sireh per day were 1.3 ± 0.1 km and 1.9 ± 0.1 km, respectively. Puah movement estimates for the first day after putting the collar was 0.88 km, whereas, the distance movement for Sireh on the first day after the collar was 0.02 km. The total distance travelled for Puah before inundation was 226.18 km, while Sireh covered 267.38 km.

  12. Patentometrics As Performance Indicators for Allocating Research Funding to Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    This paper is part of a preliminary investigation of potential indicators on the performance of universities and other public research institutions to be used for allocating general and other research funding. The paper will describe and discuss potential patentometrics and how they can be used...... in different types of analyses and evaluations in general and relating to universities and other public research institutions. Further, the relevance and possibility of including some patentometrics in the allocation of research funding is discussed. Also, other metrics regarding academic linkages...

  13. Use of communication technologies in document exchange for the management of construction projects (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš


    Information and communication technologies represent a set of people, processes, technical and software tools providing collection, transport, storage and processing of data for distribution and presentation of information. Particularly communication systems are the main tool for information exchange. Of the other part, these technologies have a broad focus and use. One of them is the exchange of documents in the management of construction projects. Paper discusses the issue of exploitation level of communication technologies in construction project management. The main objective of this paper is to analyze exploitation level of communication technologies. Another aim of the paper is to compare exploitation level or rate of document exchange by electronic communication devices and face-to-face communication.

  14. Use of macrophyte plants, sand & gravel materials in constructed wetlands for greywater treatment (United States)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Sobriyah; Setyono, P.


    Greywater discharged without any treatments into drainage channels or natural water bodies will lead to environmental degradation and health risk. Local macrophyte plants combined with natural materials of sand and gravel have been used in a system of constructed wetland for the treatment of the greywater. This paper presents the results of some studies of the system carried out in Indonesia, Thailand, and Costa Rica. The studies demonstrate the success of the constructed wetland systems in removing some pollutants of BOD, COD, TSS, pathogen, and detergent. The studies resulted in the treated water in a level of treatment that fulfils the requirement of the local standards for wastewater reuse as irrigation water, fishery, or other outdoor needs.

  15. Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection Web site is a searchable database of financial assistance sources (grants, loans) available to fund a...

  16. 9 CFR 201.42 - Custodial accounts for trust funds. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custodial accounts for trust funds... STOCKYARDS ACT Proceeds of Sale § 201.42 Custodial accounts for trust funds. (a) Payments for livestock are trust funds. Each payment that a livestock buyer makes to a market agency selling on commission is...

  17. 40 CFR 35.535 - Activities eligible for funding. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities eligible for funding. 35.535... § 35.535 Activities eligible for funding. (a) Delegated, approved, or authorized activities. A Tribe or... approved for funding that the applicant now proposes to move into a Performance Partnership Grant,...

  18. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François;


    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding...... the domain to have disk topology. We test our method for tori of revolution and compare our results to the benchmark ones from [2]. The method, however, is generic and can be easily adapted to construct cut loci for other manifolds of genera other than 1....... the lines of self-intersections of the front in the parametric space. This becomes possible by using the deformable simplicial complexes (DSC, [1]) method for deformable interface tracking. DSC provide a simple collision detection mechanism, allows for interface topology control, and does not require...

  19. Random matrix theory and fund of funds portfolio optimisation (United States)

    Conlon, T.; Ruskin, H. J.; Crane, M.


    The proprietary nature of Hedge Fund investing means that it is common practise for managers to release minimal information about their returns. The construction of a fund of hedge funds portfolio requires a correlation matrix which often has to be estimated using a relatively small sample of monthly returns data which induces noise. In this paper, random matrix theory (RMT) is applied to a cross-correlation matrix C, constructed using hedge fund returns data. The analysis reveals a number of eigenvalues that deviate from the spectrum suggested by RMT. The components of the deviating eigenvectors are found to correspond to distinct groups of strategies that are applied by hedge fund managers. The inverse participation ratio is used to quantify the number of components that participate in each eigenvector. Finally, the correlation matrix is cleaned by separating the noisy part from the non-noisy part of C. This technique is found to greatly reduce the difference between the predicted and realised risk of a portfolio, leading to an improved risk profile for a fund of hedge funds.

  20. Sustaining Service Members and Their Families: Exploring Opportunities for Efficiency and Joint Provision of Services Using Nonappropriated Funds (United States)


    provide training on portability of benefits Cross- service standardization Standardize forms, codes, and definitions for use across all services System...contract information; standardization of forms, codes, and definitions across military services and OSD; and creating a NAF summary of benefit...implementation Create/provide training on portability of benefits (1E) Cross- service standardization Standardize forms, codes, and definitions for use

  1. Funding for teratology information services: up, down, and all around. (United States)

    Quinn, Dee


    Funding for Teratology Information Services has been an ongoing struggle over the 25 years of its existence. Traditional and novel funding mechanisms have been explored with varying success. The importance of providing teratology risk assessment and counseling to all women of reproductive age is now an established health care objective. Sufficient and stable funding for these services is essential.

  2. C-Codes: Cyclic Lowest-Density MDS Array Codes Constructed Using Starters for RAID 6

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Mingqiang


    The distance-3 cyclic lowest-density MDS array code (called the C-Code) is a good choice for RAID 6 because of its optimal storage efficiency, optimal update complexity, optimal length, and cyclic symmetry. In this paper, the underlying connections between C-Codes (or quasi-C-Codes) and starters in group theory are revealed. It is shown that each C-Code (or quasi-C-Code) of length $2n$ can be constructed using an even starter (or even multi-starter) in $(Z_{2n},+)$. It is also shown that each C-Code (or quasi-C-Code) has a twin C-Code (or quasi-C-Code). Then, four infinite families (three of which are new) of C-Codes of length $p-1$ are constructed, where $p$ is a prime. Besides the family of length $p-1$, C-Codes for some sporadic even lengths are also presented. Even so, there are still some even lengths (such as 8) for which C-Codes do not exist. To cover this limitation, two infinite families (one of which is new) of quasi-C-Codes of length $2(p-1)$ are constructed for these even lengths.

  3. Construction of an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation using semidefinite programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, G., E-mail:; Wynn, A., E-mail:


    A method to construct systematically an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation is developed by formulating the classical problem as an optimisation problem. In particular, we show that the infinite-dimensional problem can be rewritten as a finite-dimensional convex semidefinite problem, which is solved to construct a background profile and to obtain an upper bound on the energy of the solution ‖u‖ that applies to the infinite-dimensional PDE. The results are compared to existing analytical results, and support the fact that limsup{sub t→∞}‖u‖≤O(L{sup 3/2}) is the optimal estimate achievable with the background profile method and a quadratic Lyapunov function. - Highlights: • Optimal background profiles are constructed for the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation. • Analytical L{sup 2} bounds for the solution are found using convex optimisation. • The optimal background profile is a double shock profile. • Results attest that L{sup 1.5} scaling is optimal within the classic Lyapunov argument. • We improve the proportionality constant of the scaling law for the attracting set.


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac


    Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.

  6. FY 1983 Funding for ocean drilling (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Proposed funding for scientific ocean drilling within the National Science Foundation (NSF) in fiscal 1983 totals $14 million, $6 million less than the current fiscal 1982 plan and about half of the original FY 1982 budget request of $26 million. However, there is more to these numbers than simple subtraction: Additional funding for scientific ocean drilling programs is on hold while decisions are being made about a future drilling program called Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD).With the demise of the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP) when industry withdrew its support (Eos, October 20, 1981, p. 705) and with the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) long ago scheduled to end in fiscal 1983, the future for scientific ocean drilling within NSF was uncertain. To steer ocean drilling toward scientific objectives for the decade, the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) (Eos, December 22, 1981, p. 1197) examined four ocean drilling options and decided that the Glomar Explorer, converted to the current capabilities of the DSDP mainstay Glomar Challenger (i.e., without riser and well-control technologies), would meet scientific objectives through the decade. In December, the National Research Council's Committee on Ocean Margin Drilling came to the identical conclusion in its interim report. Both of these decisions were based solely on scientific merit and did not consider costs.

  7. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    Full Text Available We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride (11.1% w/w and poly(ethyleneglycol 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL and highest (35 μg/mL Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration

  8. Construction and Validation of a Self-Efficacy Scale for Latex Barrier Use. (United States)

    Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Castro-Calvo, Jesús


    Some studies have concluded there is a relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behaviors that prevent HIV transmission. This paper presents the construction and validation of the latex barrier use self-efficacy scale (LBSS), which 480 participants filled out. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two components: positive expectations of self-efficacy (ES-POS) and negative expectations of self-efficacy (ES-NEG), which together accounted for 65.59% of total variance. That structure was later verified through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was .80 for the total scale, and .78 for each of the two factors. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent validity and was positively related with condom use self-efficacy, attitudes toward condom and latex barrier use, and ability to refuse sex if the partner refuses to use preventive methods. In conclusion, this instrument is a useful measure of self-efficacy in latex barrier use.

  9. Management Information Control Systems for Educational Facility Construction Programs. (United States)

    Halverson, Walter S.


    Describes a computerized management information control system for an educational facility construction program that allows access to more than 50 major system applications, using over 5,000 programs. (MLF)

  10. Alternative Model of Funding for Academic Research in Nigerian Universities (United States)

    Olayiwola, Shina


    Funding of academic research in Nigerian universities by Government (5 per cent recurrent grants) is a policy dictated by the National Universities Commission (NUC) as the central body for allocating research funds. This research fund, little as it is, is irregular and inadequate and to make it worse is difficult to access. These aforementioned…

  11. Sustainable funding for biocuration: The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as a case study of a subscription-based funding model. (United States)

    Reiser, Leonore; Berardini, Tanya Z; Li, Donghui; Muller, Robert; Strait, Emily M; Li, Qian; Mezheritsky, Yarik; Vetushko, Andrey; Huala, Eva


    Databases and data repositories provide essential functions for the research community by integrating, curating, archiving and otherwise packaging data to facilitate discovery and reuse. Despite their importance, funding for maintenance of these resources is increasingly hard to obtain. Fueled by a desire to find long term, sustainable solutions to database funding, staff from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), founded the nonprofit organization, Phoenix Bioinformatics, using TAIR as a test case for user-based funding. Subscription-based funding has been proposed as an alternative to grant funding but its application has been very limited within the nonprofit sector. Our testing of this model indicates that it is a viable option, at least for some databases, and that it is possible to strike a balance that maximizes access while still incentivizing subscriptions. One year after transitioning to subscription support, TAIR is self-sustaining and Phoenix is poised to expand and support additional resources that wish to incorporate user-based funding strategies. Database URL:

  12. An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi


    Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

  13. 7 CFR 1709.111 - Limitations on use of grant funds. (United States)


    ... § 1709.111 Limitations on use of grant funds. (a) Planning and administrative costs. Not more than 4 percent of each grant award may be used for the planning and administrative expenses of the applicant...

  14. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran


    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  15. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing. (United States)

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki


    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  16. Object Detection for Agricultural and Construction Environments Using an Ultrasonic Sensor. (United States)

    Dvorak, J S; Stone, M L; Self, K P


    This study tested an ultrasonic sensor's ability to detect several objects commonly encountered in outdoor agricultural or construction environments: a water jug, a sheet of oriented strand board (OSB), a metalfence post, a human model, a wooden fence post, a Dracaena plant, a juniper plant, and a dog model. Tests were performed with each target object at distances from 0.01 to 3 m. Five tests were performed with each object at each location, and the sensor's ability to detect the object during each test was categorized as "undetected," "intermittent," "incorrect distance," or "good." Rigid objects that presented a larger surface area to the sensor, such as the water jug and OSB, were better detected than objects with a softer surface texture, which were occasionally not detected as the distance approached 3 m. Objects with extremely soft surface texture, such as the dog model, could be undetected at almost any distance from the sensor. The results of this testing should help designers offuture systems for outdoor environments, as the target objects tested can be found in nearly any agricultural or construction environment.

  17. 49 CFR 110.40 - Activities eligible for funding. (United States)


    ... MATERIALS PUBLIC SECTOR TRAINING AND PLANNING GRANTS § 110.40 Activities eligible for funding. (a) Planning...) An assessment to determine the number of public sector employees employed or used by a political...) Delivery of comprehensive preparedness and response training to public sector employees. Design...

  18. Construction of pore network models for Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones using non-linear programing and optimization techniques (United States)

    Sharqawy, Mostafa H.


    Pore network models (PNM) of Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones were constructed using nonlinear programming (NLP) and optimization methods. The constructed PNMs are considered as a digital representation of the rock samples which were based on matching the macroscopic properties of the porous media and used to conduct fluid transport simulations including single and two-phase flow. The PNMs consisted of cubic networks of randomly distributed pores and throats sizes and with various connectivity levels. The networks were optimized such that the upper and lower bounds of the pore sizes are determined using the capillary tube bundle model and the Nelder-Mead method instead of guessing them, which reduces the optimization computational time significantly. An open-source PNM framework was employed to conduct transport and percolation simulations such as invasion percolation and Darcian flow. The PNM model was subsequently used to compute the macroscopic properties; porosity, absolute permeability, specific surface area, breakthrough capillary pressure, and primary drainage curve. The pore networks were optimized to allow for the simulation results of the macroscopic properties to be in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. This study demonstrates that non-linear programming and optimization methods provide a promising method for pore network modeling when computed tomography imaging may not be readily available.

  19. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research. (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J


    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  20. Does cardiovascular reactivity during speech reflect self-construction processes? (United States)

    Lyons, A C; Spicer, J; Tuffin, K; Chamberlain, K


    Abstract Substantial empirical research has been undertaken on cardiovascular reactivity (CVR). however interpretation of this research is hampered by a lack of theoretical frameworks. This paper develops a framework initially stimulated by evidence demonstrating that the cardiovascular system increases in activity during communication, and that the extent of this activation depends upon numerous and diverse psychosocial factors. We attempt to account for this phenomenon using merit post-structuralist ideas concerning the constructive nature of language and its centrality to an individual's sense of self. Our theoretical framework proposes that the CVR exhibited during language use is explicable in terms of self-construction - From this analysis we hypothesised that CVR would differ across conversations about private self. public self and non-self topics, and that these differences would depend upon people's speaking histories. We found that the blood pressure and heart rate of 102 women was most reactive when they talked in a laboratory with a stranger about aspects of their private self, and least reactive during non-self talk, whilst their heart rate was most reactive during talk about their public self. Overall the results highlight the inextricable link between our inherent socialness and our cardiovascular systems. SUMMARY The explanatory scheme outlined here is an attempt to provide a social reconceptualisation of a phenomenon that is typically interpreted in individualistic psychophysiological terms, and which is consistent with the notion that repeated exposure to situations which provoke large haemodynamic changes may lead to CHD disease progression. The explanation draws heavily on post-structuralist ideas regarding language, and the social constructionist notion that engaging in language use is central to constructing and maintaining a sense of self. This sense of self is a central theoretical entity in our everyday lives, produced and maintained in our

  1. Aquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing but not for purification in constructed wetlands (United States)

    Tang, Yingying; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; van Kempen, Monique M. L.; Verbaarschot, Evi J. H.; Loeffen, Laury M. J. M.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.


    The sequestration of nutrients from surface waters by aquatic macrophytes and sediments provides an important service to both natural and constructed wetlands. While emergent species take up nutrients from the sediment, submerged and floating macrophytes filter nutrients directly from the surface water, which may be more efficient in constructed wetlands. It remains unclear, however, whether their efficiency is sufficient for wastewater purification and how plant species and nutrient loading affects nutrient distribution over plants, water and sediment. We therefore determined nutrient removal efficiencies of different vegetation (Azolla filiculoides, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum) and sediment types (clay, peaty clay and peat) at three nutrient input rates, in a full factorial, outdoor mesocosm experiment. At low loading (0.43 mg P m-2 d-1), plant uptake was the main pathway (100 %) for phosphorus (P) removal, while sediments showed a net P release. A. filiculoides and M. spicatum showed the highest biomass production and could be harvested regularly for nutrient recycling, whereas C. demersum was outcompeted by spontaneously developing macrophytes and algae. Higher nutrient loading only stimulated A. filiculoides growth. At higher rates ( ≥ 21.4 mg P m-2 d-1), 50-90 % of added P ended up in sediments, with peat sediments becoming more easily saturated. For nitrogen (N), 45-90 % was either taken up by the sediment or lost to the atmosphere at loadings ≥ 62 mg N m-2 d-1. This shows that aquatic macrophytes can indeed function as an efficient nutrient filter but only for low loading rates (polishing) and not for high rates (purification). The outcome of this controlled study not only contributes to our understanding of nutrient dynamics in constructed wetlands but also shows the differential effects of wetland sediment types and plant species. Furthermore, the acquired knowledge may benefit the application of macrophyte harvesting to remove

  2. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B - Allowable Uses of IRR Program Funds (United States)


    ... snowmobile trails, ice roads, overland winter roads, and trail markings. (See §§ 170.123 through 170.124.) 44... and wetland mitigation banks, including banks authorized under the Water Resources Development...

  3. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris


    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  4. Index Fund Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm and a Heuristic Local Search (United States)

    Orito, Yukiko; Inoguchi, Manabu; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    It is well known that index funds are popular passively managed portfolios and have been used very extensively for the hedge trading. Index funds consist of a certain number of stocks of listed companies on a stock market such that the fund's return rates follow a similar path to the changing rates of the market indices. However it is hard to make a perfect index fund consisting of all companies included in the given market index. Thus, the index fund optimization can be viewed as a combinatorial optimization for portfolio managements. In this paper, we propose an optimization method that consists of a genetic algorithm and a heuristic local search algorithm to make strong linear association between the fund's return rates and the changing rates of market index. We apply the method to the Tokyo Stock Exchange and make index funds whose return rates follow a similar path to the changing rates of Tokyo Stock Price Index (TOPIX). The results show that our proposal method makes the index funds with strong linear association to the market index by small computing time.

