WorldWideScience

Sample records for allothermal steam gasification

  1. Allothermal steam gasification of biomass in cyclic multi-compartment bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier/combustor - new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ion; Leclerc, Arnaud; Larachi, Faïçal

    2010-05-01

    A new reactor concept of allothermal cyclic multi-compartment fluidized bed steam biomass gasification is proposed and analyzed numerically. The concept combines space and time delocalization to approach an ideal allothermal gasifier. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in periodic time and space sequences of steam biomass gasification and char/biomass combustion is simulated in which the exothermic combustion compartments provide heat into an array of interspersed endothermic steam gasification compartments. This should enhance unit heat integration and thermal efficiency and procure N(2)-free biosyngas with recourse neither to oxygen addition in steam gasification nor contact between flue and syngas. The dynamic, one-dimensional, multi-component, non-isothermal model developed for this concept accounts for detailed solid and gas flow dynamics whereupon gasification/combustion reaction kinetics, thermal effects and freeboard-zone reactions were tied. Simulations suggest that allothermal operation could be achieved with switch periods in the range of a minute supporting practical feasibility for portable small-scale gasification units. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The production of synthetic material gas (SNG) from pit coal by a combined auto-allothermic steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1975-01-01

    The steam gasification of pit coal requires temperatures which cannot yet be reached with the present state of HTGR technology for material technical reasons. The use of nuclear heat thus remains limited to some fields of application outside the gasifier, which are specified. The production costs of synthetic natural gas from autothermal gasification on the one hand, and from combined auto-allothermal gasification on the other hand are calculated considering the heat price of pit coal and of the selling price of electrical energy and are compared. (GG/LH) [de

  3. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached. (author)

  4. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached

  5. Gas, power and heat generation from biomass by allothermal gasification; Gas-, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse durch allotherme Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqub Chughtai, M [H und C Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Muehlen, H J [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The allothermal DMT gasification process for biomass is a newcomer. The process, its initial materials, the uses of the product gas, and advantages of the allothermal process are described here. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz des allothermen DMT-Vergasungsverfahrens fuer Biomasse ist neu. Verfahren, Einsatzstoffe und Produktgasnutzung, sowie Vorteile des allothermen Verfahrens werden hier beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  6. Environmentally favourable electricity production using allothermal coal gasification in accordance with the MBG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, M.; Heek, K.H. van; Knop, K.

    1988-01-01

    Combined gas- and steam turbine power plants with integrated coal gasification are an important foundation alone for the further development of coal processing. The basis of the development is a new allothermal coal gasification system in a fluidized bed, which has been developed from the long operating experience accumulated at a half-scale plant. In contrast with the concept adopted so far of combination with nuclear process heat, in the MGB system (M.A.N.-Bergbauforschung-Gaserzeugung) the reaction heat required for the gasification is obtained by burning part of the coal gas produced. The gasification in the fluidized bed occurs at temperatures of between 800 and 850 0 C within a pressure range of between 20 and 25 bar. The paper describes the integration of the MBG system into a 250 MW power plant as well as the state of development of allothermal coal gasification and test results from the half-scale experimental plant. The construction of a demonstration plant, which will be incorporated in the bypass of a bituminous coal-fired unit, is planned in order to prove the function of the gas generator. (orig.) [de

  7. Benefits of Allothermal Biomass Gasification for Co-Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Many countries have set obligations to reduce the CO2 emissions from coal fired boilers. Co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired power plants is an attractive solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Co-firing can be done by direct mixing of biomass with coal (direct co-firing) or by converting the biomass into a gas or liquid which is fired in a separate burner (indirect co-firing). Direct co-firing is a rather simple solution, but requires a high quality and expensive biomass fuel (e.g. wood pellets). Indirect co-firing requires an additional installation that converts the solid biomass into a gas or liquid, but has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of cheap biomass fuels (e.g. demolition wood) and most of the biomass ash components are separated from the gas before it enters the boiler. Separation of biomass ash can prevent fouling issues in the boiler. Indirect co-firing, using biomass gasification technology, is already common practice. In Geertruidenberg (the Netherlands) a 80 MWth Lurgi CFB gasifier produces gas from demolition wood which is co-fired in the Amer PC boiler. In Ruien (Belgium) a 50 MWth Foster Wheeler fluidized bed gasifier is in operation. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a 'second generation' allothermal gasifier called the MILENA gasifier. This gasifier has some major advantages over conventional fluidized bed gasifiers. The heating value of the produced gas is approximately 2.5 times higher than of gas produced by conventional bubbling / circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. This results in smaller adaptations to the membrane wall of the boiler for the gas injection, thus lower costs. A major disadvantage of most fluidized bed gasifiers is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Typical fuel conversions vary between 90 and 95%. The remaining combustible material, also containing most of the biomass ash components, is blown out of the gasifier and removed from the gas stream by a cyclone to

  8. Power generation from biomass: Status report on catalytic-allothermal wood gasification. Papers; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse: Stand der Realisierung der katalytisch-allothermen Holzvergasung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, H.; Bauermeister, U.; Kliche, H.; Seiffarth, K. (comps.)

    2001-12-01

    The topic of this event is bound up with the activities of FOeST in the field of gasification of biomass in decentralized small plants (< 2 MW{sub el}). The start project was a research work in 1993 to select a gasification process for using wood, sludge or plastic waste, continued 1995 by a research project with gasification tests of tar oil contaminated wood in a small gasification reactor with good results in environmental compatibility. But the following planning process of a demonstration plant for 500 kW{sub el} has shown, that the biomass gasification couldn't reach economic efficiency. Due to the development of an catalytic-partial allothermal gasification process of GNS ltd. it was clear, that the technical efficiency could be increased considerably. So, in 2000, a project started to test this catalytic-partial allothermal gasification in a pilot plant. Today the results of research, development and testing of biomass gasification with catalytic-partial allothermal processing as well as practically experience with a gasification plant, general conditions and further activities for energetically utilisation of biomass in Saxonia-Anhalt will be presented. (orig.)

  9. Layout of an internally heated gas generator for the steam gasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, P.P.; Duerrfeld, R.; Heck, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial-scale steam gasification of coal using heat from high temperature reactors requires research and development on allothermal gas generators. Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Essen, does theoretical and experimental work in this field. The experiments deal with reaction kinetics, heat transfer and material tests. Their significance for the layout of a full-scale gas generator is shown. Including material specifications, the feasibility of a gasifier, characterized by a fluid bed volume of 318 m 3 and a heat transferring area of 4000 m 2 , results. The data, now available, are used to determine the gasification throughput from the heat balance, i.e. the equality of heat consumed and heat transferred. Throughputs of about 50 t/hr of coal are possible for a single gas generator, the helium outlet temperature of the HTR being 950 0 C/ Bergbau-Forschung has commissioned a medium-scale pilot plant (200 kg/hr). (Auth.)

  10. Biomass steam gasification for production of SNG – Process design and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröbl, Thomas; Walter, Heimo; Haider, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model for the SNG-production process from biomass to raw-SNG is prepared. ► A thermodynamic equilibrium model of the Biomass-Heatpipe-Reformer is developed. ► A sensitivity analysis on the most important operation parameters is carried out. ► Adopting the steam excess ratio a syngas ideally suitable for SNG production is generated. ► Thermodynamic equilibrium models are a useful tool for process design. -- Abstract: A process design for small-scale production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) by steam gasification of woody biomass is performed. In the course of this work, thermodynamic models for the novel process steps are developed and implemented into an already existing model library of commercial process simulation software IPSEpro. Mathematical models for allothermal steam gasification of biomass as well as for cleaning and methanation of product gas are provided by applying mass balances, energy balances and thermodynamic equilibrium equations. Using these models the whole process is integrated into the simulation software, a flowsheet for an optimum thermal integration of the single process steps is determined and energy savings are identified. Additionally, a sensitivity study is carried out in order to analyze the influence of various operation parameters. Their effects on amount and composition of the product gas and process efficiency are evaluated and discussed within this article.

  11. Status of steam gasification of coal by using heat from high-temperature reactors (HTRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, H.J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1984-01-01

    Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Essen, is developing a process for steam gasification of coal by using process heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors (HTRs). The envisaged allothermal gas generator is heated by an internally mounted bundle of heat exchanging tubes through which the gaseous reactor coolant helium flows. Research and development work for this process has been under way for about 11 years. After intensive small-scale investigations the principle of the process was tested in a semi-technical plant with 0.2 t/h coal throughput. In its gasifier a fluidized bed of approximately 1 m 2 cross-section and up to 4 m high is operated at 40 bar. Heat is supplied to the bed from an immersed heat exchanger with helium flowing through it. The gas generator is a cut-out version of the full-scale generator, in which the height of the bed, and the arrangement of the heat-exchanger tubes correspond to the full-scale design. The semi-technical plant has now achieved a total gasification time of about 13,000 hours. Roughly 2000 t of coal have been put through. During recent years the gasification of Federal German coking coal by using a jet-feeding system was demonstrated successfully. The results, confirmed and expanded by material tests for the heat exchanger, engineering and computer models and design studies, have shown the feasibility of nuclear steam gasification of coal. The process described offers the following advantages compared with existing processes: higher efficiency as more gas can be produced from less coal; less emission of pollutants as, instead of a coal-fired boiler, the HTR is used for producing steam and electricity; lower production costs for gas. The next step in the project is a pilot plant of about 2-4 t/h coal throughput, still with non-nuclear heating, to demonstrate the construction and operation of the allothermal gas generator on a representative scale for commercial applications. (author)

  12. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  13. Steam gasification of coal using a pressurized circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.F.J.

    1989-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is the process engineering of a coal gasification using nuclear heat. A special aspect is the efficiency. To this purpose a new method for calculating the kinetics of hard coal steam gasification in a fluidized bed is presented. It is used for evaluations of gasification kinetics in a large-scale process on the basis of laboratory-scale experiments. The method is verified by experimental data from a large-scale gasifier. The investment costs and the operating costs of the designed process are estimated. (orig.) [de

  14. Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand); Ahmed, Islam I.; Gupta, Ashwani K. [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kerdsuwan, Somrat [The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for energy recovery. In this investigation, sewage sludge samples were gasified at various temperatures to determine the evolutionary behavior of syngas characteristics and other properties of the syngas produced. The syngas characteristics were evaluated in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen production, syngas chemical analysis, and efficiency of energy conversion. In addition to gasification experiments, pyrolysis experiments were conducted for evaluating the performance of gasification over pyrolysis. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased generation of hydrogen. Hydrogen yield at 1000 C was found to be 0.076 g{sub gas} g{sub sample}{sup -1}. Steam as the gasifying agent increased the hydrogen yield three times as compared to air gasification. Sewage sludge gasification results were compared with other samples, such as, paper, food wastes and plastics. The time duration for sewage sludge gasification was longer as compared to other samples. On the other hand sewage sludge yielded more hydrogen than that from paper and food wastes. (author)

  15. Thermovolumetric investigations of steam gasification of coals and their chars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of steam gasification of three coals of various rank and three chars obtained from these coals by the ex-situ method at 900 °C was compared. In the coal gasification process, the pyrolysis stage plays a very important part, which is connected with its direct impact on the kinetics of gasification of the resulting char. What is more, taking into consideration the impact of pyrolysis conditions on char properties, it should be anticipated that the gasification kinetics of coal and char, formed from it by the ex situ method, will be different. In order to examine and compare the process of gasification of coals and chars, an isothermal thermovolumetric method, designed by the authors, was applied. For all the examined samples the measurements were performed at three temperatures, i.e. 850, 900, and 950 °C, and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. An evaluation of the impact of raw material on the steam gasification of the examined samples was made. The carbon conversion degree and the kinetic parameters of CO and H2 formation reaction were calculated. It was observed that the course of gasification is different for coals and chars obtained from them and it can be concluded that coals are more reactive than chars. Values of kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation calculated for coals and corresponding chars are also different. Due to the observed differences the process of gasification of coals and of chars with steam should not be equated.

  16. Incineration and pyrolysis vs. steam gasification of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2018-05-15

    Constructional complexity of items and their integration are the most distinctive features of electronic wastes. These wastes consist of mineral and polymeric materials and have high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. Elimination of polymeric components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases is the purpose of thermal treatment of electronic wastes. In the case of gasification, gaseous product of the process may be, after cleaning, used for energy recovery or chemical synthesis. If not melted, metals from solid products of thermal treatment of electronic waste could be recovered by hydrometallurgical processing. Three basic, high temperature ways of electronic waste processing, i.e. smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and steam gasification were shortly discussed in the paper, giving a special attention to gasification under steam, illustrated by laboratory experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  18. Staged catalytic gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil was studied in a staged reactor concept, which consisted of an inert fluidized bed and a catalytic fixed bed. Methane and C2−C3 free syngas is produced at a single temperature around 800 °C at atmospheric pressure. By lowering the temperature of the

  19. The study of reactions influencing the biomass steam gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Franco; F. Pinto; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [INETI-DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-05-01

    Steam gasification studies were carried out in an atmospheric fluidised bed. The gasifier was operated over a temperature range of 700 900{sup o}C whilst varying a steam/biomass ratio from 0.4 to 0.85 w/w. Three types of forestry biomass were studied: Pinus pinaster (softwood), Eucalyptus globulus and holm-oak (hardwood). The energy conversion, gas composition, higher heating value and gas yields were determined and correlated with temperature, steam/biomass ratio, and species of biomass used. The results obtained seemed to suggest that the operating conditions were optimised for a gasification temperature around 830{sup o}C and a steam/biomass ratio of 0.6 0.7 w/w, because a gas richer in hydrogen and poorer in hydrocarbons and tars was produced. These conditions also favoured greater energy and carbon conversions, as well the gas yield. The main objective of the present work was to determine what reactions were dominant within the operation limits of experimental parameters studied and what was the effect of biomass type on the gasification process. As biomass wastes usually have a problem of availability because of seasonal variations, this work analysed the possibility of replacing one biomass species by another, without altering the gas quality obtained. 19 refs., 8 figs. 2 tabs.

  20. Hydrogen production from sewage sludge by steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Klinkajorn, P. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Because of the shortage of energy sources in the near future, renewable energy, such as biomass, has become an important source of energy. One of the most common approaches for producing gaseous fuels from biomass is gasification. The main product gases of gasification are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Because of the capability of very low emission at the point of use, the interest in using hydrogen for electrical power generation and in electric-vehicles has been increasing. Hydrogen from biomass steam gasification (SG) is a net zero green house gas emission fuel. Sewage sludge (SS) has a potential to produce hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Therefore, hydrogen production from sewage sludge may be a solution for cleaner fuel and the sewage sludge disposal problem. This paper presented the results of a computer model for SSSG by using Gibbs free energy minimization (GFEM) method. The computer model developed was used to determine the hydrogen production limits for various steam to biomass ratios. The paper presented an introduction to renewable energy and gasification and discussed the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The study used a RAND algorithm. It presented the computer model input parameters and discussed the results of the stoichiometric analysis and Gibbs free energy minimization. The energy requirement for hydrogen production was also presented. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  1. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  2. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gasification of coal with steam using heat from HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juentgen, H.; Heek, K.H. van

    1975-01-01

    In existing coal gasification processes a substantial part of the coal is used to provide the heat for the reaction, for the generation and superheating of steam and for the production of oxygen. By using heat from HTRs to substitute this part, the coal is then completely used as raw material for gas production. This offers the following advantages compared with the existing processes: a saving of coal, less CO 2 emission and, in countries with high coal costs, lower gas production costs. A survey is given of the state of the project, discussing the first design of a commercial gasifier, the influence of the helium outlet temperature of the HTR, kinds of products, and the overall efficiency of the plant. The aim of the development is to demonstrate the use of heat from an HTR for full scale coal gasification, starting in 1985. (Auth.)

  4. Gasification of biomass chars in steam-nitrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2006-01-01

    Some agricultural and waste biomass samples such as sunflower shell, pinecone, rapeseed, cotton refuse and olive refuse were first pyrolyzed in nitrogen, and then, their chars were gasified in a gas mixture of steam and nitrogen. Experiments were performed using the thermogravimetric analysis technique. Pyrolysis of the biomass samples was performed at a heating rate of 20 K/min from ambient to 1273 K in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cm 3 min -1 . The obtained chars were cooled to ambient temperature and then gasified up to 1273 K in a dynamic atmosphere of 40 cm 3 min -1 of a mixture of steam and nitrogen. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles from gasification of the chars were derived, and the mass losses from the chars were interpreted in terms of temperature. It was concluded that gasification characteristics of biomass chars were fairly dependent on the biomass properties such as ash and fixed carbon contents and the constituents present in the ash. Different mechanisms in the three temperature intervals, namely water desorption at lower temperatures, decomposition of hydroxide minerals to oxide minerals and formation of carbon monoxide at medium temperatures and production of hydrogen at high temperatures govern the behavior of the char during the gasification process. The chars from pinecone and sunflower shell could be easily gasified under the mentioned conditions. In order to further raise the conversion yields, long hold times should be applied at high temperatures. However, the chars from rapeseed and olive refuse were not gasified satisfactorily. Low ash content and high fixed carbon content biomass materials are recommended for use in gasification processes when char from pyrolysis at elevated temperatures is used as a feedstock

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Ultra-Superheated Steam Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fen

    Pure steam gasification has been of interest in hydrogen production, but with the challenge of supplying heat for endothermic reactions. Traditional solutions included either combusting feedstocks at the price of decreasing carbon conversion ratio, or using costly heating apparatus. Therefore, a distributed gasifier with an Ultra-Superheated-Steam (USS) generator was invented, satisfying the heat requirement and avoiding carbon combustion in steam gasification. This project developed the first version of the Ultra-Superheated-Steam-Fluidization-Model (USSFM V1.0) for the USS gasifier. A stand-alone equilibrium combustion model was firstly developed to calculate the USS mixture, which was the input to the USSFM V1.0. Model development of the USSFM V1.0 included assumptions, governing equations, boundary conditions, supporting equations and iterative schemes of guessed values. There were three nested loops in the dense bed and one loop in the freeboard. The USSFM V1.0 included one main routine and twenty-four subroutines. The USSFM V1.0 was validated with experimental data from the Enercon USS gasifier. The calculated USS mixture had a trace of oxygen, validating the initial expectation of creating an oxygen-free environment in the gasifier. Simulations showed that the USS mixture could satisfy the gasification heat requirement without partial carbon combustion. The USSFM V1.0 had good predictions on the H2% in all tests, and on other variables at a level of the lower oxygen feed. Provided with higher oxygen feed, the USSFM V1.0 simulated hotter temperatures, higher CO% and lower CO2%. Errors were explained by assumptions of equilibrium combustion, adiabatic reactors, reaction kinetics, etc. By investigating specific modeling data, gas-particle convective heat transfers were found to be critical in energy balance equations of both emulsion gas and particles, while bubble size controlled both the mass and energy balance equations of bubble gas. Parametric study

  6. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Catalytic effect of mineral matter of high ash Onakawana lignite on steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1986-04-01

    Reactivities of untreated and acid washed Onakawana lignite during steam gasification were compared in a thermobalance reactor. The acid treatment resulted in removal of Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr from mineral matter. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rates of H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ formation. The decrease of gasification rate was attributed to the decrease in concentration of gasification sites during the acid treatment.

  8. Integrated gasification and Cu-Cl cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghahosseini, S; Dincer, I; Naterer, G F [University of Ontario, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Institute of Technology

    2011-02-15

    This paper develops and analyzes an integrated process model of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity. The process model is developed with Aspen HYSYS software. By using oxygen instead of air for the gasification process, where oxygen is provided by the integrated Cu-Cl cycle, it is found that the hydrogen content of produced syngas increases by about 20%, due to improvement of the gasification combustion efficiency and reduction of syngas NOx emissions. Moreover, about 60% of external heat required for the integrated Cu-Cl cycle can be provided by the IGCC plant, with minor modifications of the steam cycle, and a slight decrease of IGCC overall efficiency. Integration of gasification and thermochemical hydrogen production can provide significant improvements in the overall hydrogen, steam and electricity output, when compared against the processes each operating separately and independently of each other.

  9. Glas generator for the steam gasification of coal with nuclear generated heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heat from a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) for the steam gasification of coal saves coal, which otherwise is burnt to generate the necessary reaction heat. The gas generator for this process, a horizontal pressure vessel, contains a fluidized bed of coal and steam. An ''immersion-heater'' type of heat exchanger introduces the nuclear generated heat to the process. Some special design problems of this gasifier are presented. Reference is made to the present state of development of the steam gasification process with heat from high temperature reactors. (author)

  10. Hydrogen production by biomass steam gasification in fluidized bed reactor with Co catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuhiko Tasaka; Atsushi Tsutsumi; Takeshi Furusawa

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic performances of Co/MgO catalysts were investigated in steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of tar derived from cellulose gasification. For steam reforming of cellulose tar in a secondary fixed bed reactor, 12 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst attained more than 80% of tar reduction. The amount of produced H 2 and CO 2 increased with the presence of catalyst, and kept same level during 2 hr at 873 K. It is indicated that steam reforming of cellulose tar proceeds sufficiently over Co/MgO catalyst. For steam gasification of cellulose in a fluidized bed reactor, it was found that tar reduction increases with Co loading amount and 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst showed 84% of tar reduction. The amounts of produced gas kept for 2 hr indicating that 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst is stable during the reaction. It was concluded that these Co catalysts are promising systems for the steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of cellulose tar. (authors)

  11. Study of the Apparent Kinetics of Biomass Gasification Using High-Temperature Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2010-10-15

    Among the latest achievements in gasification technology, one may list the development of a method to preheat gasification agents using switched ceramic honey combs. The best output from this technology is achieved with use of water steam as a gasification agent, which is heated up to 1600 deg C. The application of these temperatures with steam as a gasification agent provides a cleaner syngas (no nitrogen from air, cracked tars) and the ash melts into easily utilised glass-like sludge. High hydrogen content in output gas is also favourable for end-user applications.Among the other advantages of this technology is the presumable application of fixed-bed-type reactors fed by separately produced and preheated steam. This construction assumes relatively high steam flow rates to deliver the heat needed for endothermic reactions involving biomass. The biomass is to be heated uniformly and evenly in the volume of the whole reactor, providing easier and simpler control and operation in comparison to other types of reactors. To provide potential constructors and exploiters of these reactors with the kinetic data needed for the calculations of vital parameters for both reactor construction and exploitation, basic experimental research of high-temperature steam gasification of four types of industrially produced biomass has been conducted.Kinetic data have been obtained for straw and wood pellets, wood-chip charcoal and compressed charcoal of mixed origin

  12. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reaction Mechanism of Tar Evolution in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingo Katayama; Masahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction mechanism of tar evolution in steam gasification of biomass was investigated with a continuous cross-flow moving bed type differential reactor, in which tar and gases can be fractionated according to reaction time. We estimated that time profile of tar and gas evolution in the gasification of cellulose, xylan, and lignin, and compared it with experimental product time profile of real biomass gasification. The experimental tar evolution rate is different from estimated tar evolution rate. The estimated tar evolution rate has a peak at 20 s. On the other hand, the experimental tar evolution rate at 20 s is little, and tar at initial stage includes more water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. It can be concluded that in the real biomass steam gasification the evolution of tar from cellulose and lignin component was found to be precipitated by that from hemi-cellulose component. (authors)

  14. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  15. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Rodriguez; Gerardo Gordillo

    2011-01-01

    Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH) per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i) CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii) experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E). The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA), developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equiva...

  16. CFD simulations of influence of steam in gasification agent on parameters of UCG process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is considered to be a perspective and constantly developing technology. Nevertheless it is a very complex and technically difficult process, which results depend on many variables. Mathematical models enable detailed analysis of UCG process – for example – give possibility of prediction of syngas composition depending on applied gasification medium. In practice, mixtures of oxygen, air and steam are the most frequently used as converting agents. Steam is injected to the reactor in order to obtain combustible components. Nevertheless higher concentrations of steam create a problem of reduction of temperature in reactor. This issue of amount of steam in reacting system was analyzed in given paper. Computer simulations were used as test method applied in presented work. Calculations were carried by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF method and Ansys Fluent software. Changes in outlet concentrations of syngas components (CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, H2, in relation with time of process, were presented. Composition of product gas, its heating value and temperature of process were also examined (on outlet of rector in function of content of steam in gasification agent (which was mixture of O2 and H2O. Obtained results indicated a possibility of conduct of stable gasification process (with predictable characteristic of gas. The simulation also demonstrated a possibility of deterioration of conditions in real reactors as a results of applying of too high amounts of steam.

  17. Thermodynamic investigation of an integrated gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, Masoud [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Energy System

    2012-07-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas was rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system integration configurations are completely novel and have not been studied elsewhere. Plant efficiencies of 56% were achieved under normal operation which was considerably higher than the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) in which a gasification plant is integrated with a gas turbine and a steam turbine. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain operating conditions, plant efficiency of about 62 is also possible to achieve. (orig.)

  18. Energy efficient thermochemical conversion of very wet biomass to biofuels by integration of steam drying, steam electrolysis and gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2017-01-01

    A novel system concept is presented for the thermochemical conversion of very wet biomasses such as sewage sludge and manure. The system integrates steam drying, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) and gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG). The system is analyzed...

  19. Thermodynamic Investigation of an Integrated Gasification Plant with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Steam Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas...... generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system...

  20. Steam gasification of oil palm trunk waste for clean syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit; Ahmed, Islam I.; Kerdsuwan, Somrat; Gupta, Ashwani K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Initial high values of syngas flow rate are attributed to rapid devolatilization. ► Over 50% of syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. ► Increase in steam flow rate resulted in reduced gasification time. ► Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency. ► Oil palm yielded more energy than that from mangrove wood, paper and food waste. -- Abstract: Waste and agricultural residues offer significant potential for harvesting chemical energy with simultaneous reduction of environmental pollution, providing carbon neutral (or even carbon negative) sustained energy production, energy security and alleviating social concerns associated with the wastes. Steam gasification is now recognized as one of the most efficient approaches for waste to clean energy conversion. Syngas generated during the gasification process can be utilized for electric power generation, heat generation and for other industrial and domestic uses. In this paper results obtained from the steam assisted gasification of oil palm trunk waste are presented. A batch type gasifier has been used to examine the syngas characteristics from gasification of palm trunk waste using steam as the gasifying agent. Reactor temperature was fixed at 800 °C. Results show initial high values of syngas flow rate, which is attributed to rapid devolatilization of the sample. Approximately over 50% of the total syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. An increase in steam flow rate accelerated the gasification reactions and resulted in reduced gasification time. The effect of steam flow rate on the apparent thermal efficiency has also been investigated. Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency and was found to be very high. Properties of the syngas obtained from the gasification of oil palm trunk waste have been compared to other samples under similar operating

  1. Steam gasification of acid-hydrolysis biomass CAHR for clean syngas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Yao, Jingang; Yang, Huijun; Yan, Beibei; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Main characteristics of gaseous product from steam gasification of acid-hydrolysis biomass CAHR have been investigated experimentally. The comparison in terms of evolution of syngas flow rate, syngas quality and apparent thermal efficiency was made between steam gasification and pyrolysis in the lab-scale apparatus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and steam to CAHR ratio on gas quality, syngas yield and energy conversion. The results showed that syngas and energy yield were better with gasification compared to pyrolysis under identical thermal conditions. Both high gasification temperature and introduction of proper steam led to higher gas quality, higher syngas yield and higher energy conversion efficiency. However, excessive steam reduced hydrogen yield and energy conversion efficiency. The optimal value of S/B was found to be 3.3. The maximum value of energy ratio was 0.855 at 800°C with the optimal S/B value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen production from palm kernel shell via integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zakir; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni Melati; Chin, Bridgid Lai Fui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification for H 2 yield. • Effects of adsorbent to biomass, biomass particle size and fluidization velocity on H 2 yield are examined. • The present study produces higher H 2 yield as compared to that obtained in literatures. • The ICA provides enhancement of H 2 yield as compared to independent catalytic and CO 2 adsorption gasification systems. - Abstract: The present study investigates the integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification of palm kernel shell for hydrogen production in a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The biomass steam gasification is performed in the presence of an adsorbent and a catalyst in the system. The effect of adsorbent to biomass (A/B) ratio (0.5–1.5 wt/wt), fluidization velocity (0.15–0.26 m/s) and biomass particle size (0.355–2.0 mm) are studied at temperature of 675 °C, steam to biomass (S/B) ratio of 2.0 (wt/wt) and biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.1 (wt/wt). Hydrogen composition and yield, total gas yield, and lower product gas heating values (LHV gas ) increases with increasing A/B ratio, while particle size has no significant effect on hydrogen composition and yield, total gas and char yield, gasification and carbon conversion efficiency. However, gas heating values increased with increasing biomass particle size which is due to presence of high methane content in product gas. Meanwhile, medium fluidization velocity of 0.21 m/s favoured hydrogen composition and yield. The results showed that the maximum hydrogen composition and yield of 84.62 vol% and 91.11 g H 2 /kg biomass are observed at A/B ratio of 1.5, S/B ratio of 2.0, catalyst to biomass ratio of 0.1 and temperature of 675 °C. The product gas heating values are observed in the range of 10.92–17.02 MJ/N m 3 . Gasification and carbon conversion efficiency are observed in the range of 25.66–42.95% and 20.61–41.95%, respectively. These lower

  3. Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David J.

