WorldWideScience

Sample records for allocations

  1. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  2. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  3. Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig

  4. Associated Health Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Associated Health Allocation Database is used to determine the allocation of positions and funds for VA Associated Health programs offered by Veterans Affairs...

  5. How Fair are Fair Allocations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Kiilerich, Lone

    2016-01-01

    investigates the fairness of such allocations. Previous literature has applied numerous ways of measuring allocation fairness as well as numerous strategies for obtaining allocations. The goal of this paper is to study the fairness of allocations obtained by different allocation methods as viewed by different...... fairness measures. We hope that this will help guide future research towards a rational choice of allocation methods and measures....

  6. Distributed Storage Allocation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Derek; Dimakis, Alexandros G.; Ho, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of using several storage nodes to store a data object, subject to an aggregate storage budget or redundancy constraint. It is challenging to find the optimal allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery by the data collector because of the large space of possible symmetric and nonsymmetric allocations, and the nonconvexity of the problem. For the special case of probability-l recovery, we show that the optimal allocatio...

  7. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...

  8. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  9. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process.

  10. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation

  11. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...

  12. Allocating outsourced warranty service contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Opp; I. Adan; V.G. Kulkarni; J.M. Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by our interactions with a leading manufacturer of computers, in this paper we consider static allocation as applied to the problem of minimizing the costs of outsourcing warranty services to repair vendors. Under static allocation, a manufacturer assigns each item to one of several contra

  13. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  14. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  15. Collective credit allocation in science

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Hua-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, since the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability...

  16. FY12 CPD Formula Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...

  17. How do Parents allocate Time ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans G.; Stancanelli, Elena G F

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the time allocation of spouses and the impact of economic variables. We present a stylized model of the time allocation of spouses to illustrate the expected impact of wages and non-labour income. The empirical model simultaneously specifies three time-use choices -paid work, childcare, and housework- and wage and employment equations for each spouse, allowing for correlation across the errors of the ten equations. We exploit the rich information in the French time-use s...

  18. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  19. 15 CFR 335.4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 335.4 Section 335.4... § 335.4 Allocation. (a) For HTS 9902.51.11 and HTS 9902.51.15 each Tariff Rate Quota will be allocated separately. Allocation will be based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Suit production, on a weighted...

  20. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  1. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  2. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... with fractional players to allocate the common cost in an entity to the finite number of outputs. The paper is concerned with the computation of Aumann-Shapley prices when the cost function is estimated as a convex hull of a set of observed data points. It is discussed how to overcome certain problems related...... to non-differentiability of the cost function and inefficiency in production. Staying within the theme of cost sharing a fourth paper analyzes a model for trading green energy in a grid where countries are characterized by stochastic demand and stochastic production. The gain is obtained by trading which...

  3. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  4. Allocations for Heterogenous Distributed Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Ntranos, Vasileios; Dimakis, Alexandros G

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of storing a data object in a set of data nodes that fail independently with given probabilities. Our problem is a natural generalization of a homogenous storage allocation problem where all the nodes had the same reliability and is naturally motivated for peer-to-peer and cloud storage systems with different types of nodes. Assuming optimal erasure coding (MDS), the goal is to find a storage allocation (i.e, how much to store in each node) to maximize the probability of successful recovery. This problem turns out to be a challenging combinatorial optimization problem. In this work we introduce an approximation framework based on large deviation inequalities and convex optimization. We propose two approximation algorithms and study the asymptotic performance of the resulting allocations.

  5. Methods for Precise Submesh Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Morgenstern

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe and compare several recently proposed algorithms for precise submesh allocation in a two-dimensional mesh connected system. The methods surveyed include various frame sliding strategies, the maximum boundary value heuristic, and interval set scan techniques. In addition, a new enhancement to the interval set scan method is described. This enhancement results in an algorithm that has better allocation and run-time performance under a FCFS scheduling policy than any of the other proposed methods. We present results drawn from an extensive simulation study to illustrate the relative efficiency of the various methods.

  6. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... problems involved it becomes clear that the allocation rules, technically speaking, allocate the non-zero value of the dual variable for a convexity constraint on to the output vector. Hence, the allocation rules can also be used to allocate inefficiencies in non-parametric efficiency measurement models...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  7. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...... problems involved it becomes clear that the allocation rules, technically speaking, allocate the non-zero value of the dual variable for a convexity constraint on to the output vector. Hence, the allocation rules can also be used to allocate inefficiencies in non-parametric efficiency measurement models...

  8. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make co

  9. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  10. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  11. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  12. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 304.15 Section 304.15 Public... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  13. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC....2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine the... may advise the Secretary to make adjustments to the allocation at any time. (c) The majority of...

  14. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  15. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  16. 25 CFR 39.902 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 39.902 Section 39.902 Indians BUREAU OF... Maintenance and Minor Repair Fund § 39.902 Allocation. (a) Interim Maintenance and Minor Repair funds shall be... determining school allocations shall be taken from the facilities inventory maintained by the Division...

  17. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  18. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The Defense... contemplated and the contract amount is expected to exceed the small purchase limitation. Allocation (DFSC...

  19. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  20. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 205.150 Section 205.150 Public... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on...

  1. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each... competitive products enterprise using a method of allocation based on appropriate revenue or cost...

  2. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  3. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 923.92 Section 923.92....92 Allocation. (a) Subsections 303(4), 306(d)(3)(B) and 306(d)(10) of the Act foster..., areawide agencies, regional agencies and interstate agencies. Such allocations provide for...

  4. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes apredi

  5. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The Administrator will calculate the annual allowance allocation for a combustion source based on the data... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section...

  6. Model Checking Dynamic Allocation and Deallocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distefano, Dino; Rensink, Arend; Katoen, Joost-Pieter

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes Allocational Temporal Logic (ATL) as a formalism to express properties concerning the dynamic allocation (birth) and de-allocation (death) of entities, such as the objects in an object-based system. The logic is interpreted on History-Dependent Automata, extended with a symbolic

  7. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  8. Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met......Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...

  9. On the Ramified Optimal Allocation Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal allocation problem with ramified transport technology in a spatial economy. Ramified transportation is used to model the transport economy of scale in group transportation observed widely in both nature and efficiently designed transport systems of branching structures. The ramified allocation problem aims at finding an optimal allocation plan as well as an associated optimal allocation path to minimize overall cost of transporting commodity from factories to households. This problem differentiates itself from existing ramified transportation literature in that the distribution of production among factories is not fixed but endogenously determined as observed in many allocation practices. It's shown that due to the transport economy of scale in ramified transportation, each optimal allocation plan corresponds equivalently to an optimal assignment map from households to factories. This optimal assignment map provides a natural partition of both households and allocation paths. We...

  10. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  11. Distributed algorithms for resource allocation and routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zengjian

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we study distributed algorithms in the context of two fundamental problems in distributed systems, resource allocation and routing. Resource allocation studies how to distribute workload evenly to resources. We consider two different resource allocation models, the diffusive load balancing and the weighted balls-into-bins games. Routing studies how to deliver messages from source to estination efficiently. We design routing algorithms for broadcasting and gossiping in ad hoc n...

  12. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  13. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  14. Divergence in plant and microbial allocation strategies explains continental patterns in microbial allocation and biogeochemical fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin

    2014-10-01

    Allocation trade-offs shape ecological and biogeochemical phenomena at local to global scale. Plant allocation strategies drive major changes in ecosystem carbon cycling. Microbial allocation to enzymes that decompose carbon vs. organic nutrients may similarly affect ecosystem carbon cycling. Current solutions to this allocation problem prioritise stoichiometric tradeoffs implemented in plant ecology. These solutions may not maximise microbial growth and fitness under all conditions, because organic nutrients are also a significant carbon resource for microbes. I created multiple allocation frameworks and simulated microbial growth using a microbial explicit biogeochemical model. I demonstrate that prioritising stoichiometric trade-offs does not optimise microbial allocation, while exploiting organic nutrients as carbon resources does. Analysis of continental-scale enzyme data supports the allocation patterns predicted by this framework, and modelling suggests large deviations in soil C loss based on which strategy is implemented. Therefore, understanding microbial allocation strategies will likely improve our understanding of carbon cycling and climate.

  15. Resource Allocation Using Metaheuristic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports a set of experiments which evaluate the performance of three algorithms, namely simulat ed annealing, tabu search and genetic algorithms. The experimental results indicate thata ll of themetaheuristics search techniques can be used to solve problems in resource allocation an d scheduling within a software project. Finally, a comparative analysis suggests that overa ll the genetic algorithm had performed better than simulated annealing and tabu search.

  16. Statistical Mechanics of Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We provide a mathematical model to investigate the resource allocation problem for agents, say, university graduates who are looking for their positions in labor markets. The basic model is described by the so-called Potts spin glass which is well-known in the research field of statistical physics. In the model, each Potts spin (a tiny magnet in atomic scale length) represents the action of each student, and it takes a discrete variable corresponding to the company he/she applies for. We construct the energy to include three distinct effects on the students' behavior, namely, collective effect, market history and international ranking of companies. In this model system, the correlations (the adjacent matrix) between students are taken into account through the pairwise spin-spin interactions. We carry out computer simulations to examine the efficiency of the model. We also show that some chiral representation of the Potts spin enables us to obtain some analytical insights into our labor markets.

  17. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  18. State Profiles of Subcounty Allocation Procedures: Appendix to the Title I, ESEA, Subcounty Allocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Babette; Paller, Alan T.

    In this appendix to the study of subcounty allocation of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, state by state profiles of subcounty allocation are provided. The allocation formula and procedures used by each state for fiscal year 1977 are explained. Other data for each state, such as number of school districts and counties which…

  19. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  20. 15 CFR 336.4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 336.4 Section 336.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL... § 336.4 Allocation. (a) The Tariff Rate Quota licenses will be issued to eligible manufacturers on...

  1. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  2. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information,...

  3. Evidence on changes in aid allocation criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Cassimon, D.; Van Campenhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Have donors changed their aid-allocation criteria over the past three decades toward greater selectivity, a frequently stated goal of the international development community? Using data on how 22 donors allocated their bilateral aid among 147 countries over 1970-2004, the article finds that after th

  4. Cost allocation in shortest path games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.; Grahn, S.

    2001-01-01

    A class of cooperative games arising from shortest path problems is dened These shortest path games are shown to be totally balanced and allow a population monotonic allocation scheme Possible methods for obtaining core elements are indicated rst by relating to the allocation rules in taxation and b

  5. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  6. Adaptive computational resource allocation for sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-hong; FEI E; YAN Yu-jie

    2008-01-01

    To efficiently utilize the limited computational resource in real-time sensor networks, this paper focu-ses on the challenge of computational resource allocation in sensor networks and provides a solution with the method of economies. It designs a mieroeconomic system in which the applications distribute their computational resource consumption across sensor networks by virtue of mobile agent. Further, it proposes the market-based computational resource allocation policy named MCRA which satisfies the uniform consumption of computational energy in network and the optimal division of the single computational capacity for multiple tasks. The simula-tion in the scenario of target tracing demonstrates that MCRA realizes an efficient allocation of computational re-sources according to the priority of tasks, achieves the superior allocation performance and equilibrium perform-ance compared to traditional allocation policies, and ultimately prolongs the system lifetime.

  7. Shift-invariant target in allocation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saumen; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-07-10

    We provide a template for finding target allocation proportions in optimal allocation designs where the target will be invariant for both shifts in location and scale of the response distributions. One possible application of such target allocation proportions is to carry out a response-adaptive allocation. While most of the existing designs are invariant for any change in scale of the underlying distributions, they are not location invariant in most of the cases. First, we indicate this serious flaw in the existing literature and illustrate how this lack of location invariance makes the performance of the designs very poor in terms of allocation for any drastic change in location, such as the changes from degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit. We illustrate that unless a target allocation is location invariant, it might lead to a completely irrelevant and useless target for allocation. Then we discuss how such location invariance can be achieved for general continuous responses. We illustrate the proposed method using some real clinical trial data. We also indicate the possible extension of the procedure for more than two treatments at hand and in the presence of covariates.

  8. Discussion of Optimal Allocation of Resources Theory for Communication Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiao-lin; YU Hua; SU Hua-ying

    2004-01-01

    The theory on the resource optimal allocation is discussed in this article. On the base of the discussion, for the main problems existing in the resource allocation of communication enterprises, the reasonable allocating measures are put forward.

  9. Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Verena S.; Schaerer, Lukas; Michiels, Nico K.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites have typically focused either on evolutionary or one-time, ontogenetic optimization of sex allocation, ignoring variation within an individual's lifetime. Here, we study whether hermaphrodites also possess facultative sex allocation,

  10. Dynamic cache resources allocation for energy efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-ming; ZOU Xue-cheng; LEI Jian-ming; LIU Zheng-lin

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a mechanism of low overhead and less runtime, termed dynamic cache resources allocation (DCRA), which allocates each application with required cache resources. The mechanism collects cache hit-miss information at runtime and then analyzes the information and decides how many cache resources should be allocated to the current executing application. The amount of cache resources varies dynamically to reduce the total number of misses and energy consumption. The study of several applications from SPEC2000 shows that significant energy saving is achieved for the application based on the DCRA with an average of 39% savings.

  11. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  12. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine...... the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption...