  5. Effective use of heterologous hosts for characterization of biosynthetic enzymes allows production of natural products and promotes new natural product discovery. (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenji


    In the past few years, there has been impressive progress in elucidating the mechanism of biosynthesis of various natural products accomplished through the use of genetic, molecular biological and biochemical techniques. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of the current results from our studies on fungal natural product biosynthetic enzymes, including nonribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrid synthetase, as well as auxiliary enzymes, such as methyltransferases and oxygenases. Specifically, biosynthesis of the following compounds is described in detail: (i) Sch210972, potentially involving a Diels-Alder reaction that may be catalyzed by CghA, a functionally unknown protein identified by targeted gene disruption in the wild type fungus; (ii) chaetoglobosin A, formed via multi-step oxidations catalyzed by three redox enzymes, one flavin-containing monooxygenase and two cytochrome P450 oxygenases as characterized by in vivo biotransformation of relevant intermediates in our engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (iii) (-)-ditryptophenaline, formed by a cytochrome P450, revealing the dimerization mechanism for the biosynthesis of diketopiperazine alkaloids; (iv) pseurotins, whose variations in the C- and O-methylations and the degree of oxidation are introduced combinatorially by multiple redox enzymes; and (v) spirotryprostatins, whose spiro-carbon moiety is formed by a flavin-containing monooxygenase or a cytochrome P450 as determined by heterologous de novo production of the biosynthetic intermediates and final products in Aspergillus niger. We close our discussion by summarizing some of the key techniques that have facilitated the discovery of new natural products, production of their analogs and identification of biosynthetic mechanisms in our study.

  6. 34 CFR 675.18 - Use of funds. (United States)


    ... this section, students may be employed to perform civic education and participation activities in...) Increase civic participation. (ii) To the extent practicable, in providing civic education and... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds. 675.18 Section 675.18...

  7. 32 CFR 584.7 - Basic allowance for quarters. (United States)


    ... CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.7 Basic allowance for quarters. (a) Eligibility. (1) Soldiers entitled to...-dependents rate each month in support of their families. (See DODPM, part 3.) This is so even if a divorce... spouse or stepchildren after the divorce. BAQ at the “with dependents” rate is not authorized when...

  8. [Applications and approved projectsof general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developedregion of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012]. (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Qing; Han, Li-Wei; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Bi, Ming-Gang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Yun-Fang; He, Wei-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-En


    The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012 have been introduced. The research contents of the funded projects in the popular research areas have been summarized and the problems in the applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese materia medica.

  9. Use of shredded tires as support medium for subsurface flow constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Miguel Roston


    Full Text Available This work evaluated shredded tires as a medium for constructed wetlands, treating domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted utilizing effluent of a small Sewage Treatment Plant. Two tanks with 10 m2 each, with dimensions of 2 m wide, 5 m long and 1 m height were built above soil level using cement bricks. One of the tanks was filled out entirely with crushed stone (diameter 55 to 90 mm, while in the other tank the medium was shredded tires reaching the height of 0.80 m. Above the tires, a 0.10 m gravel layer to complete the total height (1 m and avoid floating. The aquatic macrophytes utilized were from Typha species distributed uniformly over the beds. The following parameters were monitored: suspended solids, pH, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen. The results were submitted to a statistical analysis in order to verify if significant difference existed (to 1 % and 5% of significance between the two treatments. The results demonstrate no significant difference for the parameter NH3-N, while for suspended solids and pH, were found significant differences to 1% and 5% of significance. For COD was found significant difference to 5% of significance. The results indicated a potential use of shredded tires to substitute the conventional media utilized for subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction. (United States)


    ... industrial tractors used in construction. 1926.1003 Section 1926.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction. (a) General—(1) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich


    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  12. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development. (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan


    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands.

  13. Surface localization of glucosylceramide during Cryptococcus neoformans infection allows targeting as a potential antifungal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Rhome

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn is a significant human pathogen that, despite current treatments, continues to have a high morbidity rate especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The need for more tolerable and specific therapies has been clearly shown. In the search for novel drug targets, the gene for glucosylceramide synthase (GCS1 was deleted in Cn, resulting in a strain (Δgcs1 that does not produce glucosylceramide (GlcCer and is avirulent in mouse models of infection. To understand the biology behind the connection between virulence and GlcCer, the production and localization of GlcCer must be characterized in conditions that are prohibitive to the growth of Δgcs1 (neutral pH and high CO(2. These prohibitive conditions are physiologically similar to those found in the extracellular spaces of the lung during infection. Here, using immunofluorescence, we have shown that GlcCer localization to the cell surface is significantly increased during growth in these conditions and during infection. We further seek to exploit this localization by treatment with Cerezyme (Cz, a recombinant enzyme that metabolizes GlcCer, as a potential treatment for Cn. Cz treatment was found to reduce the amount of GlcCer in vitro, in cultures, and in Cn cells inhabiting the mouse lung. Treatment with Cz induced a membrane integrity defect in wild type Cn cells similar to Δgcs1. Cz treatment also reduced the in vitro growth of Cn in a dose and condition dependent manner. Finally, Cz treatment was shown to have a protective effect on survival in mice infected with Cn. Taken together, these studies have established the legitimacy of targeting the GlcCer and other related sphingolipid systems in the development of novel therapeutics.

  14. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid


    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  15. Construction of a standard reference for PET studies of methionine accumulation using a computerised brain atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanowski, C.A.J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF (United Kingdom); Leslie, D.F. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Neuroradiology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Thurfjell, L. [Centre for Image Analysis, University of Uppsala (Sweden); Ericson, K. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Neuroradiology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Positron emission tomography (PET) is valuable for assessing the biochemistry and physiology of the human brain. A computerised brain atlas has been developed which allows demonstration of anatomical regions on PET images and manipulation of these images into a standardised anatomical space. Once the images are in this standardised three-dimensional space it is possible to make comparisons between individuals and groups of individuals. We describe the use of this atlas in the generation of a set of mean reference images using methionine PET images of normal volunteers. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  16. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  17. Derivation of a mathematical expression useful for the construction of complete genomic libraries. (United States)

    Zilsel, J; Ma, P H; Beatty, J T


    We present and derive a formula that is useful for the design and evaluation of gene cloning experiments in which a complete gene library of the entire genome of an organism is desired. The formula n = ln(1-phi f)/ln(1-f) (in which n is the number of recombinant clones required to ensure a probability, phi, of obtaining at least one of each of all possible gene sequences, and f is the fraction of the genome contained in an average-sized DNA fragment) applies to construction of libraries, in which at least one copy of all the genetic information of a genome is required. The use of this formula for quantitative evaluation of genomic libraries should give greater assurance that a given library would be complete.

  18. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.


    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  19. Experimental study of using PCM in brick constructive solutions for passive cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell, A.; Martorell, I.; Medrano, M.; Perez, G.; Cabeza, L.F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Edifici CREA, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain)


    This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test phase change materials with two typical construction materials (conventional and alveolar brick) for Mediterranean construction in real conditions. Several cubicles were constructed and their thermal performance throughout the time was measured. For each construction material, macroencapsulated PCM is added in one cubicle (RT-27 and SP-25 A8). The cubicles have a domestic heat pump as a cooling system and the energy consumption is registered to determine the energy savings achieved. The free-floating experiments show that the PCM can reduce the peak temperatures up to 1 C and smooth out the daily fluctuations. Moreover, in summer 2008 the electrical energy consumption was reduced in the PCM cubicles about 15%. These energy savings resulted in a reduction of the CO{sub 2} emissions about 1-1.5 kg/year/m{sup 2}. (author)

  20. Construction of a memory battery for computerized administration, using item response theory. (United States)

    Ferreira, Aristides I; Almeida, Leandro S; Prieto, Gerardo


    In accordance with Item Response Theory, a computer memory battery with six tests was constructed for use in the Portuguese adult population. A factor analysis was conducted to assess the internal structure of the tests (N = 547 undergraduate students). According to the literature, several confirmatory factor models were evaluated. Results showed better fit of a model with two independent latent variables corresponding to verbal and non-verbal factors, reproducing the initial battery organization. Internal consistency reliability for the six tests were alpha = .72 to .89. IRT analyses (Rasch and partial credit models) yielded good Infit and Outfit measures and high precision for parameter estimation. The potential utility of these memory tasks for psychological research and practice willbe discussed.

  1. Construction project selection with the use of fuzzy preference relation (United States)

    Ibadov, Nabi


    In the article, author describes the problem of the construction project variant selection during pre-investment phase. As a solution, the algorithm basing on fuzzy preference relation is presented. The article provides an example of the algorithm used for selection of the best variant for construction project. The choice is made basing on criteria such as: net present value (NPV), level of technological difficulty, financing possibilities, and level of organizational difficulty.

  2. Incentive Contracting For Venture Capital Fund Managers (United States)

    Leisen, Dietmar P. J.


    It is well-known in the VC literature that VCs should provide so-called value-adding activities that nurture their venture companies. This paper presents a model of the VC market that takes account of the so-called carried interest on the choice of the risk level and actions. We determine the optimal actions of the fund managers and what would be the desired actions of the fund's investors. Conflicts of interest between the parties will be documented.

  3. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia


    As announced in the Bulletin during the summer, the Pension Fund has published a complete new version of the Fund's Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1 November 2006, following the decisions of the CERN Council. This new version of the Rules and Regulations can be downloaded in A4 format (pdf document) directly from the Pension Fund's website ( for the Rules andèglements___regulations.htm for the Regulations) or obtained from the Fund Administration (Tel. 022 767 27 42, Building 5, 1-030, or by e-mail

  4. Classification of Photogrammetric Point Clouds of Scaffolds for Construction Site Monitoring Using Subspace Clustering and PCA (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Tuttas, S.; Heogner, L.; Stilla, U.


    This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM). The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM. The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  6. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.


    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  7. Designing and constructing a controlled prototype for steel gaseous carburisation using alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny F Obando B


    Full Text Available This article deals with designing, constructing and testing a laboratory scale apparatus for heat treatment with controlled atmosphere. The equipment was used for studying steel carburisation with alcohols. The equipment has an area for the controlled production of a gas atmosphere composed by up to 3 gases and 2 volatile liquids, an inert and hermetic isothermal reaction area and a gas analysis area which retains solids and condensable liquids. The equipment was provided with pressure and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Eight experiments were carried out with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol and tertbutanol as carbon source. The results showed that methanol caused carburisation but layer depth was small and produced a low quantity of soot, ethanol caused decarburisation and formed large quantities of soot, n-propanol, isopropanol and the tertbutanol provided good carbon potential and layers having good depth with good soot and tar production. Soot and tar production followed this order: n-propanol < tertbutanol < isopropanol.

  8. Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Walters, Matthew A.H.; Boomer, G. Scott


    The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (≥5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take

  9. Construction of a novel shuttle vector for use in Haemophilus influenzae and H. parainfluenzae (United States)

    Robinson, Esther; Juhas, Mario; Hood, Derek; Crook, Derrick


    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen. A number of complete genome sequences of various haemophili are available; however, functional studies have been limited by the lack of an effective shuttle vector which functions in all strains. Here, we have constructed a shuttle vector, pEJ6, which transfers genes between Escherichia coli and H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. The vector contains an origin of replication from pLS88 which is functional in E. coli and H. influenzae. In addition it contains an RP4 mobilisation region. The vector can be introduced by electroporation and conjugation into capsulate and non-typeable H. influenzae and is functional for allelic replacement and mutant complementation. The vector will be useful for investigating gene function in Haemophilus spp. PMID:20849885

  10. Funding Melbourne's hospitals: some historical moments. (United States)

    Walker, C


    In 1993 the Victorian Government introduced casemix funding as part of its restructure of the public hospital system. Casemix funding provides a new basis for government funding according to outcomes. At the same time, restructure of hospitals allows for a reconsideration of who is eligible to use them. Historical research into the growth of the public hospital system in Melbourne shows that attempts to reform the hospital system are as old as the system itself. This paper argues that the views of hospitals in funding crises and the solutions that are recommended have more to do with the politics of the day than the economics of running hospitals.

  11. A new geometrical construction using rounded surfaces proposed for the transverse flux machine for direct drive wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen;


    This paper proposes a new construction for transverse flux machines (TFM) using a rounded surfaces core geometry. The new concept has been developed for TFM with U core geometry. In this case a new analytic design procedure was proposed. The analytic design of the new TFM construction is further...... improved by FEM modelling and analysis. Using the new concept, a significant reduction of the active materials is obtained. The innovative geometry also provides a uniform magnetic field in the core structure. According to the comparison of both the TFM with prismatic and rounded core geometries the new...

  12. Constructive use of holographic projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der FU, Berlin (Germany)


    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  13. On the use of simplex methods in constructing quadratic models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hua ZHOU


    In this paper, we investigate the quadratic approximation methods. After studying the basic idea of simplex methods, we construct several new search directions by combining the local information progressively obtained during the iterates of the algorithm to form new subspaces. And the quadratic model is solved in the new subspaces. The motivation is to use the information disclosed by the former steps to construct more promising directions. For most tested problems, the number of function evaluations have been reduced obviously through our algorithms.

  14. Alternative Investment Funds Implications for Financial Stability in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis Jarašius


    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the AIF assets under management and increasing relative share of these assets in the overall investment fund assets, indicate that AIF successfully established their position in the Lithuanian investment funds market. Due to the specific investment activity AIF are different from other investment funds, they also could be associated with additional threats to the economy and financial system. Private equity and real estate funds invest in the real sector and their impact on the financial system are more indirect, through linkages to the financial market participants. Hedge funds are actively involved in the capital markets, therefore they might have not only indirect but also direct impact on the financial system due to the use of leverage, derivatives or potential occur of crowded trades. Research results has shown that due to the still relatively small volumes of assets under management and high engagement in foreign capital markets (especially hedge funds case, AIF connections with other financial market participants are very low. AIF do not use excess leverage and trading in derivatives is not widespread – only hedge funds use such financial instruments. The high pairwise correlations between hedge funds returns suggest that there is a potential threat to the Lithuanian financial market stability. However because of the small relative share of the hedge funds and their concentration in foreign capital markets, such a threat is only theoretical. Moreover, high level of pairwise correlation coefficients between hedge funds and other investment funds do not determine the growth of the weighted average correlation. It could be added, that AIF in general did not increase values of the weighted average correlation, which could reflect potential crowding in the investment funds market. Bearing in mind small size of the AIF assets under management and fairly conservative type of their activities, it could be concluded, that

  15. LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche (LIBER is delighted to announce the LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries, which is generously supported by OCLC. The Fund will offer membership of LIBER to individual libraries in Central and Eastern Europe for a period of years in order to assist them to support their membership of LIBER from their own resources at the end of the period of support from the Fund.

  16. State Pre-K Funding for 2015-16 Fiscal Year: National Trends in State Preschool Funding. 50-State Review (United States)

    Parker, Emily; Atchison, Bruce; Workman, Emily


    This report highlights significant investments made by both Republican and Democratic policymakers in state-funded pre-k programs for the fourth year in a row. In the 2015-16 budget year, 32 states and the District of Columbia raised funding levels of pre-k programs. This increased support for preschool funding came from both sides of the…

  17. 78 FR 47480 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Tribal Transportation Program Safety Funds (United States)


    ... projects for modes such as trails, docks, boardwalks, ice roads, and others that are eligible for TTP funds... experience and expertise. The evaluation teams will be responsible for evaluating and rating all of the... how to register and apply can be found at . If interested parties...

  18. Use of measurement theory for operationalization and quantification of psychological constructs in systems dynamics modelling (United States)

    Fitkov-Norris, Elena; Yeghiazarian, Ara


    The analytical tools available to social scientists have traditionally been adapted from tools originally designed for analysis of natural science phenomena. This article discusses the applicability of systems dynamics - a qualitative based modelling approach, as a possible analysis and simulation tool that bridges the gap between social and natural sciences. After a brief overview of the systems dynamics modelling methodology, the advantages as well as limiting factors of systems dynamics to the potential applications in the field of social sciences and human interactions are discussed. The issues arise with regards to operationalization and quantification of latent constructs at the simulation building stage of the systems dynamics methodology and measurement theory is proposed as a ready and waiting solution to the problem of dynamic model calibration, with a view of improving simulation model reliability and validity and encouraging the development of standardised, modular system dynamics models that can be used in social science research.

  19. Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity? (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A; Coskunpinar, Ayca


    There has been little empirical evidence examining the overlap in nomothetic span for self-report measures and construct representation for behavioral lab tasks in most psychological constructs. Using the personality trait of impulsivity as an example, the authors completed a meta-analysis of 27 published research studies examining the relationship between these methods. In general, although there is a statistically significant relationship between multidimensional self-report and lab task impulsivity (r = 0.097), practically, the relationship is small. Examining relationships among unidimensional impulsivity self-report and lab task conceptualizations indicated very little overlap in self-report and behavioral lab task constructs. Significant relationships were found between lack of perseverance and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.099); between lack of planning and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.106), delay response (r = 0.134), and distortions in elapsed time (r = 0.104); between negative urgency and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.106); and between sensation seeking and delay response (r = 0.131). Researchers should take care to specify which particular unidimensional constructs are operationalized with not only impulsivity, but with all traits. If self-report and lab task conceptualizations measure disparate aspects of impulsivity, we, as a field, should not expect large conceptual overlap between these methods.

