Soltis Pamela S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus are allotetraploids (2n = 24 that formed repeatedly during the past 80 years in eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho (USA following the introduction of the diploids T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis (2n = 12 from Europe. In most natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus, there are far fewer 35S rRNA genes (rDNA of T. dubius than there are of the other diploid parent (T. porrifolius or T. pratensis. We studied the inheritance of parental rDNA loci in allotetraploids resynthesized from diploid accessions. We investigate the dynamics and directionality of these rDNA losses, as well as the contribution of gene copy number variation in the parental diploids to rDNA variation in the derived tetraploids. Results Using Southern blot hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, we analyzed copy numbers and distribution of these highly reiterated genes in seven lines of synthetic T. mirus (110 individuals and four lines of synthetic T. miscellus (71 individuals. Variation among diploid parents accounted for most of the observed gene imbalances detected in F1 hybrids but cannot explain frequent deviations from repeat additivity seen in the allotetraploid lines. Polyploid lineages involving the same diploid parents differed in rDNA genotype, indicating that conditions immediately following genome doubling are crucial for rDNA changes. About 19% of the resynthesized allotetraploid individuals had equal rDNA contributions from the diploid parents, 74% were skewed towards either T. porrifolius or T. pratensis-type units, and only 7% had more rDNA copies of T. dubius-origin compared to the other two parents. Similar genotype frequencies were observed among natural populations. Despite directional reduction of units, the additivity of 35S rDNA locus number is maintained in 82% of the synthetic lines and in all natural allotetraploids. Conclusions Uniparental reductions of
K Yoong Lim
Full Text Available Polyploidy, frequently termed "whole genome duplication", is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species.Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy, (ii intergenomic translocations and (iii variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S(0 and S(1 generations polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation.These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our results highlight the necessity of studying karyotypes in young (<150 years
Matyášek, Roman; Dobešová, Eva; Húska, Dalibor; Ježková, Ivana; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Kovařík, Aleš
Uniparental silencing of 35S rRNA genes (rDNA), known as nucleolar dominance (ND), is common in interspecific hybrids. Allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus composed of Tragopogon dubius (d) and Tragopogon porrifolius (p) genomes shows highly variable ND. To examine the molecular basis of such variation, we studied the genetic and epigenetic features of rDNA homeologs in several lines derived from recently and independently formed natural populations. Inbred lines derived from T. mirus with a dominant d-rDNA homeolog transmitted this expression pattern over generations, which may explain why it is prevalent among natural populations. In contrast, lines derived from the p-rDNA dominant progenitor were meiotically unstable, frequently switching to co-dominance. Interpopulation crosses between progenitors displaying reciprocal ND resulted in d-rDNA dominance, indicating immediate suppression of p-homeologs in F1 hybrids. Original p-rDNA dominance was not restored in later generations, even in those segregants that inherited the corresponding parental rDNA genotype, thus indicating the generation of additional p-rDNA and d-rDNA epigenetic variants. Despite preserved intergenic spacer (IGS) structure, they showed altered cytosine methylation and chromatin condensation patterns, and a correlation between expression, hypomethylation of RNA Pol I promoters and chromatin decondensation was apparent. Reversion of such epigenetic variants occurred rarely, resulting in co-dominance maintained in individuals with distinct genotypes. Generally, interpopulation crosses may generate epialleles that are not present in natural populations, underlying epigenetic dynamics in young allopolyploids. We hypothesize that highly expressed variants with distinct IGS features may induce heritable epigenetic reprogramming of the partner rDNA arrays, harmonizing the expression of thousands of genes in allopolyploids. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kovařík, Aleš; Pires, J. C.; Leitch, A. R.; Lim, K. Y.; Sherwood, A.M.; Matyášek, Roman; Rocca, J.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S.
Roč. 169, č. 2 (2005), s. 931-944 ISSN 0016-6731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/04/0775; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/0687; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5004010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : rDNA * genes homogenization * allopolyploidy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.289, year: 2005
Mavrodiev, E. V.; Krahulec, František; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P.S.
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-141 ISSN 0075-5974 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA-sequence polyformism * nuclear ribosomal DNA * miscellus Asteraceae * evolution * fertility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics
Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A.
The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed “revolutionary” changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species’ evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed. PMID:23135324
Pires, J. C.; Lim, K. Y.; Kovařík, Aleš; Matyášek, Roman; Boyd, A.; Leitch, A. R.; Leitch, I. J.; Bennet, M. D.; Soltis, P. S.; Soltis, D. E.
Roč. 91, č. 7 (2004), s. 1022-1035 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0313; GA ČR GA521/01/0037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : centromere * chromosomal evolution * fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2004
Full Text Available The ability of plants to reduce the negative effects of leaf removal or simulated herbivory on their growth is defined as their tolerance. Tragopogon graminifolius is a herbaceous perennial weed distributed around the world. To investigate the effect of leaf removals like 100% leaf removal, no damage (control, 50 % leaf removal at ten- leaf stage, 50 % leaf removal at twenty- leaf stage and 100 % leaf removal at twenty- leaf stage on its survival and final biomass of this plant, a greenhouse study was conducted during 2011 in completely randomized design. The results showed that the number of active leaves, number of flowers and seeds, number of branches and final height of T. graminifolius were significantly lower in “100% leaf removal at twenty-leaf stage” (P < 0.0001 less than the other treatments. These results indicate that herbivory or reduction of the photosynthesing leaves, reduce plant's ability to survive and produce reproductive organs. Furthermore, the intensity and timing of the mid-term leaf removal resulted in negative effects on seed yield and the reproductive growth of this weed more than ”100% leaf removal at twenty- leaf stage” treatment by 66.7% compared to control. Shoot and root biomass in “100 % leaf removal at twenty-leaf stage” treatment was 52.58% and 52.06% less than the control one, respectively (P < 0.0001. Also, our results show that population of this perennial weed, despite its tolerance of damage, is not able to compensate its tissue losses. This finding, because of the stability of this plant in disturbed habitats, is of ecological significance.
McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D; Litt, Amy
Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4.5 million years old; and five lines of first-generation synthetic N. tabacum) as well as their diploid progenitors. Allopolyploid floral pigment profiles tend not to overlap with their progenitors or related allopolyploids, and allopolyploids produce transgressive pigments that are not present in either progenitor. Differences in floral color among N. tabacum accessions seems mainly to be due to variation in cyanidin concentration, but changes in flavonol concentrations among accessions are also present. Competition for substrates within the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to make either flavonols or anthocyanins may drive the differences seen among related allopolyploids. Some of the pigment differences observed in allopolyploids may be associated with making flowers more visible to nocturnal pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.
Full Text Available How allopolyploids are able not only to cope but profit from their condition is a question that remains elusive, but is of great importance within the context of successful allopolyploid evolution. One outstanding example of successful allopolyploidy is the endemic Iberian cyprinid Squalius alburnoides. Previously, based on the evaluation of a few genes, it was reported that the transcription levels between diploid and triploid S. alburnoides were similar. If this phenomenon occurs on a full genomic scale, a wide functional ''diploidization'' could be related to the success of these polyploids. We generated RNA-seq data from whole juvenile fish and from adult livers, to perform the first comparative quantitative transcriptomic analysis between diploid and triploid individuals of a vertebrate allopolyploid. Together with an assay to estimate relative expression per cell, it was possible to infer the relative sizes of transcriptomes. This showed that diploid and triploid S. alburnoides hybrids have similar liver transcriptome sizes. This in turn made it valid to directly compare the S. alburnoides RNA-seq transcript data sets and obtain a profile of dosage responses across the S. alburnoides transcriptome. We found that 64% of transcripts in juveniles' samples and 44% in liver samples differed less than twofold between diploid and triploid hybrids (similar expression. Yet, respectively 29% and 15% of transcripts presented accurate dosage compensation (PAA/PA expression ratio of 1 instead of 1.5. Therefore, an exact functional diploidization of the triploid genome does not occur, but a significant down regulation of gene expression in triploids was observed. However, for those genes with similar expression levels between diploids and triploids, expression is not globally strictly proportional to gene dosage nor is it set to a perfect diploid level. This quantitative expression flexibility may be a strong contributor to overcome the genomic shock
Matyášek, Roman; Dobešová, Eva; Húska, Dalibor; Ježková, Ivana; Soltis, P. S.; Soltis, D.E.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 85, č. 3 (2016), s. 362-377 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34632S; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10057S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : allopolyploid * chromatin modification * epigenetic variants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016
Malinská, Hana; Tate, J.A.; Mavrodiev, E.; Matyášek, Roman; Lim, K.Y.; Leitch, A.R.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 60, č. 2 (2011), s. 348-354 ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0208 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P667 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nucleolar dominance * ribosomal DNA * Tragopogon Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.703, year: 2011
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
Full Text Available Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (TG, Compositae family, is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study is to standardize extracts from TG used for preparation of different dosage forms in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM based on phenolic compounds. For this purpose, total phenolic content and some phenolic compounds were determined in ethanolic extracts from aerial part and root of TG by HPLC method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH-HPLC methods. Caffeic acid, gallic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and catechin were detected in root and aerial part of TG. ρ-Coumaric acid (6.357 ± 0.014 mg·g−1 was dominant phenolic compound in aerial part followed by ferulic acid (1.24 ± 0.018 mg·g−1. Also, ρ-coumaric acid (2.685 ± 0.031 mg·g−1 was highly abundant in root, followed by catechin (2.067 ± 0.021 mg·g−1. Antioxidant activity of root extract (460.45 ± 0.78 µg Vit.E.E·mL−1 was better than that of aerial part. Generally, phenolic compounds are one of the major constituents of TG and could be used as markers for standardization of dosage forms prepared from this plant. Also, TG demonstrated significant antioxidant activity using DPPH-HPLC method. Phenolic compounds of TG may be responsible for its marked antioxidant properties.
Komarova, N.Y.; Grabe, T.; Huigen, D.J.; Hemleben, V.; Volkov, R.A.
Uniparental activity of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in interspecific hybrids is known as nucleolar dominance (ND). To see if difference in rDNA intergenic spacers (IGS) might be correlated with ND, we have used artificial Solanum allopolyploids and back-crossed lines. Combining fluorescence in situ
Powell, Adrian F; Doyle, Jeff J
Previous studies have shown that polyploidy can alter biotic interactions, and it has been suggested that these effects may contribute to the increased ability for colonization of new habitats shown by many allopolyploids. Little is known, however, about the effects of allopolyploidy, which combines hybridity and genome doubling, on symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria. We examined interactions of the allopolyploid Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) with novel rhizobial partners, such as might occur in a context of colonization, and compared these with the responses of its diploid progenitors, G. tomentella (D3) and G. syndetika (D4). We assessed root hair response, nodule formation, nodule mass, nodule number, and plant biomass. The allopolyploid (T2) showed a greater root hair deformation response when exposed to rhizobia, compared with either diploid. T2 had a greater probability of forming nodules with NGR234 compared with diploid D4, and greater total nodule mass per nodulated plant compared with diploid D3. T2 also had greater plant biomass responses to nitrogen and when exposed to NGR234. The allopolyploid is characterized by transgressive responses to rhizobia for some variables, while also combining certain parental diploid responses such that its capacity for interactions with rhizobia appears to be greater than for either diploid progenitor. This overall enhanced nodulation capacity and the ability to make greater gains from exposure to both rhizobia and additional nitrogen indicate a greater potential of the allopolyploid to benefit from these factors both generally and in a context of colonization. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Casseau, Vincent; De Croon, Guido; Izzo, Dario; Pandolfi, Camilla
Tragopogon pratensis is a small herbaceous plant that uses wind as the dispersal vector for its seeds. The seeds are attached to parachutes that increase the aerodynamic drag force and increase the total distance travelled. Our hypothesis is that evolution has carefully tuned the air permeability of the seeds to operate in the most convenient fluid dynamic regime. To achieve final permeability, the primary and secondary fibres of the pappus have evolved with complex weaving; this maximises the drag force (i.e., the drag coefficient), and the pappus operates in an "optimal" state. We used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to compute the seed drag coefficient and compare it with data obtained from drop experiments. The permeability of the parachute was estimated from microscope images. Our simulations reveal three flow regimes in which the parachute can operate according to its permeability. These flow regimes impact the stability of the parachute and its drag coefficient. From the permeability measurements and drop experiments, we show how the seeds operate very close to the optimal case. The porosity of the textile appears to be an appropriate solution to achieve a lightweight structure that allows a low terminal velocity, a stable flight and a very efficient parachute for the velocity at which it operates.
Bertrand, Benoît; Bardil, Amélie; Baraille, Hélène; Dussert, Stéphane; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Dubois, Emeric; Severac, Dany; Dereeper, Alexis; Etienne, Hervé
Polyploidy impacts the diversity of plant species, giving rise to novel phenotypes and leading to ecological diversification. In order to observe adaptive and evolutionary capacities of polyploids, we compared the growth, primary metabolism and transcriptomic expression level in the leaves of the newly formed allotetraploid Coffea arabica species compared with its two diploid parental species (Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora), exposed to four thermal regimes (TRs; 18-14, 23-19, 28-24 and 33-29°C). The growth rate of the allopolyploid C. arabica was similar to that of C. canephora under the hottest TR and that of C. eugenioides under the coldest TR. For metabolite contents measured at the hottest TR, the allopolyploid showed similar behavior to C. canephora, the parent which tolerates higher growth temperatures in the natural environment. However, at the coldest TR, the allopolyploid displayed higher sucrose, raffinose and ABA contents than those of its two parents and similar linolenic acid leaf composition and Chl content to those of C. eugenioides. At the gene expression level, few differences between the allopolyploid and its parents were observed for studied genes linked to photosynthesis, respiration and the circadian clock, whereas genes linked to redox activity showed a greater capacity of the allopolyploid for homeostasis. Finally, we found that the overall transcriptional response to TRs of the allopolyploid was more homeostatic compared with its parents. This better transcriptional homeostasis of the allopolyploid C. arabica afforded a greater phenotypic homeostasis when faced with environments that are unsuited to the diploid parental species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cornille, A; Salcedo, A; Kryvokhyzha, D; Glémin, S; Holm, K; Wright, S I; Lascoux, M
Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the interpopulation diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the ancestors of the diploid species Capsella grandiflora and Capsella orientalis. Here, we investigated the genomic diversity of C. bursa-pastoris, its population structure and demographic history, following allopolyploidization in Eurasia. To that end, we genotyped 261 C. bursa-pastoris accessions spread across Europe, the Middle East and Asia, using genotyping-by-sequencing, leading to a total of 4274 SNPs after quality control. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed three distinct genetic clusters in Eurasia: one cluster grouping samples from Western Europe and Southeastern Siberia, the second one centred on Eastern Asia and the third one in the Middle East. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) supported the hypothesis that C. bursa-pastoris underwent a typical colonization history involving low gene flow among colonizing populations, likely starting from the Middle East towards Europe and followed by successive human-mediated expansions into Eastern Asia. Altogether, these findings bring new insights into the recent multistage colonization history of the allotetraploid C. bursa-pastoris and highlight ABC and genotyping-by-sequencing data as promising but still challenging tools to infer demographic histories of selfing allopolyploids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kamneva, Olga K; Syring, John; Liston, Aaron; Rosenberg, Noah A
Hybridization is observed in many eukaryotic lineages and can lead to the formation of polyploid species. The study of hybridization and polyploidization faces challenges both in data generation and in accounting for population-level phenomena such as coalescence processes in phylogenetic analysis. Genus Fragaria is one example of a set of plant taxa in which a range of ploidy levels is observed across species, but phylogenetic origins are unknown. Here, using 20 diploid and polyploid Fragaria species, we combine approaches from NGS data analysis and phylogenetics to infer evolutionary origins of polyploid strawberries, taking into account coalescence processes. We generate haplotype sequences for 257 low-copy nuclear markers assembled from Illumina target capture sequence data. We then identify putative hybridization events by analyzing gene tree topologies, and further test predicted hybridizations in a coalescence framework. This approach confirms the allopolyploid ancestry of F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, and provides new allopolyploid ancestry hypotheses for F. iturupensis, F. moschata, and F. orientalis. Evidence of gene flow between diploids F. bucharica and F. vesca is also detected, suggesting that it might be appropriate to consider these groups as conspecifics. This study is one of the first in which target capture sequencing followed by computational deconvolution of individual haplotypes is used for tracing origins of polyploid taxa. The study also provides new perspectives on the evolutionary history of Fragaria.
Matsushita, Starr C; Tyagi, Anand P; Thornton, Gerad M; Pires, J Chris; Madlung, Andreas
Polyploidization is an important mechanism for introducing diversity into a population and promoting evolutionary change. It is believed that most, if not all, angiosperms have undergone whole genome duplication events in their evolutionary history, which has led to changes in genome structure, gene regulation, and chromosome maintenance. Previous studies have shown that polyploidy can coincide with meiotic abnormalities and somatic cytogenetic mosaics in Arabidopsis allotetraploids, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon can contribute to novel diversity or act as a mechanism for speciation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that mosaic aneuploidy contributes to the formation of incipient diversity in neoallopolyploids. We generated a population of synthesized Arabidopsis allohexaploids and monitored karyotypic and phenotypic variation in this population over the first seven generations. We found evidence of sibling line-specific chromosome number variations and rapidly diverging phenotypes between lines, including flowering time, leaf shape, and pollen viability. Karyotypes varied between sibling lines and between cells within the same tissues. Cytotypic variation correlates with phenotypic novelty, and, unlike in allotetraploids, remains a major genomic destabilizing factor for at least the first seven generations. While it is still unclear whether new stable aneuploid lines will arise from these populations, our data are consistent with the notion that somatic aneuploidy, especially in higher level allopolyploids, can act as an evolutionary relevant mechanism to induce rapid variation not only during the initial allopolyploidization process but also for several subsequent generations. This process may lay the genetic foundation for multiple, rather than just a single, new species.
Zhang, J.; Esselink, G.; Che, D.; Fougère-Danezan, M.; Arens, P.; Smulders, M.J.M.
The taxonomy of the genus Rosa is complex, not least because of hybridisations between species.We aimed to develop a method to connect the diploid Rosa taxa to the allopolyploid taxa to which they contributed, based on the sharing of haplotypes. For this we used an SNPSTR marker, which combines a
Robert T Gaeta
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization
Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Nasuda, Shuhei
Polyploidy, which arises through complex genetic and ecological processes, is an important mode of plant speciation. This review provides an overview of recent advances in understanding why plant polyploid species are so ubiquitous and diverse. We consider how the modern framework for understanding genetic mechanisms of speciation could be used to study allopolyploid speciation that occurs through hybrid genome doubling, that is, whole genome doubling of interspecific F1 hybrids by the union of male and female unreduced gametes. We outline genetic and ecological mechanisms that may have positive or negative impacts on the process of allopolyploid speciation through hybrid genome doubling. We also discuss the current status of studies on the underlying genetic mechanisms focusing on the wheat (Triticum and Aegilops) hybrid-specific reproductive phenomena that are well known but deserve renewed attention from an evolutionary viewpoint. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Renny-Byfield, S.; Kovařík, Aleš; Chester, M.; Nichols, R.A.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Leitch, A.R.