  13. Game of Power Allocation on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a distributed resource allocation game to study countries' pursuit of targets such as self-survival in the networked international environment. The paper has two general contributions: firstly, it contributes the basic idea that countries' behavior, which is power allocation, is a basic human behavior of resource allocation and the development of this game is the first time countries' behavior has ever been rigorously studied from a resource allocation perspective; secondly, the game itself has an intrinsically interesting and novel mathematical structure --- it actually presents a new technical problem with a surprising amount of informative predictions which arise from the rich parameter space that defines all kinds of possibilities for the networked international environments. The predictions both motivate major theoretical results (e.g., Nash equilibrium existence) and shed light on real world politics.

  14. A Novel Register Allocation Algorithm for Testability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; ZHOU Tao; LI Haijun

    2007-01-01

    In the course of high-level synthesis of integrate circuit, the hard-to-test structure caused by irrational schedule and allocation reduces the testability of circuit. In order to improve the circuit testability, this paper proposes a weighted compatibility graph (WCG), which provides a weighted formula of compatibility graph based on register allocation for testability and uses improved weighted compatibility clique partition algorithm to deal with this WCG. As a result, four rules for testability are considered simultaneously in the course of register allocation so that the objective of improving the design of testability is acquired. Tested by many experimental results of benchmarks and compared with many other models, the register allocation algorithm proposed in this paper has greatly improved the circuit testability with little overhead on the final circuit area.

  15. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  16. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. Memory Allocation in Distributed Storage Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, Mohsen; Fekri, Faramarz; Soljanin, Emina

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributing a file in a network of storage nodes whose storage budget is limited but at least equals to the size file. We first generate $T$ encoded symbols (from the file) which are then distributed among the nodes. We investigate the optimal allocation of $T$ encoded packets to the storage nodes such that the probability of reconstructing the file by using any $r$ out of $n$ nodes is maximized. Since the optimal allocation of encoded packets is difficult to find in general, we find another objective function which well approximates the original problem and yet is easier to optimize. We find the optimal symmetric allocation for all coding redundancy constraints using the equivalent approximate problem. We also investigate the optimal allocation in random graphs. Finally, we provide simulations to verify the theoretical results.

  18. Discrete Tolerance Allocation for Product Families

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Johan; Söderberg, Rikard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper extends earlier research on the discrete tolerance allocation problem in order to optimize an entire product family simultaneously. This methodology enables top-down tolerancing approach where requirements on assembly level on products within a family are allocated to single part requirements. The proposed solution has been implemented as an interface with an optimization algorithm coupled with a variation simulation software. The paper also consists of an exten...

  19. Allocative Efficiency of Technically Inefficient Production Units

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetoft, Peter; Fare, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    We discuss how to measure allocative efficiency without presuming technical efficiency. This is relevant when it is easier to introduce reallocations than improvements of technical efficiency. We compare the approach to the traditional one of assuming technical efficiency before measuring allocative efficiency. In particular, we develop necessary and sufficient conditions on the technology to ensure consistent measures and we give dual organizational interpretations of the approaches.

  20. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  1. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  2. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  3. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be... allocation. Both direct and allocated indirect costs on projects must be assigned among those companies...

  4. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...

  5. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1... Allocation rules. Where only a portion of property is debt-financed property, proper allocation of the basis...)(iii) of § 1.514(b)-1 for illustrations of proper allocation....

  6. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  7. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  8. 20 CFR 633.105 - Allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... invitation to submit applications for State(s) or area(s) open for competition as provided in the... units of government, or public agencies. (b) State allocations (allocable funds). (1) No less than 94... funds for use in a State whose allocation is less than $120,000. (ii) Those funds not allocated will...

  9. Current Subcounty Allocation Practices: Volume I of the Title I, ESEA, Subcounty Allocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Alan T.; Gutmann, Babette

    In this report, subcounty allocation of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) funds is described in terms of direct allocation, use of the statutory formula emphasizing census data, United States Office of Education (USOE) regulations, participating states, geographic and administrative overlaps, hold harmless adjustments…

  10. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  11. Healthcare resource allocation decisions affecting uninsured services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Krista Lyn; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the example of community access programs (CAPs), the purpose of this paper is to describe resource allocation and policy decisions related to providing health services for the uninsured in the USA and the organizational values affecting these decisions. Design/methodology/approach The study used comparative case study methodology at two geographically diverse sites. Researchers collected data from program documents, meeting observations, and interviews with program stakeholders. Findings Five resource allocation or policy decisions relevant to providing healthcare services were described at each site across three categories: designing the health plan, reacting to funding changes, and revising policies. Organizational values of access to care and stewardship most frequently affected resource allocation and policy decisions, while economic and political pressures affect the relative prioritization of values. Research limitations/implications Small sample size, the potential for social desirability or recall bias, and the exclusion of provider, member or community perspectives beyond those represented among participating board members. Practical implications Program directors or researchers can use this study to assess the extent to which resource allocation and policy decisions align with organizational values and mission statements. Social implications The description of how healthcare decisions are actually made can be matched with literature that describes how healthcare resource decisions ought to be made, in order to provide a normative grounding for future decisions. Originality/value This study addresses a gap in literature regarding how CAPs actually make resource allocation decisions that affect access to healthcare services. PMID:27934550

  12. Multi-robot task allocation for exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ping-an; CAI Zi-xing

    2006-01-01

    The problem of allocating a number of exploration tasks to a team of mobile robots in dynamic environments was studied. The team mission is to visit several distributed targets. The path cost of target is proportional to the distance that a robot has to move to visit the target. The team objective is to minimize the average path cost of target over all targets. Finding an optimal allocation is strongly NP-hard. The proposed algorithm can produce a near-optimal solution to it. The allocation can be cast in terms of a multi-round single-item auction by which robots bid on targets. In each auction round, one target is assigned to a robot that produces the lowest path cost of the target. The allocated targets form a forest where each tree corresponds a robot's exploring targets set. Each robot constructs an exploring path through depth-first search in its target tree. The time complexity of the proposed algorithm is polynomial. Simulation experiments show that the allocating method is valid.

  13. Robust resource allocation in future wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Parsaeefard, Saeedeh; Mokari, Nader

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art research on robust resource allocation in current and future wireless networks. The authors describe the nominal resource allocation problems in wireless networks and explain why introducing robustness in such networks is desirable. Then, depending on the objectives of the problem, namely maximizing the social utility or the per-user utility, cooperative or competitive approaches are explained and their corresponding robust problems are considered in detail. For each approach, the costs and benefits of robust schemes are discussed and the algorithms for reducing their costs and improving their benefits are presented. Considering the fact that such problems are inherently non-convex and intractable, a taxonomy of different relaxation techniques is presented, and applications of such techniques are shown via several examples throughout the book. Finally, the authors argue that resource allocation continues to be an important issue in future wireless networks, and propose spec...

  14. Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff

    2010-01-01

    We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...

  15. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  16. Global Register Allocation for SIMD Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BenjaminHAO; DavidPEARSON; 等

    1996-01-01

    It is relatively clear how to map regular,repetitive or grid oriented computations onto SIMD architectures.It is not so clear,however,how to do this for irregular computations even though there may be significant amounts of intrinsic parallelism in branch free code.We study compilation techniques for this type of code when targeted to SIMD computers and illustrate their use on a simple model architecture.In this paper,we present one of the compilation techniques,global register allocation,we have developed for SIMD computers,and demonstrate that it can effectively allocate registers for parallelizing irregular computations in branch free code.This technique is an extension and a modification of the register allocation via graph coloring approach used by sequential compilers.Our performance results validate our method.

  17. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  18. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  19. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  20. Redundancy-Allocation in Pharmaceutical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Garg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In present paper three heuristics algorithms to optimize the problem of constrained redundancy allocation in complex system are described and used to allocate redundancy in a manufacturing system namely pharmaceutical plant. Computational procedures of proposed algorithms are outlined. These algorithms are applied to find the best redundancy strategy, combination of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under cost constraints .Results of these algorithms are compared to get best possible solution for the proposed problem.

  1. Ethics and resource allocation: an economist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper debates some of the issues involved in attempting to apply economic analysis to the health care sector when medical ethics plays such an important part in determining the allocation of resources in that sector. Two distinct ethical positions are highlighted as being fundamental to the understanding of resource allocation in this sector -- deontological and utilitarian theories of ethics. It is argued that medical ethics are often narrowly conceived in that there is a tendency for the individual, rather than society at large, to form the focal point of the production of the service "health care'. Thus medical ethics have been dominated by individualistic ethical coded which do not fully consider questions relating to resource allocation at a social level. It is further argued that the structure of the health care sector augments these "individualistic' ethics. It is also suggested that different actors in the health care sector address questions of resource allocation with respect to different time periods, and that this serves to further enhance the influence of "individualistic' ethical codes in this sector.

  2. The relationship between attention allocation and cheating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Motro, Daphna; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Pluchino, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between attention allocation and dishonesty. The goal of the present work was to address this issue using the eyetracking methodology. We developed a novel task in which participants could honestly report seeing a particular card and lose money, or they could f

  3. 20 CFR 631.82 - Substate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substate allocation. 631.82 Section 631.82 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.82 Substate...

  4. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...

  5. Cost Allocation as a Coordination Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that cost allocation can endogenously arise as a coordination mechanism in a decentralized firm.This result is derived in a setting with multiple (internally supplied) resources shared by multiple users, which constitutes a departure from previous literature.While standard cost allo

  6. Status Characteristics, Reward Allocation, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Cook, Karen S.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between a group's power and prestige or status hierarchy and group members' patterns of reward allocation was investigated. The addition of evidence concerning actual task performance results in the alignment of reward and status rankings and encourages the use of distribution rules stressing equity as opposed to equality.…

  7. International dynamic asset allocation and return predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basu, D.; Oomen, R.; Stremme, A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of time varying investment opportunity sets has been documented in the context of international asset allocation, and the economic value associated with these is a topic of lively debate in the academic literature. This paper constructs simple, real-time dynamic international asset allo

  8. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  9. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... sublegal halibut at 15 percent of the Area 2A constant exploitation yield (CEY) for legal size halibut,...

  10. Multiagent task allocation in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Zhang, Y.; Klos, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some factor. In c

  11. Distributed Task Allocation in Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Zhang, Y.; Klos, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NPhard. Moreover, it is not approximable within some factor. We develo

  12. Multiagent task allocation in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs); Y. Zhang (Yingqian); T.B. Klos (Tomas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some

  13. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  14. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking...

  15. Biased allocation of faces to social categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  16. Resource Allocation Problems with Concave Reward Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In a resource allocation problem there is a common-pool resource, which has to be divided among agents. Each agent is characterized by a claim on this pool and an individual concave reward function on assigned resources. An assignment of resources is optimal if the total joint reward is ma

  17. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set...

  18. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate market

  19. Energy allocation in two species of Eutardigrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena REBECCHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve our knowledge on life histories in tardigrades and the energy allocated for their reproduction and growth, we have studied two species (Macrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius convergens differing in evolutionary histories, diet and ways of oviposition. For both species we considered a bisexual population dwelling in the same substrate. In both species we investigated energy allocations in males with a testis rich in spermatozoa and females, each with an ovary containing oocytes in advanced vitellogenesis. The age of the specimens was estimated on the basis of buccal tube length and body size. Body and gonad areas were calculated using an image analysis program. In both species females reach a larger size than males. Macrobiotus richtersi has both a significantly longer buccal tube and wider body area than H. convergens. Statistical analyses show that the buccal tube has a positive correlation with body area and gonad area. For an estimate of the relative energy allocated for reproduction in one reproductive event (relative reproductive effort = RRE, we have used the ratio between gonad area and body area. In males of both species, the absolute amount of energy and the RRE is statistically lower than that of females. Males and females of H. convergens have a RRE higher than those of M. richtersi. In M. richtersi, the gonad increases proportionally more when animals are large (old, whereas in H. convergens this direct relationship is not detectable. In M. richtersi the energy allocated for a reproductive event increases during the life of the females. In males, the increase of the gonad size is progressive during the animal life. In each reproductive event, females of H. convergens allocate a lower amount of energy in absolute value when compared to M. richtersi. Nevertheless, when considering the RRE, their investment is higher than that of M. richtersi.

  20. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Asger Sand; Laursen, David R. T.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    clinical trials. METHODS: Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed...

  1. The complexity of economic equilibria for house allocation markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, Sándor P.; Skutella, Martin; Woeginger, Gerhard J.

    2003-01-01

    We prove NP-completeness of deciding the existence of an economic equilibrium in so-called house allocation markets. House allocation markets are markets with indivisible goods in which every agent holds exactly one copy of some good.

  2. An Improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for Ethernet PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm for EPON, which combines static and traditional dynamic allocation schemes. Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm may effectively improve the performance of packet delay.

  3. Dynamic capacity allocation for low-cost multicarrier multimode PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, R.O.; Bochove, van A.C.; Boer, de P.T.; Sikkes, B.

    2007-01-01

    A stable-matching-based multiuser multicarrier capacity allocation algorithm is proposed. It responds to ONU backlogs and dynamic subchannel gains. Benchmarked against Binary Linear Programming, it results in just 5% less allocated capacity, at much lower complexity.

  4. Balanced Contributions for Multi-Issue Allocation Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Freire, S.; Alonso-Meijide, J.M.; Casas-Mendez, B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a property of balanced contributions in the context of multi-issue allocation situations.Using this property, we characterise the run-to-thebank rule for multi-issue allocation situations.

  5. Optimal Joint Multiple Resource Allocation Method for Cloud Computing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Kuribayashi, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. To provide cloud computing services economically, it is important to optimize resource allocation under the assumption that the required resource can be taken from a shared resource pool. In addition, to be able to provide processing ability and storage capacity, it is necessary to allocate bandwidth to access them at the same time. This paper proposes an optimal resource allocation method for cloud computing environments. First, this paper develops a resource allocation model of cloud computing environments, assuming both processing ability and bandwidth are allocated simultaneously to each service request and rented out on an hourly basis. The allocated resources are dedicated to each service request. Next, this paper proposes an optimal joint multiple resource allocation method, based on the above resource allocation model. It is demonstrated by simulation evaluation that the p...