  20. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch


    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  1. Analysis of working postures in hammering tasks on building construction sites using the computerized OWAS method. (United States)

    Mattila, M; Karwowski, W; Vilkki, M


    The main objectives of this study were to identify the most problematic postures in hammering tasks performed at building construction sites through application of the computerized OWAS method, and to develop recommendations for improvement of working method and workplaces. Eighteen construction workers, with mean age of 41.6, from three construction companies participated in the field study. The hammering tasks observed during the two-month period included roof boarding, concrete form preparation, clamping support braces, assembling roof frames, roof joisting, shelter form preparation, and fixing fork clamps. Three different types of hammer, including a small Fiskar's hammer, a Fiskar's construction hammer, and a Rocket hammer, were used by the workers. Of all the observations, poor working postures were observed most frequently in roof joisting (12.4% of all observations within the task), followed by concrete form preparation (8.6%), and construction of frames for the roof (7.5%). Overall, out of 593 different postures analysed, a total of 7.8% of postures adopted by the workers during various hammering tasks were classified into OWAS categories III or IV, indicating that these postures should be corrected either soon or immediately. The computerized OWAS method for postural data analysis proved to be a very useful way to reduce postural load of dynamic hammering tasks, and allowed for efficient application of the original OWAS method.

  2. Sustainable Construction for Urban Infill Development Using Engineered Massive Wood Panel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann


    Full Text Available Prefabricated engineered solid wood panel construction systems can sequester and store CO2. Modular cross-laminated timber (CLT, also called cross-lam panels form the basis of low-carbon, engineered construction systems using solid wood panels that can be used to build residential infill developments of 10 storeys or higher. Multi-apartment buildings of 4 to 10 storeys constructed entirely in timber, such as recently in Europe, are innovative, but their social and cultural acceptance in Australia and North America is at this stage still uncertain. Future commercial utilisation is only possible if there is a user acceptance. The author is part of a research team that aims to study two problems: first models of urban infill; then focus on how the use of the CLT systems can play an important role in facilitating a more livable city with better models of infill housing. Wood is an important contemporary building resource due to its low embodied energy and unique attributes. The potential of prefabricated engineered solid wood panel systems, such as CLT, as a sustainable building material and system is only just being realised around the globe. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, solid wood panel construction offers the opportunity of carbon engineering, to turn buildings into ‘carbon sinks’. Thus some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction can be turned around with CLT construction on brownfield sites.

  3. How Thailand's greater convergence created sustainable funding for emerging health priorities caused by globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naowarut Charoenca


    Full Text Available Background: Global health is shifting gradually from a limited focus on individual communicable disease goals to the formulation of broader sustainable health development goals. A major impediment to this shift is that most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs have not established adequate sustainable funding for health promotion and health infrastructure. Objective: In this article, we analyze how Thailand, a middle-income country, created a mechanism for sustainable funding for health. Design: We analyzed the progression of tobacco control and health promotion policies over the past three decades within the wider political-economic and sociocultural context. We constructed a parallel longitudinal analysis of statistical data on one emerging priority – road accidents – to determine whether policy shifts resulted in reduced injuries, hospitalizations and deaths. Results: In Thailand, the convergence of priorities among national interest groups for sustainable health development created an opportunity to use domestic tax policy and to create a semi-autonomous foundation (ThaiHealth to address a range of pressing health priorities, including programs that substantially reduced road accidents. Conclusions: Thailand's strategic process to develop a domestic mechanism for sustainable funding for health may provide LMICs with a roadmap to address emerging health priorities, especially those caused by modernization and globalization.

  4. Fabrication and optimization of alginate hydrogel constructs for use in 3D neural cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, J P; Hynd, M R; Shain, W [Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12210 (United States); Shuler, M L, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 270 Olin Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)


    Two-dimensional (2D) culture systems provide useful information about many biological processes. However, some applications including tissue engineering, drug transport studies, and analysis of cell growth and dynamics are better studied using three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. 3D culture systems can potentially offer higher degrees of organization and control of cell growth environments, more physiologically relevant diffusion characteristics, and permit the formation of more extensive 3D networks of cell-cell interactions. A 3D culture system has been developed using alginate as a cell scaffold, capable of maintaining the viability and function of a variety of neural cell types. Alginate was functionalized by the covalent attachment of a variety of whole proteins and peptide epitopes selected to provide sites for cell attachment. Alginate constructs were used to entrap a variety of neural cell types including astroglioma cells, astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Neural cells displayed process outgrowth over time in culture. Cell-seeded scaffolds were characterized in terms of their biochemical and biomechanical properties, effects on seeded neural cells, and suitability for use as 3D neural cell culture models.

  5. Tissue microarray design and construction for scientific, industrial and diagnostic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pilla


    Full Text Available Context: In 2013 the high throughput technology known as Tissue Micro Array (TMA will be fifteen years old. Its elements (design, construction and analysis are intuitive and the core histopathology technique is unsophisticated, which may be a reason why has eluded a rigorous scientific scrutiny. The source of errors, particularly in specimen identification and how to control for it is unreported. Formal validation of the accuracy of segmenting (also known as de-arraying hundreds of samples, pairing with the sample data is lacking. Aims: We wanted to address these issues in order to bring the technique to recognized standards of quality in TMA use for research, diagnostics and industrial purposes. Results: We systematically addressed the sources of error and used barcode-driven data input throughout the whole process including matching the design with a TMA virtual image and segmenting that image back to individual cases, together with the associated data. In addition we demonstrate on mathematical grounds that a TMA design, when superimposed onto the corresponding whole slide image, validates on each and every sample the correspondence between the image and patient′s data. Conclusions: High throughput use of the TMA technology is a safe and efficient method for research, diagnosis and industrial use if all sources of errors are identified and addressed.

  6. A rich harvest of awards for the CERN Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    The CERN Pension Fund recently received two prestigious international awards. The governing bodies and the whole Pension Fund team are celebrating this success, and looking forward to a busy and bright new year.   On 29 November, Théodore Economou (left) accepted the Best Risk Management Solutions Prize at the 2012 Investments & Pensions Europe Awards. “The awards go to the entire CERN Pension Fund team, the Pension Fund Governing Board, and the Investment Committee,” says Théodore Economou, the Fund’s Chief Executive Officer. On 29 November, at a ceremony held in Copenhagen, Théodore accepted the first award received by the Fund for the Best Risk Management Solutions at the 2012 Investments & Pensions Europe (IPE) Awards. A few days later, he was informed that the Fund had also won the “2012 Industry Innovation Award” of the Asset International - Chief Investment Officer (aiCIO) magazine, in the &l...

  7. Item Construction Using Reflective, Formative, or Rasch Measurement Models: Implications for Group Work (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Gischlar, Karen L.; Peterson, N. Andrew


    Measures that accurately capture the phenomenon are critical to research and practice in group work. The vast majority of group-related measures were developed using the reflective measurement model rooted in classical test theory (CTT). Depending on the construct definition and the measure's purpose, the reflective model may not always be the…

  8. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  9. FY 2011 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2011 fiscal year. This report...

  10. FY 2012 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2012 fiscal year. This report...

  11. FY 2007 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2007 fiscal year. This report...

  12. FY 2008 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2008 fiscal year. This report...

  13. FY 2010 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2010 fiscal year. This report...

  14. FY 2009 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2009 fiscal year. This report...

  15. FY 2013 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2013 fiscal year. This report...

  16. Fuzzy Automata Induction using Construction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Z. Wen


    Full Text Available Recurrent neural networks have recently been demonstrated to have the ability to learn simple grammars. In particular, networks using second-order units have been successfully at this task. However, it is often difficult to predict the optimal neural network size to induce an unknown automaton from examples. Instead of just adjusting the weights in a network of fixed topology, we adopt the dynamic networks (i.e. the topology and weights can be simultaneously changed during training for this application. We apply the idea of maximizing correlation in the cascade-correlation algorithm to the second-order single-layer recurrent neural network to generate a new construction algorithm and use it to induce fuzzy finite state automata. The experiment indicates that such a dynamic network performs well.

  17. Liquidity risk and the performance of UK mutual funds


    Foran, Jason; O'Sullivan, Niall


    We examine the role of liquidity risk, both as a stock characteristic as well as systematic liquidity risk, in UK mutual fund performance for the first time. Using four alternative measures of stock liquidity we extract principal components across stocks in order to construct systematic or market liquidity factors. We find that on average UK mutual funds are tilted towards liquid stocks (except for small stock funds as might be expected) but that, counter-intuitively, liquidity as a stock cha...

  18. Construction of basic match schedules for sports competitions by using graph theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, van Arjan; Schreuder, Jan A.M.; Burke, Edmund; Carter, Michael


    Basic Match Schedules are important for constructing sports timetables. Firstly these schedules guarantee the fairness of the sports competitions and secondly they reduce the complexity of the problem. This paper presents an approach to the problem of finding Basic Match Schedules for sports competi


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiamma


    Full Text Available How to use for the architectural design, the simulation coming from a large size data model? The topic is related to the phase coming usually after the acquisition of the data, during the construction of the model and especially after, when designers must have an interaction with the simulation, in order to develop and verify their idea. In the case of study, the concept of interaction includes the concept of real time "flows". The work develops contents and results that can be part of the large debate about the current connection between "architecture" and "movement". The focus of the work, is to realize a collaborative and participative virtual environment on which different specialist actors, client and final users can share knowledge, targets and constraints to better gain the aimed result. The goal is to have used a dynamic micro simulation digital resource that allows all the actors to explore the model in powerful and realistic way and to have a new type of interaction in a complex architectural scenario. On the one hand, the work represents a base of knowledge that can be implemented more and more; on the other hand the work represents a dealt to understand the large constructed architecture simulation as a way of life, a way of being in time and space. The architectural design before, and the architectural fact after, both happen in a sort of "Spatial Analysis System". The way is open to offer to this "system", knowledge and theories, that can support architectural design work for every application and scale. We think that the presented work represents a dealt to understand the large constructed architecture simulation as a way of life, a way of being in time and space. Architecture like a spatial configuration, that can be reconfigurable too through designing.

  20. 75 FR 47738 - Acknowledgment Letters for Customer Funds and Secured Amount Funds (United States)


    ... purposes, including the payment of premiums to option grantors, commissions, brokerage, interest, taxes... accounted for and segregated on your books from our own Funds and all other accounts maintained by us in... maintained therein are in conformity with the Act and CFTC regulations without any further inquiry, and...

  1. Construction of a multi-vender fieldbus system for PC-based control using soft PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Park, Y. J.; Choi, J. M.; Park, J. S. [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea)


    The relationship between the IEC 61131-3 programming language and the fieldbus application that became necessary as an outcome of the recent automation technology was described.An educational text for the field users on the integration of the Input/Output (I/O) modules and on the IEC 61131-3 programming language was prepared. An attempt was made to include description of the various kind of the fieldbuses and promote understanding of the CAN and the AS-I bus using a practical approach. The profibus is most widely used in the world, and thus is an important and a standardized tool in the area of the process control. A method of integrating the profibus with the most commonly used I/O modules in the field was suggested. The most essential characteristics of the IEC 61131-3 programming language was also described. A method for the construction of the multi-vender I/O modules by the Soft PLC 4C of the softings was suggested. Various technical steps are necessary for the integration of the I/O modules by the soft PLC. An additional software is needed for the more intelligent devises possessing complex technical functions, such as the control valve, the AC driver among others. The 4C control by the softing which is an important industrial solution for the soft PLC was specifically designed for the profibus. So, an OPC server is needed to exchange between the other fieldbuses while the optimum performance is only achieved by using the profibus card by softing. This implies that the business aspect has played a major role for developing the profibus by softing and the domestic users need to pay careful attention to this point additional software tools, such as the PDM or the comuwinn II, are necessary in the process control area to operate a complex and instruments using the DP/PA segment coupler. 13 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  2. Utility regulators and the market for emission allowances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D.R.


    When it comes to emission trading under the Clean Air Act, a major concern of most people in the electric utilities industry is the effect of this new form of environmental regulation on the industry and the way it is regulated. This paper focuses on a different concern: the effect of the industry and the way it is regulated on the emission trading program. Emission trading must prove to be successful in lowering the cost of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions if this approach to environmental regulation is to be regarded as a viable substitute for traditional command-and-control regulation. In addition, whether or not utilities will buy and sell allowances as intended depends on the actions of the public utility regulators. This paper covers both setting the cost recovery rules and the incentive to sell and the capital gain.

  3. Europe frames fresh funding initiative for research

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q


    The EC has suggested sweeping reforms to the Framework programme. Instead of supporting large numbers of unrelated projects, in its next phase, the intention is that it will fund a much smaller number of large, integrated projects (1/2 page).

  4. Funding challenges for the CCCM cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Wanjiru Muigai


    Full Text Available Camp coordination and camp management (CCCM is one ofthe new clusters which have grown out of the humanitarianreform process. UNHCR is cluster lead in the case of conflict-induced displacement but are other agencies expecting toomuch of it? Can NGOs obtain the funding required to ensureCCCM improves the lives of IDPs in camps?

  5. State Funding Mechanisms for English Language Learners (United States)

    Millard, Maria


    Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…

  6. Selected Methods for Locking Screw Joints, Including the Use of Adhesives, Used in the Helicopter Construction (United States)

    Rudawska, Anna; Cisz, Sławomir; Warda, Tomasz


    The paper presents the problems of preventing screw joints from self-loosening on one of helicopter. The research examines selected locking methods used in aircraft produced by different manufacturers. Experimental tests were performed to investigate the loosening torque of screw joints locked by various devices: cotter pin, locknut, centre punching, self-locking nut and adhesive. A comparative analysis of the investigated locking methods is made with respect to their locking strength and efficiency.

  7. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems. (United States)

    Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian


    Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.

  9. Using Career Construction Theory in Employment Counseling for Sales and Office and Administrative Support Occupations (United States)

    Glavin, Kevin; Berger, Carolyn A.


    Clients present for career counseling with an array of career concerns. A single career theory may prove necessary, but insufficient, in addressing these concerns. Career construction theory (CCT; Savickas, 2005) assists individuals with career decision making by integrating 3 different viewpoints of vocational behavior. This article explains how…

  10. Characterisation of MSWI bottom ash for potential use as subbase in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas;


    of infrastructure due to increased oil and mineral exploitation. Thus, in this study MSWI bottom ash from a Greenlandic incinerator was tested for possible reuse as subbase in road construction. The mechanical properties (grain size distribution, wear resistance and bearing capacity) showed that the bottom ash...

  11. Use of limited data to construct Bayesian networks for probabilistic risk assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina M.; Swiler, Laura Painton


    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a fundamental part of safety/quality assurance for nuclear power and nuclear weapons. Traditional PRA very effectively models complex hardware system risks using binary probabilistic models. However, traditional PRA models are not flexible enough to accommodate non-binary soft-causal factors, such as digital instrumentation&control, passive components, aging, common cause failure, and human errors. Bayesian Networks offer the opportunity to incorporate these risks into the PRA framework. This report describes the results of an early career LDRD project titled %E2%80%9CUse of Limited Data to Construct Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Risk Assessment%E2%80%9D. The goal of the work was to establish the capability to develop Bayesian Networks from sparse data, and to demonstrate this capability by producing a data-informed Bayesian Network for use in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) as part of nuclear power plant Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This report summarizes the research goal and major products of the research.

  12. Precise construction of oligonucleotide-Fab fragment conjugate for homogeneous immunoassay using HaloTag technology. (United States)

    Päkkilä, Henna; Peltomaa, Riikka; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Soukka, Tero


    The use of oligonucleotide-protein conjugates enables the development of novel types of bioanalytical assays. However, convenient methods for producing covalent and stoichiometric oligonucleotide-protein conjugates are still rare. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, covalent conjugation of DNA oligonucleotide to Fab fragments with a 1:1 ratio using HaloTag self-labeling technology. The oligonucleotide coupling was carried out while the Fab was attached to protein G matrix, thereby enabling straightforward production of covalent conjugates. Furthermore, it allowed convenient purification of the product because the unreacted components were easily removed before the elution of the high-purity conjugate. The prepared conjugate was employed in a homogeneous immunoassay where prostate-specific antigen was used as a model analyte. Switchable lanthanide luminescence was used for detection, and the obtained limit of detection was 0.27 ng/ml. In the future, the developed method for covalent conjugation and successive purification in protein G column could also be applied for introducing other kinds of modifications to Fab fragments in a simple and site-specific manner.

  13. Hybrid Wall Evaluation for Ten New Construction Homes in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachco, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.


    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the design and construction of 10 new houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for new construction at these homes.

  14. Hybrid Wall Evaluation for Ten New Construction Homes in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)


    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report details the design and construction of 10 new houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-lead consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for new construction at these homes.

  15. Discussion on Funds Supervision Pattern of Freeway Construction%浅探高速公路建设资金监管模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In recent years, the freeway in China has a rapid development, and the freeway network is gradually formed. Because of the long construction period and huge investment of freeway project, some times, the construction unit may divert the funds of freeway project construction for other ways, which may cause large wage arrears for migrant rural workers, delay duration, and affect the project quality and progress. Therefore, it is very necessary and important to strengthen the supervision of project funds for construction unit.%近年来,我国高速公路快速发展,高速公路网逐步形成.高速公路项目建设期长,投资巨大,施工单位挪用高速公路项目建设资金、用于他途时有发生,容易造成拖欠农民工工资、延误工期、影响工程质量和进度.因此,加强对施工单位的项目建设资金监管,是非常必要和重要的.