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Review of driving forces for change; Gasification technology; Versatility of the gasification process; Commercial Application of gasification; Gas turbine development; Fuel Cell Development; Economics of gasification; Global warming and gasification; Discussion; Summary and Conclusions. (Author)

  4. Effects of hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge on pyrolysis and steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jihong; Mun, Tae-Young; Yang, Won; Lee, Uendo; Hwang, Jungho; Jang, Ensuk; Choi, Changsik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) is energy efficient and increases fuel energy density. • Pyrolysis and steam gasification were performed with sewage sludge before/after HT. • Product gases resembled those from wood chips, particularly at high temperature. • HT increases sludge lignin content, possibly enhancing methane yield of product gas. • HT can improve sewage sludge for use as an alternative to biomass and fossil fuels. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment is a promising option for pretreatment drying of organic waste, due to its low energy consumption and contribution to increasing fuel energy density. In this study, the characteristics of hydrothermally treated sewage sludge were investigated, and pyrolysis and steam gasification were performed with the sludge before and after hydrothermal treatment. The overall composition of product gases from treated sludge was similar to that obtained from steam gasification of wood chips, particularly under high-temperature conditions. In addition, the increase in lignin content of sewage sludge following hydrothermal treatment could help enhance methane yield in product gas during pyrolysis and steam gasification. The findings suggest that hydrothermal treatment is an appropriate method for improving sewage sludge for use as an alternative to biomass and fossil fuels

  5. Gasification under CO2–Steam Mixture: Kinetic Model Study Based on Shared Active Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, char gasification of two coals (i.e., Shenfu bituminous coal and Zunyi anthracite and a petroleum coke under a steam and CO2 mixture (steam/CO2 partial pressures, 0.025–0.075 MPa; total pressures, 0.100 MPa and CO2/steam chemisorption of char samples were conducted in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA. Two conventional kinetic models exhibited difficulties in exactly fitting the experimental data of char–steam–CO2 gasification. Hence, a modified model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and assuming that char–CO2 and char–steam reactions partially shared active sites was proposed and had indicated high accuracy for estimating the interactions in char–steam–CO2 reaction. Moreover, it was found that two new model parameters (respectively characterized as the amount ratio of shared active sites to total active sites in char–CO2 and char–steam reactions in the modified model hardly varied with gasification conditions, and the results of chemisorption indicate that these two new model parameters mainly depended on the carbon active sites in char samples.

  6. Steam Gasification of Sawdust Biochar Influenced by Chemical Speciation of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metallic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical speciation (H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble and insoluble of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on the steam gasification of sawdust biochar was investigated in a lab-scale, fixed-bed reactor, with the method of chemical fractionation analysis. The changes in biochar structures and the evolution of biochar reactivity are discussed, with a focus on the contributions of the chemical speciation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs on the steam gasification of biochar. The results indicate that H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble AAEMs have a significant effect on biochar gasification rates. The release of K occurs mainly in the form of inorganic salts and hydrated ions, while that of Ca occurs mainly as organic ones. The sp3-rich or sp2-sp3 structures and different chemical-speciation AAEMs function together as the preferred active sites during steam gasification. H2O/HCl-soluble AAEMs could promote the transformation of biochar surface functional groups, from ether/alkene C-O-C to carboxylate COO− in biochar, while they may both be improved by NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs. H2O-soluble AAEMs play a crucial catalytic role in biochar reactivity. The effect of NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs is mainly concentrated in the high-conversion stage (biochar conversion >30%, while that of HCl-soluble AAEMs is reflected in the whole activity-testing stage.

  7. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  8. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Panousis, G.; Rigas, A.; Karl, J.; Kakaras, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO 2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO 2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO 2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  9. Investigation on hydrogen permeation on heat exchanger materials in conditions of steam coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenhoff, H.

    1984-01-01

    The permeation of hydrogen through iron-based alloys of different compositions in the temperature range between 700 and 1000 0 C was examined in a laboratory fluidized bed in the conditions of steam/coal gasification. Apart from tests on bright metal samples, measurement in the gasification atmosphere at a maximum pressure of 1 bar were carried out during oxidation of the metal. Experiments in a steam/hydrogen/argon mixture with the same oxidation potential were used for comparison purposes. The hydrogen permeated through the metal sample was taken to a gas chromatograph with argon flushing gas and analyzed there. The investigations on bright steel samples of various composition showed that their permeabilities for hydrogen at temperatures around 900 0 C only differed by a maximum of ± 30%. Effective prevention of permeation is therefore not possible simply by choosing a suitable alloy. If the steels are oxidized during permeation measurements, there is a reduction of the hydrogen permeability by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude due to the oxidation process, both in the steam/coal gasification fluidized bed and in a pure steam/hydrogen/argon mixture. (orig./GG) [de

  10. Investigation on the reactions influencing biomass air and air/steam gasification for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S.; Bragado, D. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Extremadura, 06071 (Spain); Calderon, M. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, University of Extremadura, 06071 (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Hydrogen could be the energy carrier of the next world scene provided that its production, transportation and storage are solved. In this work the production of an hydrogen-rich gas by air/steam and air gasification of olive oil waste was investigated. The study was carried out in a laboratory reactor at atmospheric pressure over a temperature range of 700 - 900 C using a steam/biomass ratio of 1.2 w/w. The influence of the catalysts ZnCl{sub 2} and dolomite was also studied at 800 and 900 C. The solid, energy and carbon yield (%), gas molar composition and high heating value of the gas (kJ NL{sup -} {sup 1}), were determined for all cases and the differences between the gasification process with and without steam were established. Also, this work studies the different equilibria taking place, their predominance in each process and how the variables considered affect the final gas hydrogen concentration. The results obtained suggest that the operating conditions were optimized at 900 C in steam gasification (a hydrogen molar fraction of 0.70 was obtained at a residence time of 7 min). The use of both catalysts resulted positive at 800 C, especially in the case of ZnCl{sub 2} (attaining a H{sub 2} molar fraction of 0.69 at a residence time of 5 min). (author)

  11. Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . The two configurations demonstrating the highest efficiency are then thermally integrated into an oxygen– steam biomass gasification plant. The energy demand for oxygen production and the membrane area required for a 6 MWth biomass plant are calculated for different operating conditions. Increasing......Oxygen–steam biomass gasification produces a high quality syngas with a high H2/CO ratio that is suitable for upgrading to liquid fuels. Such a gas is also well suited for use in conjunction with solid oxide fuel cells giving rise to a system yielding high electrical efficiency based on biomass...... distillation, especially for small to medium scale plants. This paper examines different configurations for oxygen production using MIEC membranes where the oxygen partial pressure difference is achieved by creating a vacuum on the permeate side, compressing the air on the feed side or a combination of the two...

  12. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E. The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA, developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equivalence ratio (ER and steam to fuel ratio (S : F on equilibrium temperature and gas composition of ~150 species. Also, an atom balance model was developed for comparison purposes. The results showed that increased ER and (S : F ratios produce mixtures that are rich in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. The value for the activation energy was estimated to be 221 kJ/kmol.

  13. Promoting effect of various biomass ashes on the steam gasification of low-rank coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkiana, Jenny; Guan, Guoqing; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Hao, Xiaogang; Li, Xiumin; Huang, Wei; Abudula, Abuliti

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass ash was utilized to promote gasification of low rank coal. • Promoting effect of biomass ash highly depended on AAEM content in the ash. • Stability of the ash could be improved by maintaining AAEM amount in the ash. • Different biomass ash could have completely different catalytic activity. - Abstract: Application of biomass ash as a catalyst to improve gasification rate is a promising way for the effective utilization of waste ash as well as for the reduction of cost. Investigation on the catalytic activity of biomass ash to the gasification of low rank coal was performed in details in the present study. Ashes from 3 kinds of biomass, i.e. brown seaweed/BS, eel grass/EG, and rice straw/RS, were separately mixed with coal sample and gasified in a fixed bed downdraft reactor using steam as the gasifying agent. BS and EG ashes enhanced the gas production rate greater than RS ash. Higher catalytic activity of BS or EG ash was mainly attributed to the higher content of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and lower content of silica in it. Higher content of silica in the RS ash was identified to have inhibiting effect for the steam gasification of coal. Stable catalytic activity was remained when the amount of AAEM in the regenerated ash was maintained as that of the original one

  14. Catalytic effect of lignite ash on steam gasification of oil sand coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.

    1986-06-16

    Steam gasification of Suncor and Syncrude cokes was carried out in the presence of ash obtained after burning Onakawana lignite. Catalytic effects of the ash were evident at 930 C whereas at 830 C little effect was observed. These observations were attributed to the combined actions of Ca- and Fe-containing species in the ash, in which the former neutralized the sulfur in the cokes to prevent poisoning of Fe oxides. 5 tabs., 5 figs., 15 refs.

  15. Assessment on steam gasification of municipal solid waste against biomass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Nuno Dinis; Silva, Valter Bruno; Rouboa, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam gasification as an alternative for MSW treatment was studied. • A previously developed numerical model for MSW gasification was used. • Results were validated with data gathered from the literature. • Results were compared with previously studied biomass substrates. • Environment and economic assessment based on the results was conducted. - Abstract: Waste management is becoming one of the main concerns of our time. Not only does it takes up one of the largest portions of municipal budgets but it also entails extensive land use and pollution to the environment using current treatment methods. Steam gasification of Portuguese municipal solid wastes was studied using a previously developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, and experimental and numerical results were found to be in agreement. To assess the potential of Portuguese wastes, these results were compared to those obtained from previously investigated Portuguese biomass substrates and steam-to-biomass ratio was used to characterize and understand the effects of steam in the gasification process. The properties of syngas produced from municipal solid waste and from biomass substrates were compared and results demonstrated that wastes present the lowest carbon conversion, gas yield and cold gas efficiency with the highest tar content. Nevertheless, the pre-existing collection and transportation infrastructure that is currently available for municipal waste does not exist for the compared biomass resources which makes it an interesting process. In addition a detailed economic study was carried out to estimate the environmental and economic benefits of installing the described system. The hydrogen production cost was also estimated and compared with alternative methods.

  16. Exergy analysis of Portuguese municipal solid waste treatment via steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Nuno; Silva, Valter; Monteiro, Eliseu; Rouboa, Abel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of Portuguese municipal solid waste gasification was conducted. • Previously studied biomass substrate was used as benchmark. • Numerical model built upon a reliable set of experimental runs was used. • Thermodynamic analysis on steam as gasifying agent was showed. • A CFD model was combined with RSM to optimize exergy efficiency. - Abstract: The presented study focuses on a thermodynamic analysis conducted on steam gasification of Portuguese municipal solid wastes (MSW). Current literature addressing this issue is extremely scarce due to the complexity in handling MSW’s heterogeneity. To fill this significant gap, a mathematical model built upon a reliable set of experimental runs from a semi-industrial gasifier was used to evaluate the effects of reactor temperature and steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR) on produced gas and tar content. Results from a previously studied biomass substrate were used as benchmark. Numerical results were validated with both experimental results and existing literature. Increase in gasification temperature led to a clear increase in both exergy values and exergy efficiency. On the other hand, increase in SBR led to a sharp increase in the exergy values when steam was first introduced, leading to relatively constant values when SBR was further increased. Regarding exergy efficiency, SBR led to a clear maximum value, which in the case of forest residues was found at SBR = 1, while for MSW at 1.5. In order to promote a more hydrogen-rich gas, data obtained from the numerical model was used to design an exergy efficiency optimization model based on the response surface method. Maximum hydrogen efficiency was found at 900 °C with a SBR of 1.5 for MSW and 1 for forest residues. Surprisingly, forest residues and MSW presented virtually the same maximum hydrogen efficiency.

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania

  18. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  20. Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hanhui; Chen, Zhihua; Huo, Chan; Hu, Mian; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioleaching can modify the physicochemical property of sewage sludge. • The enhancement is mainly hydrogen. • Bioleaching can enhance the gas production in gasification of sewage sludge. • Study provides an insight for future application of bioleached sewage sludge. - Abstract: Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor. The influence of sewage sludge solids concentrations (6–14% (w/v) in 2% increments) during the bioleaching process and reactor temperature (600–900 °C in 100 °C increments) on gasification product yields and gas composition were studied. Characterization of samples showed that bioleaching treatment, especially in 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration, led to metal removal effectively and modifications in the physicochemical property of sewage sludge which was favored for gasification. The maximum gas yield (49.4%) and hydrogen content (46.4%) were obtained at 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration and reactor temperature of 900 °C. Sewage sludge after the bioleaching treatment may be a feasible feedstock for hydrogen-rich gas product.

  1. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  2. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading : Technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification

  3. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products

  4. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of Biomass Wastes - Stage 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Szewczyk, Dariusz; Lucas, Carlos; Rafidi, Nabil; Abeyweera Ruchira; Jansson, Anna; Bjoerkman, Eva [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2003-05-01

    In Jan 2002 the Division of Energy and Furnace Technology started the project High Temperature Air an Steam Gasification (HTAG) of biomass wastes, following the approval made by Swedish Energy Agency. The research proved successful; with the fixed bed updraft gasifier coupled to the highly regenerative preheater equipment able to produce a fuel gas not only from wood pellets but also from wood chips, bark and charcoal with considerably reduced amount of tar. This report provides information on solid biomass conversion into fuel gas as a result of air and steam gasification process performed in a fixed bed updraft gasifier. The first chapter of the report presents the overall objectives and the specific objectives of the work. Chapter 2 summarizes state-of-the-art on the gasification field stating some technical differences between low and high temperature gasification processes. Description and schemes of the experimental test rig are provided in Chapter 3. The equipment used to perform measurements of different sort and that installed in the course of the work is described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the methodology of experiments conducted whose results were processed and evaluated with help of the scheme of equations presented in Chapter 6, called raw data evaluation. Results of relevant experiments are presented and discussed in Chapter 7. A summary discussion of the tar analysis is presented in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 summarizes the findings of the research work conducted and identifies future efforts to ensure the development of next stage. Final chapter provides a summary of conclusions and recommendations of the work. References are provided at the end of the report. Aimed to assist the understanding of the work done, tables and graphs of experiments conducted, irrespective to their quality, are presented in appendices.

  5. Gasification in a revolving tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speicher, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a method for allothermal coal gasification is to refine raw lignite from the Rhine area to high-quality synthesis gas or reduction gas without extracting the water utilizing nuclear process heat in a heated revolving bundle of tubes. Computational models are described for the macroscopic course of events in parallel flow gasification. In the design of the test plant, the principle of drag-in and transport of the tube drier was applied. (DG) [de

  6. Interpretation of biomass gasification yields regarding temperature intervals under nitrogen-steam atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Gasification of some agricultural waste biomass samples (sunflower shell, pine cone, cotton refuse, and olive refuse) and colza seed was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer at temperatures up to 1273 K with a constant heating rate of 20 K/min under a dynamic nitrogen-steam atmosphere. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles of the samples were derived from the non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis data. Gasification yields of the biomass samples at temperature intervals of 473-553 K, 553-653 K, 653-773 K, 773-973 K, and 973-1173 K were investigated considering the successive stages of ''evolution of carbon oxides'', ''start of hydrocarbon evolution'', ''evolution of hydrocarbons'', ''dissociation'', and ''evolution of hydrogen'', respectively. Although, there were some interactions between these stages, some evident relations were observed between the gasification yields in a given stage and the chemical properties of the parent biomass materials. (author)

  7. Equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production using the steam-plasma gasification process of the used car tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V A; Kumkova, I I; Lerner, A S; Popov, V E

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the treatment of used car tires. The method of used tires plasma gasification is proposed. The investigation of the syngas composition was carried out according to the temperature and plasma flow rate variation. The method of the steam catalytic conversion of CO, which is a part of the syngas, and CaO usage are suggested. The results of the calculation modeling at various temperatures, pressures, and steam flow rates are presented.

  8. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour Moghadam, Reza; Yusup, Suzana; Azlina, Wan; Nehzati, Shahab; Tavasoli, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H 2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m 3

  9. Mathematical modeling of a fluidized bed gasifier for steam gasification of coal using high-temperature nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, H.; vanHeek, K.-H.; Juntgen, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coal gasification is a well-known technique and has already been developed and used since a long time. In the last few years, forced by the energy situation, new efforts have been made to improve known processes and to start new developments. Conventional gasification processes use coal not only as feedstock to be gasified but also for supply of energy for reaction heat, steam production, and other purposes. With a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) as a source for process heat, it is possible to transform the whole of the feed coal into gas. This concept offers advantages over existing gasification processes: saving of coal, as more gas can be produced from coal; less emission of pollutants, as the HTR is used for the production of steam and electricity instead of a coal-fired boiler; and lower production costs for the gas

  10. Rate inhibition of steam gasification of adsorbed hydrogen. Technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    Work during the fifth quarter of the grant period has involved both gasification experiments in steam and hydrogen and continued development of the reaction apparatus and analytical methods. Most of the latter work has focused on mass spectrometric analysis of the effluent gases to obtain better response factors and to reduce background signals resulting from impurities in the reacting gas stream.

  11. Simulation of biomass-steam gasification in fluidized bed reactors: Model setup, comparisons and preliminary predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Lim, C Jim; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu; Grace, John R

    2016-12-01

    A user-defined solver integrating the solid-gas surface reactions and the multi-phase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) approach is built based on the OpenFOAM software. The solver is tested against experiments. Then, biomass-steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasifier is preliminarily predicted. It is found that the predictions agree well with the experimental results. The bed material circulation loop in the DFB can form automatically and the bed height is about 1m. The voidage gradually increases along the height of the bed zone in the bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) of the DFB. The U-bend and cyclone can separate the syngas in the BFB and the flue gas in the circulating fluidized bed. The concentration of the gasification products is relatively higher in the conical transition section, and the dry and nitrogen-free syngas at the BFB outlet is predicted to be composed of 55% H 2 , 20% CO, 20% CO 2 and 5% CH 4 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  13. Energetic assessment of air-steam gasification of sewage sludge and of the integration of sewage sludge pyrolysis and air-steam gasification of char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Lalaguna, N.; Sánchez, J.L.; Murillo, M.B.; Atienza-Martínez, M.; Gea, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge is an interesting option for recovering energy and/or valuable products from this waste. This work presents an energetic assessment of pyrolysis and gasification of sewage sludge, also considering the prior sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification of the char derived from the pyrolysis stage. Experimental data obtained from pyrolysis of sewage sludge, gasification of sewage sludge and gasification of char (all of these performed in a lab-scale fluidized reactor) were used for the energetic calculations. The results show that the energy contained in the product gases from pyrolysis and char gasification is not enough to cover the high energy consumption for thermal drying of sewage sludge. Additional energy could be obtained from the calorific value of the pyrolysis liquid, but some of its properties must be improved facing towards its use as fuel. On the other hand, the energy contained in the product gas of sewage sludge gasification is enough to cover the energy demand for both the sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification process itself. Furthermore, a theoretical study included in this work shows that the gasification efficiency is improved when the chemical equilibrium is reached in the process. - Highlights: • 4 MJ kg −1 for thermal drying of sewage sludge (SS) from 65 to 6.5 wt.% of moisture. • 0.15 MJ kg −1 for thermal decomposition of sewage sludge during fast pyrolysis. • Not enough energy in gases from SS pyrolysis and char gasification for thermal drying. • Enough energy in SS gasification gas for thermal drying and gasification process. • Gasification efficiency improves when equilibrium is reached in the process

  14. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Du, Xiaoze; Dahlquist, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H 2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO 2 and CH 4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  15. Experimental study on steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag as heat carrier for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wu, Tianwei; Yang, Fan; Qin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for producing HRG by gasification using BFS as heat carrier was proposed. • The continuous experiment of steam gasification in molten BFS was conducted. • The hydrogen-enriched syngas was produced by this method. • The molten BFS waste heat was utilized effectively by steam gasification. • This method could be widely used in steam gasification of different types of coal. - Abstract: The new method for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas (HRG) by steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag (BFS) as heat carrier was established. In order to achieve the HRG production, a gasification system using this method was proposed and constructed. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), hydrogen yield (YH_2) and cold gasification efficiency (CGE) in the molten slag reactor were measured, and the effects of temperature, S/C (steam to coal) ratio and coal type on the reaction performance were accessed. The results indicated that the preferred temperature was 1350 °C, which ensured the miscibility of coal–steam–slag, the diffusion of reactant in molten BFS as well as recovering waste heat. The optimal S/C ratio was 1.5–2.0 for producing HRG. Under these conditions, the hydrogen fraction was higher than 63% and the gas yield reached to 1.89 Nm"3/kg. The CE and CGE were higher than 96% and 102%, respectively. The YH_2 also reached to 1.20 Nm"3/kg. Meanwhile, different types of coal were successfully gasified in molten BFS reactor for producing HRG. The proposed method enhanced the gasification efficiency of different types of coal, recovered the BFS waste heat effectively, and had important guidance for industrial manufacture.

  16. Catalytic steam gasification of biomass in fluidized bed at low temperature: Conversion from livestock manure compost to hydrogen-rich syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Le, Duc Dung; Li, Liuyun; Meng, Xianliang; Cao, Jingpei; Morishita, Kayoko; Takarada, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing large amounts of animal waste as a source of renewable energy has the potential to reduce its disposal problems and associated pollution issues. Gasification characteristics of the manure compost make it possible for low temperature gasification. In this paper, an energy efficient approach to hydrogen-rich syngas from manure compost is represented at relatively low temperature, around 600 o C, in a continuous-feeding fluidized bed reactor. The effects of catalyst performance, reactor temperature, steam, and reaction type on gas yield, gas composition, and carbon conversion efficiency are discussed. The Ni-Al 2 O 3 catalyst simultaneously promotes tar cracking and steam reforming. Higher temperature contributes to higher gas yield and carbon conversion. The steam introduction increases hydrogen yield, by steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. Two-stage gasification is also tried, showing the advantage of better catalyst utilization and enhancing the catalytic reactions to some extent.

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  18. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Macro-Mesoporous Aluminosilicates for Catalytic Steam Gasification of Heavy Oil Fractions for On-Site Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam gasification of extra-heavy oil (EHO fractions was studied using functionalized aluminosilicates, with NiO, MoO3, and/or CoO nanoparticles with the aim of evaluating the synergistic effect between active phase and the support in heavy oil on-site upgrading. Catalysts were characterized by chemical composition through X-ray Fluorescence, surface area, and pore size distribution through N2 adsorption/desorption, catalyst acidity by temperature programmed desorption (TPD, and metal dispersion by pulse H2 chemisorption. Batch adsorption experiments and catalytic steam gasification of adsorbed heavy fractions was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis and were performed with heavy oil model solutions of asphaltenes and resins (R–A in toluene. Effective activation energy estimation was used to determine the catalytic effect of the catalyst in steam gasification of Colombian EHO. Additionally, R–A decomposition under inert atmosphere was conducted for the evaluation of oil components reactions with active phases and steam atmosphere. The presence of a bimetallic active phase Inc.reases the decomposition of the heavy compounds at low temperature by an increase in the aliphatic chains decomposition and the dissociation of heteroatoms bonds. Also, coke formation after steam gasification process is reduced by the application of the bimetallic catalyst yielding a conversion greater than 93%.

  19. Steam gasification of rapeseed, wood, sewage sludge and miscanthus biochars for the production of a hydrogen-rich syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Anwar; Leeke, Gary A.; Hornung, Andreas; Wood, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Steam gasification of biochars has emerged as a promising method for generating syngas that is rich in hydrogen. In this study four biochars formed via intermediate pyrolysis (wood pellet, sewage sludge, rapeseed and miscanthus) were gasified in a quartz tubular reactor using steam. The dynamic behaviour of the process and effects of temperature, steam flow and particle size were studied. The results show that increases in both steam flow and temperature significantly increase the dry gas yield and carbon conversion, but hydrogen volume fraction decreases at higher temperatures whilst particle size has little effect on gaseous composition. The highest volume fraction of hydrogen, 58.7%, was obtained at 750 °C from the rapeseed biochar. - Highlights: • Four biochars from intermediate pyrolysis were gasified. • High hydrogen concentration was achieved in all cases. • Peak hydrogen was 165 mg min −1  g −1 biochar at 700–750 °C. • High mineral content biochars had the highest reactivities. • Varying particle size had very little effect on gaseous composition

  20. Simulation of oxygen-steam gasification with CO{sub 2} adsorption for hydrogen production from empty fruit bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.M.; Inayat, A.; Yusup, S.; Sabil, K.M. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh (Malaysia). Center of Biofuel and Biochemical, Green Technology Mission Oriented Research

    2011-07-01

    The world is facing a critical situation in which fossil fuel reservoir is depleting while the demand for energy is increasing worldwide. Scientists globally have shifted their effort towards developing alternative sustainable fuels and quite a number of technologies have been discovered. One potential alternative solution is to produce energy from hydrogen as its energy content per kilogram is three times larger than that of gasoline. The combustion of hydrogen produces water instead of greenhouse gases, along with energy, making hydrogen even more attractive as a clean fuel. Current study focuses on the process development of hydrogen production via gasification of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) with in-situ adsorption of CO{sub 2} based on equilibrium modeling approach. The process flowsheet simulation is performed using iCON, PETRONAS process simulation software. This work investigates the influence of the temperature within the range of 600 to 1000 C and steam/biomass ratio between 0.1 and 1.0 on the hydrogen yield and product gas composition. The importance of different reactions involved in the system is also discussed. Using the simulation, the optimal operating conditions are predicted to be at 800 C and steam/biomass ratio of 0.6. Hydrogen yield of 149g kg{sup -1} of EFB can be obtained at 1000 C. The preliminary economic potential per annum of the oxygen-steam gasification system coupled with in situ CO{sub 2} adsorption is RM 6.64 x 10{sup 6} or approximately USD 2 x 10{sup 6}.

  1. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  2. Adiabatic Fixed-Bed Gasification of Colombian Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam Blends for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bonilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy consumption, mostly supplied by fossil fuels, has motivated the research and development of alternative fuel technologies to decrease the humanity’s dependence on fossil fuels, which leads to pollution of natural sources. Small-scale biomass gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation, is a good alternative since biomass is a neutral carbon feedstock for sustainable energy generation. This research presents results obtained from an experimental study on coffee husk (CH gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation in a 10 kW fixed-bed gasifier. Parametric studies on equivalence ratio (ER (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and steam-fuel (SF ratio (0.23 < SF < 0.89 were carried out. The results show that increasing both SF and ER results in a syngas rich in CH4 and H2 but poor in CO. Also, decreased SF and ER decrease the peak temperature (Tpeak at the gasifier combustion zone. The syngas high heating value (HHV ranged from 3112 kJ/SATPm3 to 5085 kJ/SATPm3 and its maximum value was obtained at SF = 0.87 and ER = 4.09. The dry basis molar concentrations of the species, produced under those operating conditions (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and 0.23 < SF < 0.89, were between 1.12 and 4.1% for CH4, between 7.77 and 13.49% for CO, and between 7.54 and 19.07% for H2. Other species were in trace amount.

  3. Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

  4. Ion-exchanged calcium from calcium carbonate and low-rank coals: high catalytic activity in steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Asami, K. [Tokoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-03-01

    Interactions between CaCO{sub 3} and low-rank coals were examined, and the steam gasification of the resulting Ca-loaded coals was carried out at 973 K with a thermobalance. Chemical analysis and FT-IR spectra show that CaCO{sub 3} can react readily with COOH groups to form ion-exchanged Ca and CO{sub 2} when mixed with brown coal in water at room temperature. The extent of the exchange is dependent on the crystalline form of CaCO{sub 3}, and higher for aragonite naturally present in seashells and coral reef than for calcite from limestone. The FT-IR spectra reveal that ion-exchange reactions also proceed during kneading CaCO{sub 3} with low-rank coals. The exchanged Ca promotes gasification and achieves 40-60 fold rate enhancement for brown coal with a lower content of inherent minerals. Catalyst effectiveness of kneaded CaCO{sub 3} depends on the coal type, in other words, the extent of ion exchange. 11 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Experimental and modeling study of high performance direct carbon solid oxide fuel cell with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoran; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Houcheng; Tan, Peng; Yang, Guangming; Irvine, John T. S.; Ni, Meng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 2D models for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (DC-SOFCs) with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction are developed. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The performance of DC-SOFCs with and without catalyst are compared at different operating potential, anode inlet gas flow rate and operating temperature. It is found that adding suitable catalyst can significantly speed up the in situ steam-carbon gasification reaction and improve the performance of DC-SOFC with H2O as gasification agent. The potential of syngas and electricity co-generation from the fuel cell is also evaluated, where the composition of H2 and CO in syngas can be adjusted by controlling the anode inlet gas flow rate. In addition, the performance DC-SOFCs and the percentage of fuel in the outlet gas are both increased with increasing operating temperature. At a reduced temperature (below 800 °C), good performance of DC-SOFC can still be obtained with in-situ catalytic carbon gasification by steam. The results of this study form a solid foundation to understand the important effect of catalyst and related operating conditions on H2O-assisted DC-SOFCs.