  6. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  7. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  8. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and... applicable and currently effective methods of allocation filed with the Commission. Both direct and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a... method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed....

  10. 48 CFR 1631.203-70 - Allocation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Allocation techniques. 1631... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203-70 Allocation techniques. (a... preferred allocation technique is one that shows the consumption of resources in performance of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.455-3 - Method of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.455-3 Section 1.455-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.455-3 Method of allocation. (a... reasonable manner, provided the method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed....

  12. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  13. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... post-transplant, risk-adjusted patient and graft survival rates following transplantation, risk... together with the revised allocation policies. (2) Special rule for initial revision of liver allocation policies. When the OPTN transmits to the Secretary its initial revision of the liver allocation...

  14. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use welfare data as an additional factor in the allocation of targeted assistance funds if it so... population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the total... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of funds. 400.319 Section...

  15. Inventory Allocation for Online Graphical Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jian; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Tomlin, John; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Anastasakos, Tasos; Kennedy, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a multi-objective/goal programming model for the allocation of inventory of graphical advertisements. The model considers two types of campaigns: guaranteed delivery (GD), which are sold months in advance, and non-guaranteed delivery (NGD), which are sold using real-time auctions. We investigate various advertiser and publisher objectives such as (a) revenue from the sale of impressions, clicks and conversions, (b) future revenue from the sale of NGD inventory, and (c) "fairness" of allocation. While the first two objectives are monetary, the third is not. This combination of demand types and objectives leads to potentially many variations of our model, which we delineate and evaluate. Our experimental results, which are based on optimization runs using real data sets, demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed model.

  16. Spectrum Allocation in Two-Tier Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Two-tier networks, comprising a conventional cellular network overlaid with shorter range hotspots (e.g. femtocells, distributed antennas, or wired relays), offer an economically viable way to improve cellular system capacity. The capacity-limiting factor in such networks is interference. The cross-tier interference between macrocells and femtocells can suffocate the capacity due to the near-far problem, so in practice hotspots should use a different frequency channel than the potentially nearby high-power macrocell users. Centralized or coordinated frequency planning, which is difficult and inefficient even in conventional cellular networks, is all but impossible in a two-tier network. This paper proposes and analyzes an optimum decentralized spectrum allocation policy for two-tier networks that employ frequency division multiple access (including OFDMA). The proposed allocation is optimal in terms of Area Spectral Efficiency (ASE), and is subjected to a sensible Quality of Service (QoS) requirement, which g...

  17. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  18. Response-Adaptive Allocation for Circular Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Atanu; Dutta, Somak; Laha, Arnab Kumar; Bakshi, Partho K

    2015-01-01

    Response-adaptive designs are used in phase III clinical trials to allocate a larger proportion of patients to the better treatment. Circular data is a natural outcome in many clinical trial setup, e.g., some measurements in opthalmologic studies, degrees of rotation of hand or waist, etc. There is no available work on response-adaptive designs for circular data. With reference to a dataset on cataract surgery we provide some response-adaptive designs where the responses are of circular nature and propose some test statistics for treatment comparison under adaptive data allocation procedure. Detailed simulation study and the analysis of the dataset, including redesigning the cataract surgery data, are carried out.

  19. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xiang; Hu Mao-Bin; Long Jian-Cheng; Ding Jian-Xun; Shi Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks.The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth.An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity).Three network structures (scale-free,small-world,and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy.Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted.

  20. On Allocation Policies for Power and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachuk, Dmytro; 10.1109/GRID.2010.5697986

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of Internet-based services and applications, power efficiency is becoming a major concern for data center operators, as high electricity consumption not only increases greenhouse gas emissions, but also increases the cost of running the server farm itself. In this paper we address the problem of maximizing the revenue of a service provider by means of dynamic allocation policies that run the minimum amount of servers necessary to meet user's requirements in terms of performance. The results of several experiments executed using Wikipedia traces are described, showing that the proposed schemes work well, even if the workload is non-stationary. Since any resource allocation policy requires the use of forecasting mechanisms, various schemes allowing compensating errors in the load forecasts are presented and evaluated.

  1. Axioms for health care resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines principles of health care resource allocation based on axioms for individual preferences and distributive justice. We establish axioms for representing individual preferences by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as axioms for existence of a social welfare function...... social welfare function with certain weights. Further, we give axioms for a social welfare function being a weighted sum of power transformations of individual QALYs...

  2. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem.

  3. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giacomelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  4. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution.

  5. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  6. Dynamic Channel Allocation Management Using Agents Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOGDAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Channel allocation schemes are management techniques meant to solve the radio access problem in the telecommunications area. There are several known schemes namely: static, dynamic, hybrid and flexible channel allocation schemes. In our work we developed the channel allocation scheme using a decentralized structure, based on software agents. In order to create such a structure, some functions must be carried out by some specialized functional entities. Each functional entity is implemented with an agent, having a specific role. Using this manner of implementation, different functions of the system can be implemented at different sites, located apart and also the structure can be modularized. In our work we have created the agents structure and the communications between agents, on the use of Multiagent Systems Engineering Technology. We also involved the AgentTool platform to automate the creation of the agents structure and the code resulted was in Java. In order to realize the test of our system we considered a shape of 21 radio areas, each including a number of users. Each wireless user can initiate a number of calls per hour and each call last a holding time. The communications between agents were realized for the TCP/IP protocol, based on socket connections.

  7. Register Allocation By Model Transformer Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Register allocation has long been formulated as a graph coloring problem, coloring the conflict graph with physical registers. Such a formulation does not fully capture the goal of the allocation, which is to minimize the traffic between registers and memory. Linear scan has been proposed as an alternative to graph coloring, but in essence, it can be viewed as a greedy algorithm for graph coloring: coloring the vertices not in the order of their degrees, but in the order of their occurence in the program. Thus it suffers from almost the same constraints as graph coloring. In this article, I propose a new method of register allocation based on the ideas of model transformer semantics (MTS) and static cache replacement (SCR). Model transformer semantics captures the semantics of registers and the stack. Static cache replacement relaxes the assumptions made by graph coloring and linear scan, aiming directly at reducing register-memory traffic. The method explores a much larger solution space than that of graph c...

  8. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  9. A Method of Reliability Allocation of a Complicated Large System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-sheng; QIN Yuan-yuan; WANG Dao-bo

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of reliability allocation for a complicated large system, a new thought is brought up. Reliability allocation should be a kind of decision-making behavior; therefore the more information is used when apportioning a reliability index, the more reasonable an allocation is obtained. Reliability allocation for a complicated large system consists of two processes, the first one is a reliability information reporting process fromt bottom to top, and the other one is a reliability index apportioning process from top to bottom. By a typical example, we illustrate the concrete process of reliability allocation algorithms.

  10. Adaptive Power and Bit Allocation in Multicarrier Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Yong-qing; PENG Qi-cong; SHAO Huai-zong

    2007-01-01

    We present two adaptive power and bit allocation algorithms for multicarrier systems in a frequency selective fading environment. One algorithm allocates bit based on maximizing the channel capacity, another allocates bit based on minimizing the bit-error-rate(BER). Two algorithms allocate power based on minimizing the BER. Results show that the proposed algorithms are more effective than Fischer's algorithm at low average signal-to-noise ration (SNR). This indicates that our algorithms can achieve high spectral efficiency and high communication reliability during bad channel state. Results also denote the bit and power allocation of each algorithm and effects of the number of subcarriers on the BER performance.

  11. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  12. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie; Zeng, Chang-Chang

    2010-11-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  13. Performance evaluation of sensor allocation algorithm based on covariance control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The covariance control capability of sensor allocation algorithms based on covariance control strategy is an important index to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Owing to lack of standard performance metric indices to evaluate covariance control capability, sensor allocation ratio, etc, there are no guides to follow in the design procedure of sensor allocation algorithm in practical applications. To meet these demands, three quantified performance metric indices are presented, which are average covariance misadjustment quantity (ACMQ), average sensor allocation ratio (ASAR) and matrix metric influence factor (MMIF), where ACMQ, ASAR and MMIF quantify the covariance control capability, the usage of sensor resources and the robustness of sensor allocation algorithm, respectively. Meanwhile, a covariance adaptive sensor allocation algorithm based on a new objective function is proposed to improve the covariance control capability of the algorithm based on information gain. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm have the advantage over the preceding sensor allocation algorithm in covariance control capability and robustness.

  14. CHANNEL DE-ALLOCATION SCHEMES FOR GSM/GPRS NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Tigang; Fan Pingzhi; Kam Yiu Lam

    2005-01-01

    Several channel de-allocation schemes for GSM/GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) networks are proposed in this paper. For DRA (Dynamical Resource Allocation) with de-allocation mechanism, if a new voice call arrives and finds that all the channels are busy,then one of the GPRS packets which occupy more than one channel for data transmission may release a channel for the new voice call. This paper presents 5 de-allocation mechanisms, i.e.DA-RANDOM, DA-RICHEST, DA-POOREST, DA-OLDEST and DA-YOUNGEST, to select the GPRS packet for releasing the appropriate channel. Simulation results show that DAOLDEST achieves the best performance, especially in packets blocking probability, among all the de-allocation schemes. Although the performance of the proposed de-allocation schemes is not significantly different, they are all much better than that of the scheme without de-allocation.

  15. Fair subcarrier-power allocation scheme for multiuser multicarrier systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Abd-Elnaby; Germien G Sedhom; Nagy W Messiha; Xu Zhu; Fathi E Abd El-Samie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MU-OFDM) is to maximize the total system capacity in wireless communication systems. Thus, the problem in MU-OFDM system is the adaptive allocation of the resources (subcarriers, bits and power) to different users subject to several restrictions to maximize the total system capacity. In this work, a proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm was presented to assign the subcarriers with highest channel gain to the users. After the subcarrier allocation, subcarrier gain-based power allocation (SGPA) was employed for power and bit loading. The simulation results show that the proposed subcarrier-power allocation scheme can achieve high total system capacity and good fairness in allocating the resources to the users with slightly high computational complexity compared to the existing subcarrier allocation algorithms.

  16. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  17. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  18. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordés...data to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  19. Bidirectional ROF Links with Dynamic Capacity Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chandan , Dharmendra Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available : Radio over fiber (ROF technology is an integration of wireless and fiber optic network. It plays vital role for broad band wireless communication. The well known advantages of optical as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna site in a wireless network. The joint venture of radio signal and optical fiber technology provides dynamic capacity allocation in radio over fiber links.

  20. Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Gen-Xuan Wang; Liang Wei; Chun-Ming Wang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spdng wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2=0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners In competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.

  1. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  2. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  3. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of participants in the exchange grows, the price of an impressions becomes a signal of its value. This correlation between price and value means that a seller implementing the contract through bidding should offer the contract buyer a range of prices, and not just the cheapest impressions necessary to fulfill its demand. Implementing a contract using a range of prices, is akin to creating a mutual fund of advertising impressions, and requires {\\em randomized bidding}. We characterize what allocations can be implemented with rando...

  4. POWER ALLOCATION OF DATA DEPENDENT SUPERIMPOSED TRAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Yuan Weina; Fan Pingzhi

    2008-01-01

    Data Dependent Superimposed Training (DDST) scheme outperforms the traditional superimposed training by fully canceling the effects of unknown data in channel estimator. In DDST,however,the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection or channel equalization performance are affected significantly by the amount of power allocated to data and superimposed training sequence,which is the motivation of this research. In general,for DDST,there is a tradeoff between the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection reliability,i.e.,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more reliable the data detection; on the other hand,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more demanding on the power consumption of training sequence,which in turn leads to the less reliable data detection. In this paper,the relationship between the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the data detector and the training sequence power is analyzed. The optimal power allocation of the training sequence is derived based on the criterion of maximizing SNR of the detector. Analysis and simulation results show that for a fixed transmit power,the SNR and the Symbol Error Rate (SER) of detector vary nonlinearly with the increasing of training sequence power,and there exists an optimal power ratio,which accords with the derived optimal power ratio,among the data and training sequence.

  5. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.

  7. Resource Allocation of Agricultural Science and Technology R&D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D(research and development)both at home and abroad,including the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds,human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D,the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D,the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds,is analyzed.The problems in the current resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D are put forward,including unreasonable resource allocation;low efficiency,and low efficiency of the transformation of agricultural scientific achievements.The highly effective resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D is analyzed from the aspects of resource allocation structure,environment,channel,spatial layout and industrial chain.

  8. Metacognitive and control strategies in study-time allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, L K; Metcalfe, J

    2000-01-01

    This article investigates how people's metacognitive judgments influence subsequent study-time-allocation strategies. The authors present a comprehensive literature review indicating that people allocate more study time to judged-difficult than to judged-easy items--consistent with extant models of study-time allocation. However, typically, the materials were short, and participants had ample time for study. In contrast, in Experiment 1, when participants had insufficient time to study, they allocated more time to the judged-easy items than to the judged-difficult items, especially when expecting a test. In Experiment 2, when the materials were shorter, people allocated more study time to the judged-difficult materials. In Experiment 3, under high time pressure, people preferred studying judged-easy sonnets; under moderate time pressure, they showed no preference. These results provide new evidence against extant theories of study-time allocation.