  16. 13 CFR 400.209 - Funding for the Program. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding for the Program. 400.209 Section 400.209 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL... Government. The Board will estimate the risk posed by the guaranteed loans to the funds appropriated for...

  17. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011 (United States)

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John


    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski


    Full Text Available Summers increasingly hot are bringing large thermal problems within homes and businesses, leading to increased demand for installation of air conditioners and the consequent high energy consumption. Constructions with thermal insulation on its external walls thatcould reduce energy use or even supply the use of such equipment. Due to these factors the present study was to evaluate the insulation in three boxes built with different materials, one made of wooden boards with plain walls, and two built with plywood, wall insulation andinterior walls filled with rice husk and Styrofoam®. The boxes were built after placed in drying oven at 40 °C, then noted the temperature inside the same interval every five minutes using a digital thermometer. The box with inner Styrofoam® showed the lowest variation among the three evaluated, followed by the box of rice husk. These two materials also showed good thermal initial, unlike the box built only with wood, which showed a large interiorheating, lay in a drying oven.

  19. Construction of a microrobot system using magnetotactic bacteria for the separation of Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Chen, Chang-You; Chen, Chuan-Fang; Yi, Yong; Chen, Lin-Jie; Wu, Long-Fei; Song, Tao


    Magnetotactic bacteria exhibit superiority over other bacteria in fabricating microrobots because of their high motility and convenient controllability. In this study, a microrobot system is constructed using magnetotactic bacteria MO-1 and applied in pathogenic separation. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated using Staphylococcus aureus. The MO-1 magnetotactic bacterial microrobots are fabricated by binding magnetotactic bacteria MO-1 with their rabbit anti-MO-1 polyclonal antibodies. The efficient binding of MO-1 magnetotactic bacterial microrobots to Staphylococcus aureus is corroborated by phase contrast microscopic and transmission electron microscopic analyses. Further, a microfluidic chip is designed and produced, and the MO-1 microrobots are magnetically guided toward a sample pool in the chip. In the sample pool, Staphylococcus aureus samples are loaded on the microrobots and then carried away to a detection pool in the chip, suggesting the microrobots have successfully carried and separated pathogen. This study is the first to demonstrate bacterial microrobots carrying pathogens and more importantly, it reflects the great potential of using magnetotactic bacteria to develop magnetic-guided, auto-propelled microrobots for pathogen isolation.

  20. Health research funding in Mexico: the need for a long-term agenda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martínez-Martínez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The legal framework and funding mechanisms of the national health research system were recently reformed in Mexico. A study of the resource allocation for health research is still missing. We identified the health research areas funded by the National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT and examined whether research funding has been aligned to national health problems. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected the information to create a database of research grant projects supported through the three main Sectoral Funds managed by CONACYT between 2003 and 2010. The health-related projects were identified and classified according to their methodological approach and research objective. A correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between disease-specific funding and two indicators of disease burden. From 2003 to 2010, research grant funding increased by 32% at a compound annual growth rate of 3.5%. By research objective, the budget fluctuated annually resulting in modest increments or even decrements during the period under analysis. The basic science category received the largest share of funding (29% while the less funded category was violence and accidents (1.4%. The number of deaths (ρ = 0.51; P<0.001 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; ρ = 0.33; P = 0.004 were weakly correlated with the funding for health research. Considering the two indicators, poisonings and infectious and parasitic diseases were among the most overfunded conditions. In contrast, congenital anomalies, road traffic accidents, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most underfunded conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Although the health research funding has grown since the creation of CONACYT sectoral funds, the financial effort is still low in comparison to other Latin American countries with similar development. Furthermore, the great diversity of the funded topics compromises the efficacy of the

  1. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanda Chuersuwan


    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 , nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2 fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF and free water surface flow (FWS CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p<0.05 while pollutant removal efficiencies of both CWs were not significantly different. The average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes from SF-CWs were 2.9±3.5, 1.0±1.7, and 15.2±12.3 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, corresponding to the average global warming potential (GWP of 392 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. For FWS-CWs, the average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes were 5.9±4.8, 1.8±1.0, and 29.6±20.2 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, having an average GWP of 698 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. Thus, FWS-CWs have a higher GWP than SF-CWs when they were used as a system for domestic water improvement.

  2. Consistent empirical physical formula construction for recoil energy distribution in HPGe detectors using artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, Serkan


    The gamma-ray tracking technique is one of the highly efficient detection method in experimental nuclear structure physics. On the basis of this method, two gamma-ray tracking arrays, AGATA in Europe and GRETA in the USA, are currently being developed. The interactions of neutrons in these detectors lead to an unwanted background in the gamma-ray spectra. Thus, the interaction points of neutrons in these detectors have to be determined in the gamma-ray tracking process in order to improve photo-peak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios of the gamma-ray peaks. Therefore, the recoil energy distributions of germanium nuclei due to inelastic scatterings of 1-5 MeV neutrons were obtained both experimentally and using artificial neural networks. Also, for highly nonlinear detector response for recoiling germanium nuclei, we have constructed consistent empirical physical formulas (EPFs) by appropriate layered feed-forward neural networks (LFNNs). These LFNN-EPFs can be used to derive further physical functions whic...

  3. Construction of a stable replicating shuttle vector for Caldicellulosiruptor species: use for extending genetic methodologies to other members of this genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Chung

    Full Text Available The recalcitrance of plant biomass is the most important barrier to its economic conversion by microbes to products of interest. Thermophiles have special advantages for biomass conversion and members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic microbes known. In this study, we report the construction of a replicating shuttle vector for Caldicellulosiruptor species based on pBAS2, the smaller of two native C. bescii plasmids. The entire plasmid was cloned into an E. coli cloning vector containing a pSC101 origin of replication and an apramycin resistance cassette for selection in E. coli. The wild-type C. bescii pyrF locus was cloned under the transcriptional control of the regulatory region of the ribosomal protein S30EA (Cbes2105, and the resulting vector was transformed into a new spontaneous deletion mutant in the pyrFA locus of C. bescii that allowed complementation with the pyrF gene alone. Plasmid DNA was methylated in vitro with a recently described cognate methyltransferase, M.CbeI, and transformants were selected for uracil prototrophy. The plasmid was stably maintained in low copy with selection but rapidly lost without selection. There was no evidence of DNA rearrangement during transformation and replication in C. bescii. A similar approach was used to screen for transformability of other members of this genus using M.CbeI to overcome restriction as a barrier and was successful for transformation of C. hydrothermalis, an attractive species for many applications. Plasmids containing a carbohydrate binding domain (CBM and linker region from the C. bescii celA gene were maintained with selection and were structurally stable through transformation and replication in C. bescii and E. coli.

  4. Making activity-based funding work for mental health. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B


    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  5. Navigating toward research success in times of uncertainty: funding opportunities for early career investigators in nephrology. (United States)

    Ikizler, T Alp; Lovett, David H; Chertow, Glenn M; Mitch, William E; Schiller, Brigitte


    There is considerable concern within the nephrology community about recent federal budget cuts and the decreasing availability of funds for research. This is especially difficult for junior investigators who are about to start a career as physician-scientists. Accordingly, it is imperative that resources other than federal funds be made available to these individuals during this most delicate yet crucial transition period. This commentary aims to provide an overview of nonfederal funding resources, focusing on the Norman S. Coplon Extramural Grant Program. This program emphasizes support of investigators at the most fragile period in their development of an academic career; it has provided >$11 million of research funds to more than 80 individuals since 2000. The outcome has been stellar, with more than 130 publications originating from these projects and >90% of awardees staying in academia. We hope these accomplishments will encourage similar activities by other entities and scientific programs in addition to ones that are ongoing. Ultimately, these collective efforts will inspire young researchers to use their knowledge, passion, and dedication to advance research into kidney diseases.

  6. Corporate Funding and Conflicts of Interest: A Primer for Psychologists (United States)

    Pachter, Wendy S.; Fox, Ronald E.; Zimbardo, Philip; Antonuccio, David O.


    A presidential task force on external funding was established by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 2003 to review APA policies, procedures, and practices regarding the acceptance of funding and support from private corporations for educational and training programs; continuing education offerings; research projects; publications;…

  7. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Urban


    Full Text Available The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  8. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance



    The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  9. Fiduciary and Legal Considerations for Student-Managed Investment Funds (United States)

    Gradisher, Suzanne; Kahl, Douglas R.; Clinebell, John M.; Stevens, Jerry L.


    Student-managed investment funds are popular forms of experiential learning in business schools and finance departments. The investment management experience is a real world activity and the structure of the fund may also introduce real world fiduciary and legal responsibilities for students, faculty, and administrators. The authors review how the…

  10. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement


    Sukanda Chuersuwan; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Nares Chuersuwan


    Methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs) used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF) and free water surface flow (FWS) CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p

  11. 76 FR 62100 - Approval of Filing Fees for Exempt Reporting Advisers and Private Fund Advisers (United States)


    ... Trading Commission released a joint proposal that would require hedge fund advisers and other private fund... more in hedge fund assets, combined liquidity fund and registered money market fund assets or private... COMMISSION Approval of Filing Fees for Exempt Reporting Advisers and Private Fund Advisers AGENCY:...

  12. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund


    Amendment No. 22 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force following the CERN Council's decisions of 16 December 2005, includes the following new articles: Art. II 5.08 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 5.09 : Procurement of an entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 6.09 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Orphans Art. II 7.01 c) : Entitlement to Allowances Art. III 1.07 : Extension of the contract beyond the age limit of 65 as well as the following amended articles : Article II 1.07 - Contributions Annex B - Fixed sums and allowances

  13. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna


    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  14. The potential for biodiversity offsetting to fund effective invasive species control. (United States)

    Norton, David A; Warburton, Bruce


    Compensating for biodiversity losses in 1 location by conserving or restoring biodiversity elsewhere (i.e., biodiversity offsetting) is being used increasingly to compensate for biodiversity losses resulting from development. We considered whether a form of biodiversity offsetting, enhancement offsetting (i.e., enhancing the quality of degraded natural habitats through intensive ecological management), can realistically secure additional funding to control biological invaders at a scale and duration that results in enhanced biodiversity outcomes. We suggest that biodiversity offsetting has the potential to enhance biodiversity values through funding of invasive species control, but it needs to meet 7 key conditions: be technically possible to reduce invasive species to levels that enhance native biodiversity; be affordable; be sufficiently large to compensate for the impact; be adaptable to accommodate new strategic and tactical developments while not compromising biodiversity outcomes; acknowledge uncertainties associated with managing pests; be based on an explicit risk assessment that identifies the cost of not achieving target outcomes; and include financial mechanisms to provide for in-perpetuity funding. The challenge then for conservation practitioners, advocates, and policy makers is to develop frameworks that allow for durable and effective partnerships with developers to realize the full potential of enhancement offsets, which will require a shift away from traditional preservation-focused approaches to biodiversity management.

  15. A lattice vibrational model using vibrational density of states for constructing thermodynamic databases (Invited) (United States)

    Jacobs, M. H.; Van Den Berg, A. P.


    Thermodynamic databases are indispensable tools in materials science and mineral physics to derive thermodynamic properties in regions of pressure-temperature-composition space for which experimental data are not available or scant. Because the amount of phases and substances in a database is arbitrarily large, thermodynamic formalisms coupled to these databases are often kept as simple as possible to sustain computational efficiency. Although formalisms based on parameterizations of 1 bar thermodynamic data, commonly used in Calphad methodology, meet this requirement, physically unrealistic behavior in properties hamper the application in the pressure regime prevailing in the Earth's lower mantle. The application becomes especially cumbersome when they are applied to planetary mantles of massive super earth exoplanets or in the development of pressure scales, where Hugoniot data at extreme conditions are involved. Methods based on the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye formalism have the advantage that physically unrealistic behavior in thermodynamic properties is absent, but due to the simple construction of the vibrational density of states (VDoS), they lack engineering precision in the low-pressure regime, especially at 1 bar pressure, hampering application of databases incorporating such formalism to industrial processes. To obtain a method that is generally applicable in the complete stability range of a material, we developed a method based on an alternative use of Kieffer's lattice vibrational formalism. The method requires experimental data to constrain the model parameters and is therefore semi-empirical. It has the advantage that microscopic properties for substances, such as the VDoS, Grüneisen parameters and electronic and static lattice properties resulting from present-day ab-initio methods can be incorporated to constrain a thermodynamic analysis of experimental data. It produces results free from physically unrealistic behavior at high pressure and temperature


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel MIHAI


    Full Text Available The paper studied the rural human resources efficiency at regional level by using the DEA nonparametric method (Data Envelopment Analysis. The application of this cutting edge method enables the calculation of efficiency scores based on a series of inputs (occupied population in agriculture, industry and construction and outputs (gross value added in agriculture, industry and construction. The data regarding the rural human resources are retrieved from the Amigo data base, the regional GVA from Tempo online data base and the analysis is performed by MAXDATA 6.3 Beta program. The results revealed that the majority of the regions reach performance with the current input structure, with the exception of the North-East and North-West regions which need to reduce the number of workers in agriculture and increase the GVA from industry and constructions to support real economic growth

  17. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State (United States)

    Aud, Susan


    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  18. What is a good eco or energy fund? - A checklist for investors; Eine Checkliste fuer Anleger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoerzer, A.


    This article examines the factors that should be taken into account when making decisions on the purchase of shares in so-called eco-investment funds. Apart from the basic characteristics relevant to this type of financial instrument - sustainability, economics, environmental and social aspects - the author examines the financial competence of the investment fund provider and the management organisations involved. Also, the availability of know-how in the environmental and social sectors is considered to be an important point when judging the quality and research concepts of the institution offering the funds. The author makes further recommendations on factors that should be checked out including interdisciplinarity of the investment fund's management team, the methods used for evaluation and - particularly for investment funds in the energy area - the number and range of companies invested in. The article is concluded with a table giving details on a selection of 'eco'-investment funds, their management and performance.

  19. Estimating Risk and Return Combinations for New Derivatives Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bona


    Full Text Available Active funds are typically managed by placing bets against a well defined passive bench-mark. In this context, when examining the launching of a new actively managed fund with a target expected excess rate of return relative to the benchmark equal to µ, asset managers face the problem of estimating the risk σ of excess rates of return. This estimate is critical to examine whether the product is commercially feasible and to define risk limits for the manager, if the product is launched. This paper proceeds to examine the solution to this problem assuming an especial form of the binomial model, in the context of the market timing structure advanced by Merton (1981. The paper shows that two variables are relevant for the solution of the proposed problem. The first, and the most relevant, is the skill level of the manager. A ore skilled manager is able to operate a less risky product with the same target excess rate of return µ. The second relevant variable is the trade-off between risk and return determined by existing investment opportunities in the market. The smaller the increases in risk exposure required to obtain an increase in excess returns, the less risky the product will be After solving the problem under specific assumptions, the paper proceeds to test empirically their validity using a representative sample of hedge funds in the Brazilian market. The empirical results strongly support the validity of the required assumptions.

  20. Measuring Instrument Constructs of Return Factors for Green Office Building Investments Variables Using Rasch Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Mona


    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary study on rationalising green office building investments in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is attempt to introduce the application of Rasch measurement model analysis to determine the validity and reliability of each construct in the questionnaire. In achieving this objective, a questionnaire survey was developed consists of 6 sections and a total of 106 responses were received from various investors who own and lease office buildings in Kuala Lumpur. The Rasch Measurement analysis is used to measure the quality control of item constructs in the instrument by measuring the specific objectivity within the same dimension, to reduce ambiguous measures, and a realistic estimation of precision and implicit quality. The Rasch analysis consists of the summary statistics, item unidimensionality and item measures. A result shows the items and respondent (person reliability is at 0.91 and 0.95 respectively.

  1. The combined use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies for the 3D illustration of the progress of works in infrastructure construction projects (United States)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos


    Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology is already part of the construction industry and is considered by professionals as a very useful tool for all phases of a construction project. BIM technology, with the particularly useful 3D illustrations which it provides, can be used to illustrate and monitor the progress of works effectively through the entire lifetime of the project. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have undergone significant advances in equipment capabilities and now have the capacity to acquire high resolution imagery from different angles in a cost effective and efficient manner. By using photogrammetry, characteristics such as distances, areas, volumes, elevations, object sizes, and object shape can be determined within overlapping areas. This paper explores the combined use of BIM and UAV technologies in order to achieve efficient and accurate as-built data collection and 3D illustrations of the works progress during an infrastructure construction project.

  2. 46 CFR 308.402 - Insurance during vessel construction period. (United States)


    ... RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.402 Insurance during vessel construction period... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance during vessel construction period. 308.402... inclusion as part of the vessel becomes at risk at the shipyard of the builder to the date and time...