  6. Coal gasification coal by steam using process heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the coal gasification process using a high-temperature nuclear reactor as a source of the process heat needed. Compared to conventional gasification processes coal is saved by 30-40%, coal-specific emissions are reduced and better economics of gas production are achieved. The introductory chapter deals with motives, aims and tasks of the development, followed by an explanation of the status of investigations, whereby especially the results of a semi-technical pilot plant operated by Bergbau-Forschung are given. Furthermore, construction details of a full-scale commercial gasifier are discussed, including the development of suitable alloys for the heat exchanger. Moreover problems of safety, licensing and economics of future plants have been investigated. (orig.) [de

  7. Production of synthesis gas and methane via coal gasification utilizing nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Heek, K.H.; Juentgen, H.

    1982-01-01

    The steam gasificaton of coal requires a large amount of energy for endothermic gasification, as well as for production and heating of the steam and for electricity generation. In hydrogasification processes, heat is required primarily for the production of hydrogen and for preheating the reactants. Current developments in nuclear energy enable a gas cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (HTR) to be the energy source, the heat produced being withdrawn from the system by means of a helium loop. There is a prospect of converting coal, in optimal yield, into a commercial gas by employing the process heat from a gas-cooled HTR. The advantages of this process are: (1) conservation of coal reserves via more efficient gas production; (2) because of this coal conservation, there are lower emissions, especially of CO 2 , but also of dust, SO 2 , NO/sub x/, and other harmful substances; (3) process engineering advantages, such as omission of an oxygen plant and reduction in the number of gas scrubbers; (4) lower gas manufacturing costs compared to conventional processes. The main problems involved in using nuclear energy for the industrial gasification of coal are: (1) development of HTRs with helium outlet temperatures of at least 950 0 C; (2) heat transfer from the core of the reactor to the gas generator, methane reforming oven, or heater for the hydrogenation gas; (3) development of a suitable allothermal gas generator for the steam gasification; and (4) development of a helium-heated methane reforming oven and adaption of the hydrogasification process for operation in combination with the reactor. In summary, processes for gasifying coal that employ heat from an HTR have good economic and technical prospects of being realized in the future. However, time will be required for research and development before industrial application can take place. 23 figures, 4 tables. (DP)

  8. Simulation of Synthesis Gas Production from Steam Oxygen Gasification of Colombian Coal Using Aspen Plus®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Preciado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A steady state simulation of syngas production from a Steam Oxygen Gasification process using commercial technologies was performed using Aspen Plus®. For the simulation, the average proximate and ultimate compositions of bituminous coal obtained from the Colombian Andean region were employed. The simulation was applied to conduct sensitivity analyses in the O2 to coal mass ratio, coal slurry concentration, WGS operating temperature and WGS steam to dry gas molar ratio (SDG over the key parameters: syngas molar composition, overall CO conversion in the WGS reactors, H2 rich-syngas lower heating value (LHV and thermal efficiency. The achieved information allows the selection of critical operating conditions leading to improve system efficiency and environmental performance. The results indicate that the oxygen to carbon ratio is a key variable as it affects significantly both the LHV and thermal efficiency. Nevertheless, the process becomes almost insensitive to SDG values higher than 2. Finally, a thermal efficiency of 62.6% can be reached. This result corresponds to a slurry solid concentration of 0.65, a WGS process SDG of 0.59, and a LTS reactor operating temperature of 473 K. With these fixed variables, a syngas with H2 molar composition of 92.2% and LHV of 12 MJ Nm−3 was attained.

  9. CPFD simulations of an industrial-sized dual fluidized bed steam gasification system of biomass with 8 MW fuel input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Stephan; Kirnbauer, Friedrich; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated an 8 MWth steam gasification system with the CPFD code Barracuda. • The prediction of the hydrodynamics depends strongly upon the chosen drag law. • The EMMS drag law predicted best the bed material recirculation and pressure drops. • The model of the DFB plant is able to predict the operation accurately. - Abstract: Dual fluidized bed (DFB) systems for biomass gasification consist of two connected fluidized beds with a circulating bed material in between. Inside such reactor systems, rough conditions occur due to the high temperatures and the movement of the bed material. Computational fluid dynamics calculations are a useful tool for investigating fluid dynamics inside such a reactor system. In this study, an industrial-sized DFB system was simulated with the commercial code CPFD Barracuda. The DFB system is part of the combined heat and power (CHP) plant at Güssing, situated in Austria, and has a total fuel input of 8 MW_t_h. The model was set up according to geometry and operating data which allows a realistic description of the hot system in the simulation environment. Furthermore, a conversion model for the biomass particles was implemented which covers the drying and devolatilization processes. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were considered. Since drag models have an important influence on fluidization behavior, four drag models were tested. It was found that the EMMS drag model fits best, with an error of below 20%, whereas the other drag models produced much larger errors. Based on this drag law, further simulations were conducted. The simulation model correctly predicts the different fluidization regimes and pressure drops in the reactor system. It is also able to predict the compositions of the product and flue gas, as well as the temperatures inside the reactor, with reasonable accuracy. Due to the results obtained, Barracuda seems suitable for further investigations regarding the fluid mechanics of such

  10. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  11. Operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for nuclear aided steam gasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1984-01-01

    After intensive investigations on a small scale, the principle of the process has been tested in a semi-technical pilot plant. In its gasifier a fluidized bed of approx. 1 m 2 cross-section and of up to 4 m height is operated at 40 bar. Heat is supplied to the bed from an immersed heat exchanger with helium flowing through it, which is heated electrically. The plant was commissioned in 1976 and has been in hot operation for approx. 23000 h, over 13000 h whereof account for coal gasification. Roughly 1600 t of coal have been put through. During recent years the processing of German caking long-flame gas coal and the marked improvement of the process by the use of catalysts have been demonstrated successfully. (orig.)

  12. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  13. Effect of CaCO_3 addition on ash sintering behaviour during K_2CO_3 catalysed steam gasification of a Chinese lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Jianbo; Mao, Yandong; Bi, Jicheng; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Dongke

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • K_2CO_3 decreased ash sintering temperature and enhanced ash melting in gasification. • CaCO_3 addition enhanced ash melting and lowered ash sintering temperatures. • CaCO_3 reacted with SiO_2 to form fluxing phases and amorphous materials. • CaCO_3 addition inhibited the potassium aluminium silicate formation. • CaCO_3 addition preserved the catalytic activity of potassium. - Abstract: The ash sintering behaviour of a Chinese lignite (LLI) with different amounts of CaCO_3 addition during K_2CO_3-catalysed gasification was investigated. 0–10 wt% K_2CO_3 was doped into the lignite for catalytic gasification, and CaCO_3 was added into the K_2CO_3-doped samples, varying in the range of 0–20 wt% relative to the lignite, for understanding its impact on ash sintering and catalytic gasification activity. Ash samples were prepared by completely gasifying the lignite samples with steam in a fixed-bed catalytic gasification system operating at 1073 K and atmospheric pressure. Sintering temperature, mineralogy and morphology of the ash samples thus obtained were determined using a pressure-drop sintering device, XRD and SEM-EDS, respectively. The results showed that the ash sintering temperature decreased as the K_2CO_3 addition increased, indicating that K_2CO_3 as the catalyst for gasification would promote ash sintering. SEM imaging analysis showed that all the ash samples from LLI with K_2CO_3 addition were composed of agglomerated particles with smooth surfaces, indicating the ashes had incurred partial melting. The degree of melting became more apparent as the K_2CO_3 addition ratio increased. These molten phases were identified as K-bearing arcanite and kaliophilite, which contributed to the formation of liquid phases at lower temperatures, resulting in lowered ash sintering temperatures. It was also revealed that the addition of CaCO_3 decreased the sintering temperatures of ash samples, indicating that the ash sintering was further

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDOE to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US that produces ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP will emphasize on reclaiming and gasifying low-cost coal waste and/or its mixture as the primary feedstocks. The project consists of three phases. Phase I objectives include conceptual development, technical assessment, feasibility design and economic evaluation of a Greenfield commercial co-production plant and a site specific demonstration EECP to be located adjacent to the existing WMPI Gilberton Power Station. There is very little foreseen design differences between the Greenfield commercial coproduction plant versus the EECP plant other than: The greenfield commercial plant will be a stand alone FT/power co-production plant, potentially larger in capacity to take full advantage of economy of scale, and to be located in either western Pennsylvania, West Virginia or Ohio, using bituminous coal waste (gob) and Pennsylvania No.8 coal or other comparable coal as the feedstock; The EECP plant, on the other hand, will be a nominal 5000 bpd plant, fully integrated into the Gilbertson Power Company's Cogeneration Plant to take advantage of the existing infrastructure to reduce cost and minimize project risk. The Gilberton EECP plant will be designed to use eastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal waste and/or its mixture as feedstock

  15. Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Anaraki, Saber

    The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

  16. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Dahlquist

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel supported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as a model compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set was designed and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factors on the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reaction temperature, steam/carbon (S/C ratio, and CeO2 loading content. Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contents after the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalytic stability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on the toluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversion reached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratio of 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible coke formation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainly consisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2 and CH4.

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG-CCS pr....... Additionally, we show that the zero-emission conversion of unmineable deep thin coal resources in a coupled UCG-CCS process, that is not practical with the current state of technology, can be realized by increasing the energy efficiency of the carbon dioxide capture process.......-CCS process, we utilize a validated mathematical model, previously published by the same authors, that can predict the composition of the UCG product, temperature profile, and coal conversion rate for alternating injection of air and steam for unmineable deep thin coal layers. We use the results of the model...

  18. Catalytic steam reforming of tar derived from steam gasification of sunflower stalk over ethylene glycol assisting prepared Ni/MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnjanakom, Surachai; Guan, Guoqing; Asep, Bayu; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Samart, Chanatip; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni/MCM-41 was prepared by EG-assisted co-impregnation method. • EG-assisted co-impregnation method resulted in Ni particles well dispersed on MCM-41. • Ni/MCM-41-EG catalyst had high catalytic activity for tar reforming. • The highest H 2 gas yield was obtained when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG. • The catalysts were reused up to 5 cycles without any serious deactivation. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol (EG) assisted impregnation of nickel catalyst on MCM-41 (Ni/MCM-41-EG) was performed and applied for steam reforming of tar derived from biomass. The catalyst was characterized by SEM–EDX, BET, XRD, and TPR. It is found that smaller nickel particles were well dispersed on MCM-41 and better catalytic activity was shown for the Ni/MCM-41-EG when compared with the catalyst of Ni/MCM-41 prepared by using the conventional impregnation method. H 2 yield increased approximately 8% when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG instead of 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41 for the steam reforming of tar derived from sunflower stalk. The catalyst reusability was also tested up to five cycles, and no obvious activity reduction was observed. It indicates that EG assisted impregnation method is a good way to prepare metal loaded porous catalyst with high catalytic activity, high loading amount and long-term stability for the tar reforming

  19. Gasification with nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-political ultimate aims for the introduction of nuclear coal gasification and the present state of technology concerning the HTR reactor, concerning gasification and heat exchanging components are outlined. Presented on the plans a) for hydro-gasification of lignite and for steam gasification of pit coal for the production of synthetic natural gas, and b) for the introduction of a nuclear heat system. The safety and environmental problems to be expected are portrayed. The main points of development, the planned prototype plant and the schedule of the project Pototype plant Nuclear Process heat (PNP) are specified. In a market and economic viability study of nuclear coal gasification, the application potential of SNG, the possible construction programme for the FRG, as well as costs and rentability of SNG production are estimated. (GG) [de

  20. Process and catalysts for the gasification of methanol. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.; Dennis, A.J.; Shevels, T.F.

    1975-02-13

    The invention concerns catalysts and catalytic processes for the gasification of methanol which is used to manufacture methane from methanol. Mixtures of iron and chromium oxide, phosphate, phosphoric acid, tungstate, tungstic acid, aluminium phosphate, aluminium oxide are suitable as dehydrating catalysts. Gasification takes place together with steam and dehydrogenating catalysts at high temperature. The molar ratios steam: methanol are described.

  1. Plasma gasification process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar; Valmundsson, Arnar Snaer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasma/conventional gasification are modeled via Gibbs energy minimization. ► The model is applied to wide range of feedstock, tire, biomass, coal, oil shale. ► Plasma gasification show high efficiency for tire waste and coal. ► Efficiency is around 42% for plasma and 72% for conventional gasification. ► Lower plasma gasification efficiency justifies hazardous waste energy recovery. - Abstract: In this study, two methods of gasification are developed for the gasification of various feedstock, these are plasma gasification and conventional air gasification. The two methods are based on non-stoichiometric Gibbs energy minimization approach. The model takes into account the different type of feedstocks, which are analyzed at waste to energy lab at Masdar Institute, oxidizer used along with the plasma energy input and accurately evaluates the syngas composition. The developed model is applied for several types of feedstock, i.e. waste tire material, coal, plywood, pine needles, oil shale, and municipal solid waste (MSW), algae, treated/untreated wood, instigating air/steam as the plasma gas and only air as oxidizer for conventional gasification. The results of plasma gasification and conventional air gasification are calculated on the bases of product gas composition and the process efficiency. Results of plasma gasification shows that high gasification efficiency is achievable using both tire waste material and coal, also, the second law efficiency is calculated for plasma gasification that shows a relative high efficiency for tire and coal as compare to other feedstock. The average process efficiency for plasma gasification is calculated to be around 42%. On other hand the result of conventional gasification shows an average efficiency of 72%. The low efficiency of plasma gasification suggest that if only the disposal of hazard waste material is considered then plasma gasification can be a viable option to recover energy.

  2. Operating experiences with heat-exchanging components of a semi-technical pilot plant for steam gasification of coal using heat from HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van

    1984-01-01

    within the framework of the PNP- Project, a semi-technical plant for the development of a process of coal gasification by means of nuclear heat was operated. Here gasification is for the first time implemented in a fluidized bed using heat of an electrically heated helium cycle at pressure up to 40 bar and temperatures normal for HTR. The plant serves for testing and developing various components as immersion heater, insulations, dosing devices, and for compiling sound data for further planning

  3. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis

  4. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  5. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  6. Recent advances in oxygen production for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described the Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM) technology that reduces the overall cost of the gasification process by 7 per cent. Gasification is a proven, but expensive technology for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas from low cost hydrocarbon feedstock. Gasification is also an alternative to conventional steam methane reforming based on natural gas. A key cost element in gasification is the production of oxygen. For that reason, Air Products Canada Limited developed a ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates very well with the gasification process and an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) option for production of electrical power from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed how the superior economics of ITM can allow gasification to compete with steam methane reforming and thereby reduce dependency of oil sands development on increasingly scarce and costly natural gas.

  7. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-01-01

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill

  8. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  9. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible. (Auth.)

  10. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires the addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible

  11. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  12. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  13. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H; Morris, M; Rensfelt, E [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production through allothermal ethanol reforming for fuel cells application: first generation prototype; Producao de hidrogenio atraves da reforma-vapor do etanol para aplicacoes em celulas a combustivel: prototipo de primeira geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Neto, Antonio Jose; Silva, Ennio Peres da; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogenio; Pinto, Cristiano da Silva [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Energia do Hidrogenio, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes preliminary results obtained with the allothermal ethanol reforming system for synthesis gas (syn-gas) production and hydrogen upgrading and purification for fuel cell applications. The system was designed to supply hydrogen to a 500 W PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell, with an electrical efficiency of 45%, which requires approximately 0.45 m3.h-1 of hydrogen, with a maximum carbon monoxide concentration of 20 {mu}mol.mol-1 (ppm). The study was performed changing the operation temperature and analyzing the resulting syn-gas through gas chromatography for a specific catalyst. This catalyst was tested up to 700 deg C, 1 bar and fixed stoichiometric steam to carbon ratio. The syn-gas, before carbon monoxide shift reactor implementation, was submitted to a two-bed-three-segments purification step composed of chemical and physical molecular sieves for hydrogen purification. The carbon monoxide shift reactor (water gas shift reactor) is under development to improve the efficiency-to-hydrogen and maximize the life of the purification bed. The final results also include a discussion about possible reactions involved in ethanol steam-reforming for such catalyst. (author)

  15. Hydrogen enriched gas production in a multi-stage downdraft gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.; Jarungthammachote, S.

    2009-01-01

    To achieve hydrogen enriched and low-tar producer gas, multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification were studied in this research. Results showed that the tar content from multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification was lower compared to the average value of that from downdraft gasification. It was also seen that an air-steam gasification process could potentially increase the hydrogen concentration in the producer gas in the expense of carbon monoxide; however, the summation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the producer gas was increased. (author)

  16. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  17. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  18. CO2 gasification of microalgae (N. Oculata – A thermodynamic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Muflih Arisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model of CO2 gasification has been developed in the Aspen Plus. The potential of microalgae (N. oculata for CO2 gasification also has been investigated. The present gasification process utilizes the CO2 at atmospheric pressure as the gasifying agent. The steam is also injected to the gasification to enhance the H2 production. The composition of the producer gas and gasification system efficiency (GSE are used for performance evaluation. It is found that the CO2 gasification of microalgae produces a producer gas with a high concentration of CO and H2. The GSE indicates that the process works at high performance.

  19. Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-04-01

    This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

  20. Modelling the low-tar BIG gasification concept[Biomass Integrated gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars; Elmegaard, B.; Qvale, B.; Henriksen, Ulrrik [Technical univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Bentzen, J.D.; Hummelshoej, R. [COWI A/S (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    A low-tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed. The concept is named 'Low-Tar BIG' (BIG = Biomass Integrated Gasification). The concept is based on separate pyrolysis and gasification units. The volatile gases from the pyrolysis (containing tar) are partially oxidised in a separate chamber, and hereby the tar content is dramatically reduced. Thus, the investment, and running cost of a gas cleaning system can be reduced, and the reliability can be increased. Both pyrolysis and gasification chamber are bubbling fluid beds, fluidised with steam. For moist fuels, the gasifier can be integrated with a steam drying process, where the produced steam is used in the pyrolysis/gasification chamber. In this paper, mathematical models and results from initial tests of a laboratory Low-Tar BIG gasifier are presented. Two types of models are presented: 1. The gasifier-dryer applied in different power plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC). The paper determines the differences in efficiency of these systems and shows that the gasifier will be applicable for very different fuels with different moisture contents, depending on the system. 2. A thermodynamic Low-Tar BIG model. This model is based on mass and heat balance between four reactors: Pyrolysis, partial oxidation, gasification, gas-solid mixer. The paper describes the results from this study and compares the results to actual laboratory tests. The study shows, that the Low-Tar BIG process can use very wet fuels (up to 65-70% moist) and still produce heat and power with a remarkable high electric efficiency. Hereby the process offers the unique combination of large scale gasification and low-cost gas cleaning and use of low-cost fuels which very likely is the necessary combination that will lead to a breakthrough of gasification technology. (au)

  1. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  2. The cycle use test of Pt based catalyst for the steam reforming of naphthalene / benzene as model tar compounds of biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Takeshi; Saito, Katsuhiko; Sato, Masahide; Suzuki, Noboru [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst showed high and stable activity (carbon conv. to gas: 90%) for steam reforming of naphthalene/benzene at 1073 K with S/C=3, this catalyst gradually lost its activity at 1023 K with S/C=3 due to deposition of carboneous species. Two kinds of regeneration treatment was conducted to enlongate the life time of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Although regeneration treatment completely remove the carboneous species from catalyst, mild oxidation treatment led to decrease activity due to sintering of Pt particles. On the contrary, hydrogen treatment led to maintain activity until 5th cycle test. It was concluded from these obtained results that hydrogen treatment is suitable regeneration method during cycle test in the case of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. (orig.)

  3. A comparison of Rh/CeO2/SiO2 catalysts with steam reforming catalysts, dolomite and inert materials as bed materials in low throughput fluidized bed gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Koyama, Shuntarou; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    The gasification of cedar wood in the presence of Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 has been conducted in the laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor using air as a gasifying agent at low temperatures (823-973 K) in order to produce high-quality fuel gas for gas turbine for power generation. The performance of the Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst has been compared with conventional catalysts such as commercial steam reforming catalyst G-91, dolomite and noncatalyst systems by measurements of the cold gas efficiency, tar concentration, carbon conversion to gas and gas composition. The tar concentration was completely negligible in the Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 -catalyzed product gas whereas it was about 30, 113, and 139 g/m 3 in G-91, dolomite and noncatalyzed product gas, respectively. Since the carbon conversion to useful gas such as CO, H 2 , and CH 4 are much higher on Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst than others at 873 K, the cold gas efficiency is much higher (71%) in this case than others. The hydrogen content in the product gas is much higher (>24 vol%) than the specified level (>10 vol%) for efficient combustion in the gas turbine engine. The char and coke formation is also very low on Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst than on the conventional catalysts. Although the catalyst surface area was slightly decreased after using the same catalyst in at least 20 experiments, the deactivation problem was not severe

  4. Thermodynamic comparison of the FICFB and Viking gasification concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Two biomass gasification concepts, i.e. indirectly heated, fast internally circulating fluidised bed (FICFB) gasification with steam as gasifying agent and two-stage, directly heated, fixed bed Viking gasification are compared with respect to their performance as gas generators. Based on adjusted equilibrium equations, the gas composition and the energy requirements for gasification are accurately modelled. Overall energy balances are assessed by an energy integration with the heat cascade concept and considering energy recovery in a steam Rankine cycle. A detailed inventory of energy and exergy losses of the different process sections is presented and potential process improvements due to a better utility choice or feed pretreatment like drying or pyrolysis are discussed. While Viking gasification performs better as an isolated gas generator than state-of-the-art FICFB gasification, there is large potential for improvement of the FICFB system. Furthermore, a concluding analysis of the gasification systems in an integrated plant for synthetic natural gas production shows that FICFB gasification is more suitable overall due to a more advantageous energy conversion related to the producer gas composition.

  5. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  6. Effect of gasification agent on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell and biomass gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colpan, C.O.; Hamdullahpur, F.; Dincer, I.; Yoo, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an integrated SOFC and biomass gasification system is modeled. For this purpose, energy and exergy analyses are applied to the control volumes enclosing the components of the system. However, SOFC is modeled using a transient heat transfer model developed by the authors in a previous study. Effect of gasification agent, i.e. air, enriched oxygen and steam, on the performance of the overall system is studied. The results show that steam gasification case yields the highest electrical efficiency, power-to-heat ratio and exergetic efficiency, but the lowest fuel utilization efficiency. For this case, it is found that electrical, fuel utilization and exergetic efficiencies are 41.8%, 50.8% and 39.1%, respectively, and the power-to-heat ratio is 4.649. (author)

  7. Italian experience in gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, N.U.

    1991-01-01

    After tracing the historical highlights representing the development of the Fauser (Montecatini) technology based gasification processes for the production of ammonia and methanol, this paper outlines the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the Montecatini (Italy) process plant for heavy liquid hydrocarbons gasification by means of partial auto-thermal combustion with oxygen. The outline makes evident the technical-economical validity of the Montecatini design solutions which include energy recovery (even the heat dispersed through the gasifier walls is recovered and utilized to produce low pressure steam to preheat the fuel oil); reduced oxygen consumption by the high temperature preheating of all reagents; the ecologically compatible elimination of gas black; as well as, desulfurization with materials recovery. The plant process descriptions come complete with flowsheets. While demonstrating that the Italian developed technology is historically well rooted, the Author stresses that the current design versions of Montecatini gasification plants are up to date with innovative solutions, especially, with regard to pollution abatement, and cites the need for a more concerted marketing effort on the part of local industry to help improve the competitiveness of the Italian made product

  8. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  9. Steam reforming and gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mankind needs sustainable energy to adjust its footprint so the earth can support a growing and economically developing population. Biomass is a special sustainable energy source since, besides heat and power, it can also be used for the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. To

  10. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  11. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  12. Enhanced gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. L.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, Jr., L. J.; Robertus, R. J.; Mitchell, D. E.

    Experimental results obtained in laboratory investigations of steam gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts are presented. These studies are designed to test the technical feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from wood by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of combined catalysts. The desired products include substitute natural gas, hydrocarbon synthesis gas and ammonia synthesis gas. The gasification reactions are controlled through the use of specific catalyst combinations and operating parameters. A primary alkali carbonate gasification catalyst impregnated into the wood combined with specific commercially available secondary catalysts produced the desired products. A yield of 50 vol % methane was obtained with a randomly mixed combination of a commercial nickel methanation catalyst and silica-alumina cracking catalyst at a weight ratio of 3:1 respectively. Steam gasification of wood in the presence of a commercial Si-Al cracking catalyst produced the desired hydrocarbon synthesis gas. Hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide ratios needed for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons were obtained with this catalyst system. A hydrogen-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 for ammonia synthesis gas was achieved with steam-air gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts. The most effective secondary catalyst system employed to produce the ammonia synthesis gas included two commercially prepared catalysts formulated to promote the water-gas shift reaction.

  13. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen [ed.

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  14. To gasify or not to gasify torrefied wood? : Investigating the effect of torrefaction on oxygen steam blown circulating fluidized bed gasification of wood, focusing on permanent gas and tar composition, and environmental performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsalidis, G.A.

    2018-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable biofuel as long as it does not compete with food and feed production. Gasification is a versatile technology that produces a gas which can be converted into various high value products. Torrefaction is a technology that converts biomass to a more coal alike product with

  15. Étude des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification en vue de l'optimisation du rapport vapeur/comburant injecté dans un gazogène souterrain Study of Thermodynamic Equilibria in Gasification Reactions So As to Optimise the Steam/Oxidizer Ratio Injected Into an Underground Gas Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirard J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est de déterminer sur la base des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification le rapport vapeur/comburant à injecter dans un gazogène fonctionnant sous pression pour optimaliser les compositions, les pouvoirs calorifiques, les rendements de gazéification et la consommation d'agent gazéifiant. The aim of this study is to determine, on the basis of the thermodynamic equilibria of gazification reactions, the steam/oxidizer ratio to be injected into a gas generator operating under pressure so as to optimize the compositions, the heating values, the gasification efficiencies and the consumption of gasifying agent.

  16. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  17. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  18. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  19. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H 2 . The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H 2 . An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  20. Carbon conversion predictor for fluidized bed gasification of biomass fuels - from TGA measurements to char gasification particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konttinen, J.T. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Renewable Energy Programme, POB 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Moilanen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, POB 1000, Espoo (Finland); Martini, N. de; Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Process Chemistry Centre, Combustion and Materials Chemistry, Turku (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    When a solid fuel particle is injected into a hot fluidized bed, the reactivity of fuel char in gasification reactions (between char carbon and steam and CO{sub 2}) plays a significant role for reaching a good carbon conversion. In this paper, the gasification reactivity data of some solid waste recovered fuels (SRF) obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments is presented. Gas mixtures (H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO), were used in the experiments to find the inhibitive effects of CO and H{sub 2}. Average char gasification reactivity values are determined from the TGA results. Kinetic parameters for char carbon gasification reactivity correlations are determined from this data. The Uniform Conversion model is used to account for the change of gasification reaction rate as function of carbon conversion. Some discrepancies, due to complicated ash-carbon interactions, are subjects of further research. In the carbon conversion predictor, laboratory measured reactivity numbers are converted into carbon conversion numbers in a real-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The predictor is a relatively simple and transparent tool for the comparison of the gasification reactivity of different fuels in fluidized bed gasification. The residence times for solid fuels in fluidized bed gasifiers are simulated. Simulations against some pilot-scale results show reasonable agreement. (orig.)

  1. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  2. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    a waste management perspective, pyrolysis and gasification are of relatively little importance as an overall management option. Today, gasification is primarily used on specific waste fractions as opposed to mixed household wastes. The main commercial activity so far has been in Japan, with only limited....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...... success in Europe and North America (Klein et al., 2004). However, pyrolysis and gasification of waste are generally expected to become more widely used in the future. A main reason for this is that public perceptions of waste incineration in some countries is a major obstacle for installing new...