  9. Simplifying rules for optimal allocation of preventive care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2012-04-01

    Given the limited resources for preventive care, policy-makers need to consider the efficiency/cost-effectiveness of preventive measures, such as drugs and vaccines, when allocating preventive care resources. However, in many settings only limited information on lifetime costs and effects of preventive measures exists. Therefore, it seems useful to provide policy-makers with some simplifying rules when allocating preventive care resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relevance of risk and severity of the disease to be prevented for the optimal allocation of preventive care resources. The report shows - based on a constrained optimization model - that optimal allocation of preventive care resources does, in fact, depend on both factors. Resources should be allocated to the prevention of diseases with a higher probability of occurrence or larger severity. This article also identifies situations where preventive care resources should be allocated to the prevention of less severe disease.

  10. Market power in auction and efficiency in emission permits allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min Xing; Yang, Dong Xiao; Chen, Zi Yue; Nie, Pu Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes how to achieve the cost-effectiveness by initial allocation of CO2 emission permits when a single dominant firm in production market has market power in auction, and compare two prevalent allocation patterns, mixed allocation and single auction. We show how the firm with market power may manipulate the auction price, thereby this leads to fail to achieve cost-effective solution by auction unless the total permits for allocation equal to the effective emissions cap. Provided that the market power firm receives strictly positive free permits, the effective emissions cap of mixed allocation is larger than that of single auction. The production market share of dominant firm is increasing with the free permits it holds. Finally, we examine the compliance costs and welfare of mixed allocation and single auction, the result show that the former is preferred to the later when policy makers consider economic welfare without welfare cost due to CO2 emissions.

  11. Public Investment Regional Allocation: Evaluation of applicability of two methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Geraki, Martha; Serafeim POLYZOS; Krikeli, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Regional allocation of public investment has been considered of a great interest over the years. Regional policy uses investments as a basic developmental tool and it seeks for an effective allocation among the regions. In addition, national economic policy distributes investments aiming at both economic development of less developed regions and maximization of national product. Therefore, an effective allocation by the central government is of a great significance. In addition, national econ...

  12. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  13. If Not Only Numbers Count: Allocation of Equal Chances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Ahlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that medical guidelines specify the appropriate amount of a divisible good which each individual should receive. Individual requirements and probabilities that the treatment is successful if an appropriate amount is received differ. The same applies to the success probabilities if individuals are inadequately treated. If supply is insufficient to serve all with appropriate amounts an allocation decision is necessary. We define probabilistic allocation rules that allocate chances of successful treatment to all individuals. We analyse a specific random allocation rule that assigns maximal equal gains of chances. We characterize the equal gain rule axiomatically.

  14. Life cycle methodology for copper : allocation and recycling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobling-Reisemann, S. [Bremen Univ., Bremen (Germany). Faculty of Production Engineering; Tikana, L.; Sievers, H.; Klassert, A. [Deutsches Kupferinstitut, Dusseldorf (Germany). Life Cycle Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper provided an overview of different methodologies available for recycling and assessing the life cycles of copper ores. Approaches towards allocation in life cycle assessments (LCA) included detailed modelling; system expansion; physical allocation; economic allocation; and subsequent-use allocation. Approaches towards recycling included system expansion, cut-off approaches, open loop approach; value corrected substitution; and the cascade approach. Sulphuric acid and steam are produced as by-products during copper production, and most copper ores contain molybdenum, gold, silver, and nickel. The environmental impacts of copper by-products must be considered when conducting LCAs. Existing standards allow different implementation methods for recycling and allocation into metal LCAs, and the selection of a methodology can significantly influence the ecological profile of copper and copper products. Allocation is needed when processes with more than 1 function are investigated. ISO standards recommend avoiding allocation problems by using detailed system modelling. Allocation factors should be chosen that reflect the physical relationship between the functional units produced and their associated environmental burdens. Case studies were presented to demonstrate allocations of co- and byproducts and recycling in copper production. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Adaptive Resource Allocation and Internet Traffic Engineering on Data Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Hussein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the issues of bandwid th allocation, optimum capacity allocation, network operational cost reduction, and improve Int ernet user experience. Traffic engineering (TE is used to manipulate network traffic to achie ve certain requirements and meets certain needs. TE becomes one of the most important buildin g blocks in the design of the Internet backbone infrastructure. Research objective: effici ent allocation of bandwidth across multiple paths. Optimum path selection. Minimize network tra ffic delays and maximize bandwidth utilization over multiple network paths. The bandwi dth allocation is performed proportionally over multiple paths based on the path capacity.

  16. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  17. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-08

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts.

  18. Two phase decision algorithm of replica allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Chaoshu; Liu Xinsong; Wang Zheng; Li Yi

    2006-01-01

    In distributed parallel server system, location and redundancy of replicas have great influence on availability and efficiency of the system. In order to improve availahility and efficiency of the system, two phase decision algorithm of replica allocation is proposed. The algorithm which makes use of auto-regression model dynamically predicts the future count of READ and WRITE operation, and then determines location and redundancy of replicas by considering availability, CPU and bands of the network. The algorithm can not only ensure the requirement of availability, but also reduce the system resources consumed by all the operations in a great scale. Analysis and test show that communication complexity and time complexity of the algorithm satisfy O( n ), resource optimizing scale increases with the increase of READ count.

  19. Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mocková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers. 

  20. Unsupervised Feature Selection for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weiran; Du Gang; Chen Guang; Guo Jun; Yang Jie

    2011-01-01

    As a generative model Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model,which lacks optimization of topics' discrimination capability focuses on how to generate data,This paper aims to improve the discrimination capability through unsupervised feature selection.Theoretical analysis shows that the discrimination capability of a topic is limited by the discrimination capability of its representative words.The discrimination capability of a word is approximated by the Information Gain of the word for topics,which is used to distinguish between “general word” and “special word” in LDA topics.Therefore,we add a constraint to the LDA objective function to let the “general words” only happen in “general topics”other than “special topics”.Then a heuristic algorithm is presented to get the solution.Experiments show that this method can not only improve the information gain of topics,but also make the topics easier to understand by human.

  1. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    breaks in correlations. Only when correlations are constant does the parametric DCC model deliver the best outcome. The methodologies are illustrated by evaluating two interesting portfolios. The first portfolio consists of the equity sector SPDRs and the S&P 500, while the second one contains major......This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural...... currencies. Results show the nonparametric model generally dominates the others when evaluating in-sample. However, the semiparametric model is best for out-of-sample analysis....

  2. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  3. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  4. Portfolio Allocation Subject to Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio de Deus Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Credit Risk is an important dimension to be considered in the risk management procedures of financial institutions. Is a particularly useful in emerging markets where default rates on bank loan products are usually high. It is usually calculated through highly costly Monte Carlo simulations which consider different stochastic factors driving the uncertainly associated to the borrowers liabilities. In this paper, under some restrictions, we drive closed form formulas for the probability distributions of default rates of bank loans products involving a big number of clients. This allows us to quickly obtain the credit risk of such products. Moreover, using these probability distributions, we solve the problem of optimal portfolio allocation under default risk.

  5. Resources Allocation Schemas for Web Information Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kang; SHEN Meiming; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    The web is an extremely dynamic world where information is updated even every second. A web information monitoring system fetches information from the web continuously and finds changes by comparing two versions of the same page. The updating of a specific web page is modeled as a Poisson process with parameter to indicate the change frequency. As the amount of computing resources is limited, it is necessary to find some policies for reducing the overall change-detection time. Different allocation schemas are evaluated experimentally to find out which one is the most suitable for the web information monitoring problem. The experimental data shows the runtime characteristics of the overall system performance and the relationship to the total amount of resources.

  6. Allocation and Admission Policies for Service Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucco, Michele; Fisher, Mike; McKee, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A service provisioning system is examined, where a number of servers are used to offer different types of services to paying customers. A customer is charged for the execution of a stream of jobs; the number of jobs in the stream and the rate of their submission is specified. On the other hand, the provider promises a certain quality of service (QoS), measured by the average waiting time of the jobs in the stream. A penalty is paid if the agreed QoS requirement is not met. The objective is to maximize the total average revenue per unit time. Dynamic policies for making server allocation and stream admission decisions are introduced and evaluated. The results of several simulations are described.

  7. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  8. Fuzzy Neighborhood Allocation (FNA): A Fuzzy Approach to Improve Near Neighborhood Allocation in DDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basseda, Reza; Rahgozar, Maseud; Lucas, Caro

    Allocating data fragments in distributed database systems is an important issue in distributed database (DDB) systems. In this paper, we are going to improve the effectiveness of current NNA algorithm using a Fuzzy inference engine. Results indicate that, our fuzzy based NNA algorithm leads 5% gain in some of systems performance metrics. This algorithm, providing a data clustering mechanism, which is very suitable for DDBS in the networks, with heavy traffic loads, and frequent data access requests.

  9. Coding and Allocation for Distributed Data Storage: Fundamental Tradeoffs, Coding Schemes and Allocation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanova, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral; Distributed storage is one of the most actively developing topics nowadays, thanks to the growing need of storing more and more large amounts of data and to new distributed applications as cloud computing, multimedia content delivery etc. The core of each distributed storage system (DSS) is its erasure-correcting code; the core of the DSS networking protocol is its allocation pattern.With new aforementioned storage applications we are about to attain the limit of well-developed codi...

  10. An efficient approach to enhance capacity allocation over Bluetooth network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2002-01-01

    With the current development of mobile devices, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, and research on short range wireless communications, such as Bluetooth, has gained increasing in-terest, in industry as well as in academy. This paper analyzes capacity allocation...... shows that the performance of Bluetooth network could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative capacity allocation scheme....

  11. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  12. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and pu

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-4 - State allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State allocation. 35.925-4 Section 35.925-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... allocation. That the award of grant assistance for a particular project will not cause the total of all...

  14. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and...

  15. Allocating instruction time: How language instruction can affect multiple skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Diris, R.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    There exists substantial variation in how schools allocate instruction time to school subjects. The effectiveness of that allocation depends on the immediate effect of instruction in one subject on achievement in the same subject, on how skills further develop over time, and on possible spillover ef

  16. Freedom of Establishment and the Balanced Allocation of Tax Jurisdiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    in order to present a (more) coherent approach to evaluating national anti-abuse legislation. It is submitted that the justification ground of “balanced allocation of tax jurisdiction” and the arm’s length principle for allocation of income should form an important basis under EU law for the evaluation...

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that is... that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules for...

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  19. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI funds to participating jurisdictions in...

  20. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Staritsky, I.G.; Andersen, E.; Heckelei, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all samp

  1. Fast Allocation and Deallocation with an Improved Buddy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Demaine, Erik D.; Munro, J. Ian

    2005-01-01

    We propose several modifications to the binary buddy system for managing dynamic allocation of memory blocks whose sizes are powers of two. The standard buddy system allocates and deallocates blocks in Theta(lg n) time in the worst case (and on an amortized basis), where n is the size of the memo...

  2. Multisorted Tree-Algebras for Hierarchical Resources Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Patrick Zobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generic abstract model for the study of disparities between goals and results in hierarchical multiresources allocation systems. In an organization, disparities in resource allocation may occur, when, after comparison of a resource allocation decision with an allocation reference goal or property, some agents have surplus resources to accomplish their tasks, while at the same time other agents have deficits of expected resources. In the real world, these situations are frequently encountered in organizations facing scarcity of resources and/or inefficient management. These disparities can be corrected using allocation decisions, by measuring and reducing gradually such disparities and their related costs, without totally canceling the existing resource distribution. While a lot of research has been carried out in the area of resource allocation, this specific class of problems has not yet been formally studied. The paper exposes the results of an exploratory research study of this class of problems. It identifies the commonalities of the family of hierarchical multiresource allocation systems and proposes the concept of multisorted tree-algebra for the modeling of these problems. The research presented here is not yet an in-depth descriptive research study of the mathematical theory of multisorted tree-algebra, but a formal study on modelling hierarchical multiresource allocation problems.

  3. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of i

  4. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  5. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  6. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  7. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  8. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  9. Spectrum Allocation Based on Game Theory in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiufen Ni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of intelligent communication technology, the characteristic of dynamic spectrum allocation of cognitive radio provides feasible scheme for sharing with the spectrum resources among the primary user and secondary users, which solves the current spectrum resource scarcity problem. In this paper, we comprehensively explored the cognitive radio spectrum allocation models based on game theory from cooperative game and non-cooperative game, which provide detailed overview and analysis on the state of the art of spectrum allocation based on game theory. In order to provide flexible and efficient spectrum allocation in wireless networks, this paper also provides the general framework model based on game theory for cognitive radio spectrum allocation.

  10. Accounting of allocation of production enterprises’ overhead costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Ivaniuta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the complexity of engineering technological cycles, the use of traditional approaches to the allocation of overhead costs at the researching enterprises is inexpedient and inefficient. The authors find out that to solve this problem it is not enough to choose only one base of allocation because the formed prime cost with such an approach will not meet the reality. That is why it is suggested to use a multilevel allocation of overhead costs. The proposed approach involves the allocation of overhead costs at the following levels: fixed and variable, with shops of main and auxiliary production, calculation stations, some orders. Each level involves the selection of individual allocation bases that are grouped on economic, technological and integrated ones.