  3. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 and above

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year) received an email in July inviting them to fill in a declaration of situation for dependent children in EDH. If this declaration has not yet been completed, you are requested to do so (one declaration for each child concerned) WITHOUT DELAY, by using the following link: The deadline was September 30. If no declaration is sent to our service by October 13, 2006, the child allowance, as well as automatic health insurance membership, will cease on the first day of the month following the end of the last school year (according to the school certificate in our possession or, in the absence of precise information, on July 1, 2006). School fees Service Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  4. Artificially constructed quorum-sensing circuits are used for subtle control of bacterial population density. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoshou; Wu, Xin; Peng, Jianghai; Hu, Yidan; Fang, Baishan; Huang, Shiyang


    Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell-cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata


    Full Text Available Within the framework of a sociocultural theory of human development and learning (Vigotsky, 2009; Bruner, 1986; Nelson, 1996; Tomasello, 1998, 2003, this paper aims to investigate the multimodal construction of arguments produced by 5 year-old children during disputes in a kindergarten play situation. We considered the juxtaposition of information provided by resources from different semiotic fields (Goodwin, 2000, 2007. The corpus consists of the interactions in a group of children while they play with building blocks. This play situation was videotaped in a kindergarten classroom that is attended by an urban marginalized population of outer Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis makes use of the qualitative logic derived from the methodological tools of Conversation Analysis developed in previous research (Goodwin, 2000, 2007; Goodwin and Goodwin, 1990, 2000; Goodwin, Goodwin and Yaeger-Dror, 2002. The results show the different semiotic fields that overlap with the linguistic expression of the arguments or points of view that children maintain while quarrelling during play situations. This demonstrates the importance of attending to intonation, the use of space, the direction of gaze, gestures, and body positioning as they are components that contribute to the argumentative force of the utterances in disputes. These elements emerge as indicators of the emotions that parties experience in disputes which can not be disregarded when attempting to account for how argumentation occurs in real situations of interaction. This paper is written in Spanish.

  6. Phosphorylcholine allows for evasion of bactericidal antibody by Haemophilus influenzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Clark

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae has the ability to quickly adapt to different host environments through phase variation of multiple structures on its lipooligosaccharide (LPS, including phosphorylcholine (ChoP. During colonization with H. influenzae, there is a selection for ChoP+ phase variants. In a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization, this selection is lost in the absence of adaptive immunity. Based on previous data highlighting the importance of natural antibody in limiting H. influenzae colonization, the effect of ChoP expression on antibody binding and its bactericidal activity was investigated. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that ChoP+ phase variants had decreased binding of antibody to LPS epitopes compared to ChoP- phase variants. This difference in antibody binding correlated with increased survival of ChoP+ phase variants in the presence of antibody-dependent, complement-mediated killing. ChoP+ phase variants were also more resistant to trypsin digestion, suggesting a general effect on the physical properties of the outer membrane. Moreover, ChoP-mediated protection against antibody binding correlated with increased resilience of outer membrane integrity. Collectively, these data suggest that ChoP expression provides a selective advantage during colonization through ChoP-mediated effects on the accessibility of bactericidal antibody to the cell surface.

  7. Construction Project Forecasting "Practical Use of EV Metrics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda Abbas Sabry


    During this professional research--Construction Project Forecasting (Practical Use of EV Metrics), which criticize earned value management as a most distinguished methodology for forecasting the project expected end dates and expecting budget at completion, the field for the research is construction field and specially the projects which content different phases without repetitive tasks. Forecasting for construction project is a complicated process need more than applying one equation only. As assuming that, project performance during finishing stage will be similar to project performance during concrete stage is totally wrong. The case study techniques have been used to prove an important idea and also to implement a suggested protocol which actually implemented and tested and it should be considered as a research finding. The project used in this case study is "Hurgadah Intemational Airport--New Terminal Building", while executing this complex construction projects with different stages the forecasting for the project end date and final end budget were completely not realistic. The above leads to questioning the next: "Is it true that using the earned value indexes for forecasting construction projects end date and final budget is the right way? And if not, what is the right process that should be used in order to reach acceptable forecasting method?" We implement the EV measurements by the normal technique and also implement in the same month the suggested protocol for forecasting, comparing the results proof the effectiveness of the suggested protocol. The findings prove that, the construction projects need special treatment when use the EVM for forecasting. The earned value indexes created to serve the projects which have repeated tasks or can say which got one stage only, like information technology (IT) projects as those projects depending on manpower productivity and also based on few different qualifications. On such type of projects

  8. Controlling for the use of extreme weights in bank efficiency assessments during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Zhu, Minyan


    the financial crisis, we illustrate the impact of the proposed weight restrictions in two different efficiency models; one related to banks’ funding mix and one related to their asset mix. The results show that using a more balanced set of weights tend to reduce the estimated efficiency scores more for those...


    CERN Multimedia


    Amendment No 18 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Divisional secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2002, concerns the articles which have been amended, in accordance with the Council's decision, to allow the award of a deferred retirement pension after five years of service (instead of ten previously) and the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at the same date (Annex B). It also contains a revised version of the table of contents of the Rules, as well as pages where the contents have not changed but where the page layout has had to be adjusted for technical reasons.

  10. Construction of an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation using semidefinite programming (United States)

    Fantuzzi, G.; Wynn, A.


    A method to construct systematically an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is developed by formulating the classical problem as an optimisation problem. In particular, we show that the infinite-dimensional problem can be rewritten as a finite-dimensional convex semidefinite problem, which is solved to construct a background profile and to obtain an upper bound on the energy of the solution ‖ u ‖ that applies to the infinite-dimensional PDE. The results are compared to existing analytical results, and support the fact that lim sup t → ∞ ‖ u ‖ ≤ O (L 3 / 2) is the optimal estimate achievable with the background profile method and a quadratic Lyapunov function.

  11. Development of Three-Dimensional Multicellular Tissue-Like Constructs for Mutational Analysis Using Macroporous Microcarriers (United States)

    Jordan, Jacqueline A.; Fraga, Denise N.; Gonda, Steve R.


    A three-dimensional (3-D), tissue-like model was developed for the genotoxic assessment of space environment. In previous experiments, we found that culturing mammalian cells in a NASA-designed bioreactor, using Cytodex-3 beads as a scaffold, generated 3-D multicellular spheroids. In an effort to generate scaffold-free spheroids, we developed a new 3-D tissue-like model by coculturing fibroblast and epithelial cell in a NASA bioreactor using macroporous Cultispher-S(TradeMark) microcarriers. Big Blue(Registered Trademark) Rat 2(Lambda) fibroblasts, genetically engineered to contain multiple copies (>60 copies/cell) of the Lac I target gene, were cocultured with radio-sensitive human epithelial cells, H184F5. Over an 8-day period, samples were periodically examined by microscopy and histology to confirm cell attachment, growth, and viability. Immunohistochemistry and western analysis were used to evaluate the expression of specific cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins. Key cell culture parameters (glucose, pH, and lactate concentrations) were monitored daily. Controls were two-dimensional mono layers of fibroblast or epithelial cells cultured in T-flasks. Analysis of 3-D spheroids from the bioreactor suggests fibroblast cells attached to and completely covered the bead surface and inner channels by day 3 in the bioreactor. Treatment of the 3-day spheroids with dispase II dissolved the Cultisphers(TradeMark) and produced multicellular, bead-less constructs. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of vi.mentin, cytokeratin and E-cadherin in treated spheroids. Examination of the dispase II treated spheroids with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also showed the presence of desmosomes. These results suggest that the controlled enzymatic degradation of an artificial matrix in the low shear environment of the NASA-designed bioreactor can produce 3-D tissue-like spheroids. 2

  12. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) (United States)

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.


    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  13. Systemic virus-induced gene silencing allows functional characterization of maize genes during biotrophic interaction with Ustilago maydis. (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Kastner, Christine; Kumlehn, Jochen; Kahmann, Regine; Doehlemann, Gunther


    Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on the stem, leaves and inflorescences. In this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed massive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression. To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) for maize. Conditions were established that allowed successful U. maydis infection of BMV-preinfected maize plants. This set-up enabled quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based readout. In proof-of-principle experiments, an U. maydis-induced terpene synthase was shown to negatively regulate disease development while a protein involved in cell death inhibition was required for full virulence of U. maydis. The results suggest that this system is a versatile tool for the rapid identification of maize genes that determine compatibility with U. maydis.

  14. 76 FR 50289 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Transportation's National Infrastructure... (United States)


    ... funds will be spent steadily and expeditiously once construction starts; the schedule should show how... part of an overall construction project that receives TIGER Discretionary Grants funding. 2. As... planning, preparation, or design of Eligible Projects, and not their construction (``TIGER II...

  15. [Materials for construction sector]. (United States)

    Macchia, C


    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  16. A survey on classification of maintenance fund for high rise residential building in Klang Valley (United States)

    Wahab, Siti Rashidah Hanum Abd; Ani, Adi Irfan Che; Sairi, Ahmad; Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Razak, Muhd Zulhanif Abd


    High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. Unfortunately, there are several issues occurred in managing high rise residential building especially in maintenance fund. Thus, distribution of maintenance fund need to be clarified in order to make it well organised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the classification of maintenance fund distribution at high rise residential building. The survey was done on 170 high-rise residential schemes by using stratified random sampling technique. The scope of this research is within Klang Valley area. This area is rapidly developed with high-rise residential building. The result, there are five classification of maintenance fund identified in managing high-rise residential building scheme namely, management fund for administration and utilities, maintenance fund for exclusive facilities, maintenance fund for basic facilities, maintenance fund for support facilities and management sinking fund.

  17. Wavelet multiscale analysis for Hedge Funds: Scaling and strategies (United States)

    Conlon, T.; Crane, M.; Ruskin, H. J.


    The wide acceptance of Hedge Funds by Institutional Investors and Pension Funds has led to an explosive growth in assets under management. These investors are drawn to Hedge Funds due to the seemingly low correlation with traditional investments and the attractive returns. The correlations and market risk (the Beta in the Capital Asset Pricing Model) of Hedge Funds are generally calculated using monthly returns data, which may produce misleading results as Hedge Funds often hold illiquid exchange-traded securities or difficult to price over-the-counter securities. In this paper, the Maximum Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) is applied to measure the scaling properties of Hedge Fund correlation and market risk with respect to the S&P 500. It is found that the level of correlation and market risk varies greatly according to the strategy studied and the time scale examined. Finally, the effects of scaling properties on the risk profile of a portfolio made up of Hedge Funds is studied using correlation matrices calculated over different time horizons.

  18. Use of chitosan membrane from the carapace of the soldier crab Mictyris brevidactylus for biosensor construction. (United States)

    Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Cheng, Tzong-Jih; Wang, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Richie L C


    Glucose oxidase (EC was immobilized on chitosan membrane (crab Mictyris brevidactylus. A glucose electrode was constructed by covering a platinum electrode (2.0 mm in diameter) with the enzyme membrane. The enzyme electrode sensed glucose amperometrically (1.0 micro A/mM, with linear range up to 0.5 mM, r = 0.999) when positively imposed with 0.6 V against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The glucose biosensor was sensitive ( 3), reproducible (CV for 55 micro M glucose <3%, n = 5), reagentless, and durable for months.

  19. Addressing health inequalities by using Structural Funds. A question of opportunities. (United States)

    Neagu, Oana Maria; Michelsen, Kai; Watson, Jonathan; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut


    Making up a third of the EU budget, Structural and Investment Funds can provide important opportunities for investing in policies that tackle inequalities in health. This article looks back and forward at the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 financial periods in an attempt to inform the development of health equity as a strand of policy intervention under regional development. It combines evidence from health projects funded through Structural Funds and a document analyses that locates interventions for health equity under the new regulations. The map of opportunities has changed considerably since the last programming period, creating more visibility for vulnerable groups, social determinants of health and health systems sustainability. As the current programming period is progressing, this paper contributes to maximizing this potential but also identifying challenges and implementation gaps for prospective health system engagement in pursuing health equity as part of Structural Funds projects. The austerity measures and their impact on public spending, building political support for investments as well as the difficulties around pursuing health gains as an objective of other policy areas are some of the challenges to overcome. European Structural and Investment Funds could be a window of opportunity that triggers engagement for health equity if sectors adopt a transformative approach and overcome barriers, cooperate for common goals and make better use of the availability of these resources.

  20. 20 CFR 666.210 - How may Incentive Grant funds be used? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Incentive Grant funds be used? 666.210 Section 666.210 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Performance § 666.210 How may Incentive Grant funds be used? Incentive grant funds are awarded to States...

  1. Clean energy funds: An overview of state support for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan


    Across the United States, as competition in the supply and delivery of electricity has been introduced, states have sought to ensure the continuation of ''public benefits'' programs traditionally administered or funded by electric utilities. Many states have built into their restructuring plans methods of supporting renewable energy sources. One of the most popular policy mechanisms for ensuring such continued support has been the system-benefits charge (SBC), a non-bypassable charge to electricity customers (usually applied on a cents/kWh basis) used to collect funds for public purpose programs. Thus far, at least fourteen states have established SBC funds targeted in part towards renewable energy. This paper discusses the status and performance of these state renewable or ''clean'' energy funds supported by system-benefits charges. As illustrated later, existing state renewable energy funds are expected to collect roughly $3.5 billion through 2012 for renewable energy. Clearly, these funds have the potential to provide significant support for clean energy technologies over at least the next decade. Because the level of funding for renewable energy available under these programs is unprecedented and because fund administrators are developing innovative and new programs to fund renewable projects, a certain number of program failures are unavoidable. Also evident is that states are taking very different approaches to the distribution of these funds and that many lessons are being learned as programs are designed, implemented, and evaluated. Our purpose in this paper is therefore to relay early experience with these funds and provide preliminary lessons learned from that experience. It is our hope that this analysis will facilitate learning across states and help state fund managers develop more effective and more coordinated programs. Central to this paper are case studies that provide information on the SBC-funded renewable

  2. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Robyn Margaret; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon


    NTRODUCTION Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance...... (ODA) for HIV programmes in the region. METHODS: The donor countries considered in this analysis are Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. To estimate bilateral and multilateral ODA financing for HIV programmes in the Asia...... for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) for the period 2014 to 2016. RESULTS: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV...

  3. The NIH R03 Award: An Initial Funding Step for Social Work Researchers (United States)

    Langhorst, Diane M.; Svikis, Dace S.


    Social workers in academic and agency settings have the opportunity to do funded research using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) R03 small grant mechanism designed for discrete, clearly defined projects that can be completed within a 1- to 2-year time period with limited funding. This article describes the R03 mechanism and provides a guide…

  4. 抗战初期国立北平图书馆的经费问题%The Funding Challenge for the National Library of Peking during the Early Period of Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The National Library of Peking encountered tremendous challenges on funding,due to the different judg-ments on the political situation made by the vice chief librarian Yuan Tongli and the American director of the China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture ( CFPEC) which co-hosted the library from 1929 with the Ministry of Education,when it was transferring to the southwest of China during the early period of Anti-Japanese War. At the same time,the central department in Peking also suffered the funding crisis for downsizing. Yuan Tongli tried his best to work out a solution to solve the crisis through various channels. The crisis went through after all and the Kunming Branch of National Library of Peking was built soon afterwards which represented the headquarter of the Library to continue to work.%抗战初期,国立北平图书馆面临严重的经费方面的挑战。“七七事变”后,平馆部分人员与业务向西南迁移。因平馆主持人袁同礼与中基会美方董事对时局有不同的判断,二者在是否南迁的问题上产生歧见,导致南迁人员面临经费停顿的挑战。与此同时,平馆本部也因业务缩减而面临经费紧缩的问题。经费是此次冲突中亟需解决的关键问题。袁同礼为之多方设法,最终化解了此次危机。经此波折,平馆的财务中心、行政中心顺利转移到昆明办事处,战乱中平馆的事业基础得以保存。

  5. Commentary: a ray of hope for medical school research funding. (United States)

    Gabbe, Steven G; Lockwood, Charles J; Marsh, Clay B


    Academic health centers are traditionally dependent on extramural agencies like the National Institutes of Health to fund medical research. The still-struggling U.S. economy has kept federal paylines stagnant in recent years even as research costs climb. Academic health center leaders need to find new funding sources to ensure that critical medical research continues. Myers and colleagues, in their report in this issue of Academic Medicine, found that scientific research funding by philanthropic nonprofit organizations rose 26% from 2006 to 2008. Even though the time frame for their study precedes the recent economic recession, their findings provide hope and guidance to academic health centers. Stable research portfolios should include a variety of sources, and Myers and colleagues suggest that partnership opportunities exist between federal and not-for-profit funding sources to focus on key disease areas. Seeking broader research funding may benefit at-risk groups like junior investigators, as the average age of a first-time NIH grant recipient in 2008 was 42 years old. To foster the new discoveries and ideas that come from young scientists, academic health centers need to diversify their research funding sources.It is encouraging that high-visibility philanthropic organizations enhanced funding by 26% from 2006 to 2008. However, between 2008 and 2010, overall grant support from foundations declined 2.3%. Should federal and private funding continue to fall, there is an eminent threat of losing a generation of investigators. Thus, creative solutions and partnerships are needed to fund more high-priority research to cure disease and create the future of medicine.

  6. The design, construction, and operation of a whole-body inhalation chamber for use in avian toxicity studies. (United States)

    Olsgard, Mandy L; Smits, Judit E G


    Environmental risk assessments are broadening to include evaluations of avian species exposed to gaseous and particulate materials (Mineau, 2002b; Irvine, 2004; Carmalt, 2005). Since the avian respiratory tract is fundamentally different from the respiratory tract of rodents, the effects of gaseous materials on birds cannot validly be extrapolated from data derived from rodent exposure studies (Briant & Driver, 1992; Brown et al., 1997). To address the lack of avian-specific lowest observable effect levels used to calculate reference concentrations for airborne pollutants, a system was designed to facilitate research on inhalation toxicology in small birds. Birds have long been used as early indicators of poor air quality (Brown et al., 1997), and various chambers have been designed for head only exposures of larger birds (Briant & Driver, 1992). Smaller birds with short tracheal lengths and hooked beaks however require less restrictive exposure apparatus, thus warranting the proposed design. The chamber described in this article was designed to accommodate a small falcon, the American kestrel, a species frequently used in toxicological risk assessments (Wiemeyer & Lincer, 1987a; Smits & Bortolotti, 2001; Bortolotti et al., 2003; Fisher et al., 2006). To accomplish this, a 41-L closed inhalation system capable of exposing 12 adult American kestrels was constructed primarily of galvanized steel, polyvinyl chloride, and copper tubing. Humidified air was passed over the birds and subsequently decontaminated by an activated carbon filter and released to a HEPA filtration system. The proposed inhalation chamber was successfully used in 2005 and 2006 to expose a total of 55 male American kestrels to benzene and toluene. Measurements of various biochemical endpoints associated with benzene and toluene toxicity allowed us to study the effects of airborne pollutants on small nondomesticated birds in a controlled laboratory setting.