Roč. 7, č. 5 (2012), e36963 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0208; GA MŠk OC10037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : chromosome evolution * repetitive DNA * allopolyploid Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012
Beike, Anna K; von Stackelberg, Mark; Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Hanke, Sebastian T; Follo, Marie; Quandt, Dietmar; McDaniel, Stuart F; Reski, Ralf; Tan, Benito C; Rensing, Stefan A
The moss Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. is an important experimental model system for evolutionary-developmental studies. In order to shed light on the evolutionary history of Physcomitrella and related species within the Funariaceae, we analyzed the natural genetic diversity of the Physcomitrium-Physcomitrella species complex. Molecular analysis of the nuclear single copy gene BRK1 reveals that three Physcomitrium species feature larger genome sizes than Physcomitrella patens and encode two expressed BRK1 homeologs (polyploidization-derived paralogs), indicating that they may be allopolyploid hybrids. Phylogenetic analyses of BRK1 as well as microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) data confirm a polyphyletic origin for three Physcomitrella lineages. Differences in the conservation of mitochondrial editing sites further support hybridization and cryptic speciation within the Physcomitrium-Physcomitrella species complex. We propose a revised classification of the previously described four subspecies of Physcomitrella patens into three distinct species, namely Physcomitrella patens, Physcomitrella readeri and Physcomitrella magdalenae. We argue that secondary reduction of sporophyte complexity in these species is due to the establishment of an ecological niche, namely spores resting in mud and possible spore dispersal by migratory birds. Besides the Physcomitrium-Physcomitrella species complex, the Funariaceae are host to their type species, Funaria hygrometrica, featuring a sporophyte morphology which is more complex. Their considerable developmental variation among closely related lineages and remarkable trait evolution render the Funariaceae an interesting group for evolutionary and genetic research.
Welles, Shana R; Ellstrand, Norman C
Newly formed species (neospecies) can experience a variety of demographic fates, ranging from rapid invasive expansion to rapid extinction. Here we investigate the fate of the neospecies Salsola ryanii 10 years after its initial discovery in the Central Valley of California, USA. This species is an allopolyploid derived via hybridization between the invasive species, S. australis and S. tragus. We conducted a systematic collection of Salsola species from 53 sites in California. Species-specific intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to determine the species of each individual collected. The range of S. ryanii identified in this study was compared to the range in 2002 to determine how the range has shifted in the decade between surveys. In this survey, we identified 15 sites where S. ryanii was present (28% of sites), a significant population number increase since 2002. Salsola ryanii has undergone a dramatic population number expansion in the decade since it was originally documented. We are not aware of any plant neospecies whose range spontaneously experienced such a dramatic expansion. Salsola ryanii has every indication of being just as invasive as its highly invasive parents. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Karlin, Eric F; Boles, S B; Ricca, M; Temsch, E M; Greilhuber, J; Shaw, A J
This paper documents the occurrence of allotriploidy (having three differentiated genomes) in gametophytes of two Southern Hemisphere Sphagnum species (S. australe, S. falcatulum). The pattern of microsatellite alleles indicates that both species are composed of a complex of allodiploid and allotriploid gametophytes, with the latter resulting from two allopolyploidization events. No haploid (n = x) gametophytes were found for either species. The ploidal levels suggested by the pattern of microsatellite alleles were confirmed by flow cytometry and Feulgen DNA image densitometry. For both S. australe and S. falcatulum, the respective allodiploid plants (or their ancestors) are one of the parent species of the allotriploid plants. This is the first report of triploidy in Sphagnum gametophytes occurring in nature and also the first report of the presence of three differentiated genomes in any bryophyte. It is also the first report of intersectional allopolyploidy in Sphagnum, with S. australe appearing to have parental species from Sphagnum sections Rigida and Sphagnum, and S. falcatulum having parental species from Sphagnum sections Cuspidata and Subsecunda. In both species, the allotriploid cytotypes were the most prevalent cytotype on the South Island of New Zealand. The pattern of microsatellite alleles shows the presence of two genetically distinct populations of allodiploid S. australe, possibly indicating multiple origins of polyploidy for that allodiploid cytotype. Morphological evidence is also highly indicative of recurrent polyploidy in the allotriploid cytotype of S. falcatulum. Allopolyploidy has clearly played a major evolutionary role in these two Southern Hemisphere taxa. This study, in conjunction with other recent research, indicates that allopolyploidy is a common, if not the predominant, form of polyploidy in Sphagnum.
Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Bao; Fang, Tingting; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping
Brassica includes many successfully cultivated crop species of polyploid origin, either by ancestral genome triplication or by hybridization between two diploid progenitors, displaying complex repetitive sequences and transposons. The U's triangle, which consists of three diploids and three amphidiploids, is optimal for the analysis of complicated genomes after polyploidization. Next-generation sequencing enables the transcriptome profiling of polyploids on a global scale. We examined the gene expression patterns of three diploids (Brassica rapa, B. nigra, and B. oleracea) and three amphidiploids (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata) via digital gene expression analysis. In total, the libraries generated between 5.7 and 6.1 million raw reads, and the clean tags of each library were mapped to 18547-21995 genes of B. rapa genome. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were compared. Moreover, the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were explored among diploids as well as between diploids and amphidiploids. Gene ontological analysis was performed to functionally categorize these DEGs into different classes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis was performed to assign these DEGs into approximately 120 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and peroxisomal pathway were enriched. The non-additive genes in Brassica amphidiploids were analyzed, and the results indicated that orthologous genes in polyploids are frequently expressed in a non-additive pattern. Methyltransferase genes showed differential expression pattern in Brassica species. Our results provided an understanding of the transcriptome complexity of natural Brassica species. The gene expression changes in diploids and allopolyploids may help elucidate the morphological and physiological differences among Brassica species.
Coughlan, J M; Han, S; Stefanović, S; Dickinson, T A
Range and niche expansion are commonly associated with transitions to asexuality, polyploidy and hybridity (allopolyploidy) in plants. The ability of asexual polyploids to colonize novel habitats may be due to widespread generalist clones, multiple ecologically specialized clones, or may be a neutral by-product of multiple, independent origins of asexual polyploids throughout the range. We have quantified niche size and divergence for hawthorns of the Pacific Northwest using data from herbarium vouchers with known cytotypes. We find that all polyploid niches diverge from that of the diploid range, and allopolyploids have the broadest niches. Allotetraploids have the largest niche and the widest geographic distribution. We then assessed the genetic mechanism of range expansion by surveying the ecological and geographic distribution of genotypes within each cytotype from sites in which fine-scale habitat assessments were completed. We find no isolation by either geographic or ecological distance in allopolyploids, suggesting high dispersal and colonization ability. In contrast, autotriploids and diploids show patterns of isolation by geographic distance. We also compared the geographic and ecological distributions of clonal genotypes with those of randomly drawn sites of the most widespread cytotype. We found that most clones are geographically widespread and occur in a variety of habitats. We interpret these findings to suggest that patterns of range and niche expansion in Pacific Northwest Hawthorns may stem from these widespread, ecologically generalist clones of hybrid origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n=38, genomes AACC was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n=62, genomes AACCOO with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n=24, genome OO, by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Squalius alburnoides is an Iberian cyprinid fish resulting from an interspecific hybridisation between Squalius pyrenaicus females (P genome and males of an unknown Anaecypris hispanica-like species (A genome. S. alburnoides is an allopolyploid hybridogenetic complex, which makes it a likely candidate for ploidy mosaicism occurrence, and is also an interesting model to address questions about gene expression regulation and genomic interactions. Indeed, it was previously suggested that in S. alburnoides triploids (PAA composition silencing of one of the three alleles (mainly of the P allele occurs. However, not a whole haplome is inactivated but a more or less random inactivation of alleles varying between individuals and even between organs of the same fish was seen. In this work we intended to correlate expression differences between individuals and/or between organs to the occurrence of mosaicism, evaluating if mosaics could explain previous observations and its impact on the assessment of gene expression patterns. Results To achieve our goal, we developed flow cytometry and cell sorting protocols for this system generating more homogenous cellular and transcriptional samples. With this set-up we detected 10% ploidy mosaicism within the S. alburnoides complex, and determined the allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of mosaic and non-mosaic individuals coming from different rivers over a wide geographic range. Conclusions Ploidy mosaicism occurs sporadically within the S. alburnoides complex, but in a frequency significantly higher than reported for other organisms. Moreover, we could exclude the influence of this phenomenon on the detection of variable allelic expression profiles of ubiquitously expressed genes (rpl8; gapdh and β-actin in cells from liver and kidney of triploid individuals. Finally, we determined that the expression patterns
Full Text Available Flowering, the transition from the vegetative to the generative phase, is a decisive time point in the lifecycle of a plant. Flowering is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors, photoreceptors, enzymes and miRNAs. In recent years, several studies gave rise to the hypothesis that this network is also strongly involved in the regulation of other important lifecycle processes ranging from germination and seed development through to fundamental developmental and yield-related traits. In the allopolyploid crop species Brassica napus, (genome AACC, homoeologous copies of flowering time regulatory genes are implicated in major phenological variation within the species, however the extent and control of intraspecific and intergenomic variation among flowering-time regulators is still unclear. To investigate differences among B. napus morphotypes in relation to flowering-time gene variation, we performed targeted deep sequencing of 29 regulatory flowering-time genes in four genetically and phenologically diverse B. napus accessions. The genotype panel included a winter-type oilseed rape, a winter fodder rape, a spring-type oilseed rape (all B. napus ssp. napus and a swede (B. napus ssp. napobrassica, which show extreme differences in winter-hardiness, vernalization requirement and flowering behaviour. A broad range of genetic variation was detected in the targeted genes for the different morphotypes, including non-synonymous SNPs, copy number variation and presence-absence variation. The results suggest that this broad variation in vernalisation, clock and signaling genes could be a key driver of morphological differentiation for flowering-related traits in this recent allopolyploid crop species.
Pendinen, Galina; Spooner, David M; Jiang, Jiming; Gavrilenko, Tatjana
Wild potato ( Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort.) species contain diploids (2n = 2x = 24) to hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). J.G. Hawkes classified all hexaploid Mexican species in series Demissa Bukasov and, according to a classic five-genome hypothesis of M. Matsubayashi in 1991, all members of series Demissa are allopolyploids. We investigated the genome composition of members of Hawkes's series Demissa with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), using labeled DNA of their putative progenitors having diploid AA, BB, or PP genome species or with DNA of tetraploid species having AABB or AAA(a)A(a) genomes. GISH analyses support S. hougasii Correll as an allopolyploid with one AA component genome and another BB component genome. Our results also indicate that the third genome of S. hougasii is more closely related to P or a P genome-related species. Solanum demissum Lindl., in contrast, has all three chromosome sets related to the basic A genome, similar to the GISH results of polyploid species of series Acaulia Juz. Our results support a more recent taxonomic division of the Mexican hexaploid species into two groups: the allopolyploid Iopetala group containing S. hougasii, and an autopolyploid Acaulia group containing S. demissum with South American species S. acaule Bitter and S. albicans (Ochoa) Ochoa.
Doyle, Jeff J.
Root nodule symbioses (nodulation) and whole genome duplication (WGD, polyploidy) are both important phenomena in the legume family (Leguminosae). Recently, it has been proposed that polyploidy may have played a critical role in the origin or refinement of nodulation. However, while nodulation and polyploidy have been studied independently, there have been no direct studies of mechanisms affecting the interactions between these phenomena in symbiotic, nodule-forming species. Here, we examined the transcriptome-level responses to inoculation in the young allopolyploid Glycine dolichocarpa (T2) and its diploid progenitor species to identify underlying processes leading to the enhanced nodulation responses previously identified in T2. We assessed the differential expression of genes and, using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), identified modules associated with nodulation and compared their expression between species. These transcriptomic analyses revealed patterns of non-additive expression in T2, with evidence of transcriptional responses to inoculation that were distinct from one or both progenitors. These differential responses elucidate mechanisms underlying the nodulation-related differences observed between T2 and the diploid progenitors. Our results indicate that T2 has reduced stress-related transcription, coupled with enhanced transcription of modules and genes implicated in hormonal signaling, both of which are important for nodulation. PMID:29189710
Full Text Available The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome, namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome. An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis showed that (1 production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2 first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3 six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii's ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated
Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Nasuda, Shuhei; Ashida, Yasuyo; Nitta, Miyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi
The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome), namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome). An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that (1) production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2) first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3) six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii's ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated that the
McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C; Rogers, Sean M
Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral) and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci), but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci). By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.
Jamie R McEwen
Full Text Available Population differentiation can be driven in large part by natural selection, but selectively neutral evolution can play a prominent role in shaping patters of population divergence. The decomposition of the evolutionary history of populations into the relative effects of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution enables an understanding of the causes of population divergence and adaptation. In this study, we examined heterogeneous genomic divergence between alpine and lowland ecotypes of the allopolyploid plant, Anemone multifida. Using peak height and dominant AFLP data, we quantified population differentiation at non-outlier (neutral and outlier loci to determine the potential contribution of natural selection and selectively neutral evolution to population divergence. We found 13 candidate loci, corresponding to 2.7% of loci, with signatures of divergent natural selection between alpine and lowland populations and between alpine populations (Fst = 0.074-0.445 at outlier loci, but neutral population differentiation was also evident between alpine populations (FST = 0.041-0.095 at neutral loci. By examining population structure at both neutral and outlier loci, we determined that the combined effects of selection and neutral evolution are associated with the divergence of alpine populations, which may be linked to extreme abiotic conditions and isolation between alpine sites. The presence of outlier levels of genetic variation in structured populations underscores the importance of separately analyzing neutral and outlier loci to infer the relative role of divergent natural selection and neutral evolution in population divergence.
Lim, K.Y.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Tate, J.; Matyášek, Roman; Šrubařová, Hana; Kovařík, Aleš; Pires, J.Ch.; Xiong, Z.; Leitch, A.R.
Roč. 3, č. 10 (2008), s. 1-13 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : allopolyploidy * chromosomes * evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
Lim, K.Y.; Matyášek, Roman; Kovařík, Aleš; Leitch, A.
Roč. 100, č. 2 (2007), s. 219-224 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/0687; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : allopolyploidy * evolution * rDNA * Iris Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2007
Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Yuwati, T.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Veenendaal, E.
Background: As a consequence of climate warming, many organisms are shifting their range towards higher latitudes and altitudes. As not all do so at the same speed, this may disrupt biotic interaction. Release from natural enemies through range expansion can result in invasiveness, whereas loss of
Malinská, Hana; Tate, J.A.; Matyášek, Roman; Leitch, A.R.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 10, č. 291 (2010), s. 1-17 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1751; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polyploidy * nucleolar dominance * homogenization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.702, year: 2010
van Grunsven, R.; Yuwati, T.; Kowalchuk, George; van der Putten, W.H.; van Veenendaal, E.
Background: As a consequence of climate warming, many organisms are shifting their range towards higher latitudes and altitudes. As not all do so at the same speed, this may disrupt biotic interaction. Release from natural enemies through range expansion can result in invasiveness, whereas loss of
Húska, Dalibor; Leitch, I. J.; de Carvalho, J.F.; Leitch, A.R.; Salmon, A.; Ainouche, M.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 18, č. 8 (2016), s. 2137-2151 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10057S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Spartina * Allopolyploidy * Cytotypes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016
Hof, van den K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Gravendeel, B.
Phylogenetic relationships among and within the subsections of the genus Viola are still far from resolved. We present the first organismal phylogeny of predominantly western European species of subsection Rostratae based on the plastid trnS¿trnG intron and intergenic spacer and the nuclear low-copy
Mahelka, Václav; Fehrer, Judith; Krahulec, František; Jarolímová, Vlasta
Roč. 100, - (2007), s. 249-260 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0778; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Triticeae * polyploidy * gene flow Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2007
Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Belyayev, Alexander; Douda, Jan; Hreusová, Lucia; Mandák, Bohumil
Roč. 11, č. 8 (2016), s. 1-22, č. článku e0161063. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02290S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Chenopodium * allopolyploidy * evolution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016
Koukalová, Blažena; Moraes, A.P.; Renny-Byfield, S.; Matyášek, Roman; Leitch, A.R.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 186, č. 1 (2010), s. 148-160 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : concerted evolution * interlocus homogenization * Nicotiana Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.516, year: 2010
Matyášek, Roman; Tate, J. A.; Lim, Y.K.; Šrubařová, Hana; Koh, J.; Leitch, A.R.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 176, č. 4 (2007), s. 2509-2519 ISSN 0016-6731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/0687; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : rDNA silencing * nucleolar dominance * allopolyploidy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2007
Dobešová, Eva; Malinská, Hana; Matyášek, Roman; Leitch, A. R.; Soltis, D. E.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 114, č. 3 (2015), s. 356-365 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34632S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10057S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : NUCLEOLAR DOMINANCE * POLYPLOID PLANTS * POLYPLOID PLANTS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.801, year: 2015
Siddiqui, K. A.; Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.
in the main reserve-protein group — the gliadins, with a concomitant decrease in the salt-soluble proteins and the glutenins. Also the amino-acid composition, especially of the gliadins, was influenced by the amphiploidy. The gliadins from T. monococcum had higher contents of histidine, arginine, aspartic...... acid, serine, and isoleucine than Ae. ventricosa. In the amphiploid the epistasis of Ae. ventricosa over T. monococcum in most morphological attributes was parallelled in the amino-acid composition of the Osborne protein fractions. Such parallelism may have evolutionary significance. The salt...
Luo, Xin; Hu, Quanjun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qian; Abbott, Richard J; Liu, Jianquan
Reconstructing the origin of a polyploid species is particularly challenging when an ancestor has become extinct. Under such circumstances, the extinct donor of a genome found in the polyploid may be treated as a 'ghost' species in that its prior existence is recognized through the presence of its genome in the polyploid. In this study, we aimed to determine the polyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (2n = 40) for which only one congeneric species is known, that is diploid O. digyna (2n = 14). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), transcriptome, phylogenetic and demographic analyses, and ecological niche modelling were conducted for this purpose. GISH revealed that O. sinensis comprised 14 chromosomes from O. digyna and 26 chromosomes from an unknown ancestor. Transcriptome analysis indicated that following divergence from O. digyna, involving genome duplication around 12 million years ago (Ma), a second genome duplication occurred approximately 6 Ma to give rise to O. sinensis. Oxyria sinensis was shown to contain homologous gene sequences divergent from those present in O. digyna in addition to a set that clustered with those in O. digyna. Coalescent simulations indicated that O. sinensis expanded its distribution approximately 6-7 Ma, possibly following the second polyploidization event, whereas O. digyna expanded its range much later. It was also indicated that the distributions of both species contracted and re-expanded during the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Ecological niche modelling similarly suggested that both species experienced changes in their distributional ranges in response to Quaternary climatic changes. The extinction of the unknown 'ghost' tetraploid species implicated in the origin of O. sinensis could have resulted from superior adaptation of O. sinensis to repeated climatic changes in the region where it now occurs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mráz, P.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith
Roč. 293, 1-4 (2011), s. 237-245 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : additive polymorphism * hybridization * polyploidization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2011
Zozomová-Lihová, J.; Mandáková, T.; Kovaříková, Alena; Muehlhausen, A.; Mummenhoff, K.; Lysák, M. A.; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 203, č. 4 (2014), s. 1096-1108 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Brassicaceae * concerted evolution * hybridization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 7.672, year: 2014
Bendiksby, M.; Tribsch, A.; Borgen, L.; Trávníček, Pavel; Brysting, A. K.
Roč. 191, č. 4 (2011), s. 1150-1167 ISSN 0028-646X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : allopolyploidy * Galeopsis * molecular phylogenentics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.645, year: 2011
Renny-Byfield, S.; Kovařík, Aleš; Kelly, L.J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Chase, M.W. (ed.); Nichols, R. A.; Pancholi, M. R.; Grandbastien, M.-A.; Leitch, Andrew R.
Roč. 74, č. 5 (2013), s. 829-839 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10057S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : ALLOTETRAPLOID TOBACCO * NICOTIANA SOLANACEAE * SEED PLANTS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 6.815, year: 2013
Bertrand, Benoît; Bardil, Amélie; Baraille, Hélène; Dussert, Stéphane; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Dubois, Emeric; Severac, Dany; Dereeper, Alexis; Etienne, Hervé
Polyploidy impacts the diversity of plant species, giving rise to novel phenotypes and leading to ecological diversification. In order to observe adaptive and evolutionary capacities of polyploids, we compared the growth, primary metabolism and transcriptomic expression level in the leaves of the newly formed allotetraploid Coffea arabica species compared with its two diploid parental species (Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora), exposed to four thermal regimes (TRs; 18-14, 23-19, 28-24 ...