  11. Suboptimal Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Sadr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the performance of low complexity adaptive resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA systems with fixed or variable rate requirements (with fairness consideration. Two suboptimal resource allocation algorithms are proposed using the simplifying assumption of transmit power over the entire bandwidth. The objective of the first algorithm is to maximize the total throughput while maintaining rate proportionality among the users. The proposed suboptimal algorithm prioritizes the user with the highest sensitivity to the subcarrier allocation, and the variance over the subchannel gains is used to define the sensitivity of each user. The second algorithm concerns rate adaptive resource allocation in multiuser systems with fixed rate constraints. We propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm which prioritizes the users with the highest required data rates. The main feature of this algorithm is its low complexity while achieving the rate requirements.

  12. Objective function of cost in optimal tolerance allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An objective function model is proposed for cost in optimizing and allocating tolerance with consideration of manufacturing conditions. With the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, a manufacturing difficulty coefficient is derived, which takes into account of several factors affecting the manufacturing cost, including the forming means of the blank, size, machining surface features, operator's skills and machinability of materials.The coefficient is then converted into a weight factor used in the inversed square model representing the relationship between the cost and tolerance, and, hence, an objective function for cost is established in optimizing and allocating tolerance. The higher is the manufacturing difficulty coefficient, the higher is the relative manufacturing cost and the higher is the weight factor of the tolerance allocation, which indicates the increase of the tolerance's effects on the total manufacturing cost and, therefore, a larger tolerance should be allocated. The computer-aided tolerance allocation utilizing this model makes it more convenient, accurate and practicable.

  13. Robust Inversion and Data Compression in Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. Scottedward

    2000-01-01

    We present an off-line computational method for control allocation design. The control allocation function delta = F(z)tau = delta (sub 0) (z) mapping commanded body-frame torques to actuator commands is implicitly specified by trim condition delta (sub 0) (z) and by a robust pseudo-inverse problem double vertical line I - G(z) F(z) double vertical line less than epsilon (z) where G(z) is a system Jacobian evaluated at operating point z, z circumflex is an estimate of z, and epsilon (z) less than 1 is a specified error tolerance. The allocation function F(z) = sigma (sub i) psi (z) F (sub i) is computed using a heuristic technique for selecting wavelet basis functions psi and a constrained least-squares criterion for selecting the allocation matrices F (sub i). The method is applied to entry trajectory control allocation for a reusable launch vehicle (X-33).

  14. Permit Allocation in Emissions Trading using the Boltzmann Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Ji-Won; Isard, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In emissions trading, the initial permit allocation is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods such as auctioning and grandfathering have been debated. Here we describe a new model for permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. The Boltzmann distribution is introduced to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. A price determination mechanism for emission permits is then developed in relation to the {\\beta} value in the Boltzmann distribution. Finally, it is demonstrated how emissions permits can be practically allocated among participating countries in empirical results. The new allocation model using the Boltzmann distribution describes a most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Based on its simplicity and versati...

  15. Study of large medical equipment allocation in Xuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the allocation and management of large medical equipment (LME) in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, in order to make the best use of LME to meet the medical needs of local people. Methods: The research collected data from all hospitals that have LME in Xuzhou using questionnaire; 38 (97.4%) hospitals returned the questionnaire. Results: In Xuzhou, there are a total of 71 pieces of LME, each serving 126600 people in an area of 163 km2. Sixty-two percent of them are allocated in urban areas, with Gini coefficient at 0.52, indicating imbalance and biased allocation of LME. Conclusion: The allocation of LME in Xuzhou is out of control and unfairly allocated.

  16. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shattock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. Methods: We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1 when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2 when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Results and discussion: Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8% decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6% reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Conclusions: Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to

  17. Dynamic Allocation Strategy Based on Pre-allocation and Agent to Implement Ada95's Distributed Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuFu-xi; FuJian-ming; WuChan-le; CaoZheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the model of how the Agent is applied to implement distributed computing of Ada95 and presents a dynamic allocation strategy for distributed computing that based on pre-allocationand Agent. The aim of this strategy is realizing dynamic equilibrium allocation.

  18. Accounting for Parcel-Allocation Variability in Practice: Combining Sources of Uncertainty and Choosing the Number of Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Item parceling remains widely used under conditions that can lead to parcel-allocation variability in results. Hence, researchers may be interested in quantifying and accounting for parcel-allocation variability within sample. To do so in practice, three key issues need to be addressed. First, how can we combine sources of uncertainty arising from sampling variability and parcel-allocation variability when drawing inferences about parameters in structural equation models? Second, on what basis can we choose the number of repeated item-to-parcel allocations within sample? Third, how can we diagnose and report proportions of total variability per estimate arising due to parcel-allocation variability versus sampling variability? This article addresses these three methodological issues. Developments are illustrated using simulated and empirical examples, and software for implementing them is provided.

  19. TRANSFER PRICING FOR COORDINATION AND PROFIT ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Thomas Martini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines coordination and profit allocation in a profit-center organization using a single transfer price. The model includes compensations, taxes, and minority interests of two divisions deciding on capacity and sales. The analysis covers arm’s length transfer prices which are either administered by central management or negotiated by the divisions. Administered transfer prices refer to past transactions and therefore maximize firm-wide profit net of divisional compensations, taxes, and minority profit shares only for given decentralized decisions. From an ex-ante perspective, it is shown that adverse effects on coordination may result in inefficient divisional profits of which all stakeholders suffer. We motivate a positive effect of advance pricing agreements, intra-firm guidelines, and restrictive treatments of changes in the firm’s accounting policy. By contrast, negotiations ignore compensations, taxes, and minority shares but yield efficient divisional profits. Negotiations seem compelling as they perfectly reflect the arm’s length principle. Moreover, common practices such as arbitration or one-step pricing schemes allow the firm to engage in manipulation at the expense of other stakeholders.

  20. Ad Serving Using a Compact Allocation Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Peiji; Mandalapu, Srinath; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yu, Manfai; Zien, Jason

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of online display advertising is sold via guaranteed contracts: a publisher guarantees to the advertiser a certain number of user visits satisfying the targeting predicates of the contract. The publisher is then tasked with solving the ad serving problem - given a user visit, which of the thousands of matching contracts should be displayed, so that by the expiration time every contract has obtained the requisite number of user visits. The challenges of the problem come from (1) the sheer size of the problem being solved, with tens of thousands of contracts and billions of user visits, (2) the unpredictability of user behavior, since these contracts are sold months ahead of time, when only a forecast of user visits is available and (3) the minute amount of resources available online, as an ad server must respond with a matching contract in a fraction of a second. We present a solution to the guaranteed delivery ad serving problem using {\\em compact allocation plans}. These plans, computed offl...

  1. Network channel allocation and revenue maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki

    2002-09-01

    This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.

  2. Intra-plant cost allocation; Innerbetriebliche Leistungsverrechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berroth, M. [Pfalzwerke AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Briem, G. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Filser, M. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Funke, R. [Stadtwerke Braunschweig GmbH (Germany); Hecker, W.; Woelfing, P. [Gedos Wuerzburg (Germany); Kaldewei, R. [Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen A.G. (VEW), Dortmund (Germany); Paptistella, R. (Staedtische Werke Nuernberg); Ries, P. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany); Stehli, H. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaets-Werke e.V. (VDEW),Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wachter, K. [EnBW Energie AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Zinser, E. [Mannheimer Versorgungs- und Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH (MVV), Mannheim (Germany)

    1999-12-13

    Since the introduction of competitive structures like profit centers in electric utilities as marketers in the liberalized energy sector, there is inceasing demand for business management methods and tools for valuation and control of corporate and departmental output of goods and services in particular. The author gives a step-by-step survey of activities to be taken for establishing a system of intra-plant cost allocation in an electric utility, as a basis for preparation of the statement of operating results of the profit centers, and as a measure intended to make the utility fit for the increasingly competitive market environment. (orig./CB) [German] Durch die Einfuehrung von Wettbewerbselementen wie interner Profitcenter bei Stromversorgungsunternehmen waechst der Bedarf an betriebswirtschaftlichen Methoden und Instrumenten zur Bewertung und Steuerung der internen Leistungserstellung, besonders der Dienstleistungen. Die Verfasser erlaeutern in anschaulichen Schritten die Voraussetzungen und Anwendungsbereiche der Innerbetrieblichen Leistungsverrechnung. Wichtige Aspekte sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Steigerung der Motivation und des Verantwortungsbewusstseins der Leistungserbringer. Die Innerbetriebliche Leistungsverrechnung bildet die Grundlage fuer die Ergebnisrechnung interner Profitcenter und bereitet ueber die Nutzung interner Maerkte auf eine verschaerfte Wettbewerbssituation in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft vor. (orig.)

  3. Predicting Component Failures Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA is a statistical topic model that has been widely used to abstract semantic information from software source code. Failure refers to an observable error in the program behavior. This work investigates whether semantic information and failures recorded in the history can be used to predict component failures. We use LDA to abstract topics from source code and a new metric (topic failure density is proposed by mapping failures to these topics. Exploring the basic information of topics from neighboring versions of a system, we obtain a similarity matrix. Multiply the Topic Failure Density (TFD by the similarity matrix to get the TFD of the next version. The prediction results achieve an average 77.8% agreement with the real failures by considering the top 3 and last 3 components descending ordered by the number of failures. We use the Spearman coefficient to measure the statistical correlation between the actual and estimated failure rate. The validation results range from 0.5342 to 0.8337 which beats the similar method. It suggests that our predictor based on similarity of topics does a fine job of component failure prediction.

  4. Resource Allocation Planning Helper (RALPH): Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.; Springer, Joe B.

    1990-01-01

    The current task of Resource Allocation Process includes the planning and apportionment of JPL's Ground Data System composed of the Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center facilities. The addition of the data driven, rule based planning system, RALPH, has expanded the planning horizon from 8 weeks to 10 years and has resulted in large labor savings. Use of the system has also resulted in important improvements in science return through enhanced resource utilization. In addition, RALPH has been instrumental in supporting rapid turn around for an increased volume of special what if studies. The status of RALPH is briefly reviewed and important lessons learned from the creation of an highly functional design team are focused on through an evolutionary design and implementation period in which an AI shell was selected, prototyped, and ultimately abandoned, and through the fundamental changes to the very process that spawned the tool kit. Principal topics include proper integration of software tools within the planning environment, transition from prototype to delivered to delivered software, changes in the planning methodology as a result of evolving software capabilities and creation of the ability to develop and process generic requirements to allow planning flexibility.

  5. Dynamic Channel Allocation in Sectored Cellular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is known that dynamic channel assignment(DCA) strategy outperforms the fixed channel assignment(FCA) strategy in omni-directional antenna cellular systems. One of the most important methods used in DCA was channel borrowing. But with the emergence of cell sectorization and spatial division multiple access(SDMA) which are used to increase the capacity of cellular systems, the channel assignment faces a series of new problems. In this paper, a dynamic channel allocation scheme based on sectored cellular systems is proposed. By introducing intra-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring sectors) and inter-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring cells) methods, previous DCA strategies, including compact pattern based channel borrowing(CPCB) and greedy based dynamic channel assignment(GDCA) schemes proposed by the author, are improved significantly. The computer simulation shows that either intra-cell borrowing scheme or inter-cell borrowing scheme is efficient enough to uniform and non-uniform traffic service distributions.

  6. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  7. Submodular Cost Allocation Problem and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chekuri, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    We study the Minimum Submodular-Cost Allocation problem (MSCA). In this problem we are given a finite ground set $V$ and $k$ non-negative submodular set functions $f_1 ,..., f_k$ on $V$. The objective is to partition $V$ into $k$ (possibly empty) sets $A_1 ,..., A_k$ such that the sum $\\sum_{i=1}^k f_i(A_i)$ is minimized. Several well-studied problems such as the non-metric facility location problem, multiway-cut in graphs and hypergraphs, and uniform metric labeling and its generalizations can be shown to be special cases of MSCA. In this paper we consider a convex-programming relaxation obtained via the Lov\\'asz-extension for submodular functions. This allows us to understand several previous relaxations and rounding procedures in a unified fashion and also develop new formulations and approximation algorithms for several problems. In particular, we give a $(1.5 - 1/k)$-approximation for the hypergraph multiway partition problem. We also give a $\\min\\{2(1-1/k), H_{\\Delta}\\}$-approximation for the hypergraph...

  8. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  9. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  10. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  11. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters may provide information about individual quality to a partner, which may use it during parental care to strategically allocate resources to the current breeding attempt (Differential Allocation Hypothesis). Differential allocation by females has been demonstrated for a...

  12. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality operates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard D; Kapranas, Apostolos; Hardy, Ian C W

    2016-11-01

    Optimal sex allocation theory is one of the most intricately developed areas of evolutionary ecology. Under a range of conditions, particularly under population sub-division, selection favours sex being allocated to offspring non-randomly, generating non-binomial variances of offspring group sex ratios. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation is complicated by stochastic developmental mortality, as offspring sex can often only be identified on maturity with the sex of non-maturing offspring remaining unknown. We show that current approaches for detecting non-binomiality have limited ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality has occurred. We present a new procedure using an explicit model of sex allocation and mortality and develop a Bayesian model selection approach (available as an R package). We use the double and multiplicative binomial distributions to model over- and under-dispersed sex allocation and show how to calculate Bayes factors for comparing these alternative models to the null hypothesis of binomial sex allocation. The ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation is greatly increased, particularly in cases where mortality is common. The use of Bayesian methods allows for the quantification of the evidence in favour of each hypothesis, and our modelling approach provides an improved descriptive capability over existing approaches. We use a simulation study to demonstrate substantial improvements in power for detecting non-binomial sex allocation in situations where current methods fail, and we illustrate the approach in real scenarios using empirically obtained datasets on the sexual composition of groups of gregarious parasitoid wasps.