  7. 78 FR 18348 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects (United States)


    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Submission for OMB Review... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of an... agencies to consider the use of a project labor agreement (PLA), as they may decide appropriate, on...

  8. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department


    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2005/2006 school year) have received a QUESTIONNAIRE in July. If this questionnaire has not been completed and returned yet, they are requested to do so WITHOUT DELAY. (The deadline was 9 September.) Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  9. 23 CFR 1275.7 - Use of transferred funds. (United States)


    ... and administration costs, no later than 60 days after the funds are transferred. (d) The Federal share of the cost of any project carried out with the funds transferred under § 1275.6 of this part shall... NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. Methodology for the Construction of a Rule-Based Knowledge Base Enabling the Selection of Appropriate Bronze Heat Treatment Parameters Using Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górny Z.


    Full Text Available Decisions regarding appropriate methods for the heat treatment of bronzes affect the final properties obtained in these materials. This study gives an example of the construction of a knowledge base with application of the rough set theory. Using relevant inference mechanisms, knowledge stored in the rule-based database allows the selection of appropriate heat treatment parameters to achieve the required properties of bronze. The paper presents the methodology and the results of exploratory research. It also discloses the methodology used in the creation of a knowledge base.

  11. A Research Design for NASA-Funded Professional Development Projects (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J.; Getty, S. R.


    Analysis Data will be analyzed using a strategy developed by Huberman and Miles (2002). This methodology provides a framework for researchers to perform three research functions: 1) reduce the data to a subset of information (categories) without losing essential data, 2) display (matrices, maps, summaries) this information in a manner that facilitates group discussion and notation of consensus upon emerging patterns, and 3) draw and verify conclusions. The multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data allow for triangulation of findings, which helps establish a measure of validity and reliability to final findings and recommendations for future research and changes to the project.Table 1. Research Questions, Data Sources.

  12. Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Financial Statements of the Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2014 and Comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management Supreme Audit Office of Poland

    CERN Document Server


    Recommendations from the External Auditors to the CERN Pension Fund Management on the Financial Statements of the Pension Fund for the Financial Year 2014 and Comments from the CERN Pension Fund Management Supreme Audit Office of Poland


    CERN Multimedia


    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 104th and 105th meetings on 8th November and 4th December 2001, respectively. The agenda of the 8th November meeting was devoted to a single item, namely the outcome of the Finance Committee's meeting the previous day. The Governing Board noted with satisfaction that both its proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Fund - allowing, in particular, the award of a deferred retirement pension after five years of service - and its proposal for the adjustment of pensions on 1.1.2002 had been approved for recommendation to the Council in December. At its meeting on 4th December, the Governing Board dealt mainly with the items examined at the latest meeting of the Investment Committee. The Committee's chairman, G. Maurin, stated that the 2001 return on the Fund's overall investments was likely to be between -2% and -3%. He also noted that a new study of the Fund's cash flows (incomings and outgoings) had been performed. He underlined that, while the flo...

  14. Reliable and adequateengineering surveys for construction: the rule of two D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakitina Natal'ya Nikolaevna


    Full Text Available In the article the current state of quality supply of engineering surveys for construction is discussed. The main criteria for improving the design quality of buildings and structures for industrial, civil and other purposes is the reliability and adequacy of the results of engineering-geological surveys. The authors show the examples of inadequate study of engineering-geological conditions in the design of structures that led to emergency situations. Consideration of the reasons of accidents in structures showed that they are caused by lack of research conducted, the underestimation of the complexity of geological conditions. In the process of conducting geotechnical investigations the works were focused directly in the enclosure of a designed building, and the features of geological and hydrogeological conditions of the off-site were much more complex. In the process of construction during the sinking of the pit activation suffusion processes occurred, which led to an accident. Underestimation of the use of these geological funds in this example shows that even in the presence of fund materials, which are currently almost not increased, errors may occur due to the notorious savings for research. The requirements to ensuring the reliability and adequacy of engineering-geological surveys, which the authors call "The Rule of two D" (in Russian — Reliability and Adequacy, lie in the existing legal acts. The practice of fulfilling requirements to a large extend shows that the desire to save money at the stage of design and exploration works results in additional costs for additional design, recovery from accidents and works on a new project. The authors critically evaluated the development of engineering and geotechnical engineering instead of geological survey, which is not methodologically and theoretically substantiated and leads to the excluding from engineering surveys the consideration of the off-site geotechnical conditions directly below

  15. Screening for Dyslexia Using Eye Tracking during Reading (United States)

    Öqvist Seimyr, Gustaf; Ygge, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Rydberg, Agneta; Jacobson, Christer


    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5–10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school. Here we show that it is possible to identify 9–10 year old individuals at risk of persistent reading difficulties by using eye tracking during reading to probe the processes that underlie reading ability. In contrast to current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it unfolds in real-time. Our study is based on a sample of 97 high-risk subjects with early identified word decoding difficulties and a control group of 88 low-risk subjects. These subjects were selected from a larger population of 2165 school children attending second grade. Using predictive modeling and statistical resampling techniques, we develop classification models from eye tracking records less than one minute in duration and show that the models are able to differentiate high-risk subjects from low-risk subjects with high accuracy. Although dyslexia is fundamentally a language-based learning disability, our results suggest that eye movements in reading can be highly predictive of individual reading ability and that eye tracking can be an efficient means to identify children at risk of long-term reading difficulties. PMID:27936148

  16. Construction of Ligand Group Orbitals for Polyatomics and Transition-Metal Complexes Using an Intuitive Symmetry-Based Approach (United States)

    Johnson, Adam R.


    A molecular orbital (MO) diagram, especially its frontier orbitals, explains the bonding and reactivity for a chemical compound. It is therefore important for students to learn how to construct one. The traditional methods used to derive these diagrams rely on linear algebra techniques to combine ligand orbitals into symmetry-adapted linear…

  17. 76 FR 58077 - Certification Related to Conditions Under Which Assistance Using FY 2011 Economic Support Funds... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Conditions Under Which Assistance Using FY 2011 Economic Support Funds (ESF) for the Reintegration of Former Members of Foreign Terrorist Organizations May Be Used Pursuant to the authority...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article analyses the financial support given by the European Union to the member states on the purpose of enduring development of their fishing area, as well as the new development opportunities for Romania. The main financing instrument of the common fisheries policy is the European Fisheries Fund, which is managed alike the structural funds. This fund supports the European fisheries and aquaculture area in its effort to adapt a new fleet, whose competitiveness must be consolidated, and encourages the application of some measures meant to protect and improve the environment. In the case of Romania, the increase of the European Fisheries Fund’s absorption has become a priority for the Managing Authorities of this Fund, in order to stimulate the development of the Romanian market for fishing products, a market having a great potential.

  19. Construction of a Plant Transformation-ready Expression cDNA Library for Thellungiella halophila Using Recombination Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Song Ni; Zhi-Yong Lei; Xi Chen; David J. Oliver; Cheng-Bin Xiang


    Salt cress (Thellungiella halophila), a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana L., is an extremophile that is adapted to harsh saline environments. To mine salt-tolerance genes from this species, we constructed an entry cDNA library from the salt cress plant treated with salt-stress by using a modified cDNA synthesis and an improved recombinationassisted cDNA library construction method that is completely free of manipulations involving restriction enzymes and DNA ligase. This cDNA library construction procedure is significantly simplified and the quality of the cDNA library is improved. This entry cDNA library was subsequently shuttled into the destination binary vector pCB406 designed for plant transformation and expression via recombination-assisted cloning. The library is plant transformation ready and is used to transform Arabidopsis on a large scale in order to create a large collection of transgenic lines for functional gene mining.

  20. Raising awareness of the importance of funding for tuberculosis small-molecule research. (United States)

    Riccardi, Giovanna; Old, Iain G; Ekins, Sean


    Tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery research is hampered by several factors, but as in many research areas, the available funding is insufficient to support the needs of research and development. Recent years have seen various large collaborative efforts involving public-private partnerships, mimicking the situation during the golden age of antibiotic drug discovery during the 1950s and 1960s. The large-scale collaborative efforts funded by the European Union (EU) are now subject to diminishing financial support. As a result, TB researchers are increasingly looking for novel forms of funding, such as crowdfunding, to fill this gap. Any potential solution will require a careful reassessment of the incentives to encourage additional organizations to provide funding.

  1. Mining for constructions in texts using N-gram and network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard


    , and corpus stylistics – is applicable in the identification of constructions and their functionality in discourse. An N-gram is a constellation of a specified number (N = number) of entities that frequently (co)occur in a data population. In this paper we will report on an exploratory study in which we apply......In constructionist theory, constructions are functional entities that pair form and conventionalized semantic and/or discourse-pragmatic function. One of the main tasks of the construction grammarian is thus to identify and document constructions. Seeing that it is unlikely that this can be done......-world construction and specification of narrative temporality. In this paper, our special interest lies in the relationship between constructions and the discourse of fiction. As the study reported in this article is exploratory, it serves just as much to test the methods mentioned above as to analyze...

  2. Construction and Validation of a 14-Year Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in the General Population: The Puras-GEVA Chart (United States)

    Artigao-Ródenas, Luis Miguel; Carbayo-Herencia, Julio Antonio; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Divisón-Garrote, Juan Antonio; Sanchis-Domènech, Carlos; Vigo-Aguiar, Isabel; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco


    Abstract The current cardiovascular risk tables are based on a 10-year period and therefore, do not allow for predictions in the short or medium term. Thus, we are unable to take more aggressive therapeutic decisions when this risk is very high. To develop and validate a predictive model of cardiovascular disease (CVD), to enable calculation of risk in the short, medium and long term in the general population. Cohort study with 14 years of follow-up (1992–2006) was obtained through random sampling of 342,667 inhabitants in a Spanish region. Main outcome: time-to-CVD. The sample was randomly divided into 2 parts [823 (80%), construction; 227 (20%), validation]. A stepwise Cox model was constructed to determine which variables at baseline (age, sex, blood pressure, etc) were associated with CVD. The model was adapted to a points system and risk groups based on epidemiological criteria (sensitivity and specificity) were established. The risk associated with each score was calculated every 2 years up to a maximum of 14. The estimated model was validated by calculating the C-statistic and comparison between observed and expected events. In the construction sample, 76 patients experienced a CVD during the follow-up (82 cases per 10,000 person-years). Factors in the model included sex, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, occupational physical activity, age, systolic blood pressure × heart rate, number of cigarettes, and total cholesterol. Validation yielded a C-statistic of 0.886 and the comparison between expected and observed events was not significant (P: 0.49–0.75). We constructed and validated a scoring system able to determine, with a very high discriminating power, which patients will develop a CVD in the short, medium, and long term (maximum 14 years). Validation studies are needed for the model constructed. PMID:26632692

  3. 25 CFR 900.128 - What funding shall the Secretary provide in a construction contract? (United States)


    ... the contract proposal and supporting cost data; and (c) The costs associated with auditing the general and administrative costs of the tribal organization associated with the management of the construction... the risks associated with carrying out the contract, local market conditions, and other...

  4. A Postmodern Framework for Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The International Monetary Fund as a Live Case. (United States)

    Whatley, Art; Dyck, Loren


    Asserting that deconstruction, a postmodern technique, brings marginalized voices into the mainstream and allows for a more diverse perspective, this article puts forth postmodern theory as a way to teach critical thinking skills to MBA students. Applies the framework to the International Monetary Fund to exemplify its power to critically examine…

  5. Neural Classifier Construction using Regularization, Pruning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintz-Madsen, Mads; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan;


    In this paper we propose a method for construction of feed-forward neural classifiers based on regularization and adaptive architectures. Using a penalized maximum likelihood scheme, we derive a modified form of the entropic error measure and an algebraic estimate of the test error. In conjunction...

  6. Estimating net survival: the importance of allowing for informative censoring. (United States)

    Danieli, Coraline; Remontet, Laurent; Bossard, Nadine; Roche, Laurent; Belot, Aurélien


    Net survival, the one that would be observed if cancer were the only cause of death, is the most appropriate indicator to compare cancer mortality between areas or countries. Several parametric and non-parametric methods have been developed to estimate net survival, particularly when the cause of death is unknown. These methods are based either on the relative survival ratio or on the additive excess hazard model, the latter using the general population mortality hazard to estimate the excess mortality hazard (the hazard related to net survival). The present work used simulations to compare estimator abilities to estimate net survival in different settings such as the presence/absence of an age effect on the excess mortality hazard or on the potential time of follow-up, knowing that this covariate has an effect on the general population mortality hazard too. It showed that when age affected the excess mortality hazard, most estimators, including specific survival, were biased. Only two estimators were appropriate to estimate net survival. The first is based on a multivariable excess hazard model that includes age as covariate. The second is non-parametric and is based on the inverse probability weighting. These estimators take differently into account the informative censoring induced by the expected mortality process. The former offers great flexibility whereas the latter requires neither the assumption of a specific distribution nor a model-building strategy. Because of its simplicity and availability in commonly used software, the nonparametric estimator should be considered by cancer registries for population-based studies.

  7. Model Construction for the Intention to Use Telecare in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Chen Huang


    Full Text Available Objective. This study chose patients with chronic diseases as study subjects to investigate their intention to use telecare. Methods. A large medical institute in Taiwan was used as the sample unit. Patients older than 20 years, who had chronic diseases, were sampled by convenience sampling and surveyed with a structural questionnaire, and a total of 500 valid questionnaires were collected. Model construction was based on the Health Belief Model. The reliability and validity of the measurement model were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, and the causal model was explained by structural equation modeling (SEM. Results. The priority should be on promoting the perceived benefits of telecare, with a secondary focus on the external cues to action, such as promoting the influences of important people on the patients. Conclusion. The findings demonstrated that patients with chronic diseases use telecare differently from the general public. To promote the use and acceptance of telecare in patients with chronic diseases, technology developers should prioritize the promotion of the usefulness of telecare. In addition, policy makers can strengthen the marketing from media and medical personnel, in order to increase the acceptance of telecare by patients with chronic diseases.

  8. DBSolve Optimum: a software package for kinetic modeling which allows dynamic visualization of simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizzatkulov Nail M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology research and applications require creation, validation, extensive usage of mathematical models and visualization of simulation results by end-users. Our goal is to develop novel method for visualization of simulation results and implement it in simulation software package equipped with the sophisticated mathematical and computational techniques for model development, verification and parameter fitting. Results We present mathematical simulation workbench DBSolve Optimum which is significantly improved and extended successor of well known simulation software DBSolve5. Concept of "dynamic visualization" of simulation results has been developed and implemented in DBSolve Optimum. In framework of the concept graphical objects representing metabolite concentrations and reactions change their volume and shape in accordance to simulation results. This technique is applied to visualize both kinetic response of the model and dependence of its steady state on parameter. The use of the dynamic visualization is illustrated with kinetic model of the Krebs cycle. Conclusion DBSolve Optimum is a user friendly simulation software package that enables to simplify the construction, verification, analysis and visualization of kinetic models. Dynamic visualization tool implemented in the software allows user to animate simulation results and, thereby, present them in more comprehensible mode. DBSolve Optimum and built-in dynamic visualization module is free for both academic and commercial use. It can be downloaded directly from

  9. Neonatal atlas construction using sparse representation. (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Wu, Guorong; Li, Gang; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang


    Atlas construction generally includes first an image registration step to normalize all images into a common space and then an atlas building step to fuse the information from all the aligned images. Although numerous atlas construction studies have been performed to improve the accuracy of the image registration step, unweighted or simply weighted average is often used in the atlas building step. In this article, we propose a novel patch-based sparse representation method for atlas construction after all images have been registered into the common space. By taking advantage of local sparse representation, more anatomical details can be recovered in the built atlas. To make the anatomical structures spatially smooth in the atlas, the anatomical feature constraints on group structure of representations and also the overlapping of neighboring patches are imposed to ensure the anatomical consistency between neighboring patches. The proposed method has been applied to 73 neonatal MR images with poor spatial resolution and low tissue contrast, for constructing a neonatal brain atlas with sharp anatomical details. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly enhance the quality of the constructed atlas by discovering more anatomical details especially in the highly convoluted cortical regions. The resulting atlas demonstrates superior performance of our atlas when applied to spatially normalizing three different neonatal datasets, compared with other start-of-the-art neonatal brain atlases.

  10. The feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to allow efficient travel between earth and Mars (United States)

    King, O. L.; Avvento, Gennaro J.

    This paper discusses the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy attained in a planetary swing-by to control the trajectory of an interplanetary transfer vehicle (IPTV) - establishing nonstop round trip orbits between earth and Mars. Energy supplied by the swing-by process and supplemented by minor correction burns will allow efficient nonstop round trip travel between earth and Mars. The IPTV will have all the necessary support equipment to maintain the cargo (manned/unmanned) during transit. At the planetary 'landfall' points, the IPTV will not decelerate but will perform a swing-by maneuver returning to the planet of origin. Cargo elements will either depart or dock with the IPTV at the planetary approach asymptote. This will be the only component of the system to undergo propulsive maneuvers.