Akpinar, B. A.; Lucas, S. J.; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.
Roč. 13, č. 6 (2015), s. 740-752 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : D genome donor of wheat * chromosome 5D * comparative genomics Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.090, year: 2015
Kovařík, Aleš; Nešpor Dadejová, Martina; Lim, Y.K.; Chase, M.W.; Clarkson, J.J.; Knapp, S.; Leitch, A.R.
Roč. 101, č. 6 (2008), s. 815-823 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : rDNA * allopolyploidy * evolution-Nicotiana Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.755, year: 2008
Maciak, S.; Janko, K. (Karel); Kotusz, J.; Choleva, L. (Lukáš); Boron, A.; Juchno, D.; Kujawa, R.; Kozlowski, J.; Konarzewski, M.
As a first approximation, whole-body metabolic rate can be considered as the sum of metabolic rates of constituent cells. Yet, among several current explanations of metabolic rate scaling, only two explicitly invoke cell architecture of organisms: (1) the Metabolic Theory of Ecology, which predicts size invariance of metabolically active cells, such as erythrocytes and (2) the cell metabolism hypothesis postulating partial dependence of metabolic scaling on the cell size (CS), which is mediat...
Full Text Available Origin and evolution of tetraploid Elymus fibrosus (Schrenk Tzvelev were characterized using low-copy nuclear gene Rpb2 (the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and chloroplast region trnL-trnF (spacer between the tRNA Leu (UAA gene and the tRNA-Phe (GAA gene. Ten accessions of E. fibrosus along with 19 Elymus species with StH genomic constitution and diploid species in the tribe Triticeae were analyzed. Chloroplast trnL-trnF sequence data suggested that Pseudoroegneria (St genome was the maternal donor of E. fibrosus. Rpb2 data confirmed the presence of StH genomes in E. fibrosus, and suggested that St and H genomes in E. fibrosus each is more likely originated from single gene pool. Single origin of E. fibrosus might be one of the reasons causing genetic diversity in E. fibrosus lower than those in E. caninus and E. trachycaulus, which have similar ecological preferences and breeding systems with E. fibrosus, and each was originated from multiple sources. Convergent evolution of St and H copy Rpb2 sequences in some accessions of E. fibrosus might have occurred during the evolutionary history of this allotetraploid.
Cuadrado, Ángeles; de Bustos, Alfredo; Jouve, Nicolás
To provide additional information to the many phylogenetic analyses conducted within Hordeum , here the origin and interspecific affinities of the allotetraploids Hordeum secalinum and Hordeum capense were analysed by molecular karyotyping. Karyotypes were determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to distinguish the sub-genomes and , plus fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/non-denaturing (ND)-FISH to determine the distribution of ten tandem repetitive DNA sequences and thus provide chromosome markers. Each chromosome pair in the six accessions analysed was identified, allowing the establishment of homologous and putative homeologous relationships. The low-level polymorphism observed among the H. secalinum accessions contrasted with the divergence recorded for the sub-genome of the H. capense accessions. Although accession H335 carries an intergenomic translocation, its chromosome structure was indistinguishable from that of H. secalinum . Hordeum secalinum and H. capense accession H335 share a hybrid origin involving Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum as the genome donor and an unidentified genome progenitor. Hordeum capense accession BCC2062 either diverged, with remodelling of the sub-genome, or its genome was donated by a now extinct ancestor. A scheme of probable evolution shows the intricate pattern of relationships among the Hordeum species carrying the genome (including all H. marinum taxa and the hexaploid Hordeum brachyantherum ). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Maciak, S.; Janko, Karel; Kotusz, J.; Choleva, Lukáš; Boron, A.; Juchno, D.; Kujawa, R.; Kozlowski, J.; Konarzewski, M.
Roč. 25, č. 5 (2011), s. 1072-1078 ISSN 0269-8463 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450902; GA ČR GA206/09/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : CELL-SIZE * C-VALUE * PASSERINE BIRDS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.567, year: 2011
Matyášek, Roman; Skalická, Kamila; Kovařík, Aleš
Roč. 68, č. 3 (2003), s. 207-211 ISSN 0366-0486. [Metodické dny /3./. Milovy, 20.10.2003-24.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0313; GA ČR GA521/01/0037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrophoresis * RFLP * SSCP Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics
Perennial Stems, Leaves. Internal. Anti-calculus, anti-septic, kidney problems, urine tube infection and laxative (for baby). 5. Allium akaka Gmelin. Aliaceae or ..... Tragopogon graminifolius. DC. Asteraceae. Haplook. Shang. Salsify. H. Annual Root, Flowers. Internal/. External. Emollient, sore throat and wound healing. 111.
Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar
The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...
During the breeding season Goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis L.) feed on milky ripe seeds of about 20 food plants. Individual Goldfinches joining a flock reduce the time spent vigilant with increasing flock size. Therefore birds feeding in flocks get an increased intake of kernels per time unit. This was measured for five different food plants (Dactylis glomerata (Gramineae), Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), Senecio vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon pratensis (Compositae)). In large-sized flocks, birds fed up to 2.3 times more kernels, than when feeding solitarily. In addition, visibility in the vegetation leads to a further increase of kernel intake. Thus feeding under good conditions as in recently mown areas, can raise kernel intake to the seven fold per time unit as compared to solitary feeding. The maximum ingestion rate of kernels was 98 per min which implies a head up-and-down movement every 0.6 s. The calculated energy intake of birds per time unit is lowest in Senecio and highest in Tragopogon. Thus the birds, when feeding on Tragopogon in larger flocks, can gain an energy intake 16 times higher than that reached when feeding on Senecio, despite of a higher kernel intake rate. The energy intake individual Goldfinches gain at the particular plant species is markedly increased with flock sizes up to eight birds, with larger flocks the intake increases only slightly.
Rapid evolution in contemporary time can result when related species, brought together through human-aided introduction, hybridize. The evolutionary consequences of post introduction hybridization range from allopolyploid speciation to extinction of species through genetic amalg...
C. Mae Culumber; Steve R. Larson; Kevin B. Jensen; Thomas A. Jones
Leymus is a genomically defined allopolyploid of genus Triticeae with two distinct subgenomes. Chloroplast DNA sequences of Eurasian and North American species are distinct and polyphyletic. However, phylogenies derived from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences are confounded by polyploidy and lack of polymorphism among many taxa. The AFLP technique can resolve...
Wheat (Triticum spp.) has a narrow genetic basis due to its allopolyploid origin. However, wheat has numerous wild relatives usable for expanding genetic variability of its genome through meiotic homoeologous recombination. Traditionally, laborious cytological analyses have been employed to detect h...
Yanagi, Tomohiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Terachi, Mayuko; Isobe, Sachiko
Cultivated strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) has homoeologous chromosomes because of allo-octoploidy. For example, two homoeologous chromosomes that belong to different sub-genome of allopolyploids have similar base sequences. Thus, when conducting de novo assembly of DNA sequences, it is difficult to determine whether these sequences are derived from the same chromosome. To avoid the difficulties associated with homoeologous chromosomes and demonstrate the possibility of sequencing allopolyploids using single chromosomes, we conducted sequence analysis using microdissected single somatic chromosomes of cultivated strawberry. Three hundred and ten somatic chromosomes of the Japanese octoploid strawberry 'Reiko' were individually selected under a light microscope using a microdissection system. DNA from 288 of the dissected chromosomes was successfully amplified using a DNA amplification kit. Using next-generation sequencing, we decoded the base sequences of the amplified DNA segments, and on the basis of mapping, we identified DNA sequences from 144 samples that were best matched to the reference genomes of the octoploid strawberry, F. × ananassa , and the diploid strawberry, F. vesca . The 144 samples were classified into seven pseudo-molecules of F. vesca . The coverage rates of the DNA sequences from the single chromosome onto all pseudo-molecular sequences varied from 3 to 29.9%. We demonstrated an efficient method for sequence analysis of allopolyploid plants using microdissected single chromosomes. On the basis of our results, we believe that whole-genome analysis of allopolyploid plants can be enhanced using methodology that employs microdissected single chromosomes.
Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.
Polyploids are traditionally classified into allopolyploids and autopolyploids, based on their evolutionary origin and their disomic or multisomic mode of inheritance. Over the past decade it has become increasingly clear that there is a continuum between disomic and multisomic inheritance, with the
Lim, K.Y.; Werlemark, G.; Matyášek, Roman; Bringloe, J.B.; Sieber, V.; El Mokadem, H.; Meynet, J.; Hemming, J.; Leitch, A.R.; Roberts, A.V.
Roč. 94, č. 5 (2005), s. 501-506 ISSN 0018-067X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : chromosome pairing * gynogenetic haploid * allopolyploid Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.166, year: 2005
Karlin, Eric F; Smouse, Peter E
Allopolyploids exhibit both different levels and different patterns of genetic variation than are typical of diploids. However, scant attention has been given to the partitioning of allelic information and diversity in allopolyploids, particularly that among homeologous monoploid components of the hologenome. Sphagnum × falcatulum is a double allopolyploid peat moss that spans a considerable portion of the Holantarctic. With monoploid genomes from three ancestral species, this organism exhibits a complex evolutionary history involving serial inter-subgeneric allopolyploidizations. Studying populations from three disjunct regions [South Island (New Zealand); Tierra de Fuego archipelago (Chile, Argentina); Tasmania (Australia)], allelic information for five highly stable microsatellite markers that differed among the three (ancestral) monoploid genomes was examined. Using Shannon information and diversity measures, the holoploid information, as well as the information within and among the three component monoploid genomes, was partitioned into separate components for individuals within and among populations and regions, and those information components were then converted into corresponding diversity measures. The majority (76 %) of alleles detected across these five markers are most likely to have been captured by hybridization, but the information within each of the three monoploid genomes varied, suggesting a history of recurrent allopolyploidization between ancestral species containing different levels of genetic diversity. Information within individuals, equivalent to the information among monoploid genomes (for this dataset), was relatively stable, and represented 83 % of the grand total information across the Holantarctic, with both inter-regional and inter-population diversification each accounting for about 5 % of the total information. Sphagnum × falcatulum probably inherited the great majority of its genetic diversity at these markers by reticulation
Julca, Irene; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Vargas, Pablo; Gabaldón, Toni
Polyploidization is one of the major evolutionary processes that shape eukaryotic genomes, being particularly common in plants. Polyploids can arise through direct genome doubling within a species (autopolyploidization) or through the merging of genomes from distinct species after hybridization (allopolyploidization). The relative contribution of both mechanisms in plant evolution is debated. Here we used phylogenomics to dissect the tempo and mode of duplications in the genome of the olive tree (Olea europaea), one of the first domesticated Mediterranean fruit trees. Our results depict a complex scenario involving at least three past polyploidization events, of which two-at the bases of the family Oleaceae and the tribe Oleeae, respectively-are likely to be the result of ancient allopolyploidization. A more recent polyploidization involves specifically the olive tree and relatives. Our results show the power of phylogenomics to distinguish between allo- and auto polyploidization events and clarify the contributions of duplications in the evolutionary history of the olive tree.
The role of cytogenetics in plant domestication is not as direct as that of plant breeding, agronomy or crop botany. Five major areas of cytogenetic interest in plant domestication are distinguished: analysis of the genetic structure of the species and its relation with other species, including genome analysis; monitoring of chromosomal, including meiotic, consequences of drastic genetic alterations such as artificial mutations (including somaclonal variation) and interspecific hybridization (including complete and partial protoplast fusion); induction, monitoring and adjustment of auto- and allopolyploidy; introduction of alien chromosome segments by meiotic manipulation and translocation; adjustment of the genetic transmission system, such as the construction of systems for hybrid varieties, allopolyploidization of (partial) autopolyploids or non-functional allopolyploids and permanent complex translocation heterozygotes. It is concluded that the last three areas are of interest only in the context of large programmes with sufficient and guaranteed input and continuity. (author). 23 refs
Szlachetko, D. L.; Kolanowska, Marta; Naczk, A.; Gorniak, M.; Dudek, M.; Rutkowski, P.; Chiron, G.
Roč. 58, JAN (2017), č. článku 8. ISSN 1999-3110 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : ribosomal-rna genes * hybrid speciation * chloroplast dna * allopolyploid speciation * reconstructing patterns * phylogenetic inference * reticulate evolution * concerted evolution * horizontal transfer * sequence alignment * Cyrtochilum * Monophyly * New combinations * New species * Oncidiinae * Paraphyly * Taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2016
Nakano, Hiroki; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo
Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlyin...
Shen, Yanyue; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo
Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. Although genomic and transcriptomic changes have been observed in polyploids, the effects of polyploidization on proteomic divergence are poorly understood. In this study, we reported quantitative analysis of proteomic changes in leaves of Brassica hexaploid and its parents using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 2044 reproducible proteins were quantified by at least two unique peptides. We detected 452 proteins differentially expressed between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 100 proteins were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggested a trend of non-additive protein regulation following genomic merger and doubling. Functional categories of cellular component biogenesis, immune system process, and response to stimulus, were significantly enriched in non-additive proteins, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids. In particular, majority of the total 452 differentially expressed proteins showed expression level dominance of one parental expression, and there was an expression level dominance bias toward the tetraploid progenitor. In addition, the percentage of differentially expressed proteins that matched previously reported differentially genes were relatively low. This study aimed to get new insights into the effects of polyploidization on proteomic divergence. Using iTRAQ LC-MS/MS technology, we identified 452 differentially expressed proteins between allopolyploid and its parents which involved in response to stimulus, multi-organism process, and immune system process, much more than previous studies using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry technology. Therefore, our manuscript represents the most comprehensive analysis of protein profiles in allopolyploid and its parents, which will lead to a better understanding of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. has homoeologous chromosomes because of allo-octoploidy. For example, two homoeologous chromosomes that belong to different sub-genome of allopolyploids have similar base sequences. Thus, when conducting de novo assembly of DNA sequences, it is difficult to determine whether these sequences are derived from the same chromosome. To avoid the difficulties associated with homoeologous chromosomes and demonstrate the possibility of sequencing allopolyploids using single chromosomes, we conducted sequence analysis using microdissected single somatic chromosomes of cultivated strawberry. Results Three hundred and ten somatic chromosomes of the Japanese octoploid strawberry ‘Reiko’ were individually selected under a light microscope using a microdissection system. DNA from 288 of the dissected chromosomes was successfully amplified using a DNA amplification kit. Using next-generation sequencing, we decoded the base sequences of the amplified DNA segments, and on the basis of mapping, we identified DNA sequences from 144 samples that were best matched to the reference genomes of the octoploid strawberry, F. × ananassa, and the diploid strawberry, F. vesca. The 144 samples were classified into seven pseudo-molecules of F. vesca. The coverage rates of the DNA sequences from the single chromosome onto all pseudo-molecular sequences varied from 3 to 29.9%. Conclusion We demonstrated an efficient method for sequence analysis of allopolyploid plants using microdissected single chromosomes. On the basis of our results, we believe that whole-genome analysis of allopolyploid plants can be enhanced using methodology that employs microdissected single chromosomes.
Betto-Colliard, C; Sermier, R; Litvinchuk, S; Perrin, N; Stöck, M
Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates.
Díaz-Pérez, A J; Sharifi-Tehrani, M; Inda, L A; Catalán, P
The fine-leaved Loliinae is one of the temperate grass lineages that is richest in number of evolutionary switches from perennial to annual life-cycle, and also shows one of the most complex reticulate patterns involving distinct diploid and allopolyploid lineages. Eight distinct annual lineages, that have traditionally been placed in the genus Vulpia and in other fine-leaved ephemeral genera, have apparently emerged from different perennial Festuca ancestors. The phenotypically similar Vulpia taxa have been reconstructed as polyphyletic, with polyploid lineages showing unclear relationships to their purported diploid relatives. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization is, however, rampant across different lineages. An evolutionary analysis based on cloned nuclear low-copy GBSSI (Granule-Bound Starch Synthase I) and multicopy ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) sequences has been conducted on representatives of most Vulpia species and other fine-leaved lineages, using Bayesian consensus and agreement trees, networking split graphs and species tree-based approaches, to disentangle their phylogenetic relationships and to identify the parental genome donors of the allopolyploids. Both data sets were able to reconstruct a congruent phylogeny in which Vulpia was resolved as polyphyletic from at least three main ancestral diploid lineages. These, in turn, participated in the origin of the derived allopolyploid Vulpia lineages together with other Festuca-like, Psilurus-like and some unknown genome donors. Long-distance dispersal events were inferred to explain the polytopic origin of the Mediterranean and American Vulpia lineages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun
Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and “fixed heterosis” in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621
Full Text Available Numerous hybrid and polypoid species are found within the Triticeae. It has been suggested that the H subgenome of allopolyploid Elymus (wheatgrass species originated from diploid Hordeum (barley species, but the role of hybridization between polyploid Elymus and Hordeum has not been studied. It is not clear whether gene flow across polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species has occurred following polyploid speciation. Answering these questions will provide new insights into the formation of these polyploid species, and the potential role of gene flow among polyploid species during polyploid evolution. In order to address these questions, disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (DMC1 data from the allopolyploid StH Elymus are analyzed together with diploid and polyploid Hordeum species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some Elymus are very close to the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some polyploid Hordeum species, indicating either that the H genome in theses Elymus and polyploid Hordeum species originated from same diploid donor or that gene flow has occurred among them. Our analysis also suggested that the H genomes in Elymus species originated from limited gene pool, while H genomes in Hordeum polyploids have originated from broad gene pools. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences on H genome from polyploid species (π = 0.02083 in Elymus, π = 0.01680 in polyploid Hordeum is higher than that in diploid Hordeum (π = 0.01488. The estimates of Tajima's D were significantly departure from the equilibrium neutral model at this locus in diploid Hordeum species (P<0.05, suggesting an excess of rare variants in diploid species which may not contribute to the origination of polyploids. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences in Elymus polyploid species (π = 0.02083 is higher than that in polyploid Hordeum (π = 0.01680, suggesting that the degree of relationships between two parents of a polyploid might be a factor
Idziak, Dominika; Hazuka, Iwona; Poliwczak, Beata; Wiszynska, Anna; Wolny, Elzbieta; Hasterok, Robert
Paleogenomic studies based on bioinformatic analyses of DNA sequences have enabled unprecedented insight into the evolution of grass genomes. They have revealed that nested chromosome fusions played an important role in the divergence of modern grasses. Nowadays, studies on karyotype evolution based on the sequence analysis can also be effectively complemented by the fine-scale cytomolecular approach. In this work, we studied the karyotype evolution of small genome grasses using BAC-FISH based comparative chromosome barcoding in four Brachypodium species: diploid B. distachyon (2n = 10) and B. sylvaticum (2n = 18), diploid (2n = 18) and allopolyploid (2n = 28) B. pinnatum as well as B. phoenicoides (2n = 28). Using BAC clones derived from the B. distachyon genomic libraries for the chromosomes Bd2 and Bd3, we identified the descending dysploidy events that were common for diploids with x = 9 and B. distachyon as well as two nested chromosome fusions that were specific only for B. distachyon. We suggest that dysploidy events that are shared by different lineages of the genus had already appeared in their common ancestor. We also show that additional structural rearrangements, such as translocations and duplications, contributed to increasing genome diversification in the species analysed. No chromosomes structured exactly like Bd2 and Bd3 were found in B. pinnatum (2n = 28) and B. phoenicoides. The structure of Bd2 and Bd3 homeologues belonging to the two genomes in the allopolyploids resembled the structure of their counterparts in the 2n = 18 diploids. These findings reinforce the hypothesis which excludes B. distachyon as a potential parent for Eurasian perennial Brachypodium allopolyploids. Our cytomolecular data elucidate some mechanisms of the descending dysploidy in monocots and enable reconstructions of the evolutionary events which shaped the extant karyotypes in both the genus Brachypodium and in grasses as a whole. PMID
Weiss, Martina; Weigand, Hannah; Weigand, Alexander M; Leese, Florian
DNA barcoding utilizes short standardized DNA sequences to identify species and is increasingly used in biodiversity assessments. The technique has unveiled an unforeseeably high number of morphologically cryptic species. However, if speciation has occurred relatively recently and rapidly, the use of single gene markers, and especially the exclusive use of mitochondrial markers, will presumably fail in delimitating species. Therefore, the true number of biological species might be even higher. One mechanism that can result in rapid speciation is hybridization of different species in combination with polyploidization, that is, allopolyploid speciation. In this study, we analyzed the population genetic structure of the polyploid freshwater snail Ancylus fluviatilis , for which allopolyploidization was postulated as a speciation mechanism. DNA barcoding has already revealed four cryptic species within A. fluviatilis (i.e., A. fluviatilis s. str., Ancylus sp. A-C), but early allozyme data even hint at the presence of additional cryptic lineages in Central Europe. We combined COI sequencing with high-resolution genome-wide SNP data (ddRAD data) to analyze the genetic structure of A. fluviatilis populations in a Central German low mountain range (Sauerland). The ddRAD data results indicate the presence of three cryptic species within A. fluviatilis s. str. occurring in sympatry and even syntopy, whereas mitochondrial sequence data only support the existence of one species, with shared haplotypes between species. Our study hence points to the limitations of DNA barcoding when dealing with organismal groups where speciation is assumed to have occurred rapidly, for example, through the process of allopolyploidization. We therefore emphasize that single marker DNA barcoding can underestimate the true species diversity and argue in strong favor of using genome-wide data for species delimitation in such groups.