  3. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  4. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  5. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  6. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  7. Siemens fuel gasification technology for the Canadian oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, H. [Siemens Energy Inc., Orlando, FL (United States). IGCC and Gasification Sales and Marketing

    2010-07-01

    The Siemens fuel gasification (SFG) technology can be used to gasify a range of feedstocks, including petcoke, hard coal, lignite, and low-ranking fuels such as biomass and refinery residuals. The technology has recently been applied to a number of projects over the last 3 years. This paper discussed some of the issues related to the technology and it's use at a start-up facility in China. Five entrained-flow gasifiers with a thermal capacity of 500 MW are being installed at a coal gasification plant in northwestern China. The technology's use in hydrogen, steam and power production applications for the oil sands industry was also discussed. Issues related to feedstock quality, process characteristics, and equipment requirements for commercial gasifier systems were reviewed. The paper concluded by observing that improvements in gasification technology will make coal and petcoke gasification feasible options for power generation. IGCC is the most advanced and cost-effective technology for reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. Gasification-based plants are also able to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for storage and sequestration. Details of the Siemens gasification test center in Germany were also included. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  10. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  11. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  12. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  13. Advances in CO_2 gasification reactivity of biomass char through utilization of radio frequency irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Mohammadi, Maedeh; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    A straightforward and well-known reaction for CO_2 activation is the “Boudouard reaction”, wherein, CO_2 is reacted with carbon (char) to produce CO. In this study, a RF (radio frequency) heating system was developed to perform the Boudouard reaction by passing CO_2 through a packed bed of PNS (pistachio nut shell) char. High CO_2 conversion of 84% was achieved at 850 °C. When similar experiments were performed in thermal electric furnace, the conversion was only 38%. For further expanding the knowledge on RF-induced gasification, sodium (Na) was incorporated into char skeleton and gasified with CO_2 under RF irradiation. RF gasification of Na-catalyzed char pronouncedly improved in the reaction, where sustainable CO_2 conversion of 99% was attained at 850 °C. The predominance of RF over thermal heating was highly reflected in kinetic studies, where the activation energies of 26.7, 46.9 and 183.9 kJ/mol were obtained for catalytic and non-catalytic RF and thermal gasification, respectively. In RF gasification studies, it was attempted to improve the quality of mix gases, simulating air and steam gasification gas compositions, through the Boudouard reaction. The heating value of the gases simulating air and steam gasification improved from 6.4 to 8.0 MJ/m"3 and 7.6–10.4 MJ/m"3, respectively. - Highlights: • We study radio frequency-induced CO_2 gasification of pistachio nut shell char. • We achieve very high CO_2 conversion of 99% in RF gasification of Na-catalyzed char. • E_a of 47 and 184 kJ/mol obtained for RF-assisted and conventional CO_2 gasification. • Heating value of synthesis gas improved via RF-induced char-CO_2 gasification.

  14. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 o C), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H 2 and CO in the producer gas, H 2 /CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 o C, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 o C with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application.

  15. The role of char and tar in determining the gas-phase partitioning of nitrogen during biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broer, Karl M.; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Switchgrass was gasified at an equivalence ratio of zero and 650–850 °C. • Short residence times were employed to minimize secondary reactions. • Char- and tar-bound nitrogen, NH_3, HCN, and N_2 were all significant products. • Increasing temperature leads to increased release of gaseous nitrogen compounds. • Kinetic models of gasification should include nitrogen release from char and tar. - Abstract: Gasification is an attractive option for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. Most biomass contains significant amounts of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN), which partially converts into ammonia (NH_3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during gasification. These nitrogen compounds are problematic as they can lead to NO_X emissions or catalyst poisoning in downstream applications of syngas. FBN can convert to other products as well, including diatomic nitrogen (N_2), char-bound nitrogen (char-N), and tar-bound nitrogen (tar-N). Efforts to predict concentrations of NH_3 and HCN have been hindered by a lack of accurate, comprehensive measurements of nitrogen partitioning among gasification products. The present study gasified switchgrass under allothermal, short residence time conditions and measured NH_3, HCN, char-N, and tar-N as a function of temperature in the range of 650–850 °C with diatomic nitrogen determined by difference. It was found that a major portion of FBN was retained in the char and tar products. As temperature was increased, char and tar were consumed, releasing nitrogen as gaseous NH_3 and HCN. This increase in undesirable nitrogen compounds is contrary to the predictions of most gasification models, which overlook the presence of significant nitrogen in char and tar even if they include tar cracking and char gasification reactions. The results of this study demonstrate that gas-phase reactions alone are not sufficient to predict the fate of nitrogen during gasification. In order for modeling efforts to obtain more accurate

  16. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  19. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  20. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  1. Radiolytic carbon gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shennan, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A vast body of knowledge has been accumulated over the past thirty years related to the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator in carbon dioxide cooled Reactors. In the last ten years the dominance of the internal pore structure of the graphite in controlling the rate of carbon gasification has been steadily revealed. The object of this paper is to sift the large body of evidence and show how internal gas composition and hence carbon gasification is controlled by the virgin pore structure and the changes in pore structure brought about by progressive radiolytic oxidation. (author)

  2. Performance simulations for Co-gasification of coal and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Lim, J.P.; Del Rio Diaz Jara, D.; Eckstrom, D.; Steele, D.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2013-07-01

    In the process under development, coal suspended in mixtures of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and steam is rapidly heated to temperatures above 1,400 C under 5-7 MPa for at least 1 s. The coal first decomposes into volatiles and char while CH{sub 4} is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures. Then the char is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures via steam gasification on longer time scales, and into CH{sub 4} via hydrogasification. Throughout all stages, homogeneous chemistry reforms all intermediate fuel components into the syngas feedstock for methanol synthesis. Fully validated reaction mechanisms for each chemical process were used to quantitatively interpret a co-gasification test series in SRI's lab-scale gasification facility. Homogeneous reforming chemistry generates equilibrium gas compositions at 1,500 C in the available transit time of 1.4 s, but not at any of the lower temperatures. Methane conversion in the gas phase increases for progressively hotter temperatures, in accord with the data. But the strong predicted dependence on steam concentration was not evident in the measured CH{sub 4} conversions, even when steam concentration was the subject test variable. Char hydrogasification adds CH{sub 4} to the product gas stream, but this process probably converts no more than 15-20% of the char in the lab-scale tests and the bulk of the char is converted by steam gasification. The correlation coefficient between predicted and measured char conversions exceeded 0.8 and the std. dev. was 3.4%, which is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. The evaluation of the predicted CH{sub 4} conversions gave a std. dev. greater than 20%. Simulations of commercial conditions with realistic suspension loadings and no diluents in the feed gave slightly lower conversions of both CH{sub 4} and coal, because hydrogasification accounts for more of the char conversion, and occurs at rates slower than for steam gasification.

  3. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  4. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  5. Simulation of the gasification of animal wastes in a dual gasifier using Aspen Plus®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, M.; Pedroche, J.; Valverde, J.L.; Sanchez-Silva, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The gasification of manure was evaluated using the software Aspen Plus®. • Composition and LHV of the obtained syngas depends on the operating conditions. • CO 2 net emissions for the steam and CO 2 gasification processes were calculated. • Manure steam gasification can be used as feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch. • Manure CO 2 gasification lead to a syngas suitable for energy production. - Abstract: The gasification of an animal waste biomass (manure) in a dual gasifier was studied using the software Aspen Plus®. For this purpose, a model based on a Gibbs free energy reactor was considered. Effects of the gasification temperature, the gasifying/biomass ratio and the use of steam and CO 2 as the gasifying agents on the composition and the low heating value (LHV) of the produced syngas were evaluated. In this sense, the H 2 /CO ratio and the LHV were the parameters calculated to stablish the best operating conditions for the production of either hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch or energy. Furthermore, the CO 2 net emissions generated by the gasification process were also important in the selection of the best operating conditions from an environmental point of view. The obtained results showed that for both gasifying agents the H 2 and CO production was favoured at high temperatures whereas the production of CH 4 and CO 2 was favoured at low ones. On the other hand, the H 2 production was higher when steam was used as the gasifying agent and the formation of CO was enhanced when CO 2 was considered as gasification agent. An increase of the gasifying agent/biomass ratio had a negatively influence on the production of CH 4 , leading to a decrease of the LHV. Therefore, steam as the gasifying agent and high temperatures favoured the obtaining of a syngas suitable for the Fischer-Tropsch process whereas CO 2 and low gasification temperatures enhanced a syngas with a high LHV which could be used for energy production. Finally, the net CO 2

  6. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  7. Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

  8. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  9. Exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production via biomass gasification and catalytic synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.H.J.L.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production from biomass is presented. This process combines a steam-blown indirect biomass gasification of woody feedstock, with a subsequent conversion of produced syngas into ethanol. The production process involves several process

  10. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wang, Kun; Qin, Qin; Hou, Limin; Yao, Xin; Wu, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  11. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O 2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O 2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO 2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  12. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  13. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  14. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  15. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  16. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  17. Steam 80 steam generator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.H.; Harris, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two special instrumentation packages in an integral economizer (preheater) steam generator of one of the first System 80 plants scheduled to go into commercial operation. The purpose of the instrumentation is to obtain accurate operating information from regions of the secondary side of the steam generator inaccessible to normal plant instrumentation. In addition to verification of the System 80 steam generator design predictions, the data obtained will assist in verification of steam generator thermal/hydraulic computer codes developed for generic use in the industry

  18. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  19. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  20. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  1. Selling steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, M.J.; Goodwin, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of steam sales contract is in financing cogeneration facilities. The topics of the article include the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act provisions and how they affect the marketing of steam from qualifying facilities, the independent power producers market shift, and qualifying facility's benefits

  2. Steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenet, J.-C.

    1980-01-01

    Steam generator particularly intended for use in the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor for vaporizing a secondary liquid, generally water, by the primary cooling liquid of the reactor and comprising special arrangements for drying the steam before it leaves the generator [fr

  3. Steam condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safe steam condensation by providing steam condensation blades at the end of a pipe. Constitution: When high temperature high pressure steam flows into a vent pipe having an opening under water in a pool or an exhaust pipe or the like for a main steam eacape safety valve, non-condensable gas filled beforehand in the steam exhaust pipe is compressed, and discharged into the water in the pool. The non-condensable gas thus discharged from the steam exhaust pipe is introduced into the interior of the hollow steam condensing blades, is then suitably expanded, and thereafter exhausted from a number of exhaust holes into the water in the pool. In this manner, the non-condensable gas thus discharged is not directly introduced into the water in the pool, but is suitable expanded in the space of the steam condensing blades to suppress extreme over-compression and over-expansion of the gas so as to prevent unstable pressure vibration. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  5. Coal gasification in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S [Commissione delle Comunita' Europee, Bruxelles (Belgio). Direzione Generale dell' Energia, Direzione delle Tecnologie

    1992-02-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes.

  6. Hoe Creek II field experiment on underground coal gasification, preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Cena, R.; Gregg, D.W.; Stephens, D.R.

    1978-02-27

    A second in-situ coal gasification experiment was performed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory at Hoe Creek in Wyoming. The Linked Vertical Wells scheme for in-situ coal gasification was used. The experiment took 100 days for air flow testing, reverse combustion linking, forward combustion gasification, and post-burn steam flow. Air was used for gasification except for a 2-day test with oxygen and steam. Reverse combustion linking took 14 days at 1.6 m/day. Air requirements for linking were 0.398 Mgmol per meter of link assuming a single direct link. The coal pyrolysed during linking was 17 m/sup 3/, which corresponds to a single link 1.0 m in diameter. There was, however, strong evidence of at least two linkage paths. The detected links stayed below the 3 m level in the 7.6 coal seam; however, the product flow from the forward-burn gasification probably followed the coal-overburden interface not the reverse burn channels at the 3 m level. A total of 232 Mgmols (194 Mscf) of gas was produced with heating value above 125 kJ/mol (140 Btu/scf) for significant time periods and an average of 96 kJ/mol (108 Btu/scf). During the oxygen-steam test the heating value was above 270 kJ/gmol (300 Btu/scf) twice and averaged 235 kJ/gmol (265 Btu/scf). The coal recovery was 1310 m/sup 3/ (1950 ton). Gasification was terminated because of decreasing product quality not because of burn through. The product quality decreased because of increasing underground heat loss.

  7. State of affairs on pollutants and syngas removal techniques stemming from thermal treatment of waste by gasification. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megret, O.; Bequet, L.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the current study is to outline the state of affairs related to pollutants and slaughtering techniques of syngas that result both from waste thermal treatment by gasification. The study starts by a review permitting to classify the gasification techniques applied to waste thermal treatment. This review leads to distinguish between auto-thermal and allo-thermal equipments. Furthermore, are described, in this first part, the general principles and parameters of functioning and adjustment of the factors characterizing the thermal treatment in reducing atmosphere. It is also about the composition of the syngas products according to the different driving behaviours of gasifiers. Finally, we state succinctly, on one hand, the possible promotion procedures in the frame of syngas development and, on the other hand, the thresholds that we ought to reach in order to make this promotion achievable. The second part of the study deals with the characteristics of the pollutants located in the syngas. This description took the shape of a detailed index card where pollutants are classified into minority components (including those of pollutants, those of gaseous and those of particulates) according to their concentrations, to their driving behaviours and to their thermochemical conditions of formation (temperature, pressure, response-type agents, atmosphere...). In the last part, we discuss the current and the considered types of slaughtering devices in reducing atmosphere in relation with their performance in slaughtering and regarding the departure point of syngas promotion ways. Finally, are exposed the key postures and the barricades within those technologies. Hereupon, research axes are proposed. (authors)

  8. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO 2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  9. The BGL coal gasification process - development status, operational experience and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.R.; Brown, D.J.; H. Hirschfelder [Advantica Technologies Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The BGL gasifier's fixed bed mode of operation makes for significant operational differences to the various entrained flow bed gasification processes currently available, whilst the slagging lower half offers considerable advantages over older processes in terms of efficiency and steam usage. This paper reviews operating experience of the BGL process on a variety of feedstocks and presents economic and technical assessments of the application of the BGL gasifier for IGCC, Syngas and SNG applications under current market conditions. Finally there a survey of the status of new BGL gasification projects and the scope of the current BGL technology is offering. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

  10. Application of a mechanism-based rate equation to black liquor gasification rate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overacker, N.L.; Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Whitty, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    There is growing interest worldwide to develop alternate chemical recovery processes for paper mills which are cheaper, safer, more efficient and more environmentally sound than traditional technology. Pressurized gasification of black liquor is the basis for many proposed schemes and offers the possibility to double the amount of electricity generated per unit of dry black liquor solids. Such technology also has capital, safety and environmental advantages. One of the most important considerations regarding this emerging technology is the kinetics of the gasification reaction. This has been studied empirically at Aabo Akademi University for the pressurized gasification with carbon dioxide and steam. For the purposes of reactor modeling and scale-up, however, a thorough understanding of the mechanism behind the reaction is desirable. This report discusses the applicability of a mechanism-based rate equation to gasification of black liquor. The mechanism considered was developed for alkali-catalyzed gasification of carbon and is tested using black liquor gasification data obtained during simultaneous reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO. Equilibrium considerations and the influence of the water-gas shift reaction are also discussed. The work presented here is a cooperative effort between Aabo Akademi University and Oregon State University. The experimental work and some of the data analysis was performed at Aabo Akademi University. Development of the models and consideration of their applicability was performed primarily at Oregon State University

  11. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  12. Technologies relevant for gasification and methanation in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2012-09-15

    approx. 75 MW input. It could correspond to 5-6 unit lines in parallel with very high operation reliability (10-12 MW as unit size). It would be a possibility to install a common (relatively cheaper) methanation unit (e.g. TREMP) after the gasifiers. This methanation unit could also supply steam to the gasification process itself achieving a synergy effect and increasing efficiency. (LN)

  13. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  14. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  15. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  16. Two-step gasification of cattle manure for hydrogen-rich gas production: Effect of biochar preparation temperature and gasification temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ya; Cao, Hongliang; Yuan, Qiaoxia; Wang, Dianlong

    2017-10-01

    Two-step gasification process was proposed to dispose cattle manure for hydrogen rich gas production. The effect of temperature on product distribution and biochar properties were first studied in the pyrolysis-carbonization process. The steam gasification of biochar derived from different pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures was then performed at 750°C and 850°C. The biochar from the pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures of 500°C had high carbon content and low volatiles content. According to the results of gasification stage, the pyrolysis-carbonization temperature of 500°C and the gasification temperature of 850°C were identified as the suitable conditions for hydrogen production. We obtained 1.61m 3 /kg of syngas production, 0.93m 3 /kg of hydrogen yield and 57.58% of hydrogen concentration. This study shows that two-step gasification is an efficient waste-to-hydrogen energy process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  18. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  19. On the gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water : over de vergassing van natte biomassa in superkritiek water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withag, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a challenging thermo-chemical conversion route for wet biomass and waste streams into hydrogen and/or methane. At temperatures and pressures above the critical point the physical properties of water differ strongly from liquid water or steam. Because of the

  20. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  1. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  2. Three-stage steady-state model for biomass gasification in a dual circulating fluidized-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thanh D.B.; Ngo, Son Ich; Lim, Young-Il; Lee, Jeong Woo; Lee, Uen-Do; Song, Byung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of woodchips is examined in dual circulating fluidized-bed (DFB). ► We develop a three-stage model (TSM) for process performance evaluation. ► Effect of gasification temperature and steam to fuel ratio is investigated. ► Several effective operating conditions are found by parametric study. - Abstract: A three-stage steady state model (TSM) was developed for biomass steam gasification in a dual circulating fluidized-bed (DFB) to calculate the composition of producer gas, carbon conversion, heat recovery, cost efficiency, and heat demand needed for the endothermic gasification reactions. The model was divided into three stages including biomass pyrolysis, char–gas reactions, and gas–phase reaction. At each stage, an empirical equation was estimated from experimental data. It was assumed that both unconverted char and additional fuel were completely combusted at 950 °C in the combustor (riser) and the heat required for gasification reactions was provided by the bed material (silica sand). The model was validated with experimental data taken from the literature. The parametric study of the gasification temperature (T) and the steam to fuel ratio (γ) was then carried out to evaluate performance criteria of a 1.8 MW DFB gasifier using woodchips as a feedstock for the electric power generation. Effective operating conditions of the DFB gasifier were proposed by means of the contour of the solid circulation ratio, the heat recovery, the additional fuel ratio and the cost efficiency with respect to T and γ.

  3. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  4. Survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume II: Principles of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  5. Gasification of Phycoremediation Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been utilized in wastewater treatment strategies in various contexts. Uncontrolled algal species are a cheap and effective remediation strategy. This study investigates the thermochemical potential of wastewater treatment algae (phycoremediation as a means to produce renewable fuel streams and bio-products. Three gasification temperature levels were investigated in an auger gasification platform: 760, 860, and 960 °C. Temperature increases resulted in corresponding increases in CO and H2 concentrations in the producer gas from 12.8% and 4.7% at 760 °C to 16.9% and 11.4% at 960 °C, respectively. Condensable yields ranged between 15.0% and 16.6%, whereas char yields fell between 46.0% and 51.0%. The high ash content (40% on a dry basis was the main cause of the elevated char yields. On the other hand, the relatively high yields of condensables and a high carbon concentration in the char were attributed to the low conversion efficiency in this gasification platform. Combustion kinetics of the raw algae, in a thermogravimetric analyzer, showed three consecutive stages of weight loss: drying, devolatilization, and char oxidation. Increasing the algae gasification temperature led to increases in the temperature of peak char oxidation. Future studies will further investigate improvements to the performance of auger gasification.

  6. Fluidized bed gasification of sugar cane bagasse. Influence on gas composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperanza, E.; Aleman, Y. [Univ. of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba). Biomass Thermoconversion group/CETA; Arauzo, J.; Gea, G. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    Air and steam gasification of biomass has been studied at different temperatures. The experiments have been carried out in a bench scale plant. It consists of an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier heated by an electric furnace. The gasification process have been carried out at high heating rates and low residence time of the gases. The biomass used has been Cuban sugar cane bagasse. Three operating parameters have been evaluated to improve the gas composition: Equivalence Ratio (E.R.) in the range of 0.15 to 0.55; the bed temperature from 780 to 920 deg C; and steam/biomass ratio (S/B) from 0.1 g/g to 0.5 g/g. The results obtained show the effect of these operating parameters in gas composition and the conditions to obtain higher yield to gas and else the maximum energy.

  7. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gasification: in search of efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whysall, M. [UOP N.V., Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Gasification of low cost feed stocks such as coal and heavy residues enables the supply of synthesis gas, hydrogen, power and utilities at a lower cost relative to conventional methodologies. The resulting synthesis gas can be used, after cleaning and sulphur removal, as a fuel or to produce other chemicals such as ammonia, methanol, or Fischer-Tropsch liquids. The paper covers coal and residue upgrading through the use of gasification, conversion and hydroprocessing and its integration with synthesis gas treatment and hydrogen recovery. Residue conversion choices can be influenced by hydrogen cost which can be controlled by integrating hydrogen production, recovery and purification into the gasification complex. Flow-schemes that maximize generation efficiency and minimize capital and operating costs and offer possibilities for CO{sub 2} capture are discussed. 3 figs.

  9. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  10. Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, R.L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Steam generators for nuclear reactors are designed so that deposition of solids on the surface of the inlet side of the tubesheet or the inlet header with the consequent danger of corrosion and eventual tube failure is obviated or substantially reduced. (U.K.)

  11. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant and covers the on-site electricity consumption. The plant model predicts a fuel production efficiency of 67...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  12. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  13. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  14. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  15. Co-gasification of pelletized wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos A. Alzate; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Arturo Berrio; Javier De La Cruz; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    A pelletization process was designed which produces cylindrical pellets 8 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter. These ones were manufactured using a blend of Pinus Patula and Cypress sawdust and coal in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% v/v of coal of rank sub-bituminous extracted from the Nech mine (Amaga-Antioquia). For this procedure, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as binder at three different concentrations. The co-gasification experiments were carried out with two kinds of mixtures, the first one was composed of granular coal and pellets of 100% wood and the second one was composed of pulverized wood and granular coal pellets. All samples were co-gasified with steam by using an electrical heated fluidized-bed reactor, operating in batches, at 850{sup o}C. The main components of the gaseous product were H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} with approximate quantities of 59%, 6.0%, 20%, 5.0%, and 9.0% v/v, respectively, and the higher heating values ranged from between 7.1 and 9.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}.

  16. Gasification - effective carbon control. The 8th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: new projects and gasifiers; new feedstocks, fuels and syngas treatment; CO{sub 2} capture and hydrogen production; and devices and development. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the database. The presentations can be downloaded for free from www.icheme.org/gasification2007.

  17. Technical and economic analyses of hydrogen production via indirectly heated gasification and pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Technoeconomic analyses have been conducted on two processes to produce hydrogen from biomass: indirectly-heated gasification of biomass followed by steam reforming of the syngas, and biomass pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. The analysis of the gasification-based process was highly detailed, including a process flowsheet, material and energy balances calculated with a process simulation program, equipment cost estimation, and the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen. The pyrolysis-based process analysis was of a less detailed nature, as all necessary experimental data have not been obtained; this analysis is a follow-up to the preliminary economic analysis presented at the 1994 Hydrogen Program Review. A coproduct option in which pyrolysis oil is used to produce hydrogen and a commercial adhesive was also studied for economic viability. Based on feedstock availability estimates, three plant sizes were studied: 907 T/day, 272 T/day, and 27 T/day. The necessary selling price of hydrogen produced by steam reforming syngas from the Battelle Columbus Laboratories indirectly heated biomass gasifier falls within current market values for the large and medium size plants within a wide range of feedstock costs. Results show that the small scale plant does not produce hydrogen at economically competitive prices, indicating that if gasification is used as the upstream process to produce hydrogen, local refueling stations similar to current gasoline stations, would probably not be feasible.

  18. The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of biomass char samples and their effect on coal gasification reactivity during co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Okolo, Gregory N; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2018-06-01

    The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (R i , R s , R f ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity. However, 20 and 30% biomass additions resulted in increased coal char gasification rate. During co-gasification, chars HW and SW caused increased coal char gasification reactivity at lower conversions, while char SB resulted in increased gasification rates throughout the entire conversion range. Experimental data from biomass char gasification and biomass-coal char co-gasification were well described by the MRPM, while coal char gasification was better described by the RPM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  20. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  1. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  2. Texaco gasification power systems for clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, M.E.; Thone, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Texaco Gasification Power Systems integrate Texaco's proprietary gasification technology with proven power generation and energy recovery schemes for efficient and environmentally superior fuel utilization. Texaco's commercial experience on gasification spans a period of over 40 years. During this time, the Texaco Gasification Process has been used primarily to manufacture synthesis gas for chemical applications in one hundred commercial installations worldwide. Power generation using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) concept has been successfully demonstrated at the Texaco-sponsored Cool Water Coal Gasification Program in California. The environmental superiority of this technology was demonstrated by the consistent performance of Cool Water in exceeding the strict emission standards of the state of California. Currently, several TGPS projects are under evaluation worldwide for power generation in the range of 90MW to 1300MW

  3. The role of the MHTGR in coal gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    The nation will likely become more and more dependent on natural gas and while this will stimulate new exploration and increased production, the time will surely come when global depletion of this resource will require the use of synthetic natural gas (SNG) to support the established nationwide infrastructure. The U.S. is estimated to have coal reserves nearing 500 billion tons that are mineable on an economic base. The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) steam cycle plant can play an important role in the process of producing SNG from coal to supplement natural gas supplies. Coal-to-gas plants need heat (predominantly steam) and electricity for operation. This energy can be supplied by combustion of coal (autothermal process), but this results in a loss of more than 40% of the coal energy input. From the resource conservation standpoint, using an MHTGR heat source is attractive since much of the valuable fossil raw material can be substituted by clean nuclear energy. Also, air pollution is lowered drastically. This paper highlights how a near-term steam cycle MHTGR plant, based on proven technology and operating in a cogeneration mode, could be coupled with existing coal gasification processes to meet the projected increase in gas consumption in an environmentally acceptable manner

  4. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2016-12-20

    (~104 °C/sec), encountered in entrained flow gasifiers. The char morphology, also a function of the heating rate, would influence the transport rates during the char gasification phase. Thus, heating rate plays a critical role through which both, pyrolysis and char gasification, are interconnected. We utilized two complementary gasification experiments: PEFR (pressurized entrained flow gasifier) and PTGA (pressurized thermo-gravimetric analyzer). The PEFR allowed us to study gasification at pressures, temperatures, and heating rates relevant for coal-biomass gasifiers. The PTGA work was useful in understanding the basic chemistry of the evolution of various gaseous species during pyrolysis. These results helped improved our understanding of the chemistry and chemical changes during pyrolysis. The role alkali metals and other inorganics in char gasification using steam and/or CO2 was investigated. Finally, the mathematical models for char gasification without the transport effects were developed at commercial operating conditions.

  5. Gas generation by co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass and coal co-gasification were performed on an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier, with air and steam as oxidizing and gasifying media. The experiments were completed at reaction temperatures of 875 °C–975 °C, steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.2, and biomass-to-coal ratio of 4. This research aims to determine the effects of reaction temperature on gas composition, lower heating value (LHV), as well as energy and exergy efficiencies, of the product gas. Over the ranges of the test conditions used, the product gas LHV varies between 12 and 13.8 MJ/Nm 3 , and the exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas are in the ranges of 50.7%–60.8% and 60.3%–85.1%, respectively. The results show that high reaction temperature leads to higher H 2 and CO contents, as well as higher exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas. In addition, gas LHV decreases with temperature. The molar ratio of H 2 /CO is larger than 1 at temperatures above 925 °C. Our experimental analysis shows that co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier for gas production is feasible and promising. -- Highlights: • An innovative steam co-gasification process for gas production was proposed. • Co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier was tested. • High temperature favors H 2 production. • H 2 and CO contents increase, whereas CO 2 and CH 4 levels decrease with increase in T. • Exergy and energy efficiencies of gases increase with increase in T

  6. Hydrogen Production from Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell in the Presence of Fe/ CeO_2 Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita Ramli; Mas Fatiha Mohamad; Suzana Yusup; Taufiq, Y.Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Bio hydrogen is a renewable source of clean fuel and energy which can be derived from biomass. One of the suitable candidate as a source of biomass is palm kernel shell (PKS). Our initial work shows that bio hydrogen may be produced from PKS in the presence of zeolite supported catalysts. The potential of using cerium oxide (CeO_2) supported catalysts for the production of bio hydrogen from PKS is explored in this work using 2.5 - 10 % Fe loading. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and calcined at 500 degree Celsius for 16 h. The physicochemical properties of these catalysts were characterized using BET and XRD. The catalysts were tested in dry and steam gasification of PKS at 700 degree Celsius using PKS feeding rate of 2 g h"-"1 under N_2 atmosphere with biomass to catalyst ratio of 3:1 (wt/ wt). Steam to biomass ratio of 3.5:1 (wt/ wt) was used in steam gasification reaction. The gaseous products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatography equipped with thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and fitted with Molsieve 5A and Hayesep Q columns. Result shows that 2.5 % Fe/ CeO_2 gave the highest hydrogen production in both the dry and steam gasification of PKS. (author)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on coal type and gasification characteristics; 1984 nendo tanshu to gas ka tokusei no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The study of pressurized fluidized gasification of coal chars started in fiscal 1975, and a 0.2t/d unit was in operation until fiscal 1979. Since fiscal 1980, a 1t/d unit has been in operation. In fiscal 1984, an entrained bed gasification furnace was constructed, capable of high-temperature gasification of various coals, and it is now undergoing a test operation. This report consists of pressurized gasification tests for coal char, the result of a study on the effect of coal type on the char gasification reaction rate, and the result of experiments on the treatment of coal liquefaction residue, all accomplished in the 1t/d gasification unit. For the investigation of the effect of coal type, chars of 13 types of coals are subjected to reaction tests in the carbon dioxide gas, and weight reduction rates and changes in residue surface areas are determined while reaction is under way. The results are analyzed and parameters are made clear that enable a quantitative assessment of the effect of coal type on gasification reaction rates. Pulverized grains and coal liquefaction residue are blended and gasified in the fluidized bed in the presence of oxygen and steam. As the result, a gas capable of 2,000kcal/Nm{sup 3} containing 30% hydrogen and 25% carbon monoxide is acquired, when catalyst grains in the residue are segregated. (NEDO)

  8. Simulation of petcoke gasification in slagging moving bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, Soumitro; Sarkar, T.K.; Sen, P.K. [Research and Development Center, Engineers India Limited, Gurgaon 122001 (India)

    2005-03-25

    A mathematical model for simulation of moving bed petcoke gasifiers was developed. The model introduces a new feed characterization method, gas-phase resistance and volatilization models. The model is validated using reported data for a slagging gasifier. Effect of feed oxygen-to-coke and steam-to-coke ratios and feed coke rates on gasification performance was examined. Slagging zone moving bed gasifier operation with very high petcoke fluxes of over 4000 kg/m{sup 2}/h was possible with high petcoke conversion. Peak gas temperatures exceeded 1500 {sup o}C. Fluxes higher than 5000 kg/m{sup 2}/h are limited by an approach to fluidization of small particles in the combustion zone. The moving bed gasifier performance was found superior to performance of an entrained flow gasifier (EFG) with respect to energy efficiency and oxygen consumption.