  13. Community-aware task allocation for social networked multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanyuan; Jiang, Yichuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel community-aware task allocation model for social networked multiagent systems (SN-MASs), where the agent' cooperation domain is constrained in community and each agent can negotiate only with its intracommunity member agents. Under such community-aware scenarios, we prove that it remains NP-hard to maximize system overall profit. To solve this problem effectively, we present a heuristic algorithm that is composed of three phases: 1) task selection: select the desirable task to be allocated preferentially; 2) allocation to community: allocate the selected task to communities based on a significant task-first heuristics; and 3) allocation to agent: negotiate resources for the selected task based on a nonoverlap agent-first and breadth-first resource negotiation mechanism. Through the theoretical analyses and experiments, the advantages of our presented heuristic algorithm and community-aware task allocation model are validated. 1) Our presented heuristic algorithm performs very closely to the benchmark exponential brute-force optimal algorithm and the network flow-based greedy algorithm in terms of system overall profit in small-scale applications. Moreover, in the large-scale applications, the presented heuristic algorithm achieves approximately the same overall system profit, but significantly reduces the computational load compared with the greedy algorithm. 2) Our presented community-aware task allocation model reduces the system communication cost compared with the previous global-aware task allocation model and improves the system overall profit greatly compared with the previous local neighbor-aware task allocation model.

  14. Utility-based bandwidth allocation algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Rong; WANG XiuJuan; CHEN QianBin; SVENSSON Tommy

    2013-01-01

    In next generation wireless network (NGWN), mobile users are capable of connecting to the core network through various heterogeneous wireless access networks, such as cellular network, wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN), wireless local area network (WLAN), and ad hoc network. NGWN is expected to provide high-bandwidth connectivity with guaranteed quality-of-service to mobile users in a seamless manner; however, this desired function demands seamless coordination of the heterogeneous radio access network (RAN) technologies. In recent years, some researches have been conducted to design radio resource management (RRM) architectures and algorithms for NGWN; however, few studies stress the problem of joint network performance optimization, which is an essential goal for a cooperative service providing scenario. Furthermore, while some authors consider the competition among the service providers, the QoS requirements of users and the resource competition within access networks are not fully considered. In this paper, we present an interworking integrated network architecture, which is responsible for monitoring the status information of different radio access technologies (RATs) and executing the resource allocation algorithm. Within this architecture, the problem of joint bandwidth allocation for heterogeneous integrated networks is formulated based on utility function theory and bankruptcy game theory. The proposed bandwidth allocation scheme comprises two successive stages, i.e., service bandwidth allocation and user bandwidth allocation. At the service bandwidth allocation stage, the optimal amount of bandwidth for different types of services in each network is allocated based on the criterion of joint utility maximization. At the user bandwidth allocation stage, the service bandwidth in each network is optimally allocated among users in the network according to bankruptcy game theory. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of

  15. Competition for export markets and the allocation of foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    We account for competition for export markets among donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. Employing sector-specific aid data, we find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods...... and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  16. A Novel Subcarrier Allocation Algorithm for MC-CDMA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyman, Muhammet Nuri; Saçakli, Bircan

    2016-09-01

    Multi carrier modulation techniques such as MC-CDMA are used in high-speed communication applications. Due to MC-CDMA being a multiuser in technology, the subcarrier quantity allocated per user decreases in case the quantity of active users increases. Consequently, data rates per user are reduced with the increase in the bit error rate (BER). Efficient allocation of subcarriers to users within the system can aid the overcoming of this problem. This study develops a new algorithm for subcarrier allocation and system performance improvement in terms of BER, and data rates in comparison to other algorithms were ensured.

  17. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  18. A new network losses allocation method in deregulated environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-min; HOU Zhi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Network losses allocation is one of the major problems in the market environment. The quadric function of the injected nodal power is used in this paper as a representation for network losses, which are allocated fairly using the called market equilibrium principle while the bidding curves are corrected. The power market equilibrium is simulated as three different models that can be solved simply by the optimal power flow algorithm combining the generation scheduling problem with network losses allocation. The case study is made at an IEEE-30 nodes system and a perfect result is proved in this paper.

  19. Optimal resource allocation in random networks with transportation bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C. H.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2009-03-01

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random sparse networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. Recursive relations from the Bethe approximation are converted into useful algorithms. Bottlenecks emerge when the bandwidths are small, causing an increase in the fraction of idle links. For a given total bandwidth per node, the efficiency of allocation increases with the network connectivity. In the high connectivity limit, we find a phase transition at a critical bandwidth, above which clusters of balanced nodes appear, characterized by a profile of homogenized resource allocation similar to the Maxwell construction.

  20. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  1. RESSOURCES ALLOCATION POSSIBILITIES WITHIN HEALTH SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Liliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The state policy in the health care area must take into account the complexity and specificity of the domain. Health means not only “to treat”, but also “to prevent” and “to recover and rehabilitate the individual physically”. Regardless of the adopted health insurance system, the health system is facing a big problem and this is the insufficient funds necessary to function properly. The underfunding may have various causes, from a wrong health policy, based on “treating” instead of “preventing”, by the misuse of funds. This papers intended to formulate assumptions that underpin the research I am conducting within the Doctoral Research Program held at the Valahia University of Targoviste, which aims at using the management control in increasing the health services performance. The application of the accounting and management control methods in determining health costs can be a beginning to streamline the system. This is also a result of the fact that health care is a public service with specific characteristics: it can not be subject only to market requirements but at the same time he must undergo an administrative savings, representing a typical case of market failure. The increased cost of treatment, as well as the decline in their quality can be determined by the discrepancy between the funding and payment mechanisms. Different payment systems currently available do nothing but perpetuate the shortcomings in the system. Switching to the introduction of cost and budgets by cost centers or object (if solved can be a step forward for a better management of resources. In this context, we consider as a necessity to be imposed the cost analysis on responsibility centers, the definition of the cost object and cost center identification and determination of direct costs and those indirect services to choose the basis for the allocation of cost centers and the determination of each actual cost per diagnosis.

  2. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (ii) Promotion of conservation. Numerous methods of allocating fishing privileges are considered... mix, price, or economic or social benefit of the product. To the extent that rebuilding plans or...

  3. Theory and model of water resources complex adaptive allocation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJianshi; WANGZhongjing; WENGWenbin

    2003-01-01

    Complex adaptive system theory is a new and important embranchment of system science,which provides a new thought to research water resources allocation system.Based on the analysis of complexity and complex adaptive mechanism of water resources allocation system,a fire-new analysis model is presented in this paper.With the description of Dynamical mechanism of system,behavior characters of agents and the evalustion method of system status,an integrity research system is built to analyse the evolvement rule of water resources allocation system.And a brief research for the impact of water resources allocation in beneficial regions of the Water Transfer from south to North China Project is conducted.

  4. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter;

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  5. An algorithm for earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ren-chao; LIU Jin-fei

    2008-01-01

    For solving the optimization model of earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors, a hybrid al-gorithm combined with the ant algorithm (AA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed in this pa-per. Then the proposed method and the LP method are used respectively in solving a linear allocation model of a high rockfill dam project. Results obtained by these two methods are compared each other. It can be conclu-ded that the solution got by the proposed method is extremely approximate to the analytic solution of LP method. The superiority of the proposed method over the LP method in solving a non-linear allocation model is illustrated by a non-linear case. Moreover, further researches on improvement of the algorithm and the allocation model are addressed.

  6. A Distributed Cooperative Power Allocation Method for Campus Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Sun, Yannan; Carroll, Thomas E.; Somani, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    We propose a coordination algorithm for cooperative power allocation among a collection of commercial buildings within a campus. We introduced thermal and power models of a typical commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system, and utilize model predictive control to characterize their power flexibility. The power allocation problem is formulated as a cooperative game using the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) concept, in which buildings collectively maximize the product of their utilities subject to their local flexibility constraints and a total power limit set by the campus coordinator. To solve the optimal allocation problem, a distributed protocol is designed using dual decomposition of the Nash bargaining problem. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed allocation method

  7. Aid allocation, selectivity, and the quality of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad In’airat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of good governance in the economic growth and development agenda in the last two decades, along with the failure of aid conditionality to produce positive growth results, motivated expost selectivity instead of the ex-ante conditionality as a new approach to aid allocation. This paper aims to explore whether aid selectivity on the basis of the quality of governance is employed as a criterion in foreign aid allocation. The paper uses different instrumental variables as estimators to analyze the determinants of aid allocation over the period 2001-2010. The results produced strong evidence that countries with good governance are given preferential treatment by donors. Among the six governance indicators, it seems that voice and accountability and control of corruption are critical in the aid allocation decision.

  8. On the Benefit of Virtualization: Strategies for Flexible Server Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Dushyant; Schaffrath, Gregor; Schmid, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization technology facilitates a dynamic, demand-driven allocation and migration of servers. This paper studies how the flexibility offered by network virtualization can be used to improve Quality-of-Service parameters such as latency, while taking into account allocation costs. A generic use case is considered where both the overall demand issued for a certain service (for example, an SAP application in the cloud, or a gaming application accessed) as well as the origins of the requests change over time (e.g., due to time zone effects or due to user mobility), and we present online and optimal offline strategies to compute the number and location of the servers implementing this service. These algorithms also allow us to study the fundamental benefits of dynamic resource allocation compared to static systems. Our simulation results confirm our expectations that the gain of flexible server allocation is particularly high in scenarios with moderate dynamics.

  9. Hybrid Heuristic Approaches for Tactical Berth Allocation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Larsen, Allan; Pacino, Dario;

    Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid ine...... inequalities. And, we propose a hybrid heuristic which combines MM with greedy and search heuristics. Results show that problem can be solved efficiently respect to optimality and computational time.......Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid...

  10. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a... comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable adjustment program; or (B) Whether...

  11. Dynamic computing resource allocation in online flood monitoring and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, S.; Podhoranyi, M.; Vavrik, R.; Portero, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents tools and methodologies for dynamic allocation of high performance computing resources during operation of the Floreon+ online flood monitoring and prediction system. The resource allocation is done throughout the execution of supported simulations to meet the required service quality levels for system operation. It also ensures flexible reactions to changing weather and flood situations, as it is not economically feasible to operate online flood monitoring systems in the full performance mode during non-flood seasons. Different service quality levels are therefore described for different flooding scenarios, and the runtime manager controls them by allocating only minimal resources currently expected to meet the deadlines. Finally, an experiment covering all presented aspects of computing resource allocation in rainfall-runoff and Monte Carlo uncertainty simulation is performed for the area of the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic.

  12. DETERMININGS OF FARM WORK ALLOCATION IN BRAZILIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.

  13. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  14. Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog

    operations is imperative for the viability and continued development of both individual airports and the air transportation industry in general. This thesis gives a general introduction to the management of airport operations. It describes the main airport processes and optimization problems...... that these processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation...... to generate appropriate initial variables, enabling the heuristic to efficiently find near-optimal and operationally valid solutions. The work described in this thesis was carried out in the context of an Industrial PhD project at Copenhagen Airport in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark...

  15. Resource Allocation Among Agents with MDP-Induced Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, D A; 10.1613/jair.2102

    2011-01-01

    Allocating scarce resources among agents to maximize global utility is, in general, computationally challenging. We focus on problems where resources enable agents to execute actions in stochastic environments, modeled as Markov decision processes (MDPs), such that the value of a resource bundle is defined as the expected value of the optimal MDP policy realizable given these resources. We present an algorithm that simultaneously solves the resource-allocation and the policy-optimization problems. This allows us to avoid explicitly representing utilities over exponentially many resource bundles, leading to drastic (often exponential) reductions in computational complexity. We then use this algorithm in the context of self-interested agents to design a combinatorial auction for allocating resources. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by showing that it can, in minutes, optimally solve problems for which a straightforward combinatorial resource-allocation technique would require the ag...

  16. Dynamic task-allocation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Tim

    This dissertation addresses improvements to a consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments. Research in the past has led to many centralized task allocation algorithms where a central computation unit is calculating the global optimum task allocation solution. The centralized algorithms are plagued by creating a single point of failure and the bandwidth needed for creating consistent and accurate situational awareness off all agents. This work will extend upon a widely researched decentralized task assignment algorithm based on the consensus principle. Although many extensions have led to improvements of the original algorithm, there is still much opportunity for improvement in providing sufficient and reliable task assignments in real-world dynamic conditions and changing environments. This research addresses practical changes made to the consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments.