  11. Construction and Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting System for Domestic Use in a Remote and Rural Area of Khulna, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Biswas, Biplob Kumar; Mandal, Bablu Hira


    Scarcity of pure drinking water during the dry season (November-March) is a major problem in Bangladesh, which needs to be addressed. This crisis has been further aggravated due to surging populations. Rainwater can provide some of the cleanest naturally occurring water and can hold a great potential in dealing with the current challenge of acute arsenic poisoning as well as physical water scarcity in many parts of Bangladesh. In this connection, rainwater harvesting (RWH) system has been constructed in a very remote and rural village in Khulna, Bangladesh, for a 4-membered household. It consists of a concrete catchment of 40 m(2) area, a supporting and collection system made of PVC pipes, and two locally available plastic storage tanks having capacity of 2000 L each. The study also investigates the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, which include measurement of pH, alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), iron, chloride, nitrate, and turbidity, using standard methods. The results showed that not only the quality of harvested rainwater is good but also the amount of water is enough for a 4-membered household to meet its domestic use throughout the year.

  12. An epigenetic toolkit allows for diverse genome architectures in eukaryotes. (United States)

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X; Katz, Laura A


    Genome architecture varies considerably among eukaryotes in terms of both size and structure (e.g. distribution of sequences within the genome, elimination of DNA during formation of somatic nuclei). The diversity in eukaryotic genome architectures and the dynamic processes are only possible due to the well-developed epigenetic toolkit, which probably existed in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). This toolkit may have arisen as a means of navigating the genomic conflict that arose from the expansion of transposable elements within the ancestral eukaryotic genome. This toolkit has been coopted to support the dynamic nature of genomes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life. Here we highlight how the changes in genome architecture in diverse eukaryotes are regulated by epigenetic processes, such as DNA elimination, genome rearrangements, and adaptive changes to genome architecture. The ability to epigenetically modify and regulate genomes has contributed greatly to the diversity of eukaryotes observed today.

  13. Public/Private Partnerships for New Construction. (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.


    Discusses how colleges can finance new construction projects during lean financial times by employing public/private partnerships in an off-balance sheet financing format. Construction planning of a new school parking deck is used to illustrate the process. Benefits of savings in operating costs, management fees, and other line-item expenses are…

  14. Search of inner factors and reserves of construction developmentwith account for the state contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silka Dmitriy Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The search for inner factors of the development and their control are invariant in the current conditions for fastening the processes of overcoming the crisis. In order to solve the contemporary problems quality changes are necessary. Today in the basis of such changes advancing the state participation in regulating the economy in general and advancing the state order in particular are considered. Though the possibilities of construction development are rather great, it has always been impossible to achieve the essential results without state support.The authors considered the experience and problems of using sovereign state funds in construction in the modern conditions. The ways to efficiently apply the reserves as system solution of national economy problems are investigated - support of construction sphere allows facing the challenges of macroeconomy crisis. The authors offer the means of quality change of state order content not only in solving general branch questions, but also the questions of system character of control development of intangible assets.

  15. Construction of initial vortex-surface fields and Clebsch potentials for flows with high-symmetry using first integrals (United States)

    He, Pengyu; Yang, Yue


    We report a systematic study on the construction of the explicit, general form of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) and Clebsch potentials in the initial fields with the zero helicity density and high symmetry. The construction methodology is based on finding independent first integrals of the characteristic equation of a given three-dimensional velocity-vorticity field. In particular, we derive the analytical VSFs and Clebsch potentials for the initial field with the Kida-Pelz symmetry. These analytical results can be useful for the evolution of VSFs to study vortical structures in transitional flows. Moreover, the generality of the construction method is discussed with the synthetic initial fields and the initial Taylor-Green field with multiple wavenumbers.

  16. Environmental risk assessment of a dam during construction phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rezaian


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess the possible risks induced by construction of Gavi Dam in Ilam Province; western part of Iran, using MIKE-11 model and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution. For this purpose, vulnerable zone of the dam site against the flooding risk of Gavi River was calculated for different return periods. The flooding zones were stimulated by MIKE-11 model. In order to check whether or not the dam construction could affect the quality of the Gavi River, the physicochemical quality of the river water was also tested. Afterwards, a questionnaire was prepared containing an inventory of possible risks supposed to be induced by construction of Gavi Dam. The questionnaires were placed at disposal of experts to score the items based on their importance. The questionnaires were then analyzed using SPSS Software, version 16. According to which, a total number of 12 risk factors were identified. The dam construction risks were qualitatively assessed by preliminary hazard analysis. Based on the results, 3 of 12 identified risks were recognized unacceptable. The shortlisted risks were prioritized at final step using technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution. "Habitat fragmentation" with a weight of 0.3002, "water pollution" with a weight of 0.295, and "impacts on aquatics" with a weight of 0.293 were identified as three top priority flooding risks. Among the most important corrective measures for mitigation of the risks at construction phase can be pointed to "restoration of the land cover", “conservation of areas surrounding the dam as a new wildlife habitat", “prevention of water contamination”, and "conservation of fish spawning sites".

  17. Telerobotics design issues for space construction (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Gyamfi, Max; Volkmer, Kent; Zimmerman, Wayne


    The use of a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) in the construction of the Space Station is examined. A methodology is presented for evaluating possible construction tasks, telerobotic performance capabilities, development costs, and operational constraints. The use of telerobotics as a substitute for human EVA activities and the construction tasks which an FTS could perform in the next 8-10 years are considered. The cost-effectiveness of construction using the FTS is compared with that of construction using the STS. The trade-offs associated with using the FTS are discussed in detail.

  18. Constructing a User Interface for Cellular Phones Using Equipment and its Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misayo Kitamura


    Full Text Available In a domain of SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition systems, it is necessary to obtain information about plants such as water plants in remote places using a cellular phone in order to ascertain plant status in case of emergency.T o utilize the small screen of a cellular phone and to eliminate the engineering cost of creating de.nition data to show plant status, a method of constructing user interface using equipment in the plant and its relations is proposed. In this method, some equipment is selected from all supervised equipment using the relations between the equipment, and then the content to be displayed is generated dynamically using the selected equipment. The equipment in plants is organized as a graph structure, which involves the equipment and the relations between the equipment.T he relations adopted in this method are both the physical connections between the equipment and the conceptual relationships.The result of the selection depends on the relations and their parameter values called the context dependent weight, which changes dynamically by viewpoints.

  19. 31 CFR 205.12 - What funding techniques may be used? (United States)


    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR EFFICIENT FEDERAL-STATE FUNDS TRANSFERS Rules Applicable to Federal Assistance Programs Included in a... a mutually agreed upon funding technique. Funding techniques should be efficient and minimize...

  20. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn M Stuart


    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (ODA for HIV programmes in the region. Methods: The donor countries considered in this analysis are Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. To estimate bilateral and multilateral ODA financing for HIV programmes in the Asia-Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund for the period 2014 to 2016. Results: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region, but the United States is the bilateral donor providing the greatest amount of assistance in the region. Funding from the Global Fund has increased consistently since 2005, reaching a total of US$1.2 billion for the Asia-Pacific region from 2014 to 2016. Conclusions: Even with Global Fund allocations, countries in the Asia-Pacific region will not have enough resources to meet their epidemiological targets. Prevention funding is particularly

  1. 7 CFR 1789.153 - Borrower funding. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower funding. 1789.153 Section 1789.153... Consultant Services Funded by Borrowers-General § 1789.153 Borrower funding. Borrowers shall use their general funds for the purposes of funding consultant services hereunder. Borrowers may not use...

  2. On the use of simplex methods in constructing quadratic models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper,we investigate the quadratic approximation methods.After studying the basic idea of simplex methods,we construct several new search directions by combining the local information progressively obtained during the iterates of the algorithm to form new subspaces.And the quadratic model is solved in the new subspaces.The motivation is to use the information disclosed by the former steps to construct more promising directions.For most tested problems,the number of function evaluations have been reduced obviously through our algorithms.

  3. Modification Management for Construction Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Huhnt; Sven Richter; Felix Enge


    This paper presents an approach to handle different types of subsequent modifications in con-struction processes. It is focused on a formalized approach with the objective that effects of subsequent modifications are detected automatically. The approach presented in this paper makes use of an existing modeling technique specifically focused on construction processes. The modeling techniques result in a process description where all technological interdependencies between construction activities are consid-ered and where consistency between the sequence of activities and the history of components is guaran-teed. This modeling technique is expanded by an existing concept for handling versions and dependencies between objects. The integration of these different concepts makes it possible to track effects of relevant types of subsequent modifications in construction processes on a formalized basis. Effects of subsequent modifications are detected by algorithms, different versions can be compared by algorithms and different versions are stored so that subsequent modifications are documented. The innovation of the approach pre-sented is the completeness. Effects of different relevant types of subsequent modifications in construction processes are tracked on a formalized basis.

  4. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: Protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Robert K D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR has defined knowledge translation (KT as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. Design The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. Discussion The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding

  5. The Problems and Countermeasures of the Standardization Construction of the Trade Union Funds Audit in Higher Vocational Colleges%高校工会经审工作规范化建设存在的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    工会经审工作是工会工作的重要组成部分,工会经审工作规范化建设有利于提高工会经费的使用效率,充分发挥工会经审的监督职能,从而更好地为工会各项经济活动保驾护航。文章结合高校工会经审工作现状,指出工会经审工作规范化建设中所存在的问题,并针对这些问题提出对策。%The Trade Union Funds Audit is an important part of trade union work,the standardization construction of the trade union funds audit will help to improve efficiency in the use of trade union funds and give full play to oversight functions of trade unions audit in order to better protect the economic activities of trade unions.Combining with the current status audit for college unions,this paper points out the existence of the problem for the audited standardization of trade unions and propose a solution for these problems.

  6. Identification of Tools and Techniques to Enhance Interdisciplinary Collaboration During Design and Construction Projects. (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda; Silverman, Susan R; Evans, Jennie


    The purpose of this study was to collect the perceptions of design professionals and clinicians regarding design process success strategies and elements of interprofessional engagement and communication during healthcare design and construction projects. Additional objectives were to gather best practices to maximize clinician engagement and provide tools and techniques to improve interdisciplinary collaboration for future projects. Strategies are needed to enhance the design and construction process and create interactions that benefit not only the project but the individuals working to see its completion. Meaningful interprofessional collaboration is essential to any healthcare design project and making sure the various players communicate is a critical element. This was a qualitative study conducted via an online survey. Respondents included architects, construction managers, interior designers, and healthcare personnel who had recently been involved in a building renovation or new construction project for a healthcare facility. Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed for themes, and descriptive statistics were used to provide insight into participant demographics. Information on the impressions, perceptions, and opportunities related to clinician involvement in design projects was collected from nurses, architects, interior designers, and construction managers. Qualitative analysis revealed themes of clinician input, organizational dynamics, and a variety of communication strategies to be the most frequently mentioned elements of successful interprofessional collaboration. This study validates the need to include clinician input in the design process, to consider the importance of organizational dynamics on design team functioning, and to incorporate effective communication strategies during design and construction projects.

  7. SU-D-210-06: Feasibility for Monitoring the Head of the Pancreas Motion Through a Surrogate Using Ultrasound During Radiation Therapy Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omari, E; Noid, G; Ehlers, C; Erickson, B; Quiroz, F; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Cooper, D; Lachaine, M [Elekta Inc., Stockholm (Sweden)


    Purpose: Substantial target motion during the delivery of radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor on RT effectiveness. The aim of this work is to monitor intra-fractional motion of the pancreas using ultrasound during RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal Ultrasound B-mode images were collected from 5 volunteers using a research version of the Clarity Autoscan System (Elekta). The autoscan transducer with center frequency of 5 MHz was utilized for the scans. Imaging parameters were adjusted to acquire images at the desired depth with good contrast and a wide sweep angle. Since well-defined boundaries of the pancreas can be difficult to find on ultrasound B-mode images, the portal vein was selected as a surrogate for motion estimation of the head of the pancreas. The selection was due to its anatomical location posterior to the neck of the pancreas and close proximity to the pancreas head. The portal vein was contoured on the ultrasound images acquired during simulation using the Clarity Research AFC Workstation software. Volunteers were set up in a similar manner to the simulation for their monitoring session and the ultrasound transducer was mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. A video segment of the portal vein motion was captured. Results: The portal vein was visualized and segmented. Successful monitoring sessions of the portal vein were observed. In addition, our results showed that the ultrasound transducer itself reduces breathing related motion. This is analogous to the use of a compression plate to suppress respiration motion during thorax or abdominal irradiation. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of tracking the pancreas through the localization of the portal vein using abdominal ultrasound. This will allow for real-time tracking of the intra-fractional motion to justify PTV-margin and to account for unusual motions, thus, improving normal tissue sparing. This research was funding in part by

  8. Novel use of an air-filled breast prosthesis to allow radiotherapy to recurrent colonic cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Duffy, F


    AiM: The authors present the novel and successful use of an air-filled breast prosthesis for extra pelvic exclusion of small bowel to facilitate adjuvant radiotherapy following resection of recurrent adenocarcinoma of the ascending bowel. The therapeutic use of radiotherapy in colon cancer can cause acute or chronic radiation enteropathy. Mobile small bowel can be sequestered in \\'dead space\\' or by adhesions exposing it to adjuvant radiotherapy. A variety of pelvic partitioning methods have been described to exclude bowel from radiation fields using both native and prosthetic materials. METHOD: In this case a 68 year old presented with ascending colon adenocarcinoma invading the peritoneum and underwent en bloc peritoneal resection. Thirty-seven months later surveillance CT identified a local recurrence. Subsequent resection resulted in a large iliacus muscle defect which would sequester small bowel loops thus exposing the patient to radiation enteropathy. The lateral position of the defect precluded the use of traditional pelvic partitioning methods which would be unlikely to remain in place long enough to allow radiotherapy. A lightweight air-filled breast prosthesis (Allergan 133 FV 750 cms) secured in place with an omentoplasty was used to fill the defect. RESULTS: Following well tolerated radiotherapy the prosthesis was deflated under ultrasound guidance and removed via a 7-cm transverse incision above the right iliac crest. The patient is disease free 18 months later with no evidence of treatment related morbidity. CONCLUSION: The use of a malleable air-filled prosthesis for pelvic partitioning allows specific tailoring of the prosthesis size and shape for individual patient defects. It is also lightweight enough to be secured in place using an omentoplasty to prevent movement related prosthesis migration. In the absence of adequate omentum a mesh sling may be considered to allow fixation. In this case the anatomy of the prosthesis position allowed for its

  9. 77 FR 14327 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes (United States)


    ... FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations; 49 CFR Parts 171-180 IBC Intermediate Bulk... Materials by Vessel'' (55 FR 37406), the Coast Guard allowed the use of Intermodal (IM) 101 and IM 102... describe the types of IBCs the Coast Guard would allow for the carriage of certain hazardous materials...

  10. Using Premia and Nsp for Constructing a Risk Management Benchmark for Testing Parallel Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chancelier, Jean-Philippe; Lapeyre, Bernard


    Financial institutions have massive computations to carry out overnight which are very demanding in terms of the consumed CPU. The challenge is to price many different products on a cluster-like architecture. We have used the Premia software to valuate the financial derivatives. In this work, we explain how Premia can be embedded into Nsp, a scientific software like Matlab, to provide a powerful tool to valuate a whole portfolio. Finally, we have integrated an MPI toolbox into Nsp to enable to use Premia to solve a bunch of pricing problems on a cluster. This unified framework can then be used to test different parallel architectures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.


    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  12. Bridging the financial gap through providing contract services: a model for publicly funded clinical biobanks. (United States)

    Kozlakidis, Zisis; Mant, Christine; Cason, John


    Biobanks offer translational researchers a novel method of obtaining clinical research materials, patient data, and relevant ethical and legal permissions. However, such tissue collections are expensive to establish and maintain. Current opinion is that such initiatives can only survive with core funding from Government or major funding bodies. Given the present climate of financial austerity, funding agencies may be tempted to invest in fast-return research projects rather than in maintaining tissue collections, whose benefits will only become apparent in much longer timescales. Thus, securing additional funding for biobanks could provide a valuable boost enabling an extension of core services. Here we suggest that using biobank expertise to offer contract services to clinicians and industry may be an alternative approach to obtaining such extra funding.

  13. Streamflow and Suspended-Sediment Loads Before and During Highway Construction, North Halawa, Haiku, and Kamooalii Drainage Basins, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-91 (United States)

    Hill, Barry R.