  9. Hydrogen production by co-gasification of coal and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, co-gasification of two coals with samples of pet-coke, sewage sludge and biomass was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor under steam/oxygen atmosphere, in order to evaluate possible synergistic effects during co-gasification. Experiments carried out at non-isothermal conditions for blends of a low volatile bituminous coal and dried sewage sludge, indicated the absence of interactive effects between the blends. The concentration of H{sub 2} and CO could be predicted from the concentrations of the individual components in the blends and their respective mass fractions. The results obtained under isothermal (1000 C) conditions for blends of a high ash coal with pet-coke, and blends with biomass (chestnut) produced less gas yield than the theoretically calculated. However, for the mixtures of coal and biomass the quality of the syngas, expressed by the amount of the produced H{sub 2}+CO and by the H{sub 2}/CO ratio, was not altered. (authors)

  10. Hydrogen production by co-gasification of coal and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Pis, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, co-gasification of two coals with samples of pet-coke, sewage sludge and biomass was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor under steam/oxygen atmosphere, in order to evaluate possible synergistic effects during co-gasification. Experiments carried out at non-isothermal conditions for blends of a low volatile bituminous coal and dried sewage sludge, indicated the absence of interactive effects between the blends. The concentration of H 2 and CO could be predicted from the concentrations of the individual components in the blends and their respective mass fractions. The results obtained under isothermal (1000 C) conditions for blends of a high ash coal with pet-coke, and blends with biomass (chestnut) produced less gas yield than the theoretically calculated. However, for the mixtures of coal and biomass the quality of the syngas, expressed by the amount of the produced H 2 +CO and by the H 2 /CO ratio, was not altered. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-10-29

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-30

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1--December 31, 2002 time period.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-07-23

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2003 time period.

  15. Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson

    2003-12-31

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 - December 31, 2003 time period.

  16. DDGS chars gasification with CO{sub 2}: a kinetic study using TG analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiangmei; Jong, Wiebren de; Fu, Ningjie; Verkooijen, Adrian H.M. [Delft University of Technology, Process and Energy Department, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Dry Distiller's Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is a by-product during ethanol production from cereals which is currently mainly used as feedstock for cattle. With the growth of the ethanol industry, the increasing supply of DDGS may saturate the livestock feed market; thus, its potential applications need to be explored. DDGS gasification in a 100-kW{sub th} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) steam-O{sub 2} blown gasifier has been studied. However, the modeling of DDGS gasification process encounters difficulties due to the unavailable knowledge of DDGS char gasification kinetics. Therefore, in this paper, gasification kinetics of DDGS char with CO{sub 2} was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Two different types of char samples have been tested. Char type one (PYR-Char) was obtained after DDGS pyrolysis in a TGA at a final temperature of 750 C or 850 C for 20 min. Char type two (CFB-Char) was obtained after DDGS gasification in the 100-kW{sub th} CFB gasifier within the temperature range of 790 C to 820 C with a steam/biomass mass ratio of 0.81 and oxygen to biomass stoichiometric ratio of approximately 0.38. The influences of pyrolysis temperature (750 C, 850 C), heating rate (10 C/min, 30 C/min, 50 C/min, 70 C/min), CO{sub 2} concentration (10, 20, 30 vol.%), and gasification temperature (900 C, 1,000 C, 1,100 C) on the reaction rate of char-CO{sub 2} reaction were determined. Two representative gas-solid reaction models, the volumetric reaction model (VRM) and the shrinking core model (SCM) were applied in order to determine kinetic parameters. It was found that the calculated activation energy (E{sub a}) values using SCM were slightly lower than those using VRM. The calculated E{sub a} values for PYR-Char using both models were in the range of 100-165 kJ/mol, while the calculated E{sub a} values for CFB-Char were in the range of 55-100 kJ/mol. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that CFB-Char was more fragile and PYR

  17. Steaming ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    An example of the development of geothermal power in Indonesia is described. Wells are being drilled into the Salak volcano on Java, about 60km south of Jakarta. These let out high pressure hot water trapped 1 to 3km below the surface which can be flashed into steam for driving turbines. The hot water field has already produced 110MW of power since 1994 and is currently being expanded to 330MW. Some details of the drilling and civil engineering are given. Since Indonesia sits on the edge of giant tectonic boundary known as the ''Pacific ring of fire'', the potential for further development is enormous. Ultimately volcanic activity could release an estimated 27,000MW capacity. More realistically, 2,000MW of crustal power by 2020 is spoken of. (UK)

  18. Hybridization of concentrated solar power with biomass gasification in Brazil’s semiarid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Rodrigo; Szklo, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of three hybridization concepts between CSP and biomass gasification. • Modelling of a benchmark power plant for each of the hybridization concepts. • The method relies on using Aspentech Hysys and SAM for thermodynamic analysis. • Technical and economic performance of the three benchmark power plants as result. - Abstract: This study aims to propose and analyze different options for hybridizing Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with biomass, through gasification for power generation. A hybrid CSP-biomass power plant through gasification is an innovative concept which allows the integration of combined cycle for power generation, sun-biomass hybridization and syngas storage. Therefore, this study addressed the proposition of the hybridization concept and the simulation of benchmark power plants for a suitable Brazilian site (high direct normal irradiation and low-cost biomass availability). Three power plant concepts are proposed and simulated in Aspentech Hysys and System Advisor Model (SAM): (i) Series design; (ii) Parallel design, and (iii) Steam Extraction design. For the same gasifier, the Series design holds the highest levelized cost, while the Parallel design presents the highest installed capacity, but the lowest capacity factor. Finally, the Steam Extraction design is placed between the other two proposed plants regarding the capacity factor and the annual energy generation.

  19. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  20. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  1. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.)

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  2. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  3. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  4. The 7th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'extending resources for clean energy'. Sessions covered coal gasification, gasification of biomass and waste, hydrogen and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and development. The poster papers are also included. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  5. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  6. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by th eir use it is possible to reduce the waste...... studied to optimize the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification......, waste is subject to chemical treatments through air or/and steam utilization; the result is a synthesis gas, called “Syngas” which is principally composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Traces of hydrogen sulfide could also be present which can easily be separated in a desulfurization reactor...

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    % is achieved; plant size and nominal power are selected based on the required cultivation area. SOFC heat recovery with SKC is compared to a Steam Cycle (SC). Although ammonia-water more accurately fits the temperature profile of the off-gases, the presence of a Hybrid Recuperator enhances the available work......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel......A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre...

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  10. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  11. Survey report for fiscal 2000 on survey of high-efficiency gasification technology of catalyst utilization type; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shokubai riyo gata kokoritsu gas ka gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Survey and experimental research have been carried out on coal gasification using a pressurized internal circulation fluidized bed, spouted bed hydrogenation pyrolysis, supercritical water gasification, and a possibility of efficiency improvement by utilization of catalyst in chemical raw material production spouted bed gasification system. In the coal gasification using the pressurized internal circulation fluidized bed, an experiment was performed by using active alumina and Ni catalyst, where outstanding effect was identified. In the spouted bed hydrogenation pyrolysis, an experiment was executed by using iron hydroxide catalyst, but no noticeable effect was recognized. In the supercritical water gasification, an experiment was carried out by using Na{sub 2}CO2 and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalysts, where it was found that the effect of the catalysts is little in the supercritical gasification reaction area of 800 degrees C. The power generation system composite with the chemical raw material production spouted bed gasification is a one-path system in which coal is gasified by the spouted bed gasification furnace, catalyst and steam are put into a heat exchanger to perform DME synthesis, and non-reacted gas is supplied as gas turbine fuel. Estimation was made on the possibility by an on-the-desk study, which requires experiments in the future. (NEDO)

  12. Effect of Operating Conditions on Catalytic Gasification of Bamboo in a Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasit Wongsiriamnuay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic gasification of bamboo in a laboratory-scale, fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of reactor temperature (400, 500, and 600°C, gasifying medium (air and air/steam, and catalyst to biomass ratio (0 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1.5 : 1 on product gas composition, H2/CO ratio, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, and tar conversion. From the results obtained, it was shown that at 400°C with air/steam gasification, maximum hydrogen content of 16.5% v/v, carbon conversion efficiency of 98.5%, and tar conversion of 80% were obtained. The presence of catalyst was found to promote the tar reforming reaction and resulted in improvement of heating value, carbon conversion efficiency, and gas yield due to increases in H2, CO, and CH4. The presence of steam and dolomite had an effect on the increasing of tar conversion.

  13. Steam turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the arrangement described is to enable raising steam for driving steam turbines in a way suited to operating with liquid metals, such as Na, as heat transfer medium. A preheated water feed, in heat transfer relationship with the liquid metals, is passed through evaporator and superheater stages, and the superheated steam is supplied to the highest pressure stage of the steam turbine arrangement. Steam extracted intermediate the evaporator and superheater stages is employed to provide reheat for the lower pressure stage of the steam turbine. Only a major portion of the preheated water feed may be evaporated and this portion separated and supplied to the superheater stage. The feature of 'steam to steam' reheat avoids a second liquid metal heat transfer and hence represents a simplification. It also reduces the hazard associated with possible steam-liquid metal contact. (U.K.)

  14. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  15. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  16. Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto, Agus; Fernando, Sandun D.; Pordesimo, Lester O.; Adhikari, Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH 4 , higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H 2 yields, with negligible CH 4 and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H 2 could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H 2 yields.

  17. Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Agus [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Fernando, Sandun D. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, 2117 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2117 (United States); Pordesimo, Lester O. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Adhikari, Sushil [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 215 Tom Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH{sub 4}, higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H{sub 2} yields, with negligible CH{sub 4} and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H{sub 2} could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H{sub 2} yields. (author)

  18. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  19. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, R.K.; Halvorsen, B.M. [Telemark University College, Kjolnes ring 56, P.O. Box 203, 3901 Porsgrunn (Norway); Pfeifer, C. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Gussing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2). The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  20. Hydrothermal gasification of glucose and starch in a batch and continuous reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kumabe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A batch reactor was used for the gasification of glucose and starch as carbohydrate model compounds. The effects of H2O in various states (low-pressure hot compressed water (LP-HCW, 300 °C and 10 MPa, high-pressure hot compressed water (HP-HCW, 360 °C and 20 MPa, high-temperature steam (HTS, 400 °C and 10 MPa, and supercritical water (SCW, 400 °C and 25 MPa, as well as reaction time (10, 30, and 60 min, sample concentration (10, 20, and 30 wt%, and catalyst (mixture of Ca(OH2 and Na2CO3 on gas production were investigated in the hydrothermal gasification. In addition, using a continuous reactor, the hydrothermal gasification of glucose was examined with LP-HCW (200 °C and 5 MPa, HP-HCW (200 °C and 25 MPa, HTS (600 °C, 5 MPa, and SCW (600 °C, 25 MPa in order to study the productions of gases and tar, and the mass balance. The reaction temperature affected gasification considerably, but pressure had little effect. In the batch experiments, the characteristics of the produced gases were almost identical after a reaction time of 10 min, and addition of Ca(OH2 and Na2CO3 as catalysts in a molar ratio of 7:3 led to selective production of H2 in the SCW gasification of 10 wt% glucose for 30 min. In a continuous experiment under the SCW conditions, the conversion efficiency of glucose to gas was 26% and the composition of the produced gas was 29 vol% CO, 23 vol% H2, and 16 vol% CH4. Under the hydrothermal conditions, glucose was mainly converted to char and suspended components of high-molecular-weight compounds such as fat, whereas starch was mainly converted to gas and liquid.

  1. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  2. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  3. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  4. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  5. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  6. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts; Remocao do alcatrao de correntes de gaseificacao de biomassa: processos e catalisadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B. [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Processos de Conversao de Biomassa; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  7. Steam generator with perfected dryers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenet, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This steam generator has vertically superposed array of steam dryers. These dryers return the steam flow of 180 0 . The return of the water is made by draining channels to the steam production zone [fr

  8. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Gil, J; Martin, J A; Frances, E; Olivares, A; Caballero, M A; Perez, P [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  9. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  10. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  11. Char-recirculation biomass gasification system--a site-specific feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, K.R.; Kerr, C.P.; Hensley, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A site-specific feasibility study was conducted for a char-recirculation biomass gasification plant which would dispose of the chippable solid residues of the area sawmills. The plant would receive green hardwood chips and convert them into active charcoal while producing process steam and electrical power. An economic analysis was performed on the basis of not-for-profit operation, marketing crushed active charcoal to a broker at a discounted price, and displacing purchased electric power. Given a market for the active charcoal, the plant was judged to be economically viable

  12. HTGR steam generator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetzenduebel, W.G.; Hunt, P.S.; Weber, M.

    1976-01-01

    More than 40 gas-cooled reactor plants have produced in excess of 400 reactor years of operating experience which have proved a reasonably high rate of gas-cooled reactor steam generator availability. The steam generators used in these reactors include single U-tube and straight-tube steam generators as well as meander type and helically wound or involute tube steam generators. It appears that modern reactors are being equipped with helically wound steam generators of the once-through type as the end product of steam generator evolution in gas-cooled reactor plants. This paper provides a general overview of gas-cooled reactor steam generator evolution and operating experience and shows how design criteria and constraints, research and development, and experience data are factored into the design/development of modern helically wound tube steam generators for the present generation of gas-cooled reactors

  13. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  14. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  15. Steam sterilization does not require saturated steam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornmalen Gomez Hoyos, J. P.C.M.; Paunovic, A.; Kopinga, K.

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly applied method to sterilize re-usable medical devices in hospitals is steam sterilization. The essential conditions for steam sterilization are derived from sterilization in water. Microbiological experiments in aqueous solutions have been used to calculate various time–temperature

  16. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  17. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].

  18. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  19. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Francetič, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Invisibility of Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  2. Strategies for steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects

  3. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  4. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  5. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  6. Repowering options for steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.; Gopalarathinam, R.

    1992-01-01

    Repowering an existing steam power plant with a gas turbine offers an attractive alternative to a new plant or life extension, especially for unit sizes smaller than 300 MWe. Gas turbine repowering improves thermal efficiency and substantially increases the plant output. Based on recent repowering studies and projects, this paper examines gas turbine repowering options for 100 MWe, 200 MWe and 300 MWe units originally designed for coal firing and currently firing either coal or natural gas. Also discussed is the option for a phased future conversion of the repowered unit to fire coal-derived gas, should there be a fluctuation in the price or availability of natural gas. A modular coal gasification plant designed to shorten the conversion time is presented. Repowering options, performance, costs, and availability impacts are discussed for selected cases

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ((approx)2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  8. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottom ashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded that LT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  9. Characteristics of Malaysian coals with their pyrolysis and gasification behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Fadzilah Othman; Mohd Hariffin Bosrooh; Kamsani Abdul Majid

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted since comprehensive study on the gasification behaviour of Malaysian coals is still lacking. Coals were characterised using heating value determination, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and ash analysis. Pyrolysis process was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. While, atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was used to investigate the gasification behaviour. Three Malaysian coals, Merit Pila, Mukah Balingian, Silantek; and Australian coal, Hunter Valley coals were used in this study. Thermal degradation of four coal samples were performed, which involved weight loss profile and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The kinetic parameters, such as maximum reactivity value, R max , Activation Energy, E a and Arrhenius constant, ln R o for each coal were determined using Arrhenius Equation. Merit Pila coal shows the highest maximum reactivity among other Malaysian coals. E a is the highest for Merit Pila coal (166.81kJmol -1 ) followed with Mukah Balingian (101.15 kJmol -1 ), Hunter Valley (96.45 kJmol -1 ) and Silantek (75.23 kJmol -1 ) coals. This finding indicates direct correlation of lower rank coal with higher E a . Merit Pila coal was studied in detail using atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Different variables such as equivalence ratio (ER) and gasifying agents were used. The highest H 2 proportion (38.3 mol.%) in the producer gas was reached at 715 degree Celsius and ER=0.277 where the maximization of LHV pg (5.56 MJ/Nm 3 ) was also detected. ER and addition of steam had shown significant contributions to the producer gas compositions and LHV pg . (author)

  10. Gasifier selection, design and gasification of oil palm fronds with preheated and unheated gasifying air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha M; Sulaiman, Shaharin A; Ramli, Anita

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm frond biomass is abundantly available in Malaysia, but underutilized. In this study, gasifiers were evaluated based on the available literature data and downdraft gasifiers were found to be the best option for the study of oil palm fronds gasification. A downdraft gasifier was constructed with a novel height adjustment mechanism for changing the position of gasifying air and steam inlet. The oil palm fronds gasification results showed that preheating the gasifying air improved the volumetric percentage of H(2) from 8.47% to 10.53%, CO from 22.87% to 24.94%, CH(4) from 2.02% to 2.03%, and higher heating value from 4.66 to 5.31 MJ/Nm(3) of the syngas. In general, the results of the current study demonstrated that oil palm fronds can be used as an alternative energy source in the energy diversification plan of Malaysia through gasification, along with, the resulting syngas quality can be improved by preheating the gasifying air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Étude des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification en vue de l'optimisation du rapport vapeur/comburant injecté dans un gazogène souterrain Study of Thermodynamic Equilibria in Gasification Reactions So As to Optimise the Steam/Oxidizer Ratio Injected Into an Underground Gas Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Pirard J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Le but de cette étude est de déterminer sur la base des équilibres thermodynamiques des réactions de gazéification le rapport vapeur/comburant à injecter dans un gazogène fonctionnant sous pression pour optimaliser les compositions, les pouvoirs calorifiques, les rendements de gazéification et la consommation d'agent gazéifiant. The aim of this study is to determine, on the basis of the thermodynamic equilibria of gazification reactions, the steam/oxidizer ratio to be injected into a gas g...

  12. The influence of chlorine on the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, C von; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Chlorides of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc inhibit the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal. This is observed either by impregnation the wood with the salts before pyrolysis or by mechanically mixing the salts with the charcoal before gasification. Charcoal impregnated or mixed with ammonium chloride reacts more slowly than untreated charcoal. Treating the charcoal with HCl also influences negatively the gasification reactivity, indicating that chlorine plays an important role in the gasification. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  13. Gasification of wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.C. de; Marti, T; Frankenhaeuser, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A first series of gasification experiments with our fluidized bed gasifier was performed using clean sawdust as fuel. The installation and the analytical systems were tested in a parametric study in which gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were varied. The data acquired will serve to establish the differences between the gasification of clean wood and the gasification of Altholz (scrapwood) and wood/plastics mixtures. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  14. Gasification in petroleum refinery of 21. century; La gazeification dans la raffinerie du petrole du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The worldwide trends in the crude oil supply indicate a continuous increase of the heavy crudes. The increase in the yield of distillation residues is complemented by an increase in their sulfur content. Additional distillates are produced by upgrading the residues. The upgrading step generates final residues, such as visbreaking tar, coke and asphalt which are produced by visbreaking, coking and de-asphalting, respectively. The final residues can be converted to usable products such as hydrogen, steam, electricity, ammonia and chemicals. For this purpose, gasification has emerged as the technology of choice because of its superior environmental performance when compared with the competing means for residue utilization. Also, refinery sludges can be co-gasified with the final residues and as such, be converted to usable products. If integrated with the petroleum refinery, gasification can diminish any environmental problems associated with residue and sludge disposal. The economic indicators of the refinery can improve as well. The trends in deregulation of the power market enable petroleum refineries to enter this lucrative market either alone or in a partnership with the utilities. The potential of co-production of chemicals and steam with electricity offers the flexibility to respond to market demands. Gasification technology is commercially proven. Among several types, entrained bed gasifiers are the gasifiers of choice. A number of commercial projects in Europe, Asia and United States use a gasifier employing either a slurry feeding system or a dry feeding system. (author)

  15. Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

  16. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  17. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  18. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  19. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  20. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  1. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  2. Steam Plasma Treatment of Organic Substances for Hydrogen and Syngas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Kopecký, Vladimír; Mašláni, Alan; Živný, Oldřich; Křenek, Petr; Serov, Anton; Hurba, Oleksiy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2017), s. 739-762 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-19444S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma gasification * Thermal plasma * Steam plasma * Syngas * Organic waste Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016

  3. A new model for coal gasification on pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Cristian; Arenas, Erika; Chejne, Farid; Londoño, Carlos A.; Cisneros, Sebastian; Quintana, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model was proposed for the simulation of fluidized bed reactors. • The model was validated against experimental data found in the literature. • The model was compared and found to be superior to other models reported in the literature. • Effects of pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios over gas composition were studied. - Abstract: Many industries have taken interest in the use of coal gasification for the production of chemicals and fuels. This gasification can be carried out inside a fluidized bed reactor. This non-ideal reactor is difficult to predict due to the complex physical phenomena and the different chemical changes that the feedstock undergoes. The lack of a good model to simulate the reactor’s behavior produces less efficient processes and plant designs. Various approaches to the proper simulation of such reactor have been proposed. In this paper, a new model is developed for the simulation of a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed (PBFB) gasifier that rigorously models the physical phenomena and the chemical changes of the feedstock inside the reactor. In the model, the reactor is divided into three sections; devolatilization, volatile reactions and combustion-gasification. The simulation is validated against experimental data reported in the literature and compared with other models proposed by different authors; once the model is validated, the dependence of the syngas composition on operational pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios are studied. The results of this article show how this model satisfactorily predicts the performance of PBFB gasifiers.

  4. Date palm waste gasification in downdraft gasifier and simulation using ASPEN HYSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassyouni, M.; Waheed ul Hasan, Syed; Abdel-Aziz, M.H.; Abdel-hamid, S.M.-S.; Naveed, Shahid; Hussain, Ahmed; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of date palm waste gasification using ASPEN HYSYS was studied. • A steady state simulation of downdraft gasifier has been developed. • The results were used to predict synthesis gas composition. • Simulation results and experimental results are in good agreement. - Abstract: The present research aims to study the simulation of date palm waste gasification using ASPEN HYSYS. A steady state simulation of downdraft gasifier firing date palm leaves has been developed. The model is able to predict syngas composition with sound accuracy and can be used to find optimal operating conditions of the gasifier. Biomass is defined as an unconventional hypothetical solid component in HYSYS. A set of six reactor models simulates various reaction zones of the downdraft gasifier in accordance with its hydrodynamics. Biomass decomposition into constituents in the pyrolysis zone is modeled with a conversion reactor. The combustion of char and volatiles in the combustion zone are modeled with equilibrium and Gibbs reactor models respectively. The gasification zone is modeled with a Gibbs and equilibrium reactor. The results of simulation are validated against experimental results of a parametric variability study on a lab scale gasifier. The proportion of synthesis gas increase as temperature increases (concentration, molar fraction, and partial pressure). CO 2 and CH 4 in the product gases were also found to decrease with increasing temperature. At 800 °C, the exit gas reaches a stable molar composition (H 2 = 56.27%, CO = 21.71%, CO 2 = 18.24%, CH 4 = 3.78%). Increasing steam to biomass ratio increases CO 2 and H 2 at the expense of CO, governed by shift reaction. Steam induction increases the methane contents, thereby improves the heating value of the product gas

  5. Date palm waste gasification in downdraft gasifier and simulation using ASPEN HYSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassyouni, M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Higher Technological Institute, Tenth of Ramdan City (Egypt); Waheed ul Hasan, Syed [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911 (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Aziz, M.H., E-mail: helmy2002@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911 (Saudi Arabia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Abdel-hamid, S. M.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Higher Technological Institute, Tenth of Ramdan City (Egypt); Naveed, Shahid [Punjab Institute of Contemporary Sciences, 5.5 KM Raiwind Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Hussain, Ahmed [Department of Nuclear Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ani, Farid Nasir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of date palm waste gasification using ASPEN HYSYS was studied. • A steady state simulation of downdraft gasifier has been developed. • The results were used to predict synthesis gas composition. • Simulation results and experimental results are in good agreement. - Abstract: The present research aims to study the simulation of date palm waste gasification using ASPEN HYSYS. A steady state simulation of downdraft gasifier firing date palm leaves has been developed. The model is able to predict syngas composition with sound accuracy and can be used to find optimal operating conditions of the gasifier. Biomass is defined as an unconventional hypothetical solid component in HYSYS. A set of six reactor models simulates various reaction zones of the downdraft gasifier in accordance with its hydrodynamics. Biomass decomposition into constituents in the pyrolysis zone is modeled with a conversion reactor. The combustion of char and volatiles in the combustion zone are modeled with equilibrium and Gibbs reactor models respectively. The gasification zone is modeled with a Gibbs and equilibrium reactor. The results of simulation are validated against experimental results of a parametric variability study on a lab scale gasifier. The proportion of synthesis gas increase as temperature increases (concentration, molar fraction, and partial pressure). CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in the product gases were also found to decrease with increasing temperature. At 800 °C, the exit gas reaches a stable molar composition (H{sub 2} = 56.27%, CO = 21.71%, CO{sub 2} = 18.24%, CH{sub 4} = 3.78%). Increasing steam to biomass ratio increases CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of CO, governed by shift reaction. Steam induction increases the methane contents, thereby improves the heating value of the product gas.

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of CHP (combined heat and power) plants integrated with installations of coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Malik, Tomasz; Liszka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Integration of a CHP steam plant with an installation of coal gasification and gas turbine leads to an IGCC-CHP (integrated gasification combined cycle-combined heat and power). Two installations of coal gasification have been analyzed, i.e. pressurized entrained flow gasifier – case 1 and pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with CO_2 recirculation – case 2. Basing on the results of mathematical modelling of an IGCC-CHP plant, the algorithms of calculating typical energy indices have been derived. The following energy indices are considered, i.e. coefficient of heat performance and relative savings of chemical energy of fuels. The results of coefficients of heat performance are contained between 1.87 and 2.37. Values exceeding 1 are thermodynamically justified because the idea of cogeneration of heat and electricity based on combining cycles of the heat engine and heat pump the efficiency of which exceeds 1. Higher values concerning waste heat replace more thermodynamically effective sources of heat in CHP plants. Relative savings of the chemical energy of fuels are similar in both cases of IGCC-CHP plants and are contained between the lower value of the CHP (combined heat and power) plants fuelled with coal and higher value of CHP plants fired with natural gas. - Highlights: • Energy savings of fuel is an adequate measure of cogeneration. • Relative energy savings of IGCC-CHP is near the result of a gas and steam CHP. • COHP (coefficient of heat performance) can help to divide fuel between heat fluxes. • Higher values of COHP in the case of waste heat recovery result from the lower thermal parameters.

  7. Preliminary economic analysis of poultry litter gasification option with a simple transportation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Atul C; English, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Several environmental issues are related to the disposal of poultry litter. In an effort to provide a more environmentally friendly alternative than landfill disposal or spreading as a soil amendment, work has been carried out previously at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). This past UTSI work was concentrated on developing a catalytic steam gasification concept to produce energy from poultry litter. In the past UTSI studies, preliminary design and economics for a stationary, centralized gasification plant capable of processing approximately 100 ton/day of poultry litter were developed. However, in this preliminary design the economic impact of transporting litter to a centralized gasification plant location was not addressed. To determine the preliminary impact of transporting the poultry litter on the overall economics of this energy conversion plant design, a simple transportation model was developed. This model was used in conjunction with the earlier plant design prepared at UTSI to determine the economic feasibility of a centralized, stationary poultry litter gasification plant. To do so, major variables such as traveling distance, plant feed rate (or capacity), fluctuations in the sales price of the product gas (that means value of the energy), population density of poultry farms, impact of tipping fees, and cost of litter were varied. The study showed that for plant with a capacity of 1000 ton/day to be able to withstand several changes in economic conditions and sustain itself, the poultry farm density would need to be approximately 0.3 houses/mi2. Smaller plants would need either a higher energy price or some kind of subsidy to be economically feasible.