  17. Analysis of national allocation plans for the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Nilsson, Kristina; Aahman, Markus; Kumlin, Anna-Sofia; Birgersdotter, Lena

    2004-08-01

    The EU ETS is a Community-wide scheme established by Directive 2003/87/EC for trading allowances to cover the emissions of greenhouse gases from permitted installations. The first phase of the EU ETS runs from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. Each Member State must develop a National Allocation Plan for the first phase stating: the total quantity of allowances that the Member State intends to issue during that phase; and how it proposes to distribute those allowances among the installations which are subject to the scheme In this paper twelve of the national allocation plans have been analysed and compared to the criteria stated in the EU Directive. The twelve allocation plans analysed are: the Austrian, the Danish, the Finnish, the German, the Irish, the Lithuanian, the Luxembourg, the Dutch, the Swedish, the British and the draft Flemish (Belgium) and Portuguese. Generally most countries have allocated generously to the trading sector. The allocation has often been based on future needs. For most sectors the allocation is higher than current emissions. Many countries will have to make large reductions in the non-trading sector and/or buy credits through JI- and CDM-projects in order to fulfil their commitment according to the EU burden sharing agreement of the Kyoto Protocol. In many of the allocation plans the emission reducing measures in the non-trading sector is poorly described and the credibility of the measures are hard to determine. Two sectors have been analysed in more detail, the energy and the mineral oil refining sectors. Figures presenting allocation vs. current emissions for those sectors are given for those countries where data was available in the allocation plan. The energy sector has been considered to have the best possibilities to pass on costs for the allowances to the consumers and hence the allocation to this sector is often more restricted than the allocation to other sectors. The mineral oil refining sector is more exposed to

  18. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  19. Hierarchical Resource Allocation in Femtocell Networks using Graph Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sadr, Sanam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical approach to resource allocation in open-access femtocell networks. The major challenge in femtocell networks is interference management which in our system, based on the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard, translates to which user should be allocated which physical resource block (or fraction thereof) from which femtocell access point (FAP). The globally optimal solution requires integer programming and is mathematically intractable. We propose a hierarchical three-stage solution: first, the load of each FAP is estimated considering the number of users connected to the FAP, their average channel gain and required data rates. Second, based on each FAP's load, the physical resource blocks (PRBs) are allocated to FAPs in a manner that minimizes the interference by coloring the modified interference graph. Finally, the resource allocation is performed at each FAP considering users' instantaneous channel gain. The two major advantages of this suboptimal approach are the significa...

  20. Allocating Internal Audit Resources for Fraud Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Mieke; Lybaert, Nadine; Vanhoof, Koen

    2008-01-01

    Corporate fraud these days represents a huge cost to our economy. To counter this cost, organizations allocate lots of resources in terms of internal audit. Mostly, these audits are performed at a random sample of observations. This paper provides a methodology to help allocating efforts of internal audit more efficiently. Academic literature concerning fraud detection already concentrated on how data mining techniques can be of value in the fight against fraud. In this paper w...

  1. Exploring coordinated software and hardware support for hardware resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Boneti, Carlos Santieri de

    2009-01-01

    Multithreaded processors are now common in the industry as they offer high performance at a low cost. Traditionally, in such processors, the assignation of hardware resources between the multiple threads is done implicitly, by the hardware policies. However, a new class of multithreaded hardware allows the explicit allocation of resources to be controlled or biased by the software. Currently, there is little or no coordination between the allocation of resources done by the hardware and the p...

  2. The Dynamic Model of Allocation Control in Venture Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zeng-rui

    2008-01-01

    The allocation of control and stock in venture capital is the key point of the venture capital project. This paper develops a dynamic model of control and stock and profoundly analyses how to allocate the control between the entrepreneur and the venture capitalist. The model reveals the relationship of control and stock's structure, the time and the degree of imparting the control to the entrepreneur or the venture capitalist, the condition of retracting the control and compensation accordingly.

  3. Models for the discrete berth allocation problem: A computational comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation pr...... problem, improve the performance of one model, and, through extensive numerical tests, compare all models from a computational perspective. The results indicate that a generalized set-partitioning model outperforms all other existing models....

  4. Optimizing the Allocation of Material Flow in a Logistics System

    OpenAIRE

    Tanka Milkova

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of the optimum allocation of material flow in a logistics system, the author’s proposition being that the allocation and movement of the material flow in a logistics system can be rationalized, based on the use of special approaches and techniques. There is presented the economic formulation of the problem and is constructed the economic and mathematical model ensuring the movement of the material flow in a logistics system at minimum cost of its transporta...

  5. A marginal revenue equilibrium model for spatial water allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劲峰; 刘昌明; 王智勇; 于静洁

    2002-01-01

    The outside water is transported into the water-shorted area. It is allocated among many sub-areas that composed the water-shorted area, in order to maximize the total benefit from the input water for the areas. This paper presents a model for spatial water allocation based on the marginal revenue of water utilization, taking the six southern districts of Hebei Province as an example.

  6. Redefining the Australian Army Officer Corps Allocation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    segment will be a literary review of the trends related to officer corps allocation. It will examine what methods other developed countries are using...segment will review the current Australian corps allocation process. It will evaluate alternate methods for maximizing cadet preferences whilst also...RAAC RAINF RAA 1 7 AAAVN AAAVN RAINF RAAC RAEME 1 8 AACC AACC RACT RAAMC RAAOC 1 9 AACC AACC RASIGS RACT RAAOC 1 10 AUSTINT AUSTINT RAE RAEME RACT

  7. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L van Eck

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary focus here is the method used in South Africa, namely the largest remainder method with a Droop quota. It is shown that as the number of parties increases, the number of lost votes (votes not used to allocate seats increases when using this method. Other existing allocation methods are discussed and compared with each other as well as with three optimisation methods (based on mathematical programming introduced in this paper. Applying these mathematical programming methods results in allocations that are more fair than the existing methods of seat allocation, if South African voting data are used. These mathematical models attempt to minimise a number of different measures of the deviation between the actual percentage of votes received and the percentage of seats allocated to a certain party. Ideally this deviation should be zero, but due to the discrete nature of seats this is virtually impossible to achieve.

  8. Unexpected Patterns of Plastic Energy Allocation in Stochastic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Barbara; Taborsky, Barbara; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    When environmental conditions vary stochastically, individuals accrue fitness benefits by exhibiting phenotypic plasticity. Here we analyze a general dynamic-programming model describing an individual’s optimal energy allocation in a stochastic environment. After maturation, individuals repeatedly decide how to allocate incoming energy between reproduction and maintenance. We analyze the optimal fraction of energy invested in reproduction and the resultant degree of plasticity in dependence on environmental variability and predictability. Our analyses reveal unexpected patterns of optimal energy allocation. When energy availability is low, all energy is allocated to reproduction, although this implies that individuals will not survive after reproduction. Above a certain threshold of energy availability, the optimal reproductive investment decreases to a minimum and even vanishes entirely in highly variable environments. With further improving energy availability, optimal reproductive investment gradually increases again. Costs of plasticity affect this allocation pattern only quantitatively. Our results show that optimal reproductive investment does not increase monotonically with growing energy availability and that small changes in energy availability can lead to major variations in optimal energy allocation. Our results help to unify two apparently opposing predictions from life-history theory, that organisms should increase reproductive investment both with improved environmental conditions and when conditions deteriorate (“terminal investment”). PMID:19196158

  9. An improved approach of register allocation via graph coloring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Shi, Ce

    2005-03-01

    Register allocation is an important part of optimizing compiler. The algorithm of register allocation via graph coloring is implemented by Chaitin and his colleagues firstly and improved by Briggs and others. By abstracting register allocation to graph coloring, the allocation process is simplified. As the physical register number is limited, coloring of the interference graph can"t succeed for every node. The uncolored nodes must be spilled. There is an assumption that almost all the allocation method obeys: when a register is allocated to a variable v, it can"t be used by others before v quit even if v is not used for a long time. This may causes a waste of register resource. The authors relax this restriction under certain conditions and make some improvement. In this method, one register can be mapped to two or more interfered "living" live ranges at the same time if they satisfy some requirements. An operation named merge is defined which can arrange two interfered nodes occupy the same register with some cost. Thus, the resource of register can be used more effectively and the cost of memory access can be reduced greatly.

  10. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  11. Intertemporal Resource Allocation and Income Tax Evasion Intertemporal Resource Allocation and Income Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Schenone

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertemporal Resource Allocation and Income Tax Evasion The discrimination again a saving, in favour of present consumption, due to the income tar has been studied, at least, since the late thirties and was mentioned by John Stuart Mill more than a century ago.This paper is concerned with the effect of evading such a tax on the discrimination against savings and capital accumulation. In particular, we want to study a situation in which the probability of detecting an evader is an increasing function of his accumulated evasion in the past. This is consistent with the tax authorities being stricter in the control of taxpayers with a relatively high net wealth, with respect lo the incomes declared.

  12. Allocation of nutrients to somatic tissues in young ovariectomized grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Evan T; Hatle, John D; Drewry, Michelle D; Wessels, Frank J; Hahn, Daniel A

    2010-11-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma "relative" to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of ¹³C and ¹⁵N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  13. A Generalization of the Aumann-Shapley Value for Risk Capital Allocation Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Norde, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes risk capital allocation problems. For risk capital allocation problems, the aim is to allocate the risk capital of a firm to its divisions. Risk capital allocation is of central importance in risk-based performance measurement. We consider a case in which the aggregate

  14. 7 CFR 761.204 - Methods of allocating funds to State Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs... allocated to State Offices using one or more of the following allocation methods: (a) Formula allocation, if data, as specified in § 761.205, is available to use the formula for the State. (b)...

  15. Optimal Register Allocation by Augmented Left-Edge Algorithm on Arbitrary Control-Flow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruvald Pedersen, Mark; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm for optimal register allocation in context of high-level synthesis is presented. In this paper we show how the greedy left-edge algorithm can be leveraged to obtain a globally optimal allocation, that is computed in polynomial time. By splitting variables at block boundaries, allows...... for allocation to be done using only quasi-local and local allocation - avoiding the complexity of true global allocation. As local allocation is much simpler than global allocation, this approach emphasizes efficiency and ease of implementation - at a cost of an increased number of register transfers compared...

  16. Supply chain carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation under emission regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Xiao; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an enormous challenge for any single enterprise and its supply chain because of the increasing concern on global warming. This paper investigates carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation for supply chains involved in joint production. Our study is conducted from the perspective of a social planner who aims to achieve social value optimization. The carbon footprinting model is based on operational activities rather than on firms because joint production blurs the organizational boundaries of footprints. A general model is proposed for responsibility allocation among firms who seek to maximize individual profits. This study looks into ways for the decentralized supply chain to achieve centralized optimality of social value under two emission regulations. Given a balanced allocation for the entire supply chain, we examine the necessity of over-allocation to certain firms under specific situations and find opportunities for the firms to avoid over-allocation. The comparison of the two regulations reveals that setting an emission standard per unit of product will motivate firms to follow the standard and improve their emission efficiencies. Hence, a more efficient and promising policy is needed in contrast to existing regulations on total production.

  17. Water allocation for agriculture complex terrain under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putu Santikayasa, I.; Perdinan; Basit, Rizki Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The current water resources management in Indonesia requires the government to pay more attention on sustainable water management. Agriculture as the highest water demand in the country need better water management as the impact of future changing climate. Furthermore, the water managers as well as policy makers may require integrating the climate change assessment into water resources allocation policy and management. Agropolitan in Malang district, East java – Indonesia is an agriculture which is characterized by complex agricultural system and was assigned as a case study. The supply-demand water allocation approach was applied on allocating water to different water users under current and future climatic condition. Both climate and the changing nature of water demand have affected the development and evolution of water allocation. The result shows that the water supply is expected to decrease under future climate comparing with the current condition. Furthermore, it is required to incorporate the future climate information on design the future water policy and management to reduce the adverse impact of changing climate. This study also suggested policy actions as recommendation to better manage current climate variability as well as future uncertainty from climate change impacts on water allocation and resources management.

  18. Process Completing Sequences for Resource Allocation Systems with Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Foh Chew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of establishing live resource allocation in workflows with synchronization stages. Establishing live resource allocation in this class of systems is challenging since deciding whether a given level of resource capacities is sufficient to complete a single process is NP-complete. In this paper, we develop two necessary conditions and one sufficient condition that provide quickly computable tests for the existence of process completing sequences. The necessary conditions are based on the sequence of completions of subprocesses that merge together at a synchronization. Although the worst case complexity is O(2, we expect the number of subprocesses combined at any synchronization will be sufficiently small so that total computation time remains manageable. The sufficient condition uses a reduction scheme that computes a sufficient capacity level of each resource type to complete and merge all subprocesses. The worst case complexity is O(⋅, where is the number of synchronizations. Finally, the paper develops capacity bounds and polynomial methods for generating feasible resource allocation sequences for merging systems with single unit allocation. This method is based on single step look-ahead for deadly marked siphons and is O(2. Throughout the paper, we use a class of Petri nets called Generalized Augmented Marked Graphs to represent our resource allocation systems.

  19. Media-specific rate allocation in heterogeneous wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JURCA Dan; FROSSARD Pascal

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of joint path selection and rate allocation in multipath wireless streaming, in order to optimize a media specific quality of service. We leverage on the existence of multiple parallel wireless services, in order to enhance the received video quality at a wireless client. An optimization problem is proposed, aimed at minimizing a video distortion metric based on sequence-dependent parameters, and transmission channel characteristics, for a given wireless network infrastructure.Even if joint optimal path selection and rate allocation is in general an NP complete problem, an in-depth analysis of the media distortion evolution allows defining a low complexity optimal streaming strategy, under reasonable network assumptions. In particular, we show that a greedy allocation of rates along paths with increasing error probability leads to an optimal solution. We argue that a network path should not be chosen for transmission, unless all other available paths with lower error probability have been chosen. Moreover, the chosen paths should be used at their maximum end-to-end bandwidth. These results are demonstrated for both independent network paths, and non-disjoint channel segments, in generic network topologies. Simulation results showed that the optimal rate allocation carefully trades off total encoding/transmission rate, with the end-to-end transmission error probability and the number of chosen paths. In many cases, the optimal rate allocation provides more than 20% improvement in received video quality, compared to heuristic-based algorithms.