    Concern over potential effects from construction of the H-3 highway on Oahu, Hawaii, prompted a long-term study of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport at a network of five stream-gaging stations along the highway route. This report presents results for 1983-91, which included pre-construction and construction periods at all stream-gaging stations. Annual rainfall, streamflow, and suspended-sediment loads were generally higher during construction than before construction. Data collected before and during construction were compared using analysis of covariance to determine whether streamflow and suspended-sediment loads changed significantly during construction after accounting for effects of increased rainfall. Streamflow at stream-gaging stations was compared with streamflow at an index stream-gaging station unaffected by construction. Streamflow data were divided into low- and high-flow classes, and the two flow classes were analyzed separately. Low flows increased 117 percent during construction at one station. This increase probably was related to the removal of vegetation for highway construction. Low flows decreased 28 percent at another station, probably as a result of increased ground-water withdrawals and highway construction activities. No significant changes in low flows were detected at the other stations, and no significant changes in high flows were detected at any stations. Suspended-sediment loads increased significantly during construction at three stations. Highway construction contributed between 56 and 76 percent of the suspended-sediment loads measured at these stations during construction. Loads did not change significantly at a station downstream of a reservoir, and loads decreased at a station downstream of a drainage basin that was heavily used for agriculture before construction. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to assess compliance with applicable State water-quality standards. State water-quality standards for suspended


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Le Roux


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The balance between risk and reward is the very essence of business, and companies take risks in order to generate returns. Eskom, the electricity utility in South Africa, endeavors to construct networks that are reliable and safe for its employees as well as the public. To ensure that product reliability requirements align with company goals, products should be categorised according to the risk they pose to the business. Mitigating strategies can therefore be reviewed for high risk items. A 3x3 risk matrix was derived to identify the risk category for products. The application of the process should result in an improvement in product profitability, either directly through a reduction in purchasing cost, or indirectly through avoiding the various consequential costs associated with poor risk management.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Om ’n balans te bereik tussen risiko en vergoeding vorm deel van die dinamiese bestaan van sakeondernemings wat risiko’s moet loop om opbrengste te genereer. Eskom, die voorsiener van elektrisiteit in Suid Afrika, poog om netwerke op te rig. Terplaatse produkte wat hiervoor aangewend word en die betroubaarheidsdoelwitte eerbiedig, moet gekategoriseer word teen die tafereel van ondernemingsrisiko. ’n Risikomatriks wat versagtende strategieë voorhou, word daarvoor aangewend. Die gebruik van die metode poog om die winsgewendheid van die onderneming te verbeter teen die agtergrond van verkrygingskoste en die gevolglike koste van swak risikobestuur.

  15. Investing for Impact: The Global Fund Approach to Measurement of AIDS Response. (United States)

    Jain, Suman; Zorzi, Nathalie


    The Global Fund raises and invests nearly US$4 billion a year to support programs run in more than 140 countries. The Global Fund strategy 2012-2016 is focused on "Investing for Impact". In order to accomplish this, timely and accurate data are needed to inform strategies and prioritize activities to achieve greater coverage with quality services. Monitoring and evaluation is intrinsic to the Global Fund's system of performance-based funding. The Global Fund invests in strengthening measurement and reporting of results at all stages of the grant cycle. The Global Fund approach to measurement is based on three key principles-(1) simplified reporting: the Global Fund has updated its measurement guidance to focus on impact, coverage and quality with the use of a harmonized set of indicators. (2) Supporting data systems-based on a common framework developed and supported by partners, it promotes investment in five common data systems: routine reporting including HMIS; Surveys-population based and risk group surveys; Analysis, reviews and transparency; Administrative and financial data sources; and, Vital registration systems. (3) Strengthen data use: the Global Fund funding encourages use of data at all levels-national, subnational and site level. Countries do not automatically prioritize M&E but when guidance, tools and investments are available, there is high level utilization of M&E systems in program design, planning, implementation, and results reporting. An in-depth analysis of the available data helps the Global Fund and countries to direct investments towards interventions where impact could be achieved and focus on target population groups and geographic areas that are most affected.

  16. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane


    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  17. Construction of an Integrated Positive Youth Development Conceptual Framework for the Prevention of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee


    Full Text Available This is a theoretical paper with an aim to construct an integrated conceptual framework for the prevention of adolescents' use and abuse of psychotropic drugs. This paper first reports the subjective reasons for adolescents' drug use and abuse in Hong Kong and reviews the theoretical underpinnings. Theories of drug use and abuse, including neurological, pharmacological, genetic predisposition, psychological, and sociological theories, were reviewed. It provides a critical re-examination of crucial factors that support the construction of a conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescents' drug use and abuse building on, with minor revision, the model of victimization and substance abuse among women presented by Logan et al. This revised model provides a comprehensive and coherent framework synthesized from theories of drug abuse. This paper then provides empirical support for integrating a positive youth development perspective in the revised model. It further explains how the 15 empirically sound constructs identified by Catalano et al. and used in a positive youth development program, the Project P.A.T.H.S., relate generally to the components of the revised model to formulate an integrated positive youth development conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescent drug use. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and recommendations are discussed.

  18. 75 FR 10561 - Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community... (United States)


    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community Development Financial and Technical Assistance Awards, Native Initiatives, and Bank Enterprise Awards AGENCY: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund,...

  19. Blocking human contaminant DNA during PCR allows amplification of rare mammal species from sedimentary ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Epp, Laura S.; Haile, James Seymour


    Analyses of degraded DNA are typically hampered by contamination, especially when employing universal primers such as commonly used in environmental DNA studies. In addition to false-positive results, the amplification of contaminant DNA may cause false-negative results because of competition, or...

  20. Systematic academic instruction for students with EBD: the construction and use of a tool for teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp-van der Kamp, van der; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy J.; Bijstra, Jan O.; Bosch, Els J. van der


    Educating students with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties requires a thorough systematic approach with the focus on academic instruction. This study addresses the development of a tool, consisting of two questionnaires, for measuring systematic academic instruction. The questionnaires c

  1. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.


    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  2. Determination of traces of uranium and thorium in titanium and copper used for the construction of the Russian Emission Detector 100 by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Poteshin, Sergey S; Sysoev, Alexey A; Lagunov, Sergey S; Sereda, Andrei; Sosnovtsev, Valery V; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Efremenko, Yuriy B


    The Russian Emission Detector 100 (RED-100) under construction at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) is designed to detect the presently undiscovered effect of coherent neutrino scattering. One of the factors limiting the sensitivity of the detector is the spontaneous decay of uranium and thorium in the detector materials. Radioactive impurities in detector materials at levels of parts per billion can significantly affect the sensitivity. Five random samples of titanium and one of copper from materials used in the construction of the detector were selected for assay. The concentration of (232)Th and (238)U were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP- MS) in solid titanium using both: solutions in acids and direct sampling by laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS). The LA- ICP-MS method allowed us to determine (238)U and (232)Th at subnanogram per gram levels. This method is much faster than ICP-MS with liquid injection. The titanium samples studied have impurities in the range between 1 ng g(-1) and 21 ng g(-1) for (238)U and 3 ng g(-1) and 31 ng g(-1) for (232)Th. In copper we set upper limits of 0.4 ng g(-1) for (238)U and 1 ng g(-1)for (232)Th. The total activity of the cryostat constructed from materials studied was estimated to be 43 Bq.

  3. 75 FR 13765 - Submission for OMB Review; Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects (United States)


    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Submission for OMB Review... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve a new information... a project labor agreement (PLA), as they may decide appropriate, on large-scale...

  4. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost automated (68)Gallium-labeling synthesis unit for clinical use. (United States)

    Heidari, Pedram; Szretter, Alicia; Rushford, Laura E; Stevens, Maria; Collier, Lee; Sore, Judit; Hooker, Jacob; Mahmood, Umar


    The interest in (68)Gallium labeled PET probes continues to increase around the world. Widespread use in Europe and Asia has led to great interest for use at numerous sites in the US. One barrier to entry is the cost of the automated synthesis units for relatively simple labeling procedures. We describe the construction and testing of a relatively low-cost automated (68)Ga-labeling unit for human-use. We provide a guide for construction, including part lists and synthesis timelists to facilitate local implementation. Such inexpensive systems could help increase use around the globe and in the US in particular by removing one of the barriers to greater widespread availability. The developed automated synthesis unit reproducibly synthesized (68)Ga-DOTATOC with average yield of 71 ± 8% and a radiochemical purity ≥ 95% in a synthesis time of 25 ± 1 minutes. Automated product yields are comparable to that of manual synthesis. We demonstrate in-house construction and use of a low-cost automated synthesis unit for labeling of DOTATOC and similar peptides with (68)Gallium.

  5. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.


    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  6. Construction of national standards of growth curves of height and weight for children using cross-sectional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Patel


    Full Text Available Objectives: Growth curves are the most important tools for the assessment of growth of children, which could further helps to develop preventive interventions. Geographical and physical differences necessitate using national growth curves. This study aims to construct growth curves using anthropometric measurements namely weight and height for Indian children using cross-sectional data from National Family and Health Surveys. Materials and Methods: Box-Cox power exponential, a flexible distribution, was used that offers to adjust kurtosis and improves the estimation of extreme percentiles. LMS-methods that fit skewed data adequately and generate fitted curves that follow closely the empirical data, with maximum penalized likelihood, Akaike information criteria (AIC and generalized AIC with penalty 3 were used to construct the growth curves. Before fittings this model factors which influence the nutritional status of children were examined, similar to World Health Organization (WHO (2006 factors, namely standard infant feeding practices, sanitation, non-smoking mothers additionally poverty (household consumable assets based. Results: Model fitted in LMS-model and standard based on height and weight for children aged 0-60 months was obtained after iteration for degrees of freedom for the parameters. Growth curves for mean Z-scores and percentiles were constructed for both sexes and significant lower values were noticeably found to be set as growth-standard compared to WHO-standards. Conclusion: Study showed the prospect of constructing regional/national growth curve and their need for the assessment of children′s growth, which could help to identify undernourished-children at national level. There is an urgent need to collect longitudinal data of children to fit the growth curve of children in India.

  7. Novel Compound-Forming Technology Using Bioprinting and Electrospinning for Patterning a 3D Scaffold Construct with Multiscale Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshao Sun


    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges for tissue engineering is to efficiently provide oxygen and nutrients to cells on a three-dimensional (3D engineered scaffold structure. Thus, achieving sufficient vascularization of the structure is a critical problem in tissue engineering. This facilitates the need to develop novel methods to enhance vascularization. Use of patterned hydrogel structures with multiscale channels can be used to achieve the required vascularization. Patterned structures need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. In this study, gelatin was used as the main part of a hydrogel to prepare a biological structure with 3D multiscale channels using bioprinting combined with selection of suitable materials and electrostatic spinning. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were then used to confirm efficacy of the structure, inferred from cell viability on different engineered construct designs. HUVECs were seeded on the surface of channels and cultured in vitro. HUVECs showed high viability and diffusion within the construct. This method can be used as a practical platform for the fabrication of engineered construct for vascularization.

  8. 75 FR 22805 - Federal Travel Regulation; Relocation Allowances; Standard Data Dictionary for Collection of... (United States)


    ... online a proposed FTR bulletin that contains the data dictionary that large Federal agencies must use in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation; Relocation Allowances; Standard Data Dictionary for Collection...

  9. A Bio-Acoustic Levitational (BAL) Assembly Method for Engineering of Multilayered, 3D Brain-Like Constructs, Using Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neuro-Progenitors. (United States)

    Bouyer, Charlène; Chen, Pu; Güven, Sinan; Demirtaş, Tuğrul Tolga; Nieland, Thomas J F; Padilla, Frédéric; Demirci, Utkan


    A bio-acoustic levitational assembly method for engineering of multilayered, 3D brainlike constructs is presented. Acoustic radiation forces are used to levitate neuroprogenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells in 3D multilayered fibrin tissue constructs. The neuro-progenitor cells are subsequently differentiated in neural cells, resulting in a 3D neuronal construct with inter and intralayer neurite elongations.

  10. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review


    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve


    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  11. Socially responsible investing and management style of mutual funds in the euronext stock markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert


    This paper analyses fund management styles on the Euronext stock exchanges. Especially, we investigate how social responsibility is accounted for. We use style analysis to assess fund performance in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands for over 800 investment funds during the 1990s. We find remarkab

  12. Use of Plasma Enhanced ALD to Construct Efficient Interference Filters for Astronomy in the FUV - Year 2 Update (United States)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Nemanich, Robert; Eller, Brianna; Yu, Hongbin; Mooney, Tom; Beasley, Matt


    Over the past few years the advent of atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology has opened new capabilities to the field of coatings deposition for use in optical elements. At the same time, there have been major advances in both optical designs and detector technologies that can provide orders of magnitude improvement in throughput in the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) passbands. Recent review work has shown that a veritable revolution is about to happen in astronomical diagnostic work for targets ranging from protostellar and protoplanetary systems, to the intergalactic medium that feeds gas supplies for galactic star formation, and supernovae and hot gas from star forming regions that determine galaxy formation feedback. These diagnostics are rooted in access to a forest of emission and absorption lines in the ultraviolet (UV), and all that prevents this advance is the lack of throughput in such systems, even in space-based conditions. We are pursuing an approach to use a range of materials to implement stable optical layers suitable for protective overcoats with high UV reflectivity and unprecedented uniformity, and to use that capability to leverage innovative ultraviolet/optical filter construction to enable astronomical science. These materials will be deposited in a multilayer format over a metal base to produce a stable construct. Specifically, we are employing PEALD (plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition) methods for the deposition and construction of reflective layers that can be used to construct unprecedented filter designs for use in the ultraviolet. Our paper reports on our work as we enter year 2 of our 3-year program.

  13. Geometry control of long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during construction through finite element model updating (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yan, Quan-sheng; Li, Jian; Hu, Min-yi


    In bridge construction, geometry control is critical to ensure that the final constructed bridge has the consistent shape as design. A common method is by predicting the deflections of the bridge during each construction phase through the associated finite element models. Therefore, the cambers of the bridge during different construction phases can be determined beforehand. These finite element models are mostly based on the design drawings and nominal material properties. However, the accuracy of these bridge models can be large due to significant uncertainties of the actual properties of the materials used in construction. Therefore, the predicted cambers may not be accurate to ensure agreement of bridge geometry with design, especially for long-span bridges. In this paper, an improved geometry control method is described, which incorporates finite element (FE) model updating during the construction process based on measured bridge deflections. A method based on the Kriging model and Latin hypercube sampling is proposed to perform the FE model updating due to its simplicity and efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to a long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during its construction. Results show that the method is effective in reducing construction error and ensuring the accuracy of the geometry of the final constructed bridge.

  14. Subconscious visual cues during movement execution allow correct online choice reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leukel

    Full Text Available Part of the sensory information is processed by our central nervous system without conscious perception. Subconscious processing has been shown to be capable of triggering motor reactions. In the present study, we asked the question whether visual information, which is not consciously perceived, could influence decision-making in a choice reaction task. Ten healthy subjects (28 ± 5 years executed two different experimental protocols. In the Motor reaction protocol, a visual target cue was shown on a computer screen. Depending on the displayed cue, subjects had to either complete a reaching movement (go-condition or had to abort the movement (stop-condition. The cue was presented with different display durations (20-160 ms. In the second Verbalization protocol, subjects verbalized what they experienced on the screen. Again, the cue was presented with different display durations. This second protocol tested for conscious perception of the visual cue. The results of this study show that subjects achieved significantly more correct responses in the Motor reaction protocol than in the Verbalization protocol. This difference was only observed at the very short display durations of the visual cue. Since correct responses in the Verbalization protocol required conscious perception of the visual information, our findings imply that the subjects performed correct motor responses to visual cues, which they were not conscious about. It is therefore concluded that humans may reach decisions based on subconscious visual information in a choice reaction task.

  15. Tools for Social Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    In this dissertation, I propose a new type of playful media for children. Based on field work, prototypes, and theoretical development, I define, build, and explore a distinct cross-section of existing and new digital media, tools, and communication devices in order to assess the characteristics...... as transformative social play.             Through a series of three experimental prototype systems—StarCatcher, DARE!, and Pervasive Storyboard—I conduct an iterative design process leading to a formulation of pervasive narratives as the general concept which, I argue, holds promise as the core of future tools.......             The theoretical concepts and analyses are based on theories of play and games and on the activity-based digital habitat framework. The design activities result in experimental prototypes which realize the concepts and, in turn, allow for iterative evaluation and validation of the theoretical models...

  16. 34 CFR 76.662 - Construction. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction. 76.662 Section 76.662 Education Office of... State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.662 Construction. A subgrantee shall insure that program funds are not used for the construction of private...

  17. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 to 25 (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE If we have not received this certificate by November 30, 2006 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from July 1, 2006. School fees service (33-1-017) Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  18. Leadership Quality for Malaysia Construction Leader to Steer a Success Construction Project



    Issues that dominate the construction industry for the long time such as time overrun, cost overrun, quality of construction and also safety during the construction process are difficult to resolve because of several factors involved which amongst them are leadership quality in the industry. Solving these issues can make the industry more sustainable in nature. This paper presents the need of leadership quality among construction parties involved to steer a construction project successfully. ...

  19. Building a Data Warehouse for National Social Security Fund of the Republic of Tunisia

    CERN Document Server

    Gouider, Mohamed Salah; 10.5121/ijdms.2010.2207


    The amounts of data available to decision makers are increasingly important, given the network availability, low cost storage and diversity of applications. To maximize the potential of these data within the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) in Tunisia, we have built a data warehouse as a multidimensional database, cleaned, homogenized, historicized and consolidated. We used Oracle Warehouse Builder to extract, transform and load the source data into the Data Warehouse, by applying the KDD process. We have implemented the Data Warehouse as an Oracle OLAP. The knowledge extraction has been performed using the Oracle Discoverer tool. This allowed users to take maximum advantage of knowledge as a regular report or as ad hoc queries. We started by implementing the main topic for this public institution, accounting for the movements of insured persons. The great success that has followed the completion of this work has encouraged the NSSF to complete the achievement of other topics of interest within the NSSF. ...

  20. Construction of thiostrepton-inducible, high-copy-number expression vectors for use in Streptomyces spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takano, Eriko; White, Janet; Thompson, Charles J.; Bibb, Mervyn J.


    A high-copy-number plasmid expression vector (pIJ6021) was constructed that contains a thiostrepton-inducible promoter, PtipA, from Streptomyces lividans 66. The promoter and ribosome-binding site of tipA lie immediately upstream from a multiple cloning site (MCS) which begins with a NdeI site (5'-C