  8. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Renewable Chemical Technologies and Materials

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  9. Syngas production by gasification of aquatic biomass with CO2/O2 and simultaneous removal of H2S and COS using char obtained in the gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Hiasa, Shou; Edashige, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Applicability of gulfweed as feedstock for a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was studied for both production of gas with high syngas (CO + H 2 ) content via gasification of gulfweed and removal of gaseous impurities using char obtained in the gasification. Gulfweed as aqueous biomass was gasified with He/CO 2 /O 2 using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier at ambient pressure and 900 °C at equivalence ratios (ER) of 0.1–0.3. The syngas content increased while the conversion to gas on a carbon basis decreased with decreasing ER. At an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%, the syngas content was maximized at 67.6% and conversion to gas on a carbon basis was 94.2%. The behavior of the desulfurization using char obtained during the gasification process at ER = 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15% was investigated using a downdraft fixed-bed reactor at 250–550 °C under 3 atmospheres (H 2 S/N 2 , COS/N 2 , and a mixture of gases composed of CO, CO 2 , H 2 , N 2 , CH 4 , H 2 S, COS, and steam). The char had a higher COS removal capacity at 350 °C than commercial activated carbon because (Ca,Mg)S crystals were formed during desulfurization. The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from the mixture of gases at 450 °C more efficiently than did activated carbon. These results support this novel BTL process consisting of gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 and dry gas cleaning using self-supplied bed material. -- Highlights: • A product gas with high syngas content was produced from the gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 . • The syngas content increased with decreasing the equivalence ratio. • The syngas content was maximized at 67.6% at an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%. • The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from a mixture of gases at 450 °C efficiently

  10. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Gasification of biomass in a drop tube furnace. Foergasning av biomassa i fallroersreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, A; Andersson, L A; Bjerle, I [Lund Univ. (SE). Dept. of Chemical Engineering 2

    1989-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation of steam gasification is mainly to study the influence on gas production (quantity, composition) for different temperatures, dwells, and partial pressure of steam and nitrogen in a drop tube furnace. The range of temperature in the experiments was 1000-1400 deg C, range of dwell 0.25-1 sec, and range of water vapor/nitrogen partial pressure ratio 25/75 to 75/25. The degree of burnup increases with increasing dwell. Highest burnup is found at the highest tmperatures. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere the degree of burnup is slightly higher than in N{sub 2} atmosphere. In the steam experiments is shown that a long dwell as well as a high water vapor partial pressure increases burnup. The product gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, but ca 10% each of carbon dioxide and methane are also found. Hydrocarbons like ethene, acetylene and ethane are also found, but only in a total amount of less than 5%. The experiments in water vapor atmosphere show that a change in steam partial pressure has a very small effect on the composition of the product gas for the temperature range studied. (O.S.) (7 figs.).

  12. Dynamic models of staged gasification processes. Documentation of gasification simulator; Dynamiske modeller a f trinopdelte forgasningsprocesser. Dokumentation til forgasser simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In connection with the ERP project 'Dynamic modelling of staged gasification processes' a gasification simulator has been constructed. The simulator consists of: a mathematical model of the gasification process developed at Technical University of Denmark, a user interface programme, IGSS, and a communication interface between the two programmes. (BA)

  13. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  14. Condensation of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisyazhniuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    An equation for nucleation kinetics in steam condensation has been derived, the equation taking into account the concurrent and independent functioning of two nucleation mechanisms: the homogeneous one and the heterogeneous one. The equation is a most general-purpose one and includes all the previously known condensation models as special cases. It is shown how the equation can be used in analyzing the process of steam condensation in the condenser of an industrial steam-turbine plant, and in working out new ways of raising the efficiency of the condenser, as well as of the steam-turbine plant as a whole. (orig.)

  15. EPRI steam generator programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, L.J.; Passell, T.O.; Bryant, P.E.C.; Rentler, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the current overall EPRI steam generator program plan and some of the ongoing projects. Because of the recent occurrence of a corrosion phenomenon called ''denting,'' which has affected a number of operating utilities, an expanded program plan is being developed which addresses the broad and urgent needs required to achieve improved steam generator reliability. The goal of improved steam generator reliability will require advances in various technologies and also a management philosophy that encourages conscientious efforts to apply the improved technologies to the design, procurement, and operation of plant systems and components that affect the full life reliability of steam generators

  16. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  17. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huixiao; Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm 3 y −1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  18. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  19. The market outlook for integrated gasification combined cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, P.R.; Maslak, C.E.; Stoll, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology was developed in the 1970s and is now competitive with other coal fired technologies. Because it is a new technology, IGCC technology developments are continuing at a rapid pace and the trend in decreasing capital costs is similar to the same trend seen during the early decades of simple cycle gas turbines. Consequently, IGCC technology is expected to be even more economical during the mid and late 1990s than it is today. The objective of this paper is to provide an examination of the basic economic principles of IGCC technology and to illustrate the extent to which this technology is a viable least-cost generation addition technology. Moreover, key reliability and emissions issues are addressed in relation to the technology alternatives. This paper is organized to first review the IGCC technology and to contrast its reliability, emission, performance and cost data with the three key commercially proven technologies: simple cycle combustion turbines, combined cycle plants, and coal-fired steam plants. Economic screening curves are used to illustrate the need for a balanced generation expansion mix of technologies. The regional market opportunity for coal fueled technology orders in the US from 1992 through 2005 is presented

  20. Theoretical study on composition of gas produced by coal gasification; Sekitan gas ka de seiseisuru gas no sosei ni kansuru kosatsu (HYCOL data no doteki kaiseki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiho, M.; Yasuda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In relation to considerations on composition of gas produced by coal gasification, the HYCOL hydrogen generation process data were analyzed. From the fact that CO concentration (Y) decreases linearly with CO2 concentration (X), element balance of gasification of reacted coal was used to introduce a reaction analysis equation. The equation includes a term of oxygen excess {Delta}(amount of oxygen consumed for combustion of CO and H2 in excess of the theoretical amount), derived by subtracting the stoichiometric oxygen amount used to gasify coal into CO and H2 from the consumed oxygen amount. The {Delta} can be used as a reference to oxygen utilization efficiency. An equation for the {Delta} was introduced. Also introduced was a term for steam decomposition amount derived by subtracting the generated steam from the supplied steam. These terms may be used as a clue to permeate into the gasifying reaction process. This suggestion was discussed by applying the terms to gas composition value during operation. According to the HYCOL analysis, when a gasification furnace is operated at higher than the reference oxygen amount, coal supply variation is directly reflected to the combustion reaction, making the {Delta} distribution larger. In an inverse case, unreacted carbon remains in the furnace due to oxygen shortage, and shift reaction may occur more easily even if oxygen/coal supply ratio varies. 6 figs., 1 ref.

  1. STEAM by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  2. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  3. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  4. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  5. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  6. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  7. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  8. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.; Spekkens, P.; Maruska, C.

    1998-01-01

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. This report shows how recent advances in cleaning technology are integrated into a life management strategy, discusses downcomer flow measurement as a means of monitoring steam generator condition, and describes recent advances in hideout return as a life management tool. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified

  9. Technologies and trends in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, H.E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Background information is given on the growing interest of energy from biomass. After a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification systems, a state of the art of the technology is given. Finally, recent developments in the Netherlands and abroad are mentioned. 3 figs

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  11. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  12. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  13. Catalytic and noncatalytic gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of pyrolysis oil was studied in a fluidized bed over a wide temperature range (523−914 °C) with and without the use of nickel-based catalysts. Noncatalytically, a typical fuel gas was produced. Both a special designed fluid bed catalyst and a crushed commercial fixed bed catalyst showed

  14. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Gasification of oil shale by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingel, Gil

    1992-04-01

    Gasification of oil shales followed by catalytic reforming can yield synthetic gas, which is easily transportable and may be used as a heat source or for producing liquid fuels. The aim of the present work was to study the gasification of oil shales by solar radiation, as a mean of combining these two energy resources. Such a combination results in maximizing the extractable fuel from the shale, as well as enabling us to store solar energy in a chemical bond. In this research special attention was focused upon the question of the possible enhancement of the gasification by direct solar irradiation of the solid carbonaceous feed stock. The oil shale served here as a model feedstock foe other resources such as coal, heavy fuels or biomass all of which can be gasified in the same manner. The experiments were performed at the Weizman institute's solar central receiver, using solar concentrated flux as an energy source for the gasification. The original contributions of this work are : 1) Experimental evidence is presented that concentrated sunlight can be used effectively to carry out highly endothermic chemical reactions in solid particles, which in turn forms an essential element in the open-loop solar chemical heat pipe; 2) The solar-driven gasification of oil shales can be executed with good conversion efficiencies, as well as high synthesis gas yields; 3)There was found substantial increase in deliverable energy compared to the conventional retorting of oil shales, and considerable reduction in the resulting spent shale. 5) A detailed computer model that incorporates all the principal optical and thermal components of the solar concentrator and the chemical reactor has been developed and compared favorably against experimental data. (author)

  16. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  17. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J; Narvaez, I; Orio, A [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  19. Exploratory experimental and theoretical studies of cyclone gasification of wood powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Christian

    1999-11-01

    This thesis describes an exploratory experimental and theoretical study of gasification of wood powder in a cyclone gasifier. The generated gas could be used to operate a gas turbine in a combined cycle power plant. The objective has been to develop the understanding of cyclone gasification by experimental studies of the performance of a cyclone designed in principle as a separation cyclone and by comparisons between the experimental results and theoretical predictions. The experiments were carried out with commercial Swedish wood powder fuels, injected with air or steam/air mixture through two diametrically opposite tangential inlets and gasified at atmospheric pressure in cyclones of two different configurations with a volume of about 0.034 m{sup 3}. The studies show that stable gasification of this fuel can be obtained for a specific fuel feeding rate of about 5 MW/m{sup 3} cyclone volume for equivalence ratios above 0.15 and that the equivalence ratio had to be kept below about 0.4 in order to avoid material temperatures above 950 deg C. A cyclone with a short outlet pipe, designed as a conventional separation cyclone was found to give lower char conversion than a modified cyclone with a long outlet pipe. The heating value of the gas was found to be approximately 4.5 MJ/kg. The dust load in the product gas was measured to between 1000 and 2500 mg/Nm{sup 3}. It was possible to separate at least 40-60% of the potassium and 60-90% of the sodium supplied with the wood. The alkali that left the cyclone with the product gas appear to be in solid or melted phase in the unseparated char particles and consequently not vaporised during gasification. As the K and Na were assumed to remain within the particles during gasification, it was concluded that to reduce the amount of alkali metals in the product gas it would be necessary to improve the particle separation efficiency. The results of the theoretical modelling, using the existing models in the commercial software CFX

  20. French steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remond, A.

    1986-01-01

    After recalling the potential damage mode of tubes of steam generator, the author recalls the safety criteria used in France. The improvements and the process of damage prejudice and reparation for tubular bundle are presented [fr

  1. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.

    1982-01-01

    Impurities enter the secondary loop of the PWR through both makeup water from lake or well and cooling-water leaks in the condenser. These impurities can be carried to the steam generator, where they cause corrosion deposits to form. Corrosion products in steam are swept further through the system and become concentrated at the point in the low-pressure turbine where steam begins to condense. Several plants have effectively reduced impurities, and therefore corrosion, by installing a demineralizer for the makeup water, a resin-bed system to clean condensed steam from the condenser, and a deaerator to remove oxygen from the water and so lower the risk of system metal oxidation. 5 references, 1 figure

  2. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  3. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Steam generator water lancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamler, F.; Schneider, W.

    1992-01-01

    The tubesheet and tube support plate deposits in CANDU steam generators are notable for their hardness. Also notable is the wide variety of steam generator access situations. Because of the sludge hardness and the difficulty of the access, traditional water lancing processes which directed jets from the central tube free lane or from the periphery of the bundle have proven unsuitable. This has led to the need for some very unique inter tube water lancing devices which could direct powerful water jets directly onto the deposits. This type of process was applied to the upper broached plates of the Bruce A steam generators, which had become severely blocked. It has since been applied to various other steam generator situations. This paper describes the flexlance equipment development, qualification, and performance in the various CANDU applications. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  6. Catalytic gasification in fluidized bed, of orange waste. Comparison with non catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Trujillo, Leonardo; Marquez Montesinos, Francisco; Ramos Robaina, Boris A.; Guerra Reyes, Yanet; Arauzo Perez, Jesus; Gonzalo Callejo, Alberto; Sanchez Cebrian, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    The industry processing of the orange, generates high volumes of solid waste. This waste has been used as complement in the animal feeding, in biochemical processes; but their energy use has not been valued by means of the gasification process. They were carried out gasification studies with air in catalytic fluidized bed (using dolomite and olivine as catalysts in a secondary reactor, also varying the temperature of the secondary reactor and the catalyst mass), of the solid waste of orange and the results are compared with those obtained in the gasification with non catalytic air. In the processes we use a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, valuing the influence of the independent variables and their interactions in the answers, using the software Design-Expert version 7 and a grade of significance of 95 %. The results demonstrate the qualities of the solid waste of orange in the energy use by means of the gasification process for the treatment of these residuals, obtaining a gas of low caloric value. The use of catalysts also diminishes the yield of tars obtained in the gasification process, being more active the dolomite that the olivine in this process. (author)

  7. Current results of coal gasification materials research at GRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included

  8. TG-MS analysis and kinetic study for thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste under steam atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinzhi; Chen, Tianju; Wu, Jingli; Wu, Jinhu

    2015-09-01

    Thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste (MSW, including lignin, printing paper, cotton, rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cabbage) was investigated by thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) under steam atmosphere. Compared with TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves under N2 atmosphere, thermal decomposition of MSW components under steam atmosphere was divided into pyrolysis and gasification stages. In the pyrolysis stage, the shapes of TG and DTG curves under steam atmosphere were almost the same with those under N2 atmosphere. In the gasification stage, the presence of steam led to a greater mass loss because of the steam partial oxidation of char residue. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were well consistent with DTG curves in terms of appearance of peaks and relevant stages in the whole temperature range, and the steam partial oxidation of char residue promoted the generation of more gas products in high temperature range. The multi-Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was proved plausible to describe thermal decomposition behaviours of MSW components under steam atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  10. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Gasification potential for process industries in Languedoc-Roussillon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This study, requested by the French 'BioenergieSud' network, aims at identifying the potentialities of gasification in Languedoc-Roussillon region (France). The goals are: evaluating the degree of information of industrialists with respect to gasification, their present day perception and the different obstacles and levers for the adoption of this technology; estimating the potential market of gasification units in this area through the study of the existing industrial actors; better evaluating the energy needs and expectations of the industrialists from different sectors in order to develop suitable gasification solutions

  12. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  13. Hydrogen production via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Czernik, S.; Montane, D.; Mann, M.; Chornet, E.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells, and as a co-adjuvant or autonomous transportation fuel in internal combustion engines. The conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct thermochemical strategies: (a) gasification followed by shift conversion; (b) catalytic steam reforming and shift conversion of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper shows that fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a bio-oil that can be adequately fractionated into valuable co-products leaving as by-product an aqueous fraction containing soluble organics (a mixture of alcohols, aldehydes and acids). This fraction can be converted to hydrogen by catalytic steam reforming followed by a shift conversion step. The methods used, the yields obtained and their economic significance will be discussed. (author)

  14. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  15. Gasification characteristics of auto shredder residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navee, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Given the large volume of used tyre waste generated each year it is imperative that suitable re-use and disposal techniques are developed for dealing with this problem; presently these include rethreading, reprocessing for use as safe playground and sports surfaces, use as noise reduction barriers and utilisation as a fuel source. This paper reports on pilot scale studies designed to investigate the suitability of automotive waste for energy recovery via gasification. The study was carried out into auto shredder residue, which is a mixture of three distinct waste streams: tyres, rubber/plastic and general automotive waste. The tests included proximate, ultimate and elemental analysis, TGA, as well as calorific value determinations. In addition, the waste was tested in a desktop gasifier, and analysis was carried out to determine the presence and type of combustible gases. It was concluded that tyre waste and rubber/plastic waste are quite suitable fuels for gasification. (author)

  16. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  17. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  18. Introducing novel graphical techniques to assess gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngubevana, Lwazi; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David [Center Of Material and Process Synthesis (COMPS), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    Due to its complexity, coal gasification is perhaps one industry's least understood processes. This is despite the fact that this process is critical to countries such as South Africa, as it is responsible for producing a large portion of the country's fuel needs through the Fischer-Tropsch process. Worldwide, this process has also become critical for applications such as IGCC, for the production of electricity. It is because of this importance that it is necessary to better understand this process. Another motivating factor is that gasifiers are very expensive and are big energy consumers as well as being large carbon dioxide producers. Much experimental work has been done in the area of gasification, but this can be very expensive and is time consuming. It is with this in mind, that we have developed a quick, relatively simple and yet very powerful graphical tool to assess and better understand gasification and to use this tool to look for opportunities to improve efficiencies of process and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The approach used here is to make a few reasonable assumptions to set up mass balances; the energy balance and reaction equilibria around a coal gasifier. This paper deals with how these balances can be set up; it also looks at what effect the feed composition and choice of reaction conditions (temperature and pressure), may have on the possible gasifier product. The result of this approach shows that we can work in a stoichiometric subspace defined by the energy and mass balance. Furthermore we can show that gasification is energy and not work limited which has implications for the design and operation of these units. (author)

  19. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P; Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Hepola, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  20. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  1. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  2. Development of coal hydro gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Nomura, Kazuo; Asaoka, Yoshikiyo; Kato, Shojiro; Seo, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    Taking a potential future decrease in natural gas supply into consideration, we are looking for a way to secure a stable supply of high quality substitute natural gas made from coal (which occurs abundantly throughout the world) in large volumes at low cost. We are working towards our goal of commercializing coal hydro gasification technology in the 2010's and have started developing elemental technology from FY, 1996 as a part of the governmental new energy program. (au)

  3. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  4. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  5. Simulation of an integrated gasification combined cycle with chemical-looping combustion and carbon dioxide sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez Álvaro, Ángel; López Paniagua, Ignacio; González Fernández, Celina; Rodríguez Martín, Javier; Nieto Carlier, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A chemical-looping combustion based integrated gasification combined cycle is simulated. • The energetic performance of the plant is analyzed. • Different hydrogen-content synthesis gases are under study. • Energy savings accounting carbon dioxide sequestration and storage are quantified. • A notable increase on thermal efficiency up to 7% is found. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion is an interesting technique that makes it possible to integrate power generation from fuels combustion and sequestration of carbon dioxide without energy penalty. In addition, the combustion chemical reaction occurs with a lower irreversibility compared to a conventional combustion, leading to attain a somewhat higher overall thermal efficiency in gas turbine systems. This paper provides results about the energetic performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant based on chemical-looping combustion of synthesis gas. A real understanding of the behavior of this concept of power plant implies a complete thermodynamic analysis, involving several interrelated aspects as the integration of energy flows between the gasifier and the combined cycle, the restrictions in relation with heat balances and chemical equilibrium in reactors and the performance of the gas turbines and the downstream steam cycle. An accurate thermodynamic modeling is required for the optimization of several design parameters. Simulations to evaluate the energetic efficiency of this chemical-looping-combustion based power plant under diverse working conditions have been carried out, and a comparison with a conventional integrated gasification power plant with precombustion capture of carbon dioxide has been made. Two different synthesis gas compositions have been tried to check its influence on the results. The energy saved in carbon capture and storage is found to be significant and even notable, inducing an improvement of the overall power plant thermal efficiency of

  6. Entrained bed gasification of coal: prediction of contaminant levels using thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Zheng, L.; Boudreau, F.; Kovacik, G. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Labs.)

    1993-10-01

    The F.A.C.T. method was used for predicting the emissions of S-, Cl-, N-, Pb- and As-containing contaminants from entrained bed gasification of one bituminous coal and one subbituminous coal. When the effect of mineral matter was included, the emissions of H[sub 2]S, CS[sub 2], COS, HCl and HCN decreased substantially whereas the amount of predicted NH[sub 3] remained unaffected. The decrease was offset by increased formation of metal sulphides, chlorides and cyanides. Relatively large amounts of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb and As in the gas were predicted by the method. The chlorides of these metals are also rather volatile. The presence of steam increased the amount of H[sub 2]S and HCl and decreased the amount of HCN in the products. 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification; Approche thermodynamique des transformations de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-07-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H{sub 2}. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H{sub 2}. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  8. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO2-capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  9. Integration of energy-efficient empty fruit bunch drying with gasification/combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Prawisudha, Pandji; Prabowo, Bayu; Budiman, Bentang Arief

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel integrated drying, gasification and combined cycle for empty fruit bunch. • Application of enhanced process integration to achieve high total energy efficiency. • The technology covers exergy recovery and process integration. • High overall energy efficiency can be achieved (about 44% including drying). - Abstract: A high-energy-efficient process for empty fruit bunch drying with integration to gasification and combined cycle processes is proposed. The enhancement is due to greater exergy recovery and more efficient process integration. Basically, the energy/heat involved in a single process is recovered as much as possible, leading to minimization of exergy destruction. In addition, the unrecoverable energy/heat is utilized for other processes through process integration. During drying, a fluidized bed dryer with superheated steam is used as the main evaporator. Exergy recovery is performed through exergy elevation via compression and effective heat coupling in a dryer and heat exchangers. The dried empty fruit bunches are gasified in a fluidized bed gasifier using air as the fluidizing gas. Furthermore, the produced syngas is utilized as fuel in the combined cycle module. From process analysis, the proposed integrated processes can achieve a relatively high energy efficiency. Compared to a standalone drying process employing exergy recovery, the proposed integrated drying can reduce consumed energy by about 1/3. In addition, the overall integrated processes can reach a total power generation efficiency of about 44%

  10. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass Gasification Products to Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Swartz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2 by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech Materials. It was observed that complete CH4 conversion could be achieved on MNS catalyst granules at 800–900 °C and a space velocity of 24,000 mL/g/h in a simulated biomass gasification stream. Addition of 10–20 ppm H2S to the feed had no apparent impact on CH4 conversion. The MNS-washcoated monolith also showed high activities in converting methane, light hydrocarbons and tar to syngas. A 1200 h test without deactivation was achieved on the MNS washcoated monolith in the presence of H2S and/or NH3, two common impurities in gasified biomass. The results indicate that the MNS material is a promising catalyst for removal of tar and light hydrocarbons from biomass gasified gases, enabling efficient use of biomass to produce power, liquid fuels and valuable chemicals.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIONG FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE(PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-04-17

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the January 1--March 31, 2003 time period.

  12. Development of processes for the utilization of Brazilian coal using nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamert, H.; Niessen, H.F.; Walbeck, M.; Wasrzik, U.; Mueller, R.; Schiffers, U.; Strauss, W.

    1980-01-01

    Status of the project: End of the project definition phase and preparation of the planned conceptual phase. Objective of the project: Development of processes for the utilization of nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam for the gasification of coal with high ash content, in particular coal from Brazil. Results: With the data of Brazilian coal of high ash content (mine Leao/ 43% ash in the mine-mouth quality, 20% ash after preparation) there have been worked out proposals for the mine planning and for a number of processes. On the basis of these proposals and under consideration of the main data specified by the Brazilian working group there have been choosen two processes and worked out in a conceptual design: 1) pressurized water reactor + LURGI-pressure gasifier/hydrogasification for the production of SNG and 2) high temperature reactor steam gasification for the production of town gas. The economic evaluation showed that the two processes are not substantially different in their cost efficiency and they are economical on a long-term basis. For more specific design work there has been planned the implementation of an experimental programme using the semi-technical plants 'hydrogasification' in Wesseling and 'steam gasification' in Essen as the conceptual phase. (orig.) [de

  13. Roadmap for the commercialisation of biomass gasification. A critical evaluation, tips, questions and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, G.H.

    2000-10-01

    Biomass has the potential to be a major replacement of fossil fuels. The world wide availability of biomass is considerable but it is not always in balance with the anticipated consumption. Biomass (wood) has the disadvantage that it has a low energy density and transport costs are, therefore, relatively high. Combustion, being a well-developed technology with many references, is the obvious choice for conversion technology. On the scale that biomass plants are usually constructed, however, the overall efficiency of the combustion system is low. Gasification has the advantage that solid fuel is converted into gaseous fuel which can be used in IC (internal combustion) engines or combined (gas and steam turbine) cycles with high efficiency. Even on a very small scale (several hundred kWe) a biomass-driven IC engine can have an efficiency of around 25%. Gasification has not yet advanced to the stage that it can serve as a reliable conversion technology for supplying electric power to industry or to the national grid. This may be possible on paper but in practice the market needs to be convinced by the success of plants in full operation. The first generation of plants, now under construction, or in operation, have to demonstrate the technology and provide confidence for future developments. Fixed bed gasification in combination with IC engines is more appropriate for small units. The development in micropower units is of particular interest. This development has been initiated for natural gas-fuelled units supplying power and heat to households, apartment blocks or offices. Once the fuel handling problems have been overcome and the units are more reliable and easier to operate, this could be a market with ample cost savings on the basis of mass production. Fluidised bed gasification, integrated with a combined cycle, is probably better suited to larger units, above 10 MWe. After experience has been obtained with units at an atmospheric pressure, the increase of the

  14. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  15. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  16. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  17. Gasification of coal as efficient means of environment protection and hydrogenation of heavy oils residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia`s more then 50% of coals produced in its European part contain over 2,5% of sulphur, and the coals containing less than 1.5% of sulphurs comprise ca.20%. Thus, utilisation of the sulphide coals is inevitable, and there a problem arises concerning the technology of their sensible use and considering the requirements on the environment protection. Russia`s specialists have developed a design and construction for a steam-gas installation with a closed cycle gasification of the solid fuel. The gasification process will proceed in the fluidized bed under forced pressure of the steam-air blast. Characteristic features of this process are the following: a higher efficiency (the capacity of one gas generator is 3-3,5 times larger than that attained in the present gas generators of the Lurgy`s type): 2-2,5 times decreased fuel losses as compared to the Winkler`s generators; retention of the sensible heat, resulting in an increased total energy efficiency. The main task for petroleum refining industry at the present stage is the increase of depth of oil processing with the aim to intensify motor fuel production. One of the ways to solve the problem is to involve heavy oil residues into the processing. But the high metal and asphaltenes contents in the latter make the application of traditional methods and processes more difficult. Up to now there is no simple and effective technology which could give the opportunity to use oil residues for distillate fractions production. In Fossil fuel institute a process for hydrogenation of high boiling oil products, including with high sulphur, vanadium and nickel contents ones, into distillates and metals concentrates. The main point of the new process is as follows: the water solution of catalytic additive, for which purpose water soluble metal salts of VI-VIII groups are used, is mixed with tar, dispersed and then subjected to additional supercavitation in a special apparatus.

  18. Hydrogen and syngas production by catalytic gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) using alkali and alkaline-earth metals compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abdol Ghaffar; Hisoriev, Hikmat; Zarnegar, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Hamed

    2018-01-02

    The steam gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) in presence of alkali and alkaline-earth metal compounds catalysts was studied to enhance the yield of syngas and reduce its tar content through cracking and reforming of condensable fractions. The commercial catalysts used include NaOH, KHCO 3 , Na 3 PO 4 and MgO. The gasification runs carried out with a research scale, biomass gasification unit, show that the NaOH has a strong potential for production of hydrogen, along with the added advantages of char converting and tar destruction, allowing enhancement of produced syngas caloric value. When the temperature increased from 700°C to 900°C, the tar content in the gas sharply decreased, while the hydrogen yield increased. Increasing steam/biomass ratio significantly increased hydrogen yield and tar destruction; however, the particle size in the range of 0.5-2.5 mm played a minor role in the process.

  19. In-Space Propulsion, Logistics Reduction, and Evaluation of Steam Reformer Kinetics: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Kulis, M. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Human space missions generate waste materials. A 70-kg crewmember creates a waste stream of 1 kg per day, and a four-person crew on a deep space habitat for a 400+ day mission would create over 1600 kg of waste. Converted into methane, the carbon could be used as a fuel for propulsion or power. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is investing in space resource utilization with an emphasis on repurposing logistics materials for useful purposes and has selected steam reforming among many different competitive processes as the preferred method for repurposing organic waste into methane. Already demonstrated at the relevant processing rate of 5.4 kg of waste per day, high temperature oxygenated steam consumes waste and produces carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen which can then be converted into methane catalytically. However, the steam reforming process has not been studied in microgravity. Data are critically needed to understand the mechanisms that allow use of steam reforming in a reduced gravity environment. This paper reviews the relevant literature, identifies gravity-dependent mechanisms within the steam gasification process, and describes an innovative experiment to acquire the crucial kinetic information in a small-scale reactor specifically designed to operate within the requirements of a reduced gravity aircraft flight. The experiment will determine if the steam reformer process is mass-transport limited, and if so, what level of forced convection will be needed to obtain performance comparable to that in 1-g.