Mezhzherin, S V; Morozov-Leonov, S Iu; Rostovskaia, O V; Shabanov, D A; Sobolenko, L Iu
The present study of green frog hybrid populations of Ukraine, including analysis of allozyme variability and planimetric analysis oferythrocytes size has confirmed that the unique region in this area is the Severski Donets basin The allopolyploid individuals there are met very frequently (5.7% of all investigated frogs). In other areas of Ukraine only two polyploid hybrids have been recorded. Beside that, one frog was defined as triploid Rana ridibundus. According to our investigations, all triploid hybrids from the Severski Donets basin are identified as P. esculentu (=lessonae)--2 ridibundus males.
Querol, Amparo; Bond, Ursula
The Saccharomyces sensu stricto genus contains many species that are industrially important for fermentation of wines, beers and ales. The molecular characterization of the genomes of yeasts involved in these processes reveals that the majority arose from interspecific hybridization between two and sometimes three yeast species. The hybridization events generated allopolyploid genomes, and subsequent recombination events between the parental genomes resulted in the formation of mosaic chromosomes. The polyploid and hybrid nature of the genomes confers robust characteristics such as tolerance to environmental stress to these industrial yeasts and provides a means for adaptive evolution.
B. J. M. Zonneveld
, and a possible pentaploid. The somatic nuclear DNA contents (2C-value, as measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide, were shown to range from 33 to 80 pg. The Asiatic and American species, often considered subspecies of H. nobilis, could be clearly distinguished from European H. nobilis. DNA content confirmed the close relationships in the Asiatic species, and these are here considered as subspecies of H. asiatica. Parents for the allotetraploid species could be suggested based on their nuclear DNA content. Contrary to the increase in genome size suggested earlier for Hepatica, a significant (6%–14% loss of nuclear DNA in the natural allopolyploids was found.
Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.
M. N. Lomonosova
Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.
Giambanelli, Elisa; Filippo D'Antuono, L; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia
A recent interest in edible wild leafy vegetables has been documented. Consumers often associate these species with health promotion. In this study, several wild species of the Asteraceae family and Knautia integrifolia (Dipsacaceae) were locally documented for their use in traditional cuisine and sampled from the wild. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. Hydroxycinnamic acids ranging from 1388 to 53 076 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) were the most abundant compounds in all species (69-98% of the total phenolic content) except Tragopogon pratensis. Thirty compounds were identified as flavonoids, mostly as glycosidic forms of luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol and quercetin. The sum of flavonoids ranged between 212 and 12 598 mg kg -1 DW; they represented 65% of the total phenolic content for T. pratensis. Three anthocyanins were detected, representing in most cases less than 1% of the total phenolic content (3-627 mg kg -1 DW). Higher anthocyanin contents were observed for Cichorium types. Different phenolic profiles were observed between species, especially considering the class of flavonoids. Individual species may be of some interest for their content of specific minor flavonoids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
T. V. An’kova
Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом (2n для девяти видов семейств Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae и Scrophulariaceae. Впервые определены числа хромосом Silene cretacea (2n=20 и Oxytropis stenofoliola (2n=48. Впервые для Казахстана и Южной Сибири (Западный Саян, Новосибирская область определены числа хромосом у Jurinea arachnoidea, Tragopogon ruber, Astragalus brachylobus, A. cicer, A. danicus, Verbascum phoeniceum.
Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..
Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.
Ricca, M; Szövényi, P; Temsch, E M; Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J
Polyploidization is thought to result in instant sympatric speciation, but several cases of hybrid zones between one of the parental species and its polyploid derivative have been documented. Previous work showed that diploid Sphagnum lescurii is an allopolyploid derived from the haploids S. lescurii (maternal progenitor) and S. subsecundum (paternal progenitor). Here, we report the results from analyses of a population where allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii co-occur and produce sporophytes. We tested (i) whether haploids and diploids form hybrid triploid sporophytes; (ii) how hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes compare in fitness; (iii) whether hybrid sporophytes form viable spores; (iv) the ploidy of any viable gametophyte offspring from hybrid sporophytes; (v) the relative viability of sporelings derived from hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes; and (vi) if interploidal hybridization results in introgression between the allopolyploid and its haploid progenitor. We found that triploid hybrid sporophytes do occur and are larger than nonhybrid sporophytes, but exhibit very low germination percentages and produce sporelings that develop more slowly than those from nonhybrid sporophytes. All sporophytes attached to haploid gametophytes were triploid and were sired by diploid males, but all sporophytes attached to diploid gametophytes were tetraploid. This asymmetric pattern of interploidal hybridization is related to an absence of haploid male gametophytes in the population. Surprisingly, all sporelings from triploid sporophytes were triploid, yet were genetically variable, suggesting some form of aberrant meiosis that warrants further study. There was limited (but some) evidence of introgression between allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Shaw, A Jonathan; Shaw, Blanka; Johnson, Matthew G; Higuchi, Masanobu; Arikawa, Tomotsugu; Ueno, Takeshi; Devos, Nicolas
Sphagnum dominates vast expanses of wetland habitats throughout the northern hemisphere and species delimitation within the genus is important because floristic changes associated with a warming global climate may have measureable impacts on large-scale ecological processes. Most northern hemisphere peatmoss species (Sphagnum) have circumboreal ranges, but the Japanese species generally known as S. calymmatophyllum is endemic to Honshu Island. This prompted a population genetic and phylogenetic analysis to resolve the origin(s), population structure, and phylogenetic relationships of this morphologically variable species. • Sixty plants collected from Mt. Gassan and Mt. Hakkoda were genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Two plastid loci and three anonymous nuclear loci were sequenced in a subset of the plants, plus representatives from 10 closely related species. • Gametophytes exhibited fixed or nearly fixed heterozygosity at 9-10 of the 12 microsatellite loci. Two genetic groups were resolved by the microsatellite data, individuals showed no evidence of admixture, and the two groups of plants differ in morphology. They are heterozygous for different sets of alleles. The two taxa share plastid DNA sequences with two species that are common in Alaska. • Two taxa were distinguished: S. guwassanense and S. triseriporum. Both are allopolyploids; they originated independently from different but closely related progenitors. The maternal progenitor was likely either S. orientale or S. inexspectatum. The two allopolyploid taxa are heterozygous for (different) private microsatellite alleles, and one progenitor could be extinct.
Cabo, Sandra; Ferreira, Luciana; Carvalho, Ana; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Martín, António; Lima-Brito, José Eduardo
Hexaploid tritordeum (H(ch)H(ch)AABB; 2n = 42) results from the cross between Hordeum chilense (H(ch)H(ch); 2n = 14) and cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (AABB; 2n = 28). Morphologically, tritordeum resembles the wheat parent, showing promise for agriculture and wheat breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) polymorphism is a recently developed technique that generates gene-targeted markers. Thus, we considered it interesting to evaluate its potential for the DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized hexaploid tritordeums and their respective parents. In this study, 60 SCoT primers were tested, and 18 and 19 of them revealed SCoT polymorphisms in the newly synthesized tritordeum lines HT27 and HT22, respectively, and their parents. An analysis of the presence/absence of bands among tritordeums and their parents revealed three types of polymorphic markers: (i) shared by tritordeums and one of their parents, (ii) exclusively amplified in tritordeums, and (iii) exclusively amplified in the parents. No polymorphism was detected among individuals of each parental species. Three SCoT markers were exclusively amplified in tritordeums of lines HT22 and HT27, being considered as polyploidization-induced rearrangements. About 70% of the SCoT markers of H. chilense origin were not transmitted to the allopolyploids of both lines, and most of the SCoTs scored in the newly synthesized allopolyploids originated from wheat, reinforcing the potential use of tritordeum as an alternative crop.
Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo
Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.
Kristen S. Swithers
Full Text Available Reticulate evolution encompasses processes that conflict with traditional Tree of Life efforts. These processes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT, gene and whole-genome duplications through allopolyploidization, are some of the main driving forces for generating innovation and complexity. HGT has a profound impact on prokaryotic and eukaryotic evolution. HGTs can lead to the invention of new metabolic pathways and the expansion and enhancement of previously existing pathways. It allows for organismal adaptation into new ecological niches and new host ranges. Although many HGTs appear to be selected for because they provide some benefit to their recipient lineage, other HGTs may be maintained by chance through random genetic drift. Moreover, some HGTs that may initially seem parasitic in nature can cause complexity to arise through pathways of neutral evolution. Another mechanism for generating innovation and complexity, occurring more frequently in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes, is gene and genome duplications, which often occur through allopolyploidizations. We discuss how these different evolutionary processes contribute to generating innovation and complexity.
Full Text Available Polyploidy plays a major role in genome evolution, which corresponds to environmental changes over millions of years. The mechanisms of genome evolution, particularly during the process of domestication, are of broad interest in the fields of plant science and crop breeding. Upland cotton is derived from the hybridization and polyploidization of its ancient A and D diploid ancestors. As a result, cotton is a model for polyploid genome evolution and crop domestication. To explore the genomic mysteries of allopolyploid cotton, we investigated asymmetric evolution and domestication in the A and D subgenomes. Interestingly, more structural rearrangements have been characterized in the A subgenome than in the D subgenome. Correspondingly, more transposable elements, a greater number of lost and disrupted genes, and faster evolution have been identified in the A subgenome. In contrast, the centromeric retroelement (RT-domain related sequence of tetraploid cotton derived from the D subgenome progenitor was found to have invaded the A subgenome centromeres after allotetrapolyploid formation. Although there is no genome-wide expression bias between the subgenomes, as with expression-level alterations, gene expression bias of homoeologous gene pairs is widespread and varies from tissue to tissue. Further, there are more positively selected genes for fiber yield and quality in the A subgenome and more for stress tolerance in the D subgenome, indicating asymmetric domestication. This review highlights the asymmetric subgenomic evolution and domestication of allotetraploid cotton, providing valuable genomic resources for cotton research and enhancing our understanding of the basis of many other allopolyploids.
Corrinne E. Grover
Full Text Available Flowering time control is critically important to all sexually reproducing angiosperms in both natural ecological and agronomic settings. Accordingly, there is much interest in defining the genes involved in the complex flowering-time network and how these respond to natural and artificial selection, the latter often entailing transitions in day-length responses. Here we describe a candidate gene analysis in the cotton genus , which uses homologs from the well-described flowering network to bioinformatically and phylogenetically identify orthologs in the published genome sequence from Ulbr., one of the two model diploid progenitors of the commercially important allopolyploid cottons, L. and L. Presence and patterns of expression were evaluated from 13 aboveground tissues related to flowering for each of the candidate genes using allopolyploid as a model. Furthermore, we use a comparative context to determine copy number variability of each key gene family across 10 published angiosperm genomes. Data suggest a pattern of repeated loss of duplicates following ancient whole-genome doubling events in diverse lineages. The data presented here provide a foundation for understanding both the parallel evolution of day-length neutrality in domesticated cottons and the flowering-time network, in general, in this important crop plant.
Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970
Full Text Available Alimurgic species are edible wild plants growing spontaneously as invasive weeds in natural grassland and farmed fields. Growing interest in biodiversity conservation projects suggests deeper study of the multifunctional roles they can play in metal uptake for phytoremediation and their food safety when cultivated in polluted land. In this study, the responses of the tap-rooted perennial species Cichorium intybus L., Sonchus oleracerus L., Taraxacum officinale Web., Tragopogon porrifolius L. and Rumex acetosa L. were studied in artificially-highly Cd-Co-Cu-Pb-Zn-contaminated soil in a pot-scale trial, and those of T. officinale and R. acetosa in critical open environments (i.e., landfill, ditch sediments, and sides of highly-trafficked roads. Germination was not inhibited, and all species showed appreciable growth, despite considerable increases in tissue metal rates. Substantial growth impairments were observed in C. intybus, T. officinale and T. porrifolius; R. acetosa and S. oleracerus were only marginally affected. Zn was generally well translocated and reached a high leaf concentration, especially in T. officinale (~600 mg·kg−1·dry weight, DW, a result which can be exploited for phytoremediation purposes. The elevated Cd translocation also suggested applications to phytoextraction, particularly with C. intybus, in which leaf Cd reached ~16 mg·kg−1·DW. The generally high root retention of Pb and Cu may allow their phytostabilisation in the medium-term in no-tillage systems, together with significant reductions in metal leaching compared with bare soil. In open systems, critical soil Pb and Zn were associated with heavily trafficked roadsides, although this was only seldom reflected in shoot metal accumulation. It is concluded that a community of alimurgic species can serve to establish an efficient, long-lasting vegetation cover applied for phytoremediation and reduction of soil metal movements in degraded environments. However
Dierschke, Tom; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; Mummenhoff, Klaus
Incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear DNA phylogenies, and single additive nucleotide positions in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of polyploid Australian/New Zealand (NZ) Lepidium species have been used to suggest a bicontinental hybrid origin. This pattern was explained by two trans-oceanic dispersals of Lepidium species from California and Africa and subsequent hybridization followed by homogenization of the ribosomal DNA sequence either to the Californian (C-clade) or to the African ITS-type (A-clade) in two different ITS-lineages of Australian/NZ Lepidium polyploids. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to unravel the genomic origin of polyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes was applied to test the purported ITS evolution, and to facilitate chromosome counting in high-numbered polyploids. In Australian/NZ A-clade Lepidium polyploids, GISH identified African and Australian/NZ C-clade species as putative ancestral genomes. Neither the African nor the Californian genome were detected in Australian/NZ C-clade species and the Californian genome was not detected in Australian/NZ A-clade species. Five of the eight polyploid species (from 7x to 11x) displayed a diploid-like set of rDNA loci. Even the undecaploid species Lepidium muelleriferdinandi (2n = 11x = 88) showed only one pair of each rDNA repeat. In A-clade allopolyploids, in situ rDNA localization combined with GISH corroborated the presence of the African ITS-type. The nuclear genomes of African and Australian/NZ C-clade species were detected by GISH in allopolyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species of the A-clade, supporting their hybrid origin. The presumed hybrid origin of Australian/NZ C-clade taxa could not be confirmed. Hence, it is assumed that Californian ancestral taxa experienced rapid radiation in Australia/NZ into extant C-clade polyploid taxa followed by hybridization with African species. As a
Neiva, João; Serrão, Ester A; Anderson, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Martins, Neusa; Gouveia, Licínia; Paulino, Cristina; Coelho, Nelson C; Miller, Kathy Ann; Reed, Daniel C; Ladah, Lydia B; Pearson, Gareth A
Molecular markers are revealing a much more diverse and evolutionarily complex picture of marine biodiversity than previously anticipated. Cryptic and/or endemic marine species are continually being found throughout the world oceans, predominantly in inconspicuous tropical groups but also in larger, canopy-forming taxa from well studied temperate regions. Interspecific hybridization has also been found to be prevalent in many marine groups, for instance within dense congeneric assemblages, with introgressive gene-flow being the most common outcome. Here, using a congeneric phylogeographic approach, we investigated two monotypic and geographically complementary sister genera of north-east Pacific intertidal seaweeds (Hesperophycus and Pelvetiopsis), for which preliminary molecular tests revealed unexpected conflicts consistent with unrecognized cryptic diversity and hybridization. The three recovered mtDNA clades did not match a priori species delimitations. H. californicus was congruent, whereas widespread P. limitata encompassed two additional narrow-endemic species from California - P. arborescens (here genetically confirmed) and P. hybrida sp. nov. The congruence between the genotypic clusters and the mtDNA clades was absolute. Fixed heterozygosity was apparent in a high proportion of loci in P. limitata and P. hybrida, with genetic analyses showing that the latter was composed of both H. californicus and P. arborescens genomes. All four inferred species could be distinguished based on their general morphology. This study confirmed additional diversity and reticulation within NE Pacific Hesperophycus/Pelvetiopsis, including the validity of the much endangered, modern climatic relict P. arborescens, and the identification of a new, stable allopolyploid species (P. hybrida) with clearly discernable ancestry (♀ H. californicus x ♂ P. arborescens), morphology, and geographical distribution. Allopolyploid speciation is otherwise completely unknown in brown
Rousseau-Gueutin, M; Gaston, A; Aïnouche, A; Aïnouche, M L; Olbricht, K; Staudt, G; Richard, L; Denoyes-Rothan, B
Phylogenetic utility of two nuclear genes (GBSSI-2 and DHAR) was explored in genus Fragaria in order to clarify phylogenetic relationships among taxa and to elucidate the origin of the polyploid species. Orthology of the amplified products was assessed by several methods. Our results strongly suggest the loss of one GBSSI duplicated copy (GBSSI-1) in the Fragariinae subtribe. Phylogenetic analyses provided new insights into the evolutionary history of Fragaria, such as evidence supporting the presence of three main diploid genomic pools in the genus and demonstrating the occurrence of independent events of polyploidisation. In addition, the data provide evidence supporting an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid F. moschata, and the octoploids F. chiloensis, F. iturupensis and F. virginiana. Accordingly, a new pattern summarizing our present knowledge on the Fragaria evolutionary history is proposed. Additionally, sequence analyses also revealed relaxed constraints on homoeologous copies at high ploidy level, as demonstrated by deletion events within DHAR coding sequences of some allo-octoploid haplotypes.
Brasier, Clive M; Kirk, Susan A; Delcan, Jose; Cooke, David E L; Jung, Thomas; Man in't Veld, Willem A
In 1993 a destructive new Phytophthora pathogen of riparian Alnus trees was discovered in the UK and subsequently shown to be present in other parts of Europe. The new Phytophthora comprised a group of emergent heteroploid hybrids, probably between P. cambivora and a species related to P. fragariae. These included a common, near tetraploid standard hybrid, the presumptive allopolyploid; and four scarcer major variant types with chromosome numbers intermediate between diploid and tetraploid, named the Swedish, Dutch, German and UK variants. The standard hybrid type is formally designated here as Phytophthora alni subsp. alni. The Swedish variant is designated as P. alni subsp. uniformis; and the Dutch, German and UK variants collectively as P. alni subsp. multiformis. The properties of the Dutch, German and UK variants within subsp. multiformis are informally described. The problems of designating emergent species hybrids under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and the reasons for the taxonomic choices made are discussed.
Wyatt, Robert; Odrzykoski, Ireneusz J.; Stoneburner, Ann; Bass, Henry W.; Galau, Glenn A.
Bryophytes are thought to be unique among land plants in lacking the important evolutionary process of allopolyploidy, which involves interspecific hybridization and chromosome doubling. Electrophoretic data show, however, that the polyploid moss Plagiomnium medium is an allopolyploid derivative of Plagiomnium ellipticum and Plagiomnium insigne, that P. medium has originated more than once from these progenitors, and that cross-fertilization results in interlocus genetic recombination. Evidence from restriction fragment length polymorphisms in chloroplast DNA implicates P. insigne as the female parent in interspecific hybridizations with P. ellipticum. Contrary to prevailing views, it appears that those evolutionary processes responsible for genetic differentiation and speciation in other land plants occur in the bryophytes as well. Images PMID:16593968
Full Text Available Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH techniques in horticultural plants.
Triplett, Jimmy K; Wang, Yunjing; Zhong, Jinshun; Kellogg, Elizabeth A
Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum). Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels.
Jimmy K Triplett
Full Text Available Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum. Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels.
A novel method to infer the origin of polyploids from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism data reveals that the alpine polyploid complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) evolved mainly via autopolyploidy.
Winkler, Manuela; Escobar García, Pedro; Gattringer, Andreas; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Hülber, Karl; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M
Despite its evolutionary and ecological relevance, the mode of polyploid origin has been notoriously difficult to be reconstructed from molecular data. Here, we present a method to identify the putative parents of polyploids and thus to infer the mode of their origin (auto- vs. allopolyploidy) from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. To this end, we use Cohen's d of distances between in silico polyploids, generated within a priori defined scenarios of origin from a priori delimited putative parental entities (e.g. taxa, genetic lineages), and natural polyploids. Simulations show that the discriminatory power of the proposed method increases mainly with increasing divergence between the lower-ploid putative ancestors and less so with increasing delay of polyploidization relative to the time of divergence. We apply the new method to the Senecio carniolicus aggregate, distributed in the European Alps and comprising two diploid, one tetraploid and one hexaploid species. In the eastern part of its distribution, the S. carniolicus aggregate was inferred to comprise an autopolyploid series, whereas for western populations of the tetraploid species, an allopolyploid origin involving the two diploid species was the most likely scenario. Although this suggests that the tetraploid species has two independent origins, other evidence (ribotype distribution, morphology) is consistent with the hypothesis of an autopolyploid origin with subsequent introgression by the second diploid species. Altogether, identifying the best among alternative scenarios using Cohen's d can be straightforward, but particular scenarios, such as allopolyploid origin vs. autopolyploid origin with subsequent introgression, remain difficult to be distinguished. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Cooley, Arielle M; Lee, Michelle Yuequi; Folmer, Madison; McKain, Michael R; Puzey, Joshua R
Hybridization between diploids and tetraploids can lead to new allopolyploid species, often via a triploid intermediate. Viable triploids are often produced asymmetrically, with greater success observed for "maternal-excess" crosses where the mother has a higher ploidy than the father. Here we investigated the evolutionary origins of Mimulus peregrinus, an allohexaploid recently derived from the triploid M. ×robertsii, to determine whether reproductive asymmetry has shaped the formation of this new species. We used reciprocal crosses between the diploid (M. guttatus) and tetraploid (M. luteus) progenitors to determine the viability of triploid M. ×robertsii hybrids resulting from paternal- vs. maternal-excess crosses. To investigate whether experimental results predict patterns seen in the field, we performed parentage analyses comparing natural populations of M. peregrinus to its diploid, tetraploid, and triploid progenitors. Organellar sequences obtained from pre-existing genomic data, supplemented with additional genotyping was used to establish the maternal ancestry of multiple M. peregrinus and M. ×robertsii populations. We found strong evidence for asymmetric origins of M. peregrinus, but opposite to the common pattern, with paternal-excess crosses significantly more successful than maternal-excess crosses. These results successfully predicted hybrid formation in nature: 111 of 114 M. ×robertsii individuals, and 27 of 27 M. peregrinus, had an M. guttatus maternal haplotype. This study, which includes the first Mimulus chloroplast genome assembly, demonstrates the utility of parentage analysis through genome skimming. We highlight the benefits of complementing genomic analyses with experimental approaches to understand asymmetry in allopolyploid speciation. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Full Text Available Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB. Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11 and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10 and B. nigra (9×9 were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47 of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis.
Van den Heede, Caroline J; Viane, Ronald L L; Chase, Mark W
. lolegnamense and of A. octoploideum. Because gene conversion did not eliminate divergent ITS alleles in the allopolyploids, their reticulate ancestry could be demonstrated. Biparentally inherited nrITS sequences support the allopolyploid status of A. aureum, A. lolegnamense, and A. punjabense, indicating they share the ancestral A. javorkeanum genome.
particular, Ph1, critical for correct mitosis and meiosis in the allopolyploid nucleus; Kr1, controlling interspecific incompatibility; the genes controlling hybrid necrosis and response to vernalization, Ne1 and Vrn-B1; and genes controlling resistance to various pathogens and bread-making quality. The translocations and inversions of chromosome 5B/5S, which could have taken place in the evolution of Ae. speltoides and allopolyploid wheats, yet has not been detected so far. On the other hand, the changes in chromosome 5B that had brought forth the locus Ph1 took place due to certain yet unknown mechanisms. Construction of the physical map for chromosome 5B and determination of its primary structure are in progress now.
F. Douglas Wilson
Full Text Available Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic monograph ofHibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level, followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids.
Maughan, P J; Kolano, B A; Maluszynska, J; Coles, N D; Bonifacio, A; Rojas, J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Parkinson, S E; Jellen, E N
The nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are valuable as chromosome landmarks and in evolutionary studies. The NOR intergenic spacers (IGS) and 5S rRNA nontranscribed spacers (NTS) were PCR-amplified and sequenced from 5 cultivars of the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., 2n = 4x = 36) and a related wild ancestor (C. berlandieri Moq. subsp. zschackei (Murr) A. Zobel, 2n = 4x = 36). Length heterogeneity observed in the IGS resulted from copy number difference in subrepeat elements, small re arrangements, and species-specific indels, though the general sequence composition of the 2 species was highly similar. Fifteen of the 41 sequence polymorphisms identified among the C. quinoa lines were synapomorphic and clearly differentiated the highland and lowland ecotypes. Analysis of the NTS sequences revealed 2 basic NTS sequence classes that likely originated from the 2 allopolyploid subgenomes of C. quinoa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that C. quinoa possesses an interstitial and a terminal pair of 5S rRNA loci and only 1 pair of NOR, suggesting a reduction in the number of rRNA loci during the evolution of this species. C. berlandieri exhibited variation in both NOR and 5S rRNA loci without changes in ploidy.
Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di
Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.
Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Xiaodi
Previous studies have suggested that the H haplome in Elymus could originate from different diploid Hordeum species, however, which diploid species best represent the parental species remains unanswered. The focus of this study seeks to pinpoint the origin of the H genome in Elymus. Allopolyploid Elymus species that contain the StH genome were analyzed together with diploid Hordeum species and a broad sample of diploid genera in the tribe Triticeae using DMC1 sequences. Both parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses well separated the American Hordeum species, except Hordeum brachyantherum subsp. californicum, from the H genome of polyploid Elymus species. The Elymus H-genomic sequences were formed into different groups. Our data suggested that the American Horedeum species, except H. brachyantherum subsp. californicum, are not the H-genomic donor to the Elymus species. Hordeum brevisubulatum subsp. violaceum was the progenitor species to Elymus virescens, Elymus confusus, Elymus lanceolatus, Elymus wawawaiensis, and Elymus caninus. Furthermore, North American H. brachyantherum subsp. californicum was a progenitor of the H genome to Elymus hystrix and Elymus cordilleranus. The H genomes in Elymus canadensis, Elymus sibiricus, and Elymus multisetus were highly differentiated from the H genome in Hordeum and other Elymus species. The H genome in both North American and Eurasian Elymus species was contributed by different Hordeum species.
Stenøien, H K; Shaw, A J; Stengrundet, K; Flatberg, K I
It is commonly found that individual hybrid, polyploid species originate recurrently and that many polyploid species originated relatively recently. It has been previously hypothesized that the extremely rare allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum troendelagicum has originated multiple times, possibly after the last glacial maximum in Scandinavia. This conclusion was based on low linkage disequilibrium in anonymous genetic markers within natural populations, in which sexual reproduction has never been observed. Here we employ microsatellite markers and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA)-encoded trnG sequence data to test hypotheses concerning the origin and evolution of this species. We find that S. tenellum is the maternal progenitor and S. balticum is the paternal progenitor of S. troendelagicum. Using various Bayesian approaches, we estimate that S. troendelagicum originated before the Holocene but not before c. 80 000 years ago (median expected time since speciation 40 000 years before present). The observed lack of complete linkage disequilibrium in the genome of this species suggests cryptic sexual reproduction and recombination. Several lines of evidence suggest multiple origins for S. troendelagicum, but a single origin is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. We hypothesize that S. troendelagicum originated in a peat-dominated refugium before last glacial maximum, and subsequently immigrated to central Norway by means of spore flow during the last thousands of years. PMID:20717162
Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Grupp, Kara; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F
Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is widely cultivated because of its long, strong seed trichomes ('fibers') used for premium textiles. These agronomically advanced fibers were derived following domestication and thousands of years of human-mediated crop improvement. To gain an insight into fiber development and evolution, we conducted comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of developing fiber from an elite cultivar and a wild accession. Analyses using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) LC-MS/MS technology identified 1317 proteins in fiber. Of these, 205 were differentially expressed across developmental stages, and 190 showed differential expression between wild and cultivated forms, 14.4% of the proteome sampled. Human selection may have shifted the timing of developmental modules, such that some occur earlier in domesticated than in wild cotton. A novel approach was used to detect possible biased expression of homoeologous copies of proteins. Results indicate a significant partitioning of duplicate gene expression at the protein level, but an approximately equal degree of bias for each of the two constituent genomes of allopolyploid cotton. Our results demonstrate the power of complementary transcriptomic and proteomic approaches for the study of the domestication process. They also provide a rich database for mining for functional analyses of cotton improvement or evolution. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Pathak, Dharminder; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F
Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30% of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution.
Dong, Shaowei; Adams, Keith L
Polyploidy has occurred throughout plant evolution and can result in considerable changes to gene expression when it takes place and over evolutionary time. Little is known about the effects of abiotic stress conditions on duplicate gene expression patterns in polyploid plants. We examined the expression patterns of 60 duplicated genes in leaves, roots and cotyledons of allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum in response to five abiotic stress treatments (heat, cold, drought, high salt and water submersion) using single-strand conformation polymorphism assays, and 20 genes in a synthetic allotetraploid. Over 70% of the genes showed stress-induced changes in the relative expression levels of the duplicates under one or more stress treatments with frequent variability among treatments. Twelve pairs showed opposite changes in expression levels in response to different abiotic stress treatments. Stress-induced expression changes occurred in the synthetic allopolyploid, but there was little correspondence in patterns between the natural and synthetic polyploids. Our results indicate that abiotic stress conditions can have considerable effects on duplicate gene expression in a polyploid, with the effects varying by gene, stress and organ type. Differential expression in response to environmental stresses may be a factor in the preservation of some duplicated genes in polyploids. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.
Yan, Hong-Hai; Baum, Bernard R; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Wei, Yu-Ming; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Xiong, Fang-Qiu; Liu, Gang; Zhong, Lin; Zhao, Gang; Peng, Yuan-Ying
Two uncorrelated nucleotide sequences, chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and acetyl CoA carboxylase gene (Acc1), were used to perform phylogenetic analyses in 75 accessions of the genus Avena, representing 13 diploids, seven tetraploid, and four hexaploids by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Phylogenic analyses based on the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH confirmed that the A genome diploid might be the maternal donor of species of the genus Avena. Two haplotypes of the Acc1 gene region were obtained from the AB genome tetraploids, indicating an allopolyploid origin for the tetraploid species. Among the AB genome species, both gene trees revealed differences between Avena agadiriana and the other species, suggesting that an AS genome diploid might be the A genome donor and the other genome diploid donor might be the Ac genome diploid Avena canariensis or the Ad genome diploid Avena damascena. Three haplotypes of the Acc1 gene have been detected among the ACD genome hexaploid species. The haplotype that seems to represent the D genome clustered with the tetraploid species Avena murphyi and Avena maroccana, which supported the CD genomic designation instead of AC for A. murphyi and A. maroccana.
Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.
Nakano, Hiroki; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo
Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.
Li, Hao; Guo, Xiaoxue; Wang, Changyou; Ji, Wanquan
Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale. Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L.) × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L.) were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales. This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, "genome shock" was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced.
Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale.Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L. × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L. were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales.This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, "genome shock" was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced.
Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D
The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods.
Younis, Adnan; Ramzan, Fahad; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung
The innovations in chromosome engineering have improved the efficiency of interrogation breeding, and the identification and transfer of resistance genes from alien to native species. Recent advances in molecular biology and cytogenetics have brought revolutionary, conceptual developments in mitosis and meiosis research, chromosome structure and manipulation, gene expression and regulation, and gene silencing. Cytogenetic studies offer integrative tools for imaging, genetics, epigenetics, and cytological information that can be employed to enhance chromosome and molecular genomic research in plant taxa. In situ hybridization techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), can identify chromosome morphologies and sequences, amount and distribution of various types of chromatin in chromosomes, and genome organization during the metaphase stage of meiosis. Over the past few decades, various new molecular cytogenetic applications have been developed. The FISH and GISH techniques present an authentic model for analyzing the individual chromosome, chromosomal segments, or the genomes of natural and artificial hybrid plants. These have become the most reliable techniques for studying allopolyploids, because most cultivated plants have been developed through hybridization or polyploidization. Moreover, introgression of the genes and chromatin from the wild types into cultivated species can also be analyzed. Since hybrid derivatives may have variable alien chromosome numbers or chromosome arms, the use of these approaches opens new avenues for accurately identifying genome differences.
Cheng, Shiping; Huang, Zhen; Li, Yun; Liao, Ting; Suo, Yujing; Zhang, Pingdong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang
In this report, we compared transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Populus section Tacamahaca triploid driven by second-division restitution and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-seq method. A total of 4,080 genes were differentially expressed between the high-growth vigor allotriploids (SDR-H) and their parents, and 719 genes were non-additively expressed in SDR-H. Differences in gene expression between the allotriploid and male parent were more significant than those between the allotriploid and female parent, which may be caused by maternal effects. We observed 3,559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the SDR-H and male parent. Notably, the genes were mainly involved in metabolic process, cell proliferation, DNA methylation, cell division, and meristem and developmental growth. Among the 1,056 DEGs between SDR-H and female parent, many genes were associated with metabolic process and carbon utilization. In addition, 1,789 DEGs between high- and low-growth vigor allotriploid were mainly associated with metabolic process, auxin poplar transport, and regulation of meristem growth. Our results indicated that the higher poplar ploidy level can generate extensive transcriptomic diversity compared with its parents. Overall, these results increased our understanding of the driving force for phenotypic variation and adaptation in allopolyploids driven by second-division restitution. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Ioos, Renaud; Panabières, Franck; Industri, Benoît; Andrieux, Axelle; Frey, Pascal
Phytophthora alni subsp. alni, P. alni subsp. multiformis, and P. alni subsp. uniformis are responsible for alder disease in Europe. Class I and II elicitin gene patterns of P. alni subsp. alni, P. alni subsp. multiformis, P. alni subsp. uniformis, and the phylogenetically close species P. cambivora and P. fragariae were studied through mRNA sequencing and 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR)-specific PCRs and sequencing. The occurrence of multiple 3′UTR sequences in association with identical elicitin-encoding sequences in P. alni subsp. alni indicated duplication/recombination events. The mRNA pattern displayed by P. alni subsp. alni demonstrated that elicitin genes from all the parental genomes are actually expressed in this allopolyploid taxon. The complementary elicitin patterns resolved confirmed the possible involvement of P. alni subsp. multiformis and P. alni subsp. uniformis in the genesis of the hybrid species P. alni subsp. alni. The occurrence of multiple and common elicitin gene sequences throughout P. cambivora, P. fragariae, and P. alni sensu lato, not observed in other Phytophthora species, suggests that duplication of these genes occurred before the radiation of these species. PMID:17601812
Ioos, Renaud; Panabières, Franck; Industri, Benoît; Andrieux, Axelle; Frey, Pascal
Phytophthora alni subsp. alni, P. alni subsp. multiformis, and P. alni subsp. uniformis are responsible for alder disease in Europe. Class I and II elicitin gene patterns of P. alni subsp. alni, P. alni subsp. multiformis, P. alni subsp. uniformis, and the phylogenetically close species P. cambivora and P. fragariae were studied through mRNA sequencing and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR)-specific PCRs and sequencing. The occurrence of multiple 3'UTR sequences in association with identical elicitin-encoding sequences in P. alni subsp. alni indicated duplication/recombination events. The mRNA pattern displayed by P. alni subsp. alni demonstrated that elicitin genes from all the parental genomes are actually expressed in this allopolyploid taxon. The complementary elicitin patterns resolved confirmed the possible involvement of P. alni subsp. multiformis and P. alni subsp. uniformis in the genesis of the hybrid species P. alni subsp. alni. The occurrence of multiple and common elicitin gene sequences throughout P. cambivora, P. fragariae, and P. alni sensu lato, not observed in other Phytophthora species, suggests that duplication of these genes occurred before the radiation of these species.
Stenøien, H K; Shaw, A J; Stengrundet, K; Flatberg, K I
It is commonly found that individual hybrid, polyploid species originate recurrently and that many polyploid species originated relatively recently. It has been previously hypothesized that the extremely rare allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum troendelagicum has originated multiple times, possibly after the last glacial maximum in Scandinavia. This conclusion was based on low linkage disequilibrium in anonymous genetic markers within natural populations, in which sexual reproduction has never been observed. Here we employ microsatellite markers and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA)-encoded trnG sequence data to test hypotheses concerning the origin and evolution of this species. We find that S. tenellum is the maternal progenitor and S. balticum is the paternal progenitor of S. troendelagicum. Using various Bayesian approaches, we estimate that S. troendelagicum originated before the Holocene but not before c. 80,000 years ago (median expected time since speciation 40 000 years before present). The observed lack of complete linkage disequilibrium in the genome of this species suggests cryptic sexual reproduction and recombination. Several lines of evidence suggest multiple origins for S. troendelagicum, but a single origin is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. We hypothesize that S. troendelagicum originated in a peat-dominated refugium before last glacial maximum, and subsequently immigrated to central Norway by means of spore flow during the last thousands of years.
Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang
Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.
Yang, Yilong; Davis, Thomas M
The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n = 8× = 56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Access Array system and 454 sequencing platform. About 24 single-copy or low-copy nuclear genes distributed across the genome were amplified and sequenced from 96 genomic DNA samples representing 16 Fragaria species from diploid (2×) to decaploid (10×), including the most extensive sampling of octoploid taxa yet reported. Individual gene trees were constructed by different tree-building methods. Mosaic genomic structures of diploid Fragaria species consisting of sequences at different phylogenetic positions were observed. Our findings support the presence in octoploid species of genetic signatures from at least five diploid ancestors (F. vesca, F. iinumae, F. bucharica, F. viridis, and at least one additional allele contributor of unknown identity), and questions the extent to which distinct subgenomes are preserved over evolutionary time in the allopolyploid Fragaria species. In addition, our data support divergence between the two wild octoploid species, F. virginiana and F. chiloensis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie
We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.