  20. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  1. Modeling Tar Recirculation in Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineken, Wolfram; De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Zobel, Nico

    2016-01-01

    A biomass gasification model is proposed and applied to investigate the benefits of tar recirculation within a gasification plant. In the model, tar is represented by the four species phenol, toluene, naphthalene, and benzene. The model is spatially one-dimensional, assuming plug flow for the

  2. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification experiments were carried out in a bench scale entrained flow reactor, and the produced solid particles were collected by a cyclone and a metal filter for subsequent characterization. During wood gasification, the major part of the solid material collected in the filter is soot...

  3. Gasification of wet biomass waste flows for electric power generation. Vergassing van natte biomassa-afvalstromen voor elektriciteitsproduktie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faaij, A; Blok, K; Worrell, E

    1992-06-01

    Feasibility of gasification of biomass waste streams for electricity production is studied. An inventory of available wet biomass wastes and their features is made. A potential of at least 28 PJ/year is available in the Netherlands. On the basis of a technical survey two systems were selected. The first is a steam-injected gas turbine (STIG) of net 15 MWe, and the second system is a STIG of net 49 MWe. Both make use of the Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed (ACFB) gasification technology, wet scrubber gas cleaning and of flue gas for drying the waste. Efficiencies of 27% and 30% were calculated for 160 kton and 500 kton biomass waste a year respectively. Waste treatment costs are expected to be DFl 31 and DFl 24 per ton respectively, which is significant lower than the alternatives, being compost and anaerobic digestion of biomass waste. Moreover, this technique represents a considerable potential for saving fossil fuels and reducing CO[sub 2] emissions. This indicates that gasification can become a strong competitor for anaerobic digestion, composting and incineration on biomass waste treatment. The main technical problems to be solved are optimization of pre-treatment of the waste, especially drying, the behavior of the ash and heavy metals and adaptation of gas turbines for low calorific gas, possibly combined with steam injection. Fundamental problems to prohibit further development of this option seem not to be present. It is expected that realization of the option discussed here is possible within 4-7 years. 3 figs., 6 tabs., 64 refs.

  4. Steam generator arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ssinegurski, E.

    1981-01-01

    A steam flow path arrangement for covering the walls of the rear gas pass of a steam generator is disclosed. The entire flow passes down the sidewalls with a minor portion then passing up through the rear wall to a superheater inlet header at an intermediate elevation. The major portion of the flow passes up the front wall and through hanger tubes to a roof header. From there the major portion passes across the roof and down the rear wall to the superheater inlet header at the intermediate elevation

  5. Dewatering a gasification zone in the Dnieper region for underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedenko, M V

    1957-01-01

    The processes for draining brown coal open-pit mines are described. Experience with water inflow in open-pit mines of the Dnieper region and stratigraphic cross section and hydrogeological conditions in the area of the planned gasification installation are discussed. Expedient draining by boreholes is described, and arrangement of boreholes and filters is shown. Cost data are presented.

  6. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, B.W.; Werner, C.E.; Klahn, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  7. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Surveys and studies of demonstration plant); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted concerning a demonstration plant for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In this fiscal year, a demonstration plant conceptual design was prepared for assuring smooth transition from a pilot plant to a commercial plant. The design followed the system employed at the Nakoso pilot plant for its gasification power generation. It was decided that the gasification furnace be of the air-blown (oxygen enriched) 2-stage entrained bed type, that the desulfurization system be of the dry type 2-stage fluidized bed type, the dedusting system be of the dry type granular bed type (moving bed type), that the combined cycle power facility be derived from the commercialized gas turbine, and that the cycle of the steam system agree with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle system now under discussion. Studies were made, which covered heat efficiency (generating end/sending end), heat/matter balance, process flow, gas turbine/steam system optimization, comparison in performance with a pilot plant with its dimensions increased, estimation of the performance of each of the facilities, estimation of the construction cost, calculation of the generation cost, environmental friendliness, operating characteristics, acceptable coal types, and the like. (NEDO)

  8. Catalytic technology in the energy/environment field. Utilization of catalyst in coal pyrolysis and gasification processes; Energy kankyo bun`ya ni okeru shokubai gijutsu. Sekitan no netsubunkai oyobi gas ka ni okeru shokubai no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Institute for Chemical Reaction Science (Japan)

    1998-05-20

    This review article focuses on the utilization of several catalysts during coal pyrolysis and gasification. In situ or off line catalytic upgrading of volatile matters during pyrolysis of low rank coals is carried out in pressurized H2 with different reactors to produce BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). When NiSO4 and Ni(OH)2 are used in the hydropyrolysis of Australian brown coal using an entrained bed reactor with two separated reaction zones, BTX yield reaches 18-23%. MS-13X zeolite and USY zeolite mixed with Al2O3 are effective for producing BTX with powder-particle fluidized bed and two-stage reactors, respectively. Catalytic gasification is described from a standpoint of direct production of SNG(CH4) from coal and steam. When K2CO3 and Ni are compared for this purpose, Ni catalyst is more suitable at low temperatures of 500-600degC, where CH4 formation is thermodynamically favorable. Fe and Ca catalysts can successfully be prepared from inexpensive raw materials and are rather active for steam gasification at {>=}700degC. The use of upgrading and gasification catalysts is discussed in terms of preparation, performance, life and recovery. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Supercritical water gasification of Victorian brown coal: Experimental characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Doki; Aye, Lu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic 3010 (Australia); Sanderson, P. John; Lim, Seng [CSIRO Minerals, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    Supercritical water gasification is an innovative thermochemical conversion method for converting wet feedstocks into hydrogen-rich gaseous products. The non-catalytic gasification characteristics of Victorian brown coal were investigated in supercritical water by using a novel immersion technique with quartz batch reactors. Various operating parameters such as temperature, feed concentration and reaction time were varied to investigate their effect on the gasification behaviour. Gas yields, carbon gasification efficiency and the total gasification efficiency increased with increasing temperature and reaction time, and decreasing feed concentration. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the product gases was lowest at 600 C, and increased to over 30 % at a temperature of 800 C. Varying parameters, especially reaction time, did not improve the coal utilisation for gas production significantly and the measured data showed a large deviation from the equilibrium level. (author)

  10. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  11. Steam generators - problems and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    Steam-generator problems, largely a consequence of corrosion and fouling, have resulted in increased inspection requirements and more regulatory attention to steam-generator integrity. In addition, utilities have had to develop steam-generator life-management strategies, including cleaning and replacement, to achieve design life. This paper summarizes the pertinent data to 1993/1994, and presents an overview of current steam-generator management practices. (author)

  12. Coal gasification: A technology in the puberty. Kolenvergassing: Een technologie in de puberteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppink, G. (Sep, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1994-12-01

    Several aspects of present developments regarding coal gasification are briefly discussed. Attention is paid to the place of the coal gasification in the total electric power generation, its environmental impact, the recently available new coal techniques, coal gasification in the next ten years, cost comparisons, and developments at the coal gasification demonstration plant in Buggenum, Netherlands. 3 figs.

  13. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  14. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  15. Consolidated nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.; Schluderberg, D.C.; Paulson, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved system of providing power has a unique generating means for nuclear reactors with a number of steam generators in the form of replaceable modular units of the expendable type to attain the optimum in effective and efficient vaporization of fluid during the generating power. The system is most adaptable to undrground power plants and marine usage

  16. Steam generators and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, E

    1978-04-01

    The documents published in 1977 in the field of steam generators for conventional thermal power plants are classified according to the following subjects: power industry and number of power plants, planning and operation, design and construction, furnaces, environmental effects, dirt accumulation and corrosion, conservation and scouring, control and automation, fundamental research, and materials.

  17. Watt steam governor stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2002-05-01

    The physics of the fly-ball governor, introduced to regulate the speed of steam engines, is here analysed anew. The original analysis is generalized to arbitrary governor geometry. The well-known stability criterion for the linearized system breaks down for large excursions from equilibrium; we show approximately how this criterion changes.

  18. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.; Passell, T.

    1982-01-01

    Reports that 2 EPRI studies of PWRs prove that impure steam triggers decay of turbine metals. Reveals that EPRI is attempting to improve steam monitoring and analysis, which are key steps on the way to deciding the most cost-effective degree of steam purity, and to upgrade demineralizing systems, which can then reliably maintain that degree of purity. Points out that 90% of all cracks in turbine disks have occurred at the dry-to-wet transition zone, dubbed the Wilson line. Explains that because even very clean water contains traces of chemical impurities with concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, Crystal River-3's secondary loop was designed with even more purification capability; a deaerator to remove oxygen and prevent oxidation of system metals, and full-flow resin beds to demineralize 100% of the secondary-loop water from the condenser. Concludes that focusing attention on steam and water chemistry can ward off cracking and sludge problems caused by corrosion

  19. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Naive forecasting: the fiasco of coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, W S

    1985-01-01

    The decision by the U.S. government to subsidize the development of coal gasification was based on a naive forecast that neglected the influence of price on both conventional sources of supply and consumer demand. Even before substantial construction costs were incurred on the Great Plains plant, a surplus of natural gas has developed. The political process, however, did not include the sort of critical review that often accompanies the financing decision in the private sector and that would surely have prevented this error. 17 references.

  1. Underground gasification of coal. [Newman Spinney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-06-16

    This article gives an account of the experimental work on underground gasification at Newman Spinney near Sheffield, England. An attempt was made to develop the percolation technique in flat coal seams but to demonstrate first that gas can be made underground. A borehole system was created on an opencast site where an exposed seam face would allow horizontal drilling to be carried out. Details of trails are given, and drilling techniques, electromagnetic device developed by the Great Britain Post Office Research Branch and radioactive location developed by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. An account is given of the inauguration of a series of experiments on May 22, 1950.

  2. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  4. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  6. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  7. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    , and the design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...... comparison and for process studies on the influence of the most important fuel and process parameters. They have the advantage of being independent of gasifier design, but they cannot give highly accurate results for all cases. The kinetic-based models are computationally more intensive but give accurate...

  8. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  9. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  10. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology (research on a pressurized and fluidized gasification system for coal and heavy oil mixed materials); Sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan oyobi jushitsuyu kongo genryo no kaatsu ryudo gas ka hoshiki no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in developing a high-calorie gas manufacturing technology for coal gasification in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Pulverized coal and heavy oil are heated and stirred to make it a slurry, which is forced into a fluidized bed gasification furnace together with spraying steam, and pyrolyzed by using a unique slurry feeding system (a hydrohoist). Carbon-like material as a by-product (char) is partially oxidized (burned) by steam and oxygen at the lower part of the gasification furnace. The material is gasified in the furnace, where the generated heat is sent to the pyrolysis zone in the upper part by the gas and fluidized bed media particles (char), and utilized as a heat source for the slurry pyrolysis. The produced gas is cooled by an indirect heat exchanger of the fluidized bed system and a scrubber to separate tar, dust and unreacted steam. Part of the sensible heat is recovered as steam. Thus, high-calorie gas of 6,000 kcal/Nm{sup 3} can be obtained, which is rich in methane, CO and hydrogen. Fiscal 1981 has performed a continuous test by using an internal heat type low-pressure gasification equipment to evaluate its compatibility to the diversification of materials. (NEDO)

  11. Kinetics of Pyrolysis and Gasification Using Thermogravimetric and Thermovolumetric Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerski Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide gasification process of Miscanthus giganteus biomass was examined using two methods. First an isothermal thermovolumetric method was applied. The measurement was conducted at 950°C and pressure of 0.1 MPa. Based on the continuous analysis of different kinds of gases formed during the gasification process, the thermovolumetric method allowed the determination of yields and composition of the resulting gas as well as the rate constant of CO formation. Then a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method was applied, during which the loss of weight of a sample as a function of temperature was recorded. In the course of the measurement, the temperature was raised from ambient to 950°C and the pressure was 0.1 MPa. As a result, a change in the carbon conversion degree was obtained. Moreover, TGA methods allow distinguishing various stages of the gasification process such as primary pyrolysis, secondary pyrolysis and gasification, and determining kinetic parameters for each stage. The presented methods differs from each other as they are based either on the analysis of changes in the resulting product or on the analysis of changes in the supplied feedstock, but both can be successfully used to the effective examination of kinetics of the gasification process. In addition, an important advantage of both methods is the possibility to carry out the gasification process for different solid fuels as coal, biomass, or solid waste in the atmosphere of a variety of gasification agents.

  12. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Özek, Nuri; Yüksel, Yunus Emre

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  13. Small Scale Gasification Application and Perspectives in Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Bisters, Valdis; Burlakovs, Juris

    2018-06-01

    Gasification is the process converting solid fuels as coal and organic plant matter, or biomass into combustible gas, called syngas. Gasification is a thermal conversion process using carbonaceous fuel, and it differs substantially from other thermal processes such as incineration or pyrolysis. The process can be used with virtually any carbonaceous fuel. It is an endothermic thermal conversion process, with partial oxidation being the dominant feature. Gasification converts various feedstock including waste to a syngas. Instead of producing only heat and electricity, synthesis gas produced by gasification may be transformed into commercial products with higher value as transport fuels, fertilizers, chemicals and even to substitute natural gas. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and solid municipal waste is developing as a tool to promote the idea of energy system without fossil fuels to a reality. In municipal solid waste management, gasification does not compete with recycling, moreover it enhances recycling programs. Pre-processing and after-processing must increase the amount of recyclables in the circular economy. Additionally, end of life plastics can serve as an energy feedstock for gasification as otherwise it cannot be sorted out and recycled. There is great potential for application of gasification technology within the biomass waste and solid waste management sector. Industrial self-consumption in the mode of combined heat and power can contribute to sustainable economic development within a circular economy.

  14. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Mark J.; Ptasinski, Krzysztof J.; Janssen, Frans J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O/C and H/C ratio as illustrated in a Van Krevelen diagram, is compared. It was found that exergy losses in gasifying wood (O/C ratio around 0.6) are larger than those for coal (O/C ratio around 0.2). At a gasification temperature of 927 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.4 is recommended, which corresponds to a lower heating value above 23 MJ/kg. For gasification at 1227 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.3 and lower heating value above 26 MJ/kg is preferred. It could thus be attractive to modify the properties of highly oxygenated biofuels prior to gasification, e.g. by separation of wood into its components and gasification of the lignin component, thermal pre-treatment, and/or mixing with coal in order to enhance the heating value of the gasifier fuel

  15. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus

  16. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Siemens fuel gasification technology - solutions and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, F.; Schingnitz, M.; Schmid, C. [Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In 2006, Siemens Power Generation Group acquired the GSP Gasification technology, and renamed it SFGT. The presentation reviews the technology and provides an update on current projects. The future plans for the development of the technology based on extensive experience and comprehensive development work gathered over many years and proven in a number of gasification plants is covered. SFGT operates, at its Freiberg facility, a 5 MWth pilot plant which was built to test prototype designs and to determine process conditions for various feed streams. An overview is given of the results of tests completed on a wide range of carbonaceous materials including all types of solid fuels from lignite to anthracite, as well as brown coal, oil, sludge or biomass, and low-temperature coke or petcoke. The technical focus of the paper is on the unique design features such as the cooling screen and alternative refractory lining, as well as the dense flow feeding system that allows the preferable use of lignite applications.

  20. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  1. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  2. Numerical modeling of counter-current condensation in a Black Liquor Gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risberg, Mikael; Gebart, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Pressurized Entrained flow High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification is a novel technique to recover the inorganic chemicals and available energy in black liquor originating from kraft pulping. The gasifier has a direct quench that quickly cools the raw syngas when it leaves the hot reactor by spraying the gas with a water solution. As a result, the raw syngas becomes saturated with steam. Typically the gasifier operates at 30 bar which corresponds to a dew point of about 235 °C and a steam concentration in the saturated syngas that is about 3 times higher than the total concentration of the other species in the syngas. After the quench cooler the syngas is passed through a counter-current condenser where the raw syngas is cooled and most of the steam is condensed. The condenser consists of several vertical tubes where reflux condensation occurs inside the tubes due to water cooling of the tubes on the shell-side. A large part of the condensation takes place inside the tubes on the wall and results in a counterflow of water driven by gravity through the counter current condenser. In this study a computational fluid dynamics model is developed for the two-phase fluid flow on the tube-side of the condenser and for the single phase flow of the shell-side. The two-phase flow was treated using an Euler–Euler formulation with closure correlations for heat flux, condensation rate and pressure drop inside the tubes. The single-phase model for the shell side uses closure correlations for the heat flux and pressure drop. Predictions of the model are compared with results from experimental measurements in a condenser used in a 3 MW Black Liquor Gasification development plant. The results are in good agreement with the limited experimental data that has been collected in the experimental gasifier. However, more validation data is necessary before a definite conclusion can be drawn about the predictive capability of the code. -- Highlights: • A multi-phase model for a

  3. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  4. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R; Lindblom, M [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  5. Steam generators in PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.

    1974-01-01

    The steam generator of the PWR operates according to the principle of natural circulation. It consists of a U-shaped tube bundle whose free ends are welded to a bottom plate. The tube bundle is surrounded by a cylinder jacket which has slots closely above the bottom or tube plate. The feed water mixed with boiling water enters the tube bundle through these slots. Because of its buoyancy, the steam-water mixture flows upwards. Below the tube plate there are chambers for distributing and collecting pressurized water separated by means of a partition wall. By omitting some tubes, a free alloy is created so that the tubes in the center get sufficient water, too. By asymmetrical arrangement of the partition wall it is further possible to limit the tube alloy only to the inlet side for pressurized water. The flow over the tube plate is thus improved on the inlet side. (DG) [de

  6. Vertical steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  7. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.; McGillivray, R.; Reinhardt, W.; Millman, J.; King, B.; Schneider, W.

    2003-01-01

    'Full-Text:' Steam Generator Life Management responsibility embodies doing whatever is necessary to maintain the steam generation equipment of a nuclear plant in effective, reliable service. All comes together in that most critical deliverable, namely the submission of the documentation which wins approval for return to service after an outage program. Life management must address all aspects of SG reliability over the life of the plant. Nevertheless, the life management activities leading up to return to service approval is where all of it converges. Steam Generator Life Management activities entail four types of work, all equally important in supporting the objective of successful operation. These activities are i) engineering functions; including identification of inspection and maintenance requirements, outage planning and scope definition plus engineering assessment, design and analysis as necessary to support equipment operation, ii) fitness of service work; including the expert evaluation of degradation mechanisms, disposition of defects for return to service or not, and the fitness for service analysis as required to justify ongoing operation with acceptable defects, iii) inspection work; including large scale eddy current inspection of tubing, the definition of defect size and character, code inspections of pressure vessel integrity and visual inspections for integrity and iv) maintenance work; including repairs, retrofits, cleaning and modifications, all as necessary to implement the measures defined during activities i) through iii). The paper discusses the approach and execution of the program for the achievement of the above objectives and particularly of items i) and ii). (author)

  8. What is geothermal steam worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsson, S.; Ragnarsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal steam is obtained from high-temperature boreholes, either directly from the reservoir or by flashing. The value of geothermal steam is similar to that of steam produced in boilers and lies in its ability to do work in heat engines such as turbines and to supply heat for a wide range of uses. In isolated cases the steam can be used as a source of chemicals, for example the production of carbon dioxide. Once the saturated steam has been separated from the water, it can be transported without further treatment to the end user. There are several constraints on its use set by the temperature of the reservoir and the chemical composition of the reservoir fluid. These constraints are described (temperature of steam, scaling in water phase, gas content of steam, well output) as are the methods that have been adopted to utilize this source of energy successfully. Steam can only be transported over relatively short distances (a few km) and thus has to be used close to the source. Examples are given of the pressure drop and sizing of steam mains for pipelines. The path of the steam from the reservoir to the end user is traced and typical cost figures given for each part of the system. The production cost of geothermal steam is estimated and its sensitivity to site-specific conditions discussed. Optimum energy recovery and efficiency is important as is optimizing costs. The paper will treat the steam supply system as a whole, from the reservoir to the end user, and give examples of how the site-specific conditions and system design have an influence on what geothermal steam is worth from the technical and economic points of view

  9. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzinger, G.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility

  10. Steam gasification of a thermally pretreated high lignin corn stover simultaneous saccharification and fermentation digester residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G.; Li, Guosheng; Wolcott, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Efficient conversion of all components in lignocellulosic biomass is essential to realizing economic feasibility of biorefineries. However, when utilizing biochemical pathways, lignin cannot be fermented. Furthermore, the high lignin and high ash residue resulting from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactors is difficult to thermochemically process due to feed line plugging and bed agglomeration. In this study a corn stover SSF digester residue was thermally pretreated at 300°C for 22.5 minutes (min) and then gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier to study the effect of thermal pretreatment on its processing behavior. Untreated, pelletized SSF residue was gasified at the same conditions to establish the baseline processing behavior. Results indicate that the thermal pretreatment process removes a substantial portion of the polar and non-polar extractives, with a resultant increase in the concentration of lignin, cellulose, and ash. Feed line plugging was not observed, although bed agglomeration was occurring at similar rates for both feedstocks, suggesting that overall ash content is the most important factor affecting bed agglomeration. Benzene, phenol, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the tar were present at higher concentrations in the treated material, with higher tar loading in the product gas. Total product gas generation is lower for the treated material, although the overall gas composition does not change.

  11. Biomass oxygen/steam gasification in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed: Agglomeration behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chunguang; Rosén, Christer; Engvall, Klas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dolomite is a superior material in preventing bed agglomeration. • Small molten ash particles deposited on magnesite at bed temperatures above 1000 °C. • The performance, when using magnesite, is sensitive to temperature disturbances. • The anti-agglomeration mechanisms of Ca- and Mg-bearing materials were discussed. - Abstract: In this study, the anti-agglomeration abilities of Ca- and Mg-containing bed materials, including dolomite and magnesite, in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifier using pine pellets and birch chips as feedstock, is investigated. The most typical bed material—silica sand—was also included as a reference for comparison. The sustainability of the operation was evaluated via analyzing the temperatures at different levels along the bed height. During the performances, the aim was to keep the temperature at the bottom zone of the reactor at around 870 °C. However, the success highly depends on the bed materials used in the bed and the temperature can vary significantly in case of agglomeration or bad mixing of bed materials and char particles. Both Glanshammar and Sala dolomites performed well with no observed agglomeration tendencies. In case of magnesite, the bed exhibited a high agglomeration tendency. Silica sand displayed the most severe agglomeration among all bed materials, even when birch chips with a low silica content was fed at a relatively low temperature. The solid samples of all the bed materials were inspected by light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) detector was used to detect the elemental distribution in the surface. The crystal chemical structure was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Magnesite agglomerates glued together by big molten ash particles. There was no coating layer detected on magnesite particles at bed temperatures – below 870 °C. But when the temperature was above 1000 °C, a significant amount of small molten ash particles was deposited on the magnesite particles, indicating a pronounced tendency for formation of a coating layer in case of long-term operation. An increasing trend of Si on the surface of dolomite particles was observed. Simultaneously, potassium deposition on the surface is not obvious. The analyses, based on the XRD diffraction and the K 2 O–SiO 2 –MgO and K 2 O–SiO 2 –CaO ternary diagrams, suggest that the observed decreases in the risks for agglomeration using dolomite, cannot be attributed to formation of alkali-containing compounds with higher melting points, but to the reaction between dolomite and silica, consuming a considerable portion of silicon and thus hinder the formation of low-melting potassium silicate, as well as its ability to stabilize the temperatures under pressurized conditions.

  12. Biowastes-to-biofuels routes via gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.; Sues Caula, A.; Jurascik, M.; Badeau, J.P.; Levi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, biomass has a well-known potential for producing energy calTiers, such as electricity, heat (steam) and transport biofuels. However, biomass availability is rather limited and stochastically distributed. This could be a major problem in demographically dense regions where land is scarce

  13. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of engineering solutions aimed at raising the efficiency of integrated gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    Raising the efficiency and environmental friendliness of electric power generation from coal is the aim of numerous research groups today. The traditional approach based on the steam power cycle has reached its efficiency limit, prompted by materials development and maneuverability performance. The rival approach based on the combined cycle is also drawing nearer to its efficiency limit. However, there is a reserve for efficiency increase of the integrated gasification combined cycle, which has the energy efficiency at the level of modern steam-turbine power units. The limit of increase in efficiency is the efficiency of NGCC. One of the main problems of the IGCC is higher costs of receiving and preparing fuel gas for GTU. It would be reasonable to decrease the necessary amount of fuel gas in the power unit to minimize the costs. The effect can be reached by raising of the heat value of fuel gas, its heat content and the heat content of cycle air. On the example of the process flowsheet of the IGCC with a power of 500 MW, running on Kuznetsk bituminous coal, by means of software Thermoflex, the influence of the developed technical solutions on the efficiency of the power plant is considered. It is received that rise in steam-air blast temperature to 900°C leads to an increase in conversion efficiency up to 84.2%. An increase in temperature levels of fuel gas clean-up to 900°C leads to an increase in the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 3.42%. Cycle air heating reduces the need for fuel gas by 40% and raises the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 0.85-1.22%. The offered solutions for IGCC allow to exceed net efficiency of analogous plants by 1.8-2.3%.

  15. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    ), fast growing energy crops (switchgrass), and popular forage crop (alfalfa), as well as biochar derived from those materials and their mixtures. It demonstrated that Py-MBMS coupled with MVA could be used as fast analytical tools for the study of not only biomass composition but also its thermal decomposition behaviors. It found that the impact of biomass composition heavily depends on the thermal decomposition temperature because at different temperature, the composition of biomass decomposed and the impact of minerals on the decomposition reaction varies. At low temperature (200-500°C), organic compounds attribute to the majority of variation in thermal decomposition products. At higher temperature, inorganics dramatically changed the pyrolysis pathway of carbohydrates and possibly lignin. In gasification, gasification tar formation is also observed to be impacted by ash content in vapor and char. In real reactor, biochar structure also has interactions with other fractions to make the final pyrolysis and gasification product. Based on the evaluation of process efficiencies during torrefaction, temperature ranging from 275°C to 300°C with short residence time (gas product using 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature. In addition, pyrolysis char is found to produce less tar and more gas during steam gasification compared with gasification of pyrolysis vapor. Thus it is suggested that torrefaction might be an efficient pretreatment for biomass gasification because it can largely improve the yield of pyrolysis char during the primary pyrolysis step of gasification thus reduce the total tar of the overall gasification products. Future work is suggested in the end.

  16. Performance of an effectively integrated biomass multi-stage gasification system and a steel industry heat treatment furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarathne, Duleeka Sandamali; Mellin, Pelle; Yang, Weihong; Pettersson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-stage biomass gasification is integrated with steel heat treatment furnace. • Fossil fuel derived CO_2 emission is eliminated by replacing natural gas with syngas. • The integrated system uses waste heat from the furnace for biomass gasification. • Up to 13% increment of the gasifier system energy efficiency is observed. • Fuel switching results in 10% lower flue gas loss and improved furnace efficiency. - Abstract: The challenges of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy in steel industry furnaces include not only reducing CO_2 emissions but also increasing the system energy efficiency. In this work, a multi-stage gasification system is chosen for the integration with a heat treatment furnace in the steel powder industry to recover different rank/temperature waste heat back to the biomass gasification system, resulting higher system energy efficiency. A system model based on Aspen Plus was developed for the proposed integrated system considering all steps, including biomass drying, pyrolysis, gasification and the combustion of syngas in the furnace. Both low temperature (up to 400 °C) and high temperature (up to 700 °C) heat recovery possibilities were analysed in terms of energy efficiency by optimizing the biomass pretreatment temperature. The required process conditions of the furnace can be achieved by using syngas. No major changes to the furnace, combustion technology or flue gas handling system are necessary for this fuel switching. Only a slight revamp of the burner system and a new waste heat recovery system from the flue gases are required. Both the furnace efficiency and gasifier system efficiency are improved by integration with the waste heat recovery. The heat recovery from the hot furnace flue gas for biomass drying and steam superheating is the most promising option from an energy efficiency point of view. This option recovers two thirds of the available waste heat, according to the pinch analysis performed

  17. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  18. Recovery of distillation, gasification, and if necessary redistilled products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, H

    1885-05-17

    Collection chambers are operated in pairs. In one of a pair of chambers there is alternately gasification (heating gas generation or complete combustion), in the other distillation, and continually the products from combustion carry on the distillation.