Wu, Lankun; Dixon, Philip M; Nikolau, Basil J; Kraus, George A; Widrlechner, Mark P; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin
The genus Echinacea is used as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments. To better understand its potential chemical variation, 40 Echinacea accessions encompassing broad geographical and morphological diversity were evaluated under controlled conditions. Metabolites of roots from these accessions were analyzed by HPLC-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA), GC-MS, and multivariate statistical methods. In total, 43 lipophilic metabolites, including 24 unknown compounds, were detected. Weighted principal component analysis (WPCA) and clustering analysis of the levels of these metabolites across Echinacea accessions, based on Canberra distances, allowed us to test two alternative taxonomic treatments of the genus, with the further goal of facilitating accession identification. A widely used system developed by McGregor based primarily on morphological features was more congruent with the dendrogram generated from the lipophilic metabolite data than the system more recently developed by Binns et al. Our data support the hypothesis that Echinacea pallida is a diverse allopolyploid, incorporating the genomes of Echinacea simulata and another taxon, possibly Echinacea sanguinea. Finally, most recognized taxa of Echinacea can be identified by their distinct lipophilic metabolite fingerprints.
Gao, Lifeng; Zhao, Guangyao; Huang, Dawei; Jia, Jizeng
Selection is one of the most important forces in crop evolution. Common wheat is a major world food crop and a typical allopolyploid with a huge and complex genome. We applied four approaches to detect loci selected in wheat during domestication and improvement. A total of 7,984 candidate loci were detected, accounting for 23.3% of all 34,317 SNPs analysed, a much higher proportion than estimated in previous reports. We constructed a first generation wheat selection map which revealed the following new insights on genome-wide selection: (1) diversifying selection acted by increasing, decreasing or not affecting gene frequencies; (2) the number of loci under selection during domestication was much higher than that during improvement; (3) the contribution to wheat improvement by the D sub-genome was relatively small due to the bottleneck of hexaploidisation and diversity can be expanded by using synthetic wheat and introgression lines; and (4) clustered selection regions occur throughout the wheat genome, including the centromere regions. This study will not only help future wheat breeding and evolutionary studies, but will also accelerate study of other crops, especially polyploids. PMID:28327671
Renny-Byfield, Simon; Page, Justin T; Udall, Joshua A; Sanders, William S; Peterson, Daniel G; Arick, Mark A; Grover, Corrinne E; Wendel, Jonathan F
Domesticated cotton species provide raw material for the majority of the world's textile industry. Two independent domestication events have been identified in allopolyploid cotton, one in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the other to Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). However, two diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum L. and Gossypium herbaceum L., have been cultivated for several millennia, but their status as independent domesticates has long been in question. Using genome resequencing data, we estimated the global abundance of various repetitive DNAs. We demonstrate that, despite negligible divergence in genome size, the two domesticated diploid cotton species contain different, but compensatory, repeat content and have thus experienced cryptic alterations in repeat abundance despite equivalence in genome size. Evidence of independent origin is bolstered by estimates of divergence times based on molecular evolutionary analysis of f7,000 orthologous genes, for which synonymous substitution rates suggest that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum last shared a common ancestor approximately 0.4-2.5 Ma. These data are incompatible with a shared domestication history during the emergence of agriculture and lead to the conclusion that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum were each domesticated independently. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Kolano, Bozena; McCann, Jamie; Orzechowska, Maja; Siwinska, Dorota; Temsch, Eva; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna
Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage. The hypotheses on the origin of the two allopolyploid species were further tested using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Several diploid Chenopodium species belonging to the two lineages, genome A and B, suggested by phylogenetic analyses, were tested as putative parental taxa. GISH differentiated two sets of parental chromosomes in both tetraploids and further corroborated their allotetraploid origin. Putative diploid parental taxa have been suggested by GISH for C. quinoa and C. berlandieri. Genome sizes of the analyzed allotetraploids fit nearly perfectly the expected additive values of the putative parental taxa. Directional and uniparental loss of rDNA loci of the maternal A-subgenome was revealed for both C. berlandieri and C. quinoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Judith Mary Lamo
Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.
Vakhitov, V.A.; Kulikov, A.M.
The hDNA content and number of histone genes in the genomes of different wheat and Aegilops species have been determined by molecular hybridization of DNA with 125 I-histone DNA of Drosophila (L-repeat) on nitrocellulose filters. It has been demonstrated that the proportion of hDNA in the total DNA of diploid and polyploid wheat species is (1.3-7.7) x 10 -3 % (57-850 genes), and in the ploidy series of Aegilops species (2.0-8.0) x 10 -3 % (89-780 genes). The repeatability of the histone genes generally increases at each ploidy level in the species with higher DNA content. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that the DNA content is not the only factor determining repeatability of the histone genes, as some diploid and allopolyploid species have similar number of these genes. It has been concluded that genetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the number of histone genes
Kim, Changsoo; Guo, Hui; Kong, Wenqian; Chandnani, Rahul; Shuang, Lan-Shuan; Paterson, Andrew H
Since the Arabidopsis genome was completed, draft sequences or pseudomolecules have been published for more than 100 plant genomes including green algae, in large part due to advances in sequencing technologies. Advanced DNA sequencing technologies have also conferred new opportunities for high-throughput low-cost crop genotyping, based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, a recurring complication in crop genotyping that differs from other taxa is a higher level of DNA sequence duplication, noting that all angiosperms are thought to have polyploidy in their evolutionary history. In the current article, we briefly review current genotyping methods using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. We also explore case studies of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) applications to several crops differing in genome size, organization and breeding system (paleopolyploids, neo-allopolyploids, neo-autopolyploids). GBS typically shows good results when it is applied to an inbred diploid species with a well-established reference genome. However, we have also made some progress toward GBS of outcrossing species lacking reference genomes and of polyploid populations, which still need much improvement. Regardless of some limitations, low-cost and multiplexed genotyping offered by GBS will be beneficial to breed superior cultivars in many crop species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kikuchi, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Wako, Toshiyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi
In the nuclei of some interspecific hybrid and allopolyploid plant species, each genome occupies a separate spatial domain. To analyze this phenomenon, we studied localization of the centromeres in the nuclei of a hybrid between Torenia fournieri and T. baillonii during mitosis and meiosis using three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) probed with species-specific centromere repeats. Centromeres of each genome were located separately in undifferentiated cells but not differentiated cells, suggesting that cell division might be the possible force causing centromere separation. However, no remarkable difference of dividing distance was detected between chromatids with different centromeres in anaphase and telophase, indicating that tension of the spindle fiber attached to each chromatid is not the cause of centromere separation in Torenia. In differentiated cells, centromeres in both genomes were not often observed for the expected chromosome number, indicating centromere association. In addition, association of centromeres from the same genome was observed at a higher frequency than between different genomes. This finding suggests that centromeres within one genome are spatially separated from those within the other. This close position may increase possibility of association between centromeres of the same genome. In meiotic prophase, all centromeres irrespective of the genome were associated in a certain portion of the nucleus. Since centromere association in the interspecific hybrid and amphiploid was tighter than that in the diploid parents, it is possible that this phenomenon may be involved in sorting and pairing of homologous chromosomes.
Herrero, A; Pajarón, S; Prada, C
The Asplenium obovatum group consists of diploid and tetraploid taxa; the origin of the tetraploid A. obovatum subsp. lanceolatum was previously considered to have occurred via autopolyploidy, involving one of the diploids of the group, either A. obovatum subsp. obovatum var. obovatum or var. protobillotii. To test this hypothesis, electrophoretic analyses of eight enzyme systems encoded by fourteen putative loci and cytological studies of the artificial hybrid between both diploid varieties were conducted. Alleles of the loci Lap-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Pgm-1, Pgm-1', and 6Pgd-1 emerged as genetic markers for the diploids and were present in an additive pattern in most of the analyzed individuals of the tetraploid. Cytological results indicated a high degree of genomic homology between the diploids. These results indicated that the tetraploid behaves as a segmental allopolyploid. Our results showed that both diploids were involved in the origin of the tetraploid. We propose the new combination Asplenium obovatum subsp. protobillotii for one of the diploids.
Wang, Jianan; Presser, Jackson W; Goss, Erica M
Phytophthora andina is a heterothallic plant pathogen of Andean solanaceous hosts and is an interspecific hybrid of P. infestans and an unknown Phytophthora species. The objective of this study was to estimate the nuclear DNA content of isolates in three clonal lineages of P. andina relative to P. infestans Twelve isolates of P. andina and six isolates of P. infestans were measured for nuclear DNA content by propidium iodide-stained flow cytometry. We found that the DNA content of P. andina was similar but slightly smaller, on average, than that of our sample of P. infestans isolates. This is consistent with P. andina being a homoploid hybrid rather than allopolyploid hybrid. Nuclear DNA content was more variable among a smaller sample of P. infestans isolates, including a putative triploid isolate from Mexico, but small differences in nuclear DNA content were also observed among P. andina isolates. Both species appear to be able to tolerate significant variation in genome size. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.
Hirschegger, Pablo; Jakse, Jernej; Trontelj, Peter; Bohanec, Borut
The subgenus Allium section Allium includes economically important species, such as garlic and leek, as well as other polyploid minor crops. Phylogenetic studies within this section, with a focus on horticultural groups within A. ampeloprasum, were performed on 31 accessions of 17 species using the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the chloroplast trnL-F and trnD-T regions. The results confirmed the monophyly of section Allium. Four main clades were identified on all ITS analyses but the relationships among those and the remaining species studied within section Allium remained unresolved. Trees based on cpDNA recovered two major clades and a topology only partly congruent with that of the ITS tree. Intra-individual polymorphism of the ITS region proved useful in tracking putative parent species of polyploid taxa. The allopolyploid origin of great headed garlic (GHG), A. iranicum and A. polyanthum was confirmed. No signs of hybridization in leek or kurrat were detected but possible introgression events were identified in pearl onion and bulbous leek. Although GHG is often used as a garlic substitute, molecular analysis revealed only a distant relationship with garlic. We also clarified the previous incorrect classification of cultivated forms within A. ampeloprasum, by showing that leek, kurrat, pearl onion, and bulbous leek should be considered separately from GHG. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kynast, Ralf G; Joseph, Jeffrey A; Pellicer, Jaume; Ramsay, Margaret M; Rudall, Paula J
• Hydatellaceae are minute annual herbs with potential as a model system for studying early angiosperm evolution, but their karyology and ploidy levels are almost unknown. We investigated these aspects of Trithuria submersa, a widespread species that we show to be amenable to extended vegetative propagation.• We cultivated plants of T. submersa in vitro after developing and optimizing culture conditions. We estimated genome size using flow cytometry, counted chromosome numbers using root-meristem squashes after Feulgen staining, and examined meiotic chromosome behavior using microsporocytes.• We developed methods to reliably germinate seeds of T. submersa and to propagate them vegetatively in critical thermo- and photoperiod regimes on 1/2 Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with vitamins and 2% sucrose solidified with 0.7% agar-agar. Seedling growth requires the medium be supplemented with activated charcoal. The mean nuclear DNA content of T. submersa sporophytes is 2C = 2.74 pg (∼2.68 Gbp). The sporophytic chromosome number is 2n = 56 with a bimodal complement, which may suggest an allopolyploid origin. Some of the largest chromosomes lack a recognizable constriction, which relates to a highly unusual and irregular chromosome behavior. Microsporocytes undergo reduced and asynchronous meioses that show a modified intermediate cell division with a nucleus division by fractional postreduction, indicating partially inverted microsporogenesis.• In vitro cultivation and karyological assessment of T. submersa open new opportunities for investigating early-divergent angiosperms. The remarkably different meiotic behavior exhibits new insights into a potentially ancestral microsporogenesis. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Two Plastid DNA Lineages—Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra—within the Tribe Brassiceae Can Be Best Explained by Reciprocal Crosses at Hexaploidy: Evidence from Divergence Times of the Plastid Genomes and R-Block Genes of the A and B Genomes of Brassica juncea
Gupta, Vibha; Paritosh, Kumar; Pradhan, Akshay K.; Pental, Deepak
Brassica species (tribe Brassiceae) belonging to U's triangle—B. rapa (AA), B. nigra (BB), B. oleracea (CC), B. juncea (AABB), B. napus (AACC) and B. carinata (BBCC)—originated via two polyploidization rounds: a U event producing the three allopolyploids, and a more ancient b genome-triplication event giving rise to the A-, B-, and C-genome diploid species. Molecular mapping studies, in situ hybridization, and genome sequencing of B. rapa support the genome triplication origin of tribe Brassiceae, and suggest that these three diploid species diversified from a common hexaploid ancestor. Analysis of plastid DNA has revealed two distinct lineages—Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra—that conflict with hexaploidization as a single event defining the tribe Brassiceae. We analysed an R-block region of A. thaliana present in six copies in B. juncea (AABB), three copies each on A- and B-genomes to study gene fractionation pattern and synonymous base substitution rates (Ks values). Divergence time of paralogues within the A and B genomes and homoeologues between the A and B genomes was estimated. Homoeologous R blocks of the A and B genomes exhibited high gene collinearity and a conserved gene fractionation pattern. The three progenitors of diploid Brassicas were estimated to have diverged approximately 12 mya. Divergence of B. rapa and B. nigra, calculated from plastid gene sequences, was estimated to have occurred approximately 12 mya, coinciding with the divergence of the three genomes participating in the b event. Divergence of B. juncea A and B genome homoeologues was estimated to have taken place around 7 mya. Based on divergence time estimates and the presence of distinct plastid lineages in tribe Brassiceae, it is concluded that at least two independent triplication events involving reciprocal crosses at the time of the b event have given rise to Rapa/Oleracea and Nigra lineages. PMID:24691069
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whole genome duplication, which results in polyploidy, is a common feature of plant populations and a recurring event in the evolution of flowering plants. Polyploidy can result in changes to gene expression and epigenetic instability. Several epigenetic phenomena, occurring at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level, have been documented in allopolyploids (polyploids derived from species hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana, yet findings in autopolyploids (polyploids derived from the duplication of the genome of a single species are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in ploidy enhances transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing using autopolyploids of A. thaliana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diploid and tetraploid individuals of four independent homozygous transgenic lines of A. thaliana transformed with chalcone synthase (CHS inverted repeat (hairpin constructs were generated. For each line diploids and tetraploids were compared for efficiency in post-transcriptional silencing of the endogenous CHS gene. The four lines differed substantially in their silencing efficiency. Yet, diploid and tetraploid plants derived from these plants and containing therefore identical transgene insertions showed no difference in the efficiency silencing CHS as assayed by visual scoring, anthocyanin assays and quantification of CHS mRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results in A. thaliana indicated that there is no effect of ploidy level on transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing. Our findings that post-transcriptional mechanisms were equally effective in diploids and tetraploids supports the use of transgene-driven post-transcriptional gene silencing as a useful mechanism to modify gene expression in polyploid species.
Liu, Ping-Li; Wan, Qian; Guo, Yan-Ping; Yang, Ji; Rao, Guang-Yuan
Chrysanthemum L. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) is a genus with rapid speciation. It comprises about 40 species, most of which are distributed in East Asia. Many of these are narrowly distributed and habitat-specific. Considerable variations in morphology and ploidy are found in this genus. Some species have been the subjects of many studies, but the relationships between Chrysanthemum and its allies and the phylogeny of this genus remain poorly understood. In the present study, 32 species/varieties from Chrysanthemum and 11 from the allied genera were analyzed using DNA sequences of the single-copy nuclear CDS gene and seven cpDNA loci (psbA-trnH, trnC-ycf6, ycf6-psbM, trnY-rpoB, rpS4-trnT, trnL-F, and rpL16). The cpDNA and nuclear CDS gene trees both suggest that 1) Chrysanthemum is not a monophyletic taxon, and the affinity between Chrysanthemum and Ajania is so close that these two genera should be incorporated taxonomically; 2) Phaeostigma is more closely related to the Chrysanthemum+Ajania than other generic allies. According to pollen morphology and to the present cpDNA and CDS data, Ajania purpurea is a member of Phaeostigma. Species differentiation in Chrysanthemum appears to be correlated with geographic and environmental conditions. The Chinese Chrysanthemum species can be divided into two groups, the C. zawadskii group and the C. indicum group. The former is distributed in northern China and the latter in southern China. Many polyploid species, such as C. argyrophyllum, may have originated from allopolyploidization involving divergent progenitors. Considering all the evidence from present and previous studies, we conclude that geographic and ecological factors as well as hybridization and polyploidy play important roles in the divergence and speciation of the genus Chrysanthemum. PMID:23133665
Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Parks, Matthew; Tennessen, Jacob A; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn
Molecular phylogenies derived from all three plant genomes can provide insight into the evolutionary history of plant groups influenced by reticulation. We sought to reconstruct mitochondrial exome, chloroplast, and nuclear genome phylogenies for octoploid Fragaria and their diploid ancestors and to document patterns of incongruence between and within the cytoplasmic genomes and interpret these in the context of evolutionary origin of the octoploid strawberries. Using a genome-skimming approach, we assembled chloroplast genomes and mitochondrial exomes, and we used the POLiMAPS method to assemble nuclear sequence for octoploid species and constructed phylogenies from all three genomes. We assessed incongruence between and within cytoplasmic genomes using topology-based phylogenetic incongruence tests. The incongruent cytoplasmic genome phylogeny with respect to the placement of octoploids suggests potential breakage in linkage disequilibrium of cytoplasmic genomes during allopolyploid origin of the octoploids. Furthermore, a single mitochondrial chimeric gene with a putative role in cytoplasmic male sterility yields a phylogeny that is inconsistent with the rest of the mitochondrial genome but consistent with the chloroplast phylogeny, suggesting intracellular gene transfer between heteroplasmic mitochondria, possibly driven by selection to overcome the effects of mito-nuclear incompatibility in octoploid origins. This work expands on the current understanding of evolutionary history of the octoploid ancestors of cultivated strawberry. It demonstrates phylogenetic incongruence between cytoplasmic genomes in octoploids with respect to diploid ancestors, indicating breakage in linkage disequilibrium of cytoplasmic genomes. We discuss potential organism-level processes that may have contributed to the observed incongruence in Fragaria. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Dae Kwan Ko
Full Text Available Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the molecular mechanism for this remains largely elusive. In Arabidopsis hybrids and allopolyploids, increased photosynthetic and metabolic activities are linked to altered expression of circadian clock regulators, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1. It is unknown whether a similar mechanism mediates heterosis in maize hybrids. Here we report that higher levels of carbon fixation and starch accumulation in the maize hybrids are associated with altered temporal gene expression. Two maize CCA1 homologs, ZmCCA1a and ZmCCA1b, are diurnally up-regulated in the hybrids. Expressing ZmCCA1 complements the cca1 mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis, and overexpressing ZmCCA1b disrupts circadian rhythms and biomass heterosis. Furthermore, overexpressing ZmCCA1b in maize reduced chlorophyll content and plant height. Reduced height stems from reduced node elongation but not total node number in both greenhouse and field conditions. Phenotypes are less severe in the field than in the greenhouse, suggesting that enhanced light and/or metabolic activities in the field can compensate for altered circadian regulation in growth vigor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq analysis reveals a temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets to the early morning in the hybrids, suggesting that activation of morning-phased genes in the hybrids promotes photosynthesis and growth vigor. This temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets correlated with nonadditive and additive gene expression in early and late stages of seedling development. These results could guide breeding better hybrid crops to meet the growing demand in food and bioenergy.