  19. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  20. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  2. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  3. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H P; Adlhoch, W [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  4. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  5. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  6. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Syngas production from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Study on gasification of OPF (oil palm fronds) is scarce although the biomass constitutes more than 24% of the total oil palm waste. The lack of research related to gasification of oil palm fronds calls for a study on gasification behaviour of the fuel. In this paper the effects of reactor temperature and ER (equivalence ratio) on gas composition, calorific value and gasification efficiency of downdraft gasification of OPF were investigated. The heating value of syngas and the values of cold gas and carbon conversion efficiencies of gasification obtained were found to be comparable with woody biomass. The study showed that oxidation zone temperature above 850 °C is favourable for high concentration of the fuel components of syngas CO, H 2 and CH 4 . Average syngas lower heating value of 5.2 MJ/Nm 3 was obtained for operation with oxidation zone temperatures above 1000 °C, while no significant change in heating value was observed for temperature higher than 1100 °C. The average and peak heating values of 4.8 MJ/Nm 3 and 5.5 MJ/Nm 3 , and cold gas efficiency of 70.2% at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.37 showed that OPF have a high potential as a fuel for gasification. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of pyrolysis and combustion of OPF (oil palm fronds) was done. • Experimental study on syngas production utilizing OPF and parametric study was done. • OPF was found to have a comparable performance with wood in downdraft gasification

  8. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K; Backman, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Ek, P; Hulden, S T; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  9. Kids Inspire Kids for STEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Fenyvesi, Kristof; Houghton, Tony; Diego-Mantecón, José Manuel; Crilly, Elizabeth; Oldknow, Adrian; Lavicza, Zsolt; Blanco, Teresa F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the Kids Inspiring Kids in STEAM (KIKS) project was to raise students' awareness towards the multi- and transdisciplinary connections between the STEAM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts & Mathematics), and make the learning about topics and phenomena from these fields more enjoyable. In order to achieve these goals, KIKS project has popularized the STEAM-concept by projects based on the students inspiring other students-approach and by utilizing new tec...

  10. Theory and experimentation of wood gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matton, G; Thomas, D G [Lab. d' Etude de l' Utilisation Rationnelle des Energies, et de la Diversification des Sources d' Energie, Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambresis, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Delval, P [Moteurs DUVANT, 59 - Valenciennes (France)

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simplified theory of gasification of wood at various moisture contents. After writing the combustion equation of wood with a known moisture content, we balance the atoms on each side of this equation and introduce a reaction temperature which gives the equilibrium constant for the equation of gasification. Solving these simultaneous equations by combining them with the energy equation and the heating value of wood, we get the wet or dry volume compositions of the producer-gas. The experiments were made during a collaboration between The University of Valenciennes and the sub-company SERMIE from MOTEURS DUVANT. The gasifier is a double-body De Lacotte gazogene which works with air and has a capacity of ten tons per day. The gas has a flow rate of about 0,28 m/sup 3//s and its mean composition is the following one: CO/sub 2/: 16% CO: 12% H/sub 2/: 20% N/sub 2/: 51% CH/sub 4/: 0,50%. The theoretical and experimental compositions of the gas fit fairly well with a reaction temperature of 1000 K and about 28 per cent moisture content on a green basis. The gas-generator has an energy efficiency of 70%. As gas-flow rate of 0,15 m/sup 3//s with a lower calorific value of 3726-4331 kJ/N m/sup 3/ is enough to supply a 510 kW dual-fuel engine DUVANT with a thermal efficiency of 34% against 37% for the same gas-oil engine. The engine coupled to an alternator of 600 kVA can provide electric power in factories or forest-areas.

  11. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  12. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  13. Carbon exergy tax applied to biomass integrated gasification combined cycle in sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Filho, Valdi Freire da; Matelli, José Alexandre; Perrella Balestieri, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies based on energy renewable sources is increasing worldwide in order to diversify the energy mix and satisfy the rigorous environmental legislation and international agreements to reduce pollutant emission. Considering specific characteristics of biofuels available in Brazil, studies regarding such technologies should be carried out aiming energy mix diversification. Several technologies for power generation from biomass have been presented in the technical literature, and plants with BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) emerge as a major technological innovation. By obtaining a fuel rich in hydrogen from solid biomass gasification, BIGCC presents higher overall process efficiency than direct burning of the solid fuel in conventional boilers. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium model of a BIGCC configuration for sugarcane bagasse. The model embodies exergetic cost and CO_2 emission analyses through the method of CET (carbon exergy tax). An exergetic penalty comparison between the BIGCC technology (with and without CO_2 capture and sequestration), a natural gas combined cycle and the traditional steam cycle of sugarcane sector is then presented. It is verified that the BIGCC configuration with CO_2 capture and sequestration presents technical and environmental advantages when compared to traditional technology. - Highlights: • We compared thermal cycles with the exergetic carbon exergy tax. • Thermal cycles with and without carbon capture and sequestration were considered. • Burned and gasified sugarcane bagasse was assumed as renewable fuel. • Exergetic carbon penalty tax was imposed to all studied configurations. • BIGCC with carbon sequestration revealed to be advantageous.

  14. Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding biomass-based ammonia production systems. • Integration of an ammonia production process in a pulp and paper mill. • Integrated ammonia production gains higher system efficiency than stand-alone production. • The economics of an integrated production system is improved compared to stand-alone production. - Abstract: Ammonia (NH 3 ) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber–Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH 3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on the overall energy system of the pulp mill. Important modelling constraints were to maintain the pulp production and the steam balance of the mill. The results showed that the process economics and energy performance are favourable for the integrated case compared to stand-alone production. The main conclusion was however that a rather high NH 3 selling price is required to make both production cases economically feasible

  15. Dynamic modeling of Shell entrained flow gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeon-Hui; Lee, Jae-Chul; Joo, Yong-Jin; Oh, Min; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed dynamic model for the Shell entrained flow gasifier was developed. • The model included sub-models of reactor, membrane wall, gas quench and slag flow. • The dynamics of each zone including membrane wall in the gasifier were analyzed. • Cold gas efficiency (81.82%), gas fraction and temperature agreed with Shell data. • The model could be used as part of the overall IGCC simulation. - Abstract: The Shell coal gasification system is a single-stage, up-flow, oxygen-blown gasifier which utilizes dry pulverized coal with an entrained flow mechanism. Moreover, it has a membrane wall structure and operates in the slagging mode. This work provides a detailed dynamic model of the 300 MW Shell gasifier developed for use as part of an overall IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) process simulation. The model consists of several sub-models, such as a volatilization zone, reaction zone, quench zone, slag zone, and membrane wall zone, including heat transfers between the wall layers and steam generation. The dynamic results were illustrated and the validation of the gasifier model was confirmed by comparing the results in the steady state with the reference data. The product gases (H 2 and CO) began to come out from the exit of the reaction zone within 0.5 s, and nucleate boiling heat transfer was dominant in the water zone of the membrane wall due to high heat fluxes. The steady state of the process was reached at nearly t = 500 s, and our simulation data for the steady state, such as the temperature and composition of the syngas, the cold gas efficiency (81.82%), and carbon conversion (near 1.0) were in good agreement with the reference data

  16. Unconventional Coal in Wyoming: IGCC and Gasification of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    Two unconventional uses for Wyoming Powder River Basin coal were investigated in this study. The first was the use of coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to generate electricity. Twenty-eight different scenarios were modeled using AspenPlusRTM software. These included slurry, mechanical and dried fed gasifiers; Wyodak and Green River coals, 0%, 70%, and 90% CO2 capture; and conventional evaporative vs air cooling. All of the models were constructed on a feed basis of 6,900 tons of coal per day on an "as received basis". The AspenPlus RTM results were then used to create economic models using Microsoft RTM Excel for each configuration. These models assumed a 3 year construction period and a 30 year plant life. Results for capital and operating costs, yearly income, and internal rates of return (IRR) were compared. In addition, the scenarios were evaluated to compare electricity sales prices required to obtain a 12% IRR and to determine the effects of a carbon emissions tax on the sales price. The second part of the study investigated the gasification potential of residue remaining from solvent extraction or liquefaction of Powder River Basin Coal. Coal samples from the Decker mine on the Wyoming-Montana border were extracted with tetralin at a temperature of 360°C and pressure of 250 psi. Residue from the extraction was gasified with CO2 or steam at 833°C, 900°C and 975°C at pressures of 0.1 and 0.4 MPa. Product gases were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Results were used to determine activation energies, reaction order, reaction rates and diffusion effects. Surface area and electron microscopic analyses were also performed on char produced from the solvent extraction residue.

  17. Structural evolution of biomass char and its effect on the gasification rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatehi, Hesameddin; Bai, Xue-Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive model was developed to describe the evolution of biomass char structure. • An effectiveness factor was used to account for the intra-particle chemical and physical processes. • The effect of the structural evolution of the multi-pore structure on biomass char reactivity was analyzed. • The multi-pore model yields results in satisfactory agreement with experiments. - Abstract: The evolution of char porous structure can affect the conversion rate of the char by affecting the intra-particle transport, especially in the zone II conversion regime. A multi-pore model based on the capillary pore theory is developed to take into account different conversion rates for pores with different radii. The model is valid for biomass chars produced under relatively low heating rates, when the original beehive structure of the biomass is not destroyed during the pyrolysis stage. The contribution of different pores with different radius is taken into account using an effectiveness factor presented for each pore radius with respect to different reactions. As the char conversion proceeds, the pore enlargement increases the contribution of micro-pores; consequently the effective surface area will increase. The increase in the effective surface area leads to an increased reactivity of char during the entire conversion process. This model is used to analyze the steam gasification process of biomass char of centimeter sizes. The results from the present multi-pore model are in better agreement with experimental data than those from a corresponding single pore model. Since the multi-pore model accommodates the detailed intra-particle transport, it is a useful basis toward developing a more predictive model for biomass char gasification.

  18. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  19. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  20. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  1. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  2. Steam generator auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author deals with damage and defect types obtaining in auxiliary systems of power plants. These concern water/steam auxiliary systems (feed-water tank, injection-control valves, slide valves) and air/fluegas auxiliary systems (blowers, air preheaters, etc.). Operating errors and associated damage are not dealt with; by contrast, weak spots are pointed out which result from planning and design. Damage types and events are collected in statistics in order to facilitate damage evaluation for arriving at improved design solutions. (HAG) [de

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION STEAM TECH ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam Enhanced Remediation is a process in which steam is injected into the subsurface to recover volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants. It has been applied successfully to recover contaminants from soil and aquifers and at a fractured granite site. This SITE demonstra...

  4. Steam generators: critical components in nuclear steam supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Guille, P D

    1974-02-28

    Steam generators are critical components in power reactors. Even small internal leaks result in costly shutdowns for repair. Surveys show that leaks have affected one half of all water-cooled reactors in the world with steam generators. CANDU reactors have demonstrated the highest reliability. However, AECL is actively evolving new technology in design, manufacture, inspection and operation to maintain reliability. (auth)

  5. Steam-Generator Integrity Program/Steam-Generator Group Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Steam Generator Integrity Program (SGIP) is a comprehensive effort addressing issues of nondestructive test (NDT) reliability, inservice inspection (ISI) requirements, and tube plugging criteria for PWR steam generators. In addition, the program has interactive research tasks relating primary side decontamination, secondary side cleaning, and proposed repair techniques to nondestructive inspectability and primary system integrity. The program has acquired a service degraded PWR steam generator for research purposes. This past year a research facility, the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), specifically designed for nondestructive and destructive examination tasks of the SGIP was completed. The Surry generator previously transported to the Hanford Reservation was then inserted into the SGEF. Nondestructive characterization of the generator from both primary and secondary sides has been initiated. Decontamination of the channelhead cold leg side was conducted. Radioactive field maps were established in the steam generator, at the generator surface and in the SGEF

  6. Operating experience in the gasification of municipal waste and other waste at the `secondary feedstocks recycling centre` (SVZ) Schwarze Pumpe; Betriebserfahrungen zur Vergasung von Hausmuell und anderen Abfaellen im Sekundaerrohstoffverwertungszentrum Schwarze Pumpe (SVZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttker, B. [Sekundaerrohstoffverwertungszentrum Schwarze Pumpe GmbH, Schwarze Pumpe (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The business purpose of SVZ Schwarze Pumpe is the production of synthesis gas from hydro-carbon-containing waste material and the use of synthesis gas in gas production or energy generation. For synthesis gas production, the techniques of packed-bed pressure gasification (FDV) and entrained-flow gasification (FSV) are used in close interconnection. Process control is such that only inert slags accrue, apart from the final products methanol and gypsum as well as generated energy in the form of electricity, process steam and heat. Currently, the following materials are mainly used in gasification: plastic materials after being subjected to conditioning, industrial and municipal sewage sludge, shredded goods, contaminated used wood, contaminated used oil, oil components obtained from oil/water mixtures, and slurry products. A special in-house know-how for waste oil gasification, and for the combined gasification of solid waste and coal by packed-bed pressure gasification with gradual stepping-up of the waste portion was realized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Geschaetszweck des SVZ Schwarze Pumpe besteht in der Herstellung von Synthesegas aus kohlenwasserstoffhaltigen Einsatzstoffen und in der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung des Wertstoffes Synthesegas. Zur Synthesegasgewinnung werden die Verfahren der Festbettdruckvergasung (FDV) und Flugstromvergasung (FSV) in einer engen verbundwirtschaftlichen Kopplung angewandt. Die Betriebsfuehrung ist so gestaltet, dass neben den Endprodukten Methnaol und Gips sowie erzeugter Energie in Form von Strom, Prozessdampf und Waerme nur noch inerte Schlacken entstehen. Die Haupteinsatzprodukte fuer die Vergasung sind ggw. aufbereitete Altkunststoffe, industrielle und kommunale Klaerschlaemme, Shreddergueter, kontaminiertes Altholz, kontaminierte Altoele, Oelkomponenten, die aus Oel-Wasser-Gemischen gewonnen werden, und Slurry-Produkte. Es wurde ein spezielles Betriebs-Know-how zur Abfalloel-Vergasung und zur kombinierten Vergasung

  7. Combined heat and power system with advanced gasification technology for biomass wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, S.; Abe, T.; Yasuda, T. [Nippon Furnace Kogyo Kaisha Ltd, Yokohama (Japan); Gupta, A.K. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechnical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The results obtained from an advanced gasification system utilizing high temperature steam are presented here. The results showed successful demonstration of clean syngas production having high calorific value fuel ({proportional_to}10 MJ/m{sup 3}N) using woody biomass wastes in a downdraft type gasifier. The gasification capacity of the plant on dry basis was 60 kg/h. The syngas produced can be utilized in an absorption type chiller for air conditioning. This advanced gasification technology allows one to transform wastes to clean energy at local production sites without any environmental impact and expensive waste transportation costs. The experience gained from the demonstration plant allows one to implement to other industrial applications for use as a decentralized unit and obtain clean syngas for local use. The demonstration conducted here shows that the system is favorable for onsite use of compatible combined heat and power (CHP) system including light oil supported diesel engine power generator. The biomass waste fuel from a lumber mill factory was used in this study. The factory handles a wide forests area of about 50 ha and produces about 2,500 m{sup 3}/year of wood chips from thin out trees and waste lumbers. This translates to a maximum 110 kg/h of wood chips that can be fed to a gasifier. The syngas produced was used for the combined heat and power system. Local use of biomass for fuel reforming reduces the cost of collection and transportation costs so that a sustainable business is demonstrated with profit from the generated electricity and thermal energy. The cost structure incorporates both the depreciation cost and operation cost of the system. Thermal energy from hot water can be used for drying lumbers and wood chips in a cascade manner. The drying process can be adopted for enhancing its productivity with increased variability on the quality of lumber. The results show that the combined heat and power system (CHP) offers good profitable

  8. Combining a 2-D multiphase CFD model with a Response Surface Methodology to optimize the gasification of Portuguese biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Valter; Rouboa, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiphase CFD model was combined with RSM. • Gasification optimal operating conditions were found in a pilot scale reactor. • Syngas quality indices were optimized in a biomass gasification process. • Propagation of error methodology was combined with a CFD model and RSM. - Abstract: This paper presents a study to evaluate the potential of Portuguese biomasses (coffee husks, forest residues and vine pruning residues) to produce syngas for different applications. By using a 2-D Eulerian–Eulerian approach within the CFD framework, a design of several computer experiments was developed and were used as analysis tools the response surface method (RSM) and the propagation of error (POE) approach. The CFD model was validated under experimental results collected at a semi-industrial reactor. For design purposes, temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and the type of biomass were selected as input factors. The responses were the H 2 generation, the H 2 /CO ratio, the CH 4 /H 2 ratio, the carbon conversion and the cold gas efficiency. It was concluded that after an optimization procedure to determine the operating conditions, vine pruning residues could show very promising results considering some of the typical syngas indice standards for commercial purposes. From the optimization procedure, it was also concluded that forest residues are preferable for domestic natural gas applications and vine pruning residues for fuel cells and integrated gasification systems application. By using the RSM combined with POE, it was verified that the operating conditions to get higher performances do not always coincide with those necessary to obtain a stable syngas composition

  9. Electricity from geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatcroft, E L.E.

    1959-01-01

    The development of the power station at Wairakei geothermal field is described. Wairakei is located at the center of New Zealand's volcanic belt, which lies within a major graben which is still undergoing some degree of downfaulting. A considerable number of wells, some exceeding 610 m, have been drilled. Steam and hot water are produced from both deep and shallow wells, which produce at gauge pressures of 1.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. The turbines are fed by low, intermediate, and high pressure mains. The intermediate pressure turbine bank was installed as a replacement for a heavy water production facility which had originally been planned for the development. Stage 1 includes a 69 MW plant, and stage 2 will bring the capacity to 150 MW. A third stage, which would bring the output up to 250 MW had been proposed. The second stage involves the installation of more high pressure steam turbines, while the third stage would be powered primarily by hot water flashing. Generation is at 11 kV fed to a two-section 500 MVA board. Each section of the board feeds through a 40 MVA transformer to a pair of 220 V transmission lines which splice into the North Island grid. Other transformers feed 400 V auxiliaries and provide local supply.

  10. Steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Han, J. H.; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Suh, J. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Hur, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, Y. H.

    2002-05-01

    In order to keep the nuclear power plant(NPP)s safe and increase their operating efficiency, axial stress corrosion cracking(SCC)(IGA/IGSCC, PWSCC, PbSCC) test techniques were developed and SCC property data of the archive steam generator tubing materials having been used in nuclear power plants operating in Korea were produced. The data obtained in this study were data-based, which will be used to clarify the damage mechanisms, to operate the plants safely, and to increase the lifetime of the tubing. In addition, the basic technologies for the improvement of the SCC property of the tubing materials, for new SCC inhibition, for damaged tube repair, and for manufacturing processes of the tubing were developed. In the 1 phase of this long term research, basic SCC test data obtained from the archive steam generator tubing materials used in NPPs operating in Korea were established. These basic technologies developed in the 1 phase will be used in developing process optimization during the 2 phase in order to develop application technologies to the field nuclear power plants

  11. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  12. Water management issues in the underground gasification of coal and the subsequent use of the voids for long-term carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Newcastle Inst. for Research on Sustainability; Gonzalez, G. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Inst. for Energy Research; Amezaga, J.M. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach

    2010-07-01

    A coupled underground coal gasification (UCG) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology was discussed. The technologies can be coupled so that voids created by mining can be uses as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites. UCG involves the in-situ gasification of coal using directionally-drilled wells. The gasification is achieved by spontaneous combustion initiated by the injection of steam and oxygen. The rate of UCG is controlled by varying the availability of oxygen. The syngas produced during the process is drawn to the surface via neighbouring production boreholes where it can then be transported by pipeline for use in range of applications. Voids created by the UCG process will collapse, leaving high permeability zones isolated from the surface by low permeability superincumbent strata. The UCG goaf and relaxed roof strata will have permeabilities 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than the permeabilities of deep saline aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs. The void volume needed to store the CO{sub 2} produced from the syngas can be 4 or 5 times the volume occupied by the extracted coal. Risks for groundwater arising from UCG are groundwater depletion, contamination, and gas leakage. Prudent site selection and the use of an effective risk assessment framework are needed to ensure the successful implementation of UCG-CCS processes. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  14. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  15. Steam generator tube integrity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given

  16. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two ...

  17. Biomass gasification : The understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly

  18. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... potential environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated...

  19. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to the biorefinery and also the oxygen for the gasifier. This paper presents the design and thermodynamic...... analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process....... The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated...

  20. Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M.

    2008-12-01

    With oak and pine feedstocks, the Gasification of Biomass to Hydrogen project maximizes hydrogen production using the Full Stream Reformer during water-gas shift fixed-bed reactor testing. Results indicate that higher steam-to-biomass ratio and higher thermal cracker temperature yield higher hydrogen concentration. NREL's techno-economic models and analyses indicate hydrogen production from biomass may be viable at an estimated cost of $1.77/kg (current) and $1.47/kg (advanced in 2015). To verify these estimates, NREL used the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), an integrated system of unit operations that investigates biomass thermochemical conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels and chemicals.

  1. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO{sub 2}-capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-04-17

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  2. Experimental investigation on an entrained flow type biomass gasification system using coconut coir dust as powdery biomass feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, P K; Behera, S

    2012-08-01

    Based on an entrained flow concept, a prototype atmospheric gasification system has been designed and developed in the laboratory for gasification of powdery biomass feedstock such as rice husks, coconut coir dust, saw dust etc. The reactor was developed by adopting L/D (height to diameter) ratio of 10, residence time of about 2s and a turn down ratio (TDR) of 1.5. The experimental investigation was carried out using coconut coir dust as biomass feedstock with a mean operating feed rate of 40 kg/h The effects of equivalence ratio in the range of 0.21-0.3, steam feed at a fixed flow rate of 12 kg/h, preheat on reactor temperature, product gas yield and tar content were investigated. The gasifier could able to attain high temperatures in the range of 976-1100 °C with gas lower heating value (LHV) and peak cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 7.86 MJ/Nm3 and 87.6% respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The development of a wood fuel gasification plant utilising short rotation coppice and forestry residues: project ARBRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, K.F.; Lundbergt, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development of ARBRE Energy, a joint venture company that includes Yorkshire Environmental of the United Kingdom and Tenniska Processer AB of Sweden. The project will establish 2000 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilized with digested sewage sludges, to provide 80% of the fuel requirements of a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 20% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry waste, although in the first 5 years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, England, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 MW of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. The project's technical and environmental effects and benefits will be examined in detail, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (author)

  4. Plant concept of heat utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Co-generation and coal-gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonogouchi, M.; Maeda, S.; Ide, A.

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, JAERI is now constructing the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and the new era is coming for the development and utilization of HTR. Recognizing that the heat utilization of HTR would mitigate problems of environment and resources and contribute the effective use and steady supply of the energy, FAPIG organized a working group named 'HTR-HUC' to study the heat utilization of HTR in the field other than electric power generation. We chose three kinds of plants to study, 1) a co-generation plant in which the existing power units supplying steam and electricity can be replaced by a nuclear plant, 2) Coal gasification plant which can accelerate the clean use of coal and contribute stable supply of the energy and preservation of the environment in the world and 3) Hydrogen production plant which can help to break off the use of the new energy carrier HYDROGEN and will release people from the dependence of fossil energy. In this paper the former two plants, Co-generation chemical plant and Coal-gasification plant are focussed on. The main features, process flow and safety assessment of these plants are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  5. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1987-10-15

    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. National conception for gasification development in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donchev, S.; Tenev, A.

    1997-01-01

    In Bulgaria, as in the other East European countries the transition from centrally planned to market economy is accompanied by problems such as energy consumption efficiency, development of energy saving technologies, ecology etc. In this connection the corporation 'Overgas' started the development of 'National concept of the country gasification'. An analysis is done of the energy supply, energy and ecology efficiency and the natural gas consumption. The concept includes a program for a legal framework in the gas sector. Recently the question of energy dependence of the country became very important. It is known that Bulgaria has resources to supply only 1/4 of the energy needs. Natural gas is used now for satisfying of 16% of energy demand in the country. The participation of the country in the Balkan countries gasification projects by transition of Russian gas is considered necessary for the establishment of additional guarantees for stability and internal market supply conditions. Bulgaria has e good gas transition system, connected with the most perspective gas fields in the world but so far only 175 units in industry and energetics use natural gas due to some principle differences between inherited structure of gas consumption in Bulgaria and that in other Central and Western European countries. The absence of a clear logical approach in the price formation is one of the main reasons for the complicated situation with the gas prices. It is expected, under the currency board conditions, the tendency of a less increase in the gas prices (now around or above the market prices) and compared to the increase in other fuel prices to remain. A stabilization of the market is also expected. The energy efficiency can be improved 2-3 times by using of natural gas instead of electricity in the industry and households due to the minimal energy loss during the transportation and the greater efficiency coefficient of the natural gas combustion. In case of development of the

  7. An Improved Steam Injection Model with the Consideration of Steam Override

    OpenAIRE

    He , Congge; Mu , Longxin; Fan , Zifei; Xu , Anzhu; Zeng , Baoquan; Ji , Zhongyuan; Han , Haishui

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The great difference in density between steam and liquid during wet steam injection always results in steam override, that is, steam gathers on the top of the pay zone. In this article, the equation for steam override coefficient was firstly established based on van Lookeren’s steam override theory and then radius of steam zone and hot fluid zone were derived according to a more realistic temperature distribution and an energy balance in the pay zone. On this basis, th...

  8. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  9. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two

  10. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  11. Analysis of graphite gasification by water vapor at different conversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Luo; Xiaoyu, Yu; Suyuan, Yu; Jean-Charles, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite was gasified at different conversions. • The reaction temperature influences on the dimensionless the reaction rate. • The thickness or radius influence on the dimensionless reaction rate. - Abstract: The gasification rate of porous solids varies with the conversions with the rate increasing to a maximum and then decreasing. Many graphite gasification experiments have illustrated that the maximum gasification rates occur at different conversions for different temperatures and sample geometries. Thus, the gasification rate is related to the conversion, temperature and geometry of the graphite. The influences of those factors were studied for the graphite gasification by water vapor. A theoretical analysis was done on the basis of several logical assumptions. The influence of temperatures on the reaction rate was investigated for plate-like and cylindrical graphite. The effects of thickness for a plate-like graphite sample and of radius for a cylindrical sample on the reaction rate were also studied theoretically. The results reveal that the maximum dimensionless reaction rate decreases with reaction temperature. The plate thickness or the cylinder radius also affects the maximum dimensionless reaction rate

  12. The Effect of Temperature on the Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baláš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a technology that uses fuel to produce power and heat. This technology is also suitable for biomass conversion. Biomass is a renewable energy source that is being developed to diversify the energy mix, so that the Czech Republic can reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and on raw materials for energy imported from abroad. During gasification, biomass is converted into a gas that can then be burned in a gas burner, with all the advantages of gas combustion. Alternatively, it can be used in internal combustion engines. The main task during gasification is to achieve maximum purity and maximum calorific value of the gas. The main factors are the type of gasifier, the gasification medium, biomass quality and, last but not least, the gasification mode itself. This paper describes experiments that investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on gas composition and low calorific value. The experiments were performed in an atmospheric gasifier in the laboratories of the Energy Institute atthe Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology.

  13. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. The number of failed tubes was also lower, 0.14% of the tubes in service in 1980 compared with 0.20% of those in service in 1979. Analysis of the causes of these failures indicates that stress corrosion cracking was the leading failure mechanism. Reactors that used all-volatile treatment of secondary water, with or without full-flow condensate demineralization since start-up showed the lowest incidence of corrosion-related defects

  14. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  15. Analysis of tars produced in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Y.; Kinoshita, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Parametric tests on tar formation, varying temperature, equivalence ratio, and residence time, are performed on a bench-scale, indirectly-heated fluidized bed gasifier. Prepared tar samples are analyzed in a gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector, using a capillary column. Standards containing dominant tar species have been prepared for GC calibration. The identified peaks include single-ring hydrocarbons, such as benzene, to five-ring hydrocarbons, such as perylene; depending on the gasification conditions, the identified species represent about 70 to 90% (mass basis) of the tar constituents. Under all conditions tested, benzene and naphthalene were the most dominant species. Temperature and equivalence ratio have significant effect on tar yield and tar composition. Tar yield decreases with increasing temperature or equivalence ratio. The test results suggest that lower temperature favors the formation of more aromatic tar species with diversified substituent groups, while higher temperature favors the formation of fewer aromatic tar species without substituent groups. Higher temperature or equivalence ratio favors the formation of polyaromatic compounds. Oxygen-containing compounds exist in significant quantities only at temperature below 800{degrees}C and decrease with increasing temperature, equivalence ratio, or residence time.

  16. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  17. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  19. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  20. Erosion corrosion in wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavast, J.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of different remedies against erosion corrosion in wet steam has been studied in Barsebaeck 1. Accessible steam systems were inspected in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The effect of hydrogen peroxide injection of the transport of corrosion products in the condensate and feed water systems has also been followed through chemical analyses. The most important results of the project are: - Low alloy chromium steels with a chromium content of 1-2% have shown excellent resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. - A thermally sprayed coating has shown good resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. In a few areas with restricted accessibility minor attacks have been found. A thermally sprayed aluminium oxide coating has given poor results. - Large areas in the moisture separator/reheater and in steam extraction no. 3 have been passivated by injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide to the high pressure steam. In other inspected systems no significant effect was found. Measurements of the wall thickness in steam extraction no. 3 showed a reduced rate of attack. - The injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide has not resulted in any significant reduction of the iron level result is contrary to that of earlier tests. An increase to 40 ppb resulted in a slight decrease of the iron level. - None of the feared disadvantages with hydrogen peroxide injection has been observed. The chromium and cobalt levels did not increase during the injection. Neither did the lifetime of the precoat condensate filters decrease. (author)