Ko, Dae Kwan; Rohozinski, Dominica; Song, Qingxin; Taylor, Samuel H; Juenger, Thomas E; Harmon, Frank G; Chen, Z Jeffrey
Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the molecular mechanism for this remains largely elusive. In Arabidopsis hybrids and allopolyploids, increased photosynthetic and metabolic activities are linked to altered expression of circadian clock regulators, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1). It is unknown whether a similar mechanism mediates heterosis in maize hybrids. Here we report that higher levels of carbon fixation and starch accumulation in the maize hybrids are associated with altered temporal gene expression. Two maize CCA1 homologs, ZmCCA1a and ZmCCA1b, are diurnally up-regulated in the hybrids. Expressing ZmCCA1 complements the cca1 mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis, and overexpressing ZmCCA1b disrupts circadian rhythms and biomass heterosis. Furthermore, overexpressing ZmCCA1b in maize reduced chlorophyll content and plant height. Reduced height stems from reduced node elongation but not total node number in both greenhouse and field conditions. Phenotypes are less severe in the field than in the greenhouse, suggesting that enhanced light and/or metabolic activities in the field can compensate for altered circadian regulation in growth vigor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis reveals a temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets to the early morning in the hybrids, suggesting that activation of morning-phased genes in the hybrids promotes photosynthesis and growth vigor. This temporal shift of ZmCCA1-binding targets correlated with nonadditive and additive gene expression in early and late stages of seedling development. These results could guide breeding better hybrid crops to meet the growing demand in food and bioenergy.
Zarrei, M; Stefanović, S; Dickinson, T A
The taxonomic complexity of Crataegus (hawthorn; Rosaceae, Maleae), especially in North America, has been attributed by some to hybridization in combination with gametophytic apomixis and polyploidization, whereas others have considered the roles of hybridization and apomixis to be minimal. Study of the chemical composition and therapeutic value of hawthorn extracts requires reproducible differentiation of entities that may be difficult to distinguish by morphology alone. This study sought to address this by using the nuclear ribosomal spacer region ITS2 as a supplementary DNA barcode; however, a lack of success prompted an investigation to discover why this locus gave unsatisfactory results. ITS2 was extensively cloned so as to document inter- and intraindividual variation in this locus, using hawthorns of western North America where the genus Crataegus is represented by only two widely divergent groups, the red-fruited section Coccineae and the black-fruited section Douglasia. Additional sequence data from selected loci on the plastid genome were obtained to enhance further the interpretation of the ITS2 results. In the ITS2 gene tree, ribotypes from western North American hawthorns are found in two clades. Ribotypes from diploid members of section Douglasia occur in one clade (with representatives of the east-Asian section Sanguineae). The other clade comprises those from diploid and polyploid members of section Coccineae. Both clades contribute ribotypes to polyploid Douglasia. Data from four plastid-derived intergenic spacers demonstrate the maternal parentage of these allopolyploids. Repeated hybridization between species of section Douglasia and western North American members of section Coccineae involving the fertilization of unreduced female gametes explains the observed distribution of ribotypes and accounts for the phenetic intermediacy of many members of section Douglasia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals
Le Parco Yannick
Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent study by Barthélémy et al. described a set of ribosomal protein (RP genes extracted from a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of the chaetognath (arrow worm Spadella cephaloptera. Three main conclusions were drawn in this paper. First, the authors stated that RP genes present paralogous copies, which have arisen through allopolyploidization. Second, they reported two alternate nucleotide stretches conserved within the 5' untranslated regions (UTR of multiple ribosomal cDNAs and they suggested that these motifs are involved in the differential transcriptional regulation of paralogous RP genes. Third, they claimed that the phylogenetic position of chaetognaths could not be accurately inferred from a RP dataset because of the persistence of two problems: a long branch attraction (LBA artefact and a compositional bias. Results We reconsider here the results described in Barthélémy et al. and question the evidence on which they are based. We find that their evidence for paralogous copies relies on faulty PCR experiments since they attempted to amplify DNA fragments absent from the genomic template. Our PCR experiments proved that the conserved motifs in 5'UTRs that they targeted in their amplifications are added post-transcriptionally by a trans-splicing mechanism. Then, we showed that the lack of phylogenetic resolution observed by these authors is due to limited taxon sampling and not to LBA or to compositional bias. A ribosomal protein dataset thus fully supports the position of chaetognaths as sister group of all other protostomes. This reinterpretation demonstrates that the statements of Barthélémy et al. should be taken with caution because they rely on inaccurate evidence. Conclusion The genomic study of an unconventional model organism is a meaningful approach to understand the evolution of animals. However, the previous study came to incorrect conclusions on the basis of experiments that omitted
Gou, Xiaowan; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Ai; Zhang, Huakun; Wang, Bin; Lv, Ruili; Li, Juzuo; Zhu, Bo; Gong, Lei; Liu, Bao
Whereas a distinct karyotype with defined chromosome number and structure characterizes each biological species, it is intrinsically labile. Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) has played a pervasive and ongoing role in the evolution of all eukaryotes, and is the most dramatic force known to cause rapid karyotypic reconfiguration, especially at the initial stage. However, issues concerning transgenerational propagation of karyotypic heterogeneity and its translation to phenotypic diversity in nascent allopolyploidy, at the population level, have yet to be studied in detail. Here, we report a large-scale examination of transgenerationally propagated karyotypic heterogeneity and its phenotypic manifestation in an artificially constructed allotetraploid with a genome composition of AADD, i.e., involving two of the three progenitor genomes of polyploid wheat. Specifically, we show that (i) massive organismal karyotypic heterogeneity is precipitated after 12 consecutive generations of selfing from a single euploid founder individual; (ii) there exist dramatic differences in aptitudes between subgenomes and among chromosomes for whole-chromosome gain and/or loss and structural variations; (iii) majority of the numerical and structural chromosomal variations are concurrent due to mutual contingency and possible functional constraint; (iv) purposed and continuous selection and propagation for euploidy over generations did not result in enhanced karyotype stabilization; and (v) extent of karyotypic variation correlates with variability of phenotypic manifestation. Together, our results document that allopolyploidization catalyzes rampant and transgenerationally heritable organismal karyotypic heterogeneity that drives population-level phenotypic diversification, which lends fresh empirical support to the still contentious notion that WGD enhances organismal evolvability. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular
Tiwari, Vijay K; Heesacker, Adam; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Gunn, Hilary; Wang, Shichen; Wang, Yi; Gu, Young Q; Paux, Etienne; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Kumar, Ajay; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Lazo, Gerard; Zemetra, Robert; Akhunov, Eduard; Friebe, Bernd; Poland, Jesse; Gill, Bikram S; Kianian, Shahryar; Leonard, Jeffrey M
Generating a contiguous, ordered reference sequence of a complex genome such as hexaploid wheat (2n = 6x = 42; approximately 17 GB) is a challenging task due to its large, highly repetitive, and allopolyploid genome. In wheat, ordering of whole-genome or hierarchical shotgun sequencing contigs is primarily based on recombination and comparative genomics-based approaches. However, comparative genomics approaches are limited to syntenic inference and recombination is suppressed within the pericentromeric regions of wheat chromosomes, thus, precise ordering of physical maps and sequenced contigs across the whole-genome using these approaches is nearly impossible. We developed a whole-genome radiation hybrid (WGRH) resource and tested it by genotyping a set of 115 randomly selected lines on a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. At the whole-genome level, 26 299 SNP markers were mapped on the RH panel and provided an average mapping resolution of approximately 248 Kb/cR1500 with a total map length of 6866 cR1500 . The 7296 unique mapping bins provided a five- to eight-fold higher resolution than genetic maps used in similar studies. Most strikingly, the RH map had uniform bin resolution across the entire chromosome(s), including pericentromeric regions. Our research provides a valuable and low-cost resource for anchoring and ordering sequenced BAC and next generation sequencing (NGS) contigs. The WGRH developed for reference wheat line Chinese Spring (CS-WGRH), will be useful for anchoring and ordering sequenced BAC and NGS based contigs for assembling a high-quality, reference sequence of hexaploid wheat. Additionally, this study provides an excellent model for developing similar resources for other polyploid species. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Krak, K; Caklová, P; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J
Phylogeny reconstruction based on multiple unlinked markers is often hampered by incongruent gene trees, especially in closely related species complexes with high degrees of hybridization and polyploidy. To investigate the particular strengths and limitations of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), low-copy nuclear and multicopy nuclear markers for elucidating the evolutionary history of such groups, we focus on Hieracium s.str., a predominantly apomictic genus combining the above-mentioned features. Sequences of the trnV-ndhC and trnT-trnL intergenic spacers were combined for phylogenetic analyses of cpDNA. Part of the highly variable gene for squalene synthase (sqs) was applied as a low-copy nuclear marker. Both gene trees were compared with previous results based on the multicopy external transcribed spacer (ETS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The power of the different markers to detect hybridization varied, but they largely agreed on particular hybrid and allopolyploid origins. The same crown groups of species were recognizable in each dataset, but basal relationships were strongly incongruent among cpDNA, sqs and ETS trees. The ETS tree was considered as the best approximation of the species tree. Both cpDNA and sqs trees showed basal polytomies as well as merging or splitting of species groups of non-hybrid taxa. These patterns can be best explained by a rapid diversification of the genus with ancestral polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting. A hypothetical scenario of Hieracium speciation based on all available (including non-molecular) evidence is depicted. Incorporation of seemingly contradictory information helped to better understand species origins and evolutionary patterns in this notoriously difficult agamic complex.
Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico
Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.
Smith, James F; Clark, John L; Amaya-Márquez, Marisol; Marín-Gómez, Oscar H
Speciation by hybridization has long been recognized among plants and includes both homoploid and allopolyploid speciation. The numbers of presumed hybrid species averages close to 11% and tends to be concentrated in a subset of angiosperm families. Recent advances in molecular methods have verified species of hybrid origin that had been presumed on the basis of morphology and have identified species that were not initially considered hybrids. Identifying species of hybrid origin is often a challenge and typically based on intermediate morphology, or discrepancies between molecular datasets. Discrepancies between data partitions may result from several factors including poor support, incomplete lineage sorting, or hybridization. A phylogenetic analysis of species in Columnea (Gesneriaceae) indicated significant incongruencies between the cpDNA and nrDNA datasets. Tests that examined whether one or both of the datasets had the phylogenetic signal to reject the topology of the alternate dataset (Shimodaira and Hasegawa [SH] and approximately unbiased [AU] tests) indicated significant differences between the topologies. Splitstree analyses also showed that there was support for the placement of the discrepant taxa in both datasets and that the combined data placed the putative hybrid species in an intermediate position between the two datasets. The genealogical sorting index (GSI) implied that coalescence in nrDNA had occurred in all species where more than a single individual had been sampled, but the GSI value was lower for the cpDNA of most of the putative hybrids, implying that these regions have not yet coalesced in these lineages despite being haploid. The JML test that evaluates simulated species pairwise distances against observed distances also implies that observed nrDNA data generate shorter distances than simulated data, implying hybridization. It is most likely that C. gigantifolia, C. rubriacuta, and C. sp. nov. represent a lineage from a hybrid ancestor
Roux, Camille; Pannell, John R
Many eukaryote organisms are polyploid. However, despite their importance, evolutionary inference of polyploid origins and modes of inheritance has been limited by a need for analyses of allele segregation at multiple loci using crosses. The increasing availability of sequence data for nonmodel species now allows the application of established approaches for the analysis of genomic data in polyploids. Here, we ask whether approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), applied to realistic traditional and next-generation sequence data, allows correct inference of the evolutionary and demographic history of polyploids. Using simulations, we evaluate the robustness of evolutionary inference by ABC for tetraploid species as a function of the number of individuals and loci sampled, and the presence or absence of an outgroup. We find that ABC adequately retrieves the recent evolutionary history of polyploid species on the basis of both old and new sequencing technologies. The application of ABC to sequence data from diploid and polyploid species of the plant genus Capsella confirms its utility. Our analysis strongly supports an allopolyploid origin of C. bursa-pastoris about 80 000 years ago. This conclusion runs contrary to previous findings based on the same data set but using an alternative approach and is in agreement with recent findings based on whole-genome sequencing. Our results indicate that ABC is a promising and powerful method for revealing the evolution of polyploid species, without the need to attribute alleles to a homeologous chromosome pair. The approach can readily be extended to more complex scenarios involving higher ploidy levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197 lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275 that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354 and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.
Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Mei, Shiyong; Wang, Jianbo
Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant–pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant–pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the Brassica
Zhan, Zongxiang; Nwafor, Chinedu Charles; Hou, Zhaoke; Gong, Jianfang; Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Yingfen; Zhou, Yongming; Wu, Jiangsheng; Piao, Zhongyun; Tong, Yue; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chunyu
Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a close relative of the Brassica and most radish accessions are immune to the clubroot disease. A synthesized allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) between R. sativus cv. HQ-04 (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (L.H Bailey) (2n = 18, CC) proved resistant of multiple clubroot disease pathogen P. brassicae. To predict the possibility to transfer the clubroot resistance trait from the RR subgenome of allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) into Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38), we analyzed the frequency of chromosome pairings in the F1 hybrids produced from a cross between B. napus cv. HS5 and the allotetraploid, characterize the genomic composition of some backcrossed progeny (BC1) using GISH, BAC-FISH and AFLP techniques. The level of intergenomic pairing between A and R genomes in the F1 hybrid was high, allosyndetic bivalents formed in 73.53% PMCs indicative of significant level of homeologous recombination between two genomes and high probability of incorporating chromosomal segments/genes from R-genome into A/C-genomes. The BC1 plants inherited variant extra R chromosomes or fragments from allotetraploid as revealed by GISH and AFLP analysis. 13.51% BC2 individuals were resistant to clubroot disease, and several resistance lines had high pollen fertility, Overall, the genetic material presented in this work represents a potential new genetic resource for practical use in breeding B. napus
Peris, David; Langdon, Quinn K; Moriarty, Ryan V; Sylvester, Kayla; Bontrager, Martin; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd
Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197) lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275) that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354) and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.
Majure, Lucas C; Puente, Raul; Griffith, M Patrick; Judd, Walter S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E
The opuntias (nopales, prickly pears) are not only culturally, ecologically, economically, and medicinally important, but are renowned for their taxonomic difficulty due to interspecific hybridization, polyploidy, and morphological variability. Evolutionary relationships in these stem succulents have been insufficiently studied; thus, delimitation of Opuntia s.s. and major subclades, as well as the biogeographic history of this enigmatic group, remain unresolved. We sequenced the plastid intergenic spacers atpB-rbcL, ndhF-rpl32, psbJ-petA, and trnL-trnF, the plastid genes matK and ycf1, the nuclear gene ppc, and ITS to reconstruct the phylogeny of tribe Opuntieae, including Opuntia s.s. We used phylogenetic hypotheses to infer the biogeographic history, divergence times, and potential reticulate evolution of Opuntieae. Within Opuntieae, a clade of Tacinga, Opuntia lilae, Brasiliopuntia, and O. schickendantzii is sister to a well-supported Opuntia s.s., which includes Nopalea. Opuntia s.s. originated in southwestern South America (SA) and then expanded to the Central Andean Valleys and the desert region of western North America (NA). Two major clades evolved in NA, which subsequently diversified into eight subclades. These expanded north to Canada and south to Central America and the Caribbean, eventually returning back to SA primarily via allopolyploid taxa. Dating approaches suggest that most of the major subclades in Opuntia s.s. originated during the Pliocene. Opuntia s.s. is a well-supported clade that includes Nopalea. The clade originated in southwestern SA, but the NA radiation was the most extensive, resulting in broad morphological diversity and frequent species formation through reticulate evolution and polyploidy.
Full Text Available Alien chromosome substitution (CS lines are treated as vital germplasms for breeding and genetic mapping. Previously, a whole set of nine Brassica rapa-oleracea monosonic alien addition lines (MAALs, C1-C9 was established in the background of natural B. napus genotype “Oro,” after the restituted B. rapa (RBR for Oro was realized. Herein, a monosomic substitution line with one alien C1 chromosome (Cs1 in the RBR complement was selected in the progenies of MAAL C1 and RBR, by the PCR amplification of specific gene markers and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cs1 exhibited the whole plant morphology similar to RBR except for the defective stamens without fertile pollen grains, but it produced some seeds and progeny plants carrying the C1 chromosome at high rate besides those without the alien chromosome after pollinated by RBR. The viability of the substitution and its progeny for the RBR diploid further elucidated the functional compensation between the chromosome pairs with high homoeology. To reveal the impact of such aneuploidy on genome-wide gene expression, the transcriptomes of MAAL C1, Cs1 and euploid RBR were analyzed. Compared to RBR, Cs1 had sharply reduced gene expression level across chromosome A1, demonstrating the loss of one copy of A1 chromosome. Both additional chromosome C1 in MAAL and substitutional chromosome C1 in Cs1 caused not only cis-effect but also prevalent trans-effect differentially expressed genes. A dominant gene dosage effects prevailed among low expressed genes across chromosome A1 in Cs1, and moreover, dosage effects for some genes potentially contributed to the phenotype deviations. Our results provided novel insights into the transcriptomic perturbation and gene dosage effects on phenotype in CS related to one naturally evolved allopolyploid.
Trung D. Tran
Full Text Available The monophyletic carnivorous genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae is characterized by a bi-directional genome size evolution resulting in a 25-fold difference in nuclear DNA content. This is one of the largest ranges found within a genus so far and makes Genlisea an interesting subject to study mechanisms of genome and karyotype evolution.G. nigrocaulis, with 86 Mbp one of the smallest plant genomes, and the 18-fold larger genome of G. hispidula (1550 Mbp possess identical chromosome numbers (2n=40 but differ considerably in chromatin organization, nuclear and cell size. Interphase nuclei of G. nigrocaulis and of related species with small genomes, G. aurea (133 Mbp, 2n=104 and G. pygmaea (179 Mbp, 2n=80, are hallmarked by intensely DAPI-stained chromocenters, carrying typical heterochromatin-associated methylation marks (5-methylcytosine, H3K9me2, while in G. hispidula and surprisingly also in the small genome of G. margaretae (184 Mbp, 2=38 the heterochromatin marks are more evenly distributed. Probes of tandem repetitive sequences together with rDNA allow the unequivocal discrimination of 13 out of 20 chromosome pairs of G. hispidula. One of the repetitive sequences labeled half of the chromosome set almost homogenously supporting an allopolyploid status of G. hispidula and its close relative G. subglabra (1622 Mbp, 2n=40. In G. nigrocaulis eleven chromosome pairs could be individualized using a combination of rDNA and unique genomic probes. The presented data provide a basis for future studies of karyotype evolution within the genus Genlisea.
Full Text Available Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat-Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.
Peter M. Bourke
Full Text Available Polyploid organisms carry more than two copies of each chromosome, a condition rarely tolerated in animals but which occurs relatively frequently in the plant kingdom. One of the principal challenges faced by polyploid organisms is to evolve stable meiotic mechanisms to faithfully transmit genetic information to the next generation upon which the study of inheritance is based. In this review we look at the tools available to the research community to better understand polyploid inheritance, many of which have only recently been developed. Most of these tools are intended for experimental populations (rather than natural populations, facilitating genomics-assisted crop improvement and plant breeding. This is hardly surprising given that a large proportion of domesticated plant species are polyploid. We focus on three main areas: (1 polyploid genotyping; (2 genetic and physical mapping; and (3 quantitative trait analysis and genomic selection. We also briefly review some miscellaneous topics such as the mode of inheritance and the availability of polyploid simulation software. The current polyploid analytic toolbox includes software for assigning marker genotypes (and in particular, estimating the dosage of marker alleles in the heterozygous condition, establishing chromosome-scale linkage phase among marker alleles, constructing (short-range haplotypes, generating linkage maps, performing genome-wide association studies (GWAS and quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, and simulating polyploid populations. These tools can also help elucidate the mode of inheritance (disomic, polysomic or a mixture of both as in segmental allopolyploids or reveal whether double reduction and multivalent chromosomal pairing occur. An increasing number of polyploids (or associated diploids are being sequenced, leading to publicly available reference genome assemblies. Much work remains in order to keep pace with developments in genomic technologies. However, such
Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Mingyi; Zhu, Xianwen; Cao, Yaping; Sun, Qing; Ma, Guojia; Chao, Shiaoman; Yan, Changhui; Xu, Steven S; Cai, Xiwen
This work pinpointed the goatgrass chromosomal segment in the wheat B genome using modern cytogenetic and genomic technologies, and provided novel insights into the origin of the wheat B genome. Wheat is a typical allopolyploid with three homoeologous subgenomes (A, B, and D). The donors of the subgenomes A and D had been identified, but not for the subgenome B. The goatgrass Aegilops speltoides (genome SS) has been controversially considered a possible candidate for the donor of the wheat B genome. However, the relationship of the Ae. speltoides S genome with the wheat B genome remains largely obscure. The present study assessed the homology of the B and S genomes using an integrative cytogenetic and genomic approach, and revealed the contribution of Ae. speltoides to the origin of the wheat B genome. We discovered noticeable homology between wheat chromosome 1B and Ae. speltoides chromosome 1S, but not between other chromosomes in the B and S genomes. An Ae. speltoides-originated segment spanning a genomic region of approximately 10.46 Mb was detected on the long arm of wheat chromosome 1B (1BL). The Ae. speltoides-originated segment on 1BL was found to co-evolve with the rest of the B genome. Evidently, Ae. speltoides had been involved in the origin of the wheat B genome, but should not be considered an exclusive donor of this genome. The wheat B genome might have a polyphyletic origin with multiple ancestors involved, including Ae. speltoides. These novel findings will facilitate genome studies in wheat and other polyploids.
Bogart, J P; Bi, K
Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex
Bertier, Lien; Leus, Leen; D’hondt, Liesbet; de Cock, Arthur W. A. M.; Höfte, Monica
It is becoming increasingly evident that interspecific hybridization is a common event in phytophthora evolution. Yet, the fundamental processes underlying interspecific hybridization and the consequences for its ecological fitness and distribution are not well understood. We studied hybridization events in phytophthora clade 8b. This is a cold-tolerant group of plant pathogenic oomycetes in which six host-specific species have been described that mostly attack winter-grown vegetables. Hybrid characterization was done by sequencing and cloning of two nuclear (ITS and Ypt1) and two mitochondrial loci (Cox1 and Nadh1) combined with DNA content estimation using flow cytometry. Three different mtDNA haplotypes were recovered among the presumed hybrid isolates, dividing the hybrids into three types, with different parental species involved. In the nuclear genes, additivity, i.e. the presence of two alleles coming from different parents, was detected. Hybrid isolates showed large variations in DNA content, which was positively correlated with the additivity in nuclear loci, indicating allopolyploid hybridization followed by a process of diploidization. Moreover, indications of homeologous recombination were found in the hybrids by cloning ITS products. The hybrid isolates have been isolated from a range of hosts that have not been reported previously for clade 8b species, indicating that they have novel pathogenic potential. Next to this, DNA content measurements of the non-hybrid clade 8b species suggest that polyploidy is a common feature of this clade. We hypothesize that interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are two linked phenomena in phytophthora, and that these processes might play an important and ongoing role in the evolution of this genus. PMID:24386473
Full Text Available Abstract Background Single- and low- copy genes are less likely subject to concerted evolution, thus making themselves ideal tools for studying the origin and evolution of polyploid taxa. Leymus is a polyploid genus with a diverse array of morphology, ecology and distribution in Triticeae. The genomic constitution of Leymus was assigned as NsXm, where Ns was presumed to be originated from Psathyrostachys, while Xm represented a genome of unknown origin. In addition, little is known about the evolutionary history of Leymus. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of Leymus based on a single-copy nuclear Acc1 gene. Results Two homoeologues of the Acc1 gene were isolated from nearly all the sampled Leymus species using allele-specific primer and were analyzed with those from 35 diploid taxa representing 18 basic genomes in Triticeae. Sequence diversity patterns and genealogical analysis suggested that (1 Leymus is closely related to Psathyrostachys, Agropyron, and Eremopyrum; (2 Psathyrostachys juncea is an ancestral Ns-genome donor of Leymus species; (3 the Xm genome in Leymus may be originated from an ancestral lineage of Agropyron and Eremopyrum triticeum; (4 the Acc1 sequences of Leymus species from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau are evolutionarily distinct; (5 North America Leymus species might originate from colonization via the Bering land bridge; (6 Leymus originated about 11-12MYA in Eurasia, and adaptive radiation might have occurred in Leymus during the period of 3.7-4.3 MYA and 1.7-2.1 MYA. Conclusion Leymus species have allopolyploid origin. It is hypothesized that the adaptive radiation of Leymus species might have been triggered by the recent upliftings of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and subsequent climatic oscillations. Adaptive radiation may have promoted the rapid speciation, as well as the fixation of unique morphological characters in Leymus. Our results shed new light on our
Jain, Aditi; Anand, Saurabh; Singh, Neer K; Das, Sandip
The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. The availability of whole genome sequence allowed us to identify and isolate a total of 42 homologous copies of MIR164 from diploid species-Brassica rapa (A-genome), Brassica nigra (B-genome), Brassica oleracea (C-genome), and allopolyploids-Brassica juncea (AB-genome), Brassica carinata (BC-genome) and Brassica napus (AC-genome). Additionally, we retrieved homologous sequences based on comparative genomics from Arabidopsis lyrata, Capsella rubella, and Thellungiella halophila, spanning ca. 45 million years of evolutionary history of Brassicaceae. Sequence comparison across Brassicaceae revealed lineage-, karyotype, species-, and sub-genome specific changes providing a snapshot of evolutionary dynamics of miRNA promoters in polyploids. Tree topology of cis-elements associated with MIR164 was found to re-capitulate the species and family evolutionary history. Phylogenetic shadowing identified transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) conserved across Brassicaceae, of which, some are already known as regulators of MIR164 expression. Some of the TFBS were found to be distributed in a sub-genome specific (e.g., SOX specific to promoter of MIR164c from MF2 sub-genome), lineage-specific (YABBY binding motif, specific to C. rubella in MIR164b), or species-specific (e.g., VOZ in A. thaliana MIR164a) manner which might contribute towards genetic and adaptive variation. Reporter activity driven by promoters associated with MIR164 paralogs and homeologs was majorly in agreement with known role of miR164 in leaf shaping, regulation of lateral root development and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an allopolyploid plant that harbors a huge, complex genome. Therefore, accumulation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for wheat is becoming particularly important for functional genomics and molecular breeding. We prepared a comprehensive collection of ESTs from the various tissues that develop during the wheat life cycle and from tissues subjected to stress. We also examined their expression profiles in silico. As full-length cDNAs are indispensable to certify the collected ESTs and annotate the genes in the wheat genome, we performed a systematic survey and sequencing of the full-length cDNA clones. This sequence information is a valuable genetic resource for functional genomics and will enable carrying out comparative genomics in cereals. Results As part of the functional genomics and development of genomic wheat resources, we have generated a collection of full-length cDNAs from common wheat. By grouping the ESTs of recombinant clones randomly selected from the full-length cDNA library, we were able to sequence 6,162 independent clones with high accuracy. About 10% of the clones were wheat-unique genes, without any counterparts within the DNA database. Wheat clones that showed high homology to those of rice were selected in order to investigate their expression patterns in various tissues throughout the wheat life cycle and in response to abiotic-stress treatments. To assess the variability of genes that have evolved differently in wheat and rice, we calculated the substitution rate (Ka/Ks of the counterparts in wheat and rice. Genes that were preferentially expressed in certain tissues or treatments had higher Ka/Ks values than those in other tissues and treatments, which suggests that the genes with the higher variability expressed in these tissues is under adaptive selection. Conclusion We have generated a high-quality full-length cDNA resource for common wheat, which is essential for continuation of the
Full Text Available Gene duplication is one of the major evolutionary mechanisms providing raw material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae originated after an allopolyploidization event, which involved mating between two different ancestral yeast species. ScALT1 and ScALT2 codify proteins with 65% identity, which were proposed to be paralogous alanine transaminases. Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, ScAlt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. Moreover, phylogenetic studies have suggested that ScALT1 and ScALT2 come from each one of the two parental strains which gave rise to the ancestral hybrid. The present work has been aimed to the understanding of the properties of the ancestral type Lacchancea kluyveri LkALT1 and Kluyveromyces lactis KlALT1, alanine transaminases in order to better understand the ScALT1 and ScALT2 evolutionary history. These ancestral -type species were chosen since they harbor ALT1 genes, which are related to ScALT2. Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display LkAlt1 and KlAlt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that KlAlt1 and LkAlt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. Our study shows that the ancestral alanine transaminase function has been retained by the ScALT1 encoded enzyme, which has specialized its catabolic character, while losing the alanine independent role observed in the ancestral type enzymes. The fact that ScAlt2 conserves 64
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO
Molecular characterization of a rice mutator-phenotype derived from an incompatible cross-pollination reveals transgenerational mobilization of multiple transposable elements and extensive epigenetic instability
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in plants, which may induce genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids, allopolyploids and introgressants. It remains unclear however whether pollination by alien pollens of an incompatible species may impose a "biological stress" even in the absence of genome-merger or genetic introgression, whereby genetic and/or epigenetic instability of the maternal recipient genome might be provoked. Results We report here the identification of a rice mutator-phenotype from a set of rice plants derived from a crossing experiment involving two remote and apparently incompatible species, Oryza sativa L. and Oenothera biennis L. The mutator-phenotype (named Tong211-LP showed distinct alteration in several traits, with the most striking being substantially enlarged panicles. Expectably, gel-blotting by total genomic DNA of the pollen-donor showed no evidence for introgression. Characterization of Tong211-LP (S0 and its selfed progenies (S1 ruled out contamination (via seed or pollen or polyploidy as a cause for its dramatic phenotypic changes, but revealed transgenerational mobilization of several previously characterized transposable elements (TEs, including a MITE (mPing, and three LTR retrotransposons (Osr7, Osr23 and Tos17. AFLP and MSAP fingerprinting revealed extensive, transgenerational alterations in cytosine methylation and to a less extent also genetic variation in Tong211-LP and its immediate progenies. mPing mobility was found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP but not with genetic variation detected by AFLP. Assay by q-RT-PCR of the steady-state transcript abundance of a set of genes encoding for the various putative DNA methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, and small interference RNA (siRNA pathway-related proteins showed that, relative to the rice parental line, heritable perturbation in expression of 12 out of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy is important from a phylogenetic perspective because of its immense past impact on evolution and its potential future impact on diversification, survival and adaptation, especially in plants. Molecular population genetics studies of polyploid organisms have been difficult because of problems in sequencing multiple-copy nuclear genes using Sanger sequencing. This paper describes a method for sequencing a barcoded mixture of targeted gene regions using next-generation sequencing methods to overcome these problems. Results Using 64 3-bp barcodes, we successfully sequenced three chloroplast and two nuclear gene regions (each of which contained two gene copies with up to two alleles per individual in a total of 60 individuals across 11 species of Australian Poa grasses. This method had high replicability, a low sequencing error rate (after appropriate quality control and a low rate of missing data. Eighty-eight percent of the 320 gene/individual combinations produced sequence reads, and >80% of individuals produced sufficient reads to detect all four possible nuclear alleles of the homeologous nuclear loci with 95% probability. We applied this method to a group of sympatric Australian alpine Poa species, which we discovered to share an allopolyploid ancestor with a group of American Poa species. All markers revealed extensive allele sharing among the Australian species and so we recommend that the current taxonomy be re-examined. We also detected hypermutation in the trnH-psbA marker, suggesting it should not be used as a land plant barcode region. Some markers indicated differentiation between Tasmanian and mainland samples. Significant positive spatial genetic structure was detected at Conclusions Our results demonstrate that 454 sequencing of barcoded amplicon mixtures can be used to reliably sample all alleles of homeologous loci in polyploid species and successfully investigate phylogenetic relationships among
Scheunert, Agnes; Heubl, Günther
The flora of the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia is characterized by high levels of species diversity and endemism. We examined phylogenetic relationships of Scrophularia within one of its secondary centers of diversity located in the Iberian Peninsula and adjacent Macaronesia. In total, 65 ingroup accessions from 45 species, representing an almost complete sampling of the region, were analyzed using sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the plastid trnQ-rps16 intergenic spacer. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and statistical parsimony networking. Incongruence between datasets was assessed with statistical tests and displayed by split networks. Biogeographic inferences incorporating information from both markers (despite low resolution in some parts of the trees) and all incongruent taxa were accomplished with a novel combination of methods, using trees generated with the taxon duplication approach as input for Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) analysis as implemented in RASP. Nuclear and chloroplast markers support a clade which comprises the majority of Iberian and Macaronesian species and consists of three subclades. Analyses of the substantial incongruence observed among markers indicate reticulate evolution and suggest that Scrophularia species diversity in this region is largely attributable to hybridization; a combination of both polyploidy and dysploidy in the karyotypic evolution of Western Mediterranean Scrophularia taxa is proposed. Our results provide support for an ancient hybridization event between two widespread lineages, which resulted in an allopolyploid ancestor of the Iberian - Macaronesian group with 2n=58 chromosomes. The ancestor then diverged into the three main lineages present in the Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa and Macaronesia today. Subsequent interspecific hybridizations at different ploidy levels additionally generated new species. Presumably
Glenn J. Bryan
Full Text Available DNA-based marker analysis of plant genebank material has become a useful tool in the evaluation of levels of genetic diversity and for the informed use and maintenance of germplasm. In this study, we quantify levels of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP in representative accessions of wild and cultivated potato species of differing geographic origin, ploidy, and breeding system. We generated 449 polymorphic AFLP fragments in 619 plants, representing multiple plants (16–23 from 17 accessions of 14 potato taxa as well as single plants sampled from available accessions (from 3 to 56 of the same 14 taxa. Intra-accession diversities were compared to those of a synthetic ‘taxon-wide’ population comprising a single individual from a variable number of available accessions of each sampled taxon. Results confirm the expected considerably lower levels of polymorphism within accessions of self-compatible as compared to self-incompatible taxa. We observed broadly similar levels of ‘taxon-wide’ polymorphism among self-compatible and self-incompatible species, with self-compatible taxa showing only slightly lower rates of polymorphism. The most diverse accessions were the two cultivated potato accessions examined, the least diverse being the Mexican allohexaploids Solanum demissum and S. iopetalum. Generally allopolyploid self-compatible accessions exhibited lower levels of diversity. Some purported self-incompatible accessions showed relatively low levels of marker diversity, similar to the more diverse self-compatible material surveyed. Our data indicate that for self-compatible species a single plant is highly representative of a genebank accession. The situation for self-incompatible taxa is less clear, and sampling strategies used will depend on the type of investigation. These results have important implications for those seeking novel trait variation (e.g., disease resistance in gene banks as well as for the selection of individuals
C. A. Krug
genetic factors of one species in the genetic background of other coffee species. About 2500 inter-varietal and inter-specific artificial hybridization have been made in Campinas during the last 20 years. The economic value of some of these hybrids has been stressed in this paper and special attention has been called to the inter-specific hybrids involving the tetraploid C. arabica and other known diploid species as C. canephora, C. Dewevrei and C. congensis. After chromosome doubling of these triploid hybrids, the resulting allopolyploids may be of economic value.
Vieira Luiz GE
Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, the inhibition of photosynthetic capacity under drought is attributable to stomatal and non-stomatal (i.e., photochemical and biochemical effects. In particular, a disruption of photosynthetic metabolism and Rubisco regulation can be observed. Several studies reported reduced expression of the RBCS genes, which encode the Rubisco small subunit, under water stress. Results Expression of the RBCS1 gene was analysed in the allopolyploid context of C. arabica, which originates from a natural cross between the C. canephora and C. eugenioides species. Our study revealed the existence of two homeologous RBCS1 genes in C. arabica: one carried by the C. canephora sub-genome (called CaCc and the other carried by the C. eugenioides sub-genome (called CaCe. Using specific primer pairs for each homeolog, expression studies revealed that CaCe was expressed in C. eugenioides and C. arabica but was undetectable in C. canephora. On the other hand, CaCc was expressed in C. canephora but almost completely silenced in non-introgressed ("pure" genotypes of C. arabica. However, enhanced CaCc expression was observed in most C. arabica cultivars with introgressed C. canephora genome. In addition, total RBCS1 expression was higher for C. arabica cultivars that had recently introgressed C. canephora genome than for "pure" cultivars. For both species, water stress led to an important decrease in the abundance of RBCS1 transcripts. This was observed for plants grown in either greenhouse or field conditions under severe or moderate drought. However, this reduction of RBCS1 gene expression was not accompanied by a decrease in the corresponding protein in the leaves of C. canephora subjected to water withdrawal. In that case, the amount of RBCS1 was even higher under drought than under unstressed (irrigated conditions, which suggests great stability of RBCS1 under adverse water conditions. On the other hand, for C. arabica, high nocturnal
Marraccini, Pierre; Freire, Luciana P; Alves, Gabriel S C; Vieira, Natalia G; Vinecky, Felipe; Elbelt, Sonia; Ramos, Humberto J O; Montagnon, Christophe; Vieira, Luiz G E; Leroy, Thierry; Pot, David; Silva, Vânia A; Rodrigues, Gustavo C; Andrade, Alan C
In higher plants, the inhibition of photosynthetic capacity under drought is attributable to stomatal and non-stomatal (i.e., photochemical and biochemical) effects. In particular, a disruption of photosynthetic metabolism and Rubisco regulation can be observed. Several studies reported reduced expression of the RBCS genes, which encode the Rubisco small subunit, under water stress. Expression of the RBCS1 gene was analysed in the allopolyploid context of C. arabica, which originates from a natural cross between the C. canephora and C. eugenioides species. Our study revealed the existence of two homeologous RBCS1 genes in C. arabica: one carried by the C. canephora sub-genome (called CaCc) and the other carried by the C. eugenioides sub-genome (called CaCe). Using specific primer pairs for each homeolog, expression studies revealed that CaCe was expressed in C. eugenioides and C. arabica but was undetectable in C. canephora. On the other hand, CaCc was expressed in C. canephora but almost completely silenced in non-introgressed ("pure") genotypes of C. arabica. However, enhanced CaCc expression was observed in most C. arabica cultivars with introgressed C. canephora genome. In addition, total RBCS1 expression was higher for C. arabica cultivars that had recently introgressed C. canephora genome than for "pure" cultivars. For both species, water stress led to an important decrease in the abundance of RBCS1 transcripts. This was observed for plants grown in either greenhouse or field conditions under severe or moderate drought. However, this reduction of RBCS1 gene expression was not accompanied by a decrease in the corresponding protein in the leaves of C. canephora subjected to water withdrawal. In that case, the amount of RBCS1 was even higher under drought than under unstressed (irrigated) conditions, which suggests great stability of RBCS1 under adverse water conditions. On the other hand, for C. arabica, high nocturnal expression of RBCS1 could also explain the
(n=22) would be more promising candidates than C. aperta for domestication: Both are characterized by erect growth, a high number of fruits which are generally borne on the upper portion of the plant, surplus space in the fruits (enhancing the chances of developing a non-shattering type), and lauric acid yields (as a percentage of total seed fatty acids) of 63.3 and 53.9%, respectively. C. tolucana is a diploid whereas C. wrightii may be an allopolyploid. Therefore, in a new series of experiments, dry seeds (2% moisture) of Cuphea tolucana and C. wrightii were exposed to 0 to 30 kR of gamma radiation. After irradiation the seeds were hydrated in oxygenated water. Responses of both species were curvilinear but C. tolucana was considerably more sensitive to gamma radiation than C. wrightii. The range of exposure causing 40 to 60% plant height reduction was approximately 5 to 8 kR in C. tolucana and 9 to 17 kR in C. wrightii. In a second experiment under the same conditions, C. tolucana was exposed to levels of 0 to 12.8 kR and C. wrightii to levels of 0 to 60 kR. A 50% plant height reduction was caused by 10-12 kR in C. tolucana, and between 11 to 18 kR in C. wrightii. Results of both experiments are consistent with the experience that chromosome number and tolerance to radiation are positively correlated. For large scale mutation breeding work, the appropriate gamma ray doses should be 8-12 kR for C. tolucana, and between 11 to 18 kR for C. wrightii. (author)