  20. Quantifying and understanding reproductive allocation schedules in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Elizabeth Hedi; Falster, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A plant's reproductive allocation (RA) schedule describes the fraction of surplus energy allocated to reproduction as it increases in size. While theorists use RA schedules as the connection between life history and energy allocation, little is known about RA schedules in real vegetation. Here we review what is known about RA schedules for perennial plants using studies either directly quantifying RA or that collected data from which the shape of an RA schedule can be inferred. We also briefly review theoretical models describing factors by which variation in RA may arise. We identified 34 studies from which aspects of an RA schedule could be inferred. Within those, RA schedules varied considerably across species: some species abruptly shift all resources from growth to reproduction; most others gradually shift resources into reproduction, but under a variety of graded schedules. Available data indicate the maximum fraction of energy allocated to production ranges from 0.1 to 1 and that shorter lived species tend to have higher initial RA and increase their RA more quickly than do longer-lived species. Overall, our findings indicate, little data exist about RA schedules in perennial plants. Available data suggest a wide range of schedules across species. Collection of more data on RA schedules would enable a tighter integration between observation and a variety of models predicting optimal energy allocation, plant growth rates, and biogeochemical cycles.

  1. Allocation of Transmission Cost Using Power Flow Tracing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the open access restructured power system market, it is necessary to develop an appropriate pricing scheme that can provide the useful economic information to market participants, such as generation, transmission companies and customers. Though many methods have already been proposed, but accurately estimating and allocating the transmission cost in the transmission pricing scheme is still a challenging task. This work addresses the problem of allocating the cost of the transmission network to generators and demands. In this work four methods using DC Power flow and AC power flow have been attempted. They are MW-Mile Method, MVA-Mile Method, GGDF method and Bialek Tracing method.MVA-Mile method and Bialek Tracing method applies AC power flow and considers apparent power flows. The purpose of the present work is to allocate the cost pertaining to the transmission lines of the network to all the generators and demands. A load flow solution is run and, the proposed method determines how line flows depend on nodal currents. This result is then used to allocate network costs to generators and demands. The technique presented in this work is related to the allocation of the cost to GENCO‘s TRANSCO‘s and DISCO‘s. A technique for tracing the flow of electricity of lines among generators with GGDF and Bialek upstream looking algorithm is proposed. With these methods correct economic signals are generated for all players. All these methods are tested on IEEE 14 bus system

  2. Resource pooling for frameless network architecture with adaptive resource allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XiaoDong; WANG Da; TAO XiaoFeng; SVENSSON Tommy

    2013-01-01

    The system capacity for future mobile communication needs to be increased to fulfill the emerging requirements of mobile services and innumerable applications. The cellular topology has for long been regarded as the most promising way to provide the required increase in capacity. However with the emerging densification of cell deployments, the traditional cellular structure limits the efficiency of the resource, and the coordination between different types of base stations is more complicated and entails heavy cost. Consequently, this study proposes frameless network architecture (FNA) to release the cell boundaries, enabling the topology needed to implement the FNA resource allocation strategy. This strategy is based on resource pooling incorporating a new resource dimension-antenna/antenna array. Within this architecture, an adaptive resource allocation method based on genetic algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution for the multi-dimensional resource allocation problem. Maximum throughput and proportional fair resource allocation criteria are considered. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture and resource allocation method can achieve performance gains for both criteria with a relatively low complexity compared to existing schemes.

  3. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-03-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  4. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  5. Bankruptcy Problem Allocations and the Core of Convex Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Olvera-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-known result related to bankruptcy problems establishes that a vector is a bankruptcy allocation if and only if it belongs to the core of the associated O’Neill’s bankruptcy game. In this paper we show that this game is precisely the unique TU-game based on convex functions that satisfies the previous result. In addition, given a bankruptcy problem, we show a way for constructing bankruptcy games such that the set of bankruptcy allocations is a subset of their core or their core is a subset of the set of bankruptcy allocations. Also, we show how these results can be applied for finding new bankruptcy solutions.

  6. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M.; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions.

  7. Weighted Max-Min Resource Allocation for Frequency Selective Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zehavi, Ephi; Levanda, Ronny; Han, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the computation of weighted max-min rate allocation using joint TDM/FDM strategies under a PSD mask constraint. We show that the weighted max-min solution allocates the rates according to a predetermined rate ratio defined by the weights, a fact that is very valuable for telecommunication service providers. Furthermore, we show that the problem can be efficiently solved using linear programming. We also discuss the resource allocation problem in the mixed services scenario where certain users have a required rate, while the others have flexible rate requirements. The solution is relevant to many communication systems that are limited by a power spectral density mask constraint such as WiMax, Wi-Fi and UWB.

  8. CAPACITY ALLOCATION IN A COMPETITIVE MULTI-CHANNEL SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaijun LIU; Zigang ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the capacity allocation problem for a capacitated manufacturer who can distribute her product to the end customers through an independent retailer channel as well as through her direct channel. Demands of the channels are substitutable, which induces competition between them. We show that to avoid channel competition, it is possible for the manufacturer to deny the retailer of capacity. Specifically, if channel substitution rate is high, a retailer of low demand will never be allocated any capacity even when the available capacity is ample. While, if the channel substitution rate is low, capacity allocation strategy depends on the retailer's demand and the available capacity.Many other interesting managerial insights are provided and illustrated with numerical examples.

  9. Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-02-07

    Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil.

  10. Prediction of Commuter’s Daily Time Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict the time allocation in commuters’ daily activity-travel pattern. The departure time and the arrival time are estimated with Ordered Probit model and Support Vector Regression is introduced for travel time and activity duration prediction. Applied in a real-world time allocation prediction experiment, the model system shows a satisfactory level of prediction accuracy. This study provides useful insights into commuters’ activity-travel time allocation decision by identifying the important influences, and the results are readily applied to a wide range of transportation practice, such as travel information system, by providing reliable forecast for variations in travel demand over time. By introducing the Support Vector Regression, it also makes a methodological contribution in enhancing prediction accuracy of travel time and activity duration prediction.

  11. Allocation Strategies of Virtual Resources in Cloud-Computing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Giridhar Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In distributed computing, Cloud computing facilitates pay per model as per user demand and requirement. Collection of virtual machines including both computational and storage resources will form the Cloud. In Cloud computing, the main objective is to provide efficient access to remote and geographically distributed resources. Cloud faces many challenges, one of them is scheduling/allocation problem. Scheduling refers to a set of policies to control the order of work to be performed by a computer system. A good scheduler adapts its allocation strategy according to the changing environment and the type of task. In this paper we will see FCFS, Round Robin scheduling in addition to Linear Integer Programming an approach of resource allocation.

  12. A Theoretical Assessment on Optimal Asset Allocations in Insurance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the financial markets known a rapid development and become more and more complex. So, many regulatory requirements, focused on banks as well as insurance sector, have been developed. These regulatory are concentrated essentially on business risk control and required capital to cover risks. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. This section is interested by this issue. In first time it highlights some research works in this issue. Then we will investigate the relation between Solvency and optimal asset allocation. Finally we will explore the principal used methods in modeling asset and in choosing the optimal portfolio composition.

  13. Resource Allocation for Delay Differentiated Traffic in Multiuser OFDM Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Meixia; Zhang, Fan

    2007-01-01

    Most existing work on adaptive allocation of subcarriers and power in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems has focused on homogeneous traffic consisting solely of either delay-constrained data (guaranteed service) or non-delay-constrained data (best-effort service). In this paper, we investigate the resource allocation problem in a heterogeneous multiuser OFDM system with both delay-constrained (DC) and non-delay-constrained (NDC) traffic. The objective is to maximize the sum-rate of all the users with NDC traffic while maintaining guaranteed rates for the users with DC traffic under a total transmit power constraint. Through our analysis we show that the optimal power allocation over subcarriers follows a multi-level water-filling principle; moreover, the valid candidates competing for each subcarrier include only one NDC user but all DC users. By converting this combinatorial problem with exponential complexity into a convex problem or showing that it can be solved in the dual...

  14. Optimal Sensor Allocation for Fault Detection and Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Automatic fault diagnostic schemes rely on various types of sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, vibration, etc) to measure the system parameters. Efficacy of a diagnostic scheme is largely dependent on the amount and quality of information available from these sensors. The reliability of sensors, as well as the weight, volume, power, and cost constraints, often makes it impractical to monitor a large number of system parameters. An optimized sensor allocation that maximizes the fault diagnosibility, subject to specified weight, volume, power, and cost constraints is required. Use of optimal sensor allocation strategies during the design phase can ensure better diagnostics at a reduced cost for a system incorporating a high degree of built-in testing. In this paper, we propose an approach that employs multiple fault diagnosis (MFD) and optimization techniques for optimal sensor placement for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in complex systems. Keywords: sensor allocation, multiple fault diagnosis, Lagrangian relaxation, approximate belief revision, multidimensional knapsack problem.

  15. Household time allocation – Theoretical and empirical results from Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bonke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a sample of households in 1994 we find that Danish household labour allocation choices are bestdescribed by a collective model in which decisions are made cooperatively. Individual preferences are similar butthere are important differences due to the differences in educational attainment. Households can be characterized as utilitarian with a sharing rule which depends on household income and is feminist rather than egalitarian. The allocation of tasks within the family depends on both the individuals’ comparative advantage in labour markets andindividual preferences for paid work as well as the intra-household distribution of income. These results do not require explicit assumptions about labour supply that are often employed in the household time allocation literature.

  16. An Adaptive Replica Allocation Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingZheng; JinshuSu; KanYang

    2004-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), nodes move freely and the distribution of access requests changes dynamically. Replica allocation in such a dynamic environment is a significant challenge. In this paoer, a dynamic adaptive replica allocation algorithm that can adapt to the nodes motion is proposed to minimize the communication cost of object access. When changes occur in the access requests of the object or the network topology, each replica node collects access requests from its neighbors and makes decisions locally to expand replica to neighbors or to relinquish the replica. The algorithm dynamically adapts the replica allocation scheme to a local optimal one. Simulation results show that our algorithms efficiently reduce the communication cost of object access in MANET environment.

  17. Establishing the fair allocation of international aviation carbon emission rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially unfair use of international aviation carbon emission rights in different countries, this paper presents a carbon Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient, constructed on the basis of historical cumulative international aviation CO2 emissions per capita. The study follows a methodology adapted from the research into fair income allocation. The results of these calculations show that there has been vast unfairness surrounding international aviation carbon emissions in the past, and that this unfairness has been partially hidden by a delay in accumulative start dates. A solution to this problem, allowing fair allocation of carbon emissions, is the key to building a mechanism for the reduction of global international aviation emissions. This study proposes a fair method for allocating emission rights, based on a responsibility-capacity index. Taking a goal of carbon-neutral growth by 2020 as an example, the degree of carbon emission reduction expected from different countries by 2021 is calculated using the proposed method.

  18. Thermal-Aware Task Allocation and Scheduling for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, W -L; Vijaykrishnan, N; Kandemir, M; Irwin, M J

    2011-01-01

    Temperature affects not only the reliability but also the performance, power, and cost of the embedded system. This paper proposes a thermal-aware task allocation and scheduling algorithm for embedded systems. The algorithm is used as a sub-routine for hardware/software co-synthesis to reduce the peak temperature and achieve a thermally even distribution while meeting real time constraints. The paper investigates both power-aware and thermal-aware approaches to task allocation and scheduling. The experimental results show that the thermal-aware approach outperforms the power-aware schemes in terms of maximal and average temperature reductions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first task allocation and scheduling algorithm that takes temperature into consideration.

  19. Sensing Task Allocation for Heterogeneous Channels in Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Wu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional centralized cooperative spectrum sensing, all secondary users sense the same channel. But, for a given channel, there exists detection performance diversity among all the users, due to the different signal-fading process. Involving the user with poor performance in cooperative sensing will not only deteriorate the detection correctness but also waste the sensing time. In the heterogeneous channels, the problem is even severe. A novel idea is to allocate the secondary users to sense different channels. We analyze the allocation problem before formulate it to be an optimization problem, which is a NP-hard problem. Then we propose the declined complexity algorithm in equal secondary user case and the two-hierarchy approach algorithm in unequal case. With the simulation, we verify the near optimality of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of the task allocation.

  20. Optimizing Earth Allocation for Rock-Fill Dam Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Denghua; HU Chengshun; ZHANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    An optimal allocation of earth is of great significance to reduce the project cost and duration in the construction of rock-fill dams. The earth allocation is a dynamic system affected by various time-space constraints. Based on previous studies, a new method of optimizing this dynamic system as a static one is presented. In order to build a generalized and flexible model of the problem, some man-made constraints were investigated in building the mathematic model. Linear programming and simplex method are introduced to solve the optimization problem of earth allocation. A case study in a large-scale rock-fill dam construction project is presented to demonstrate the proposed method and its successful application shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  1. Storage Allocation in Automated Container Terminals: the Upper Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjue Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays automation is a trend of container terminals all over the world. Although not applied in current automated container terminals, storage allocation is indispensable in conventional container terminals, and promising for automated container terminals in future. This paper seeks into the storage allocation problem in automated container terminals and proposed a two level structure for the problem. A mixed integer programming model is built for the upper level, and a modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is applied to solve the model. The applicable conditions of the model is investigated by numerical experiments, so as the performance of the algorithm in different problem scales. It is left to future research the lower level of the problem and the potential benefit of storage allocation to automated container terminals.

  2. Processor Allocation for Optimistic Parallelization of Irregular Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Optimistic parallelization is a promising approach for the parallelization of irregular algorithms: potentially interfering tasks are launched dynamically, and the runtime system detects conflicts between concurrent activities, aborting and rolling back conflicting tasks. However, parallelism in irregular algorithms is very complex. In a regular algorithm like dense matrix multiplication, the amount of parallelism can usually be expressed as a function of the problem size, so it is reasonably straightforward to determine how many processors should be allocated to execute a regular algorithm of a certain size (this is called the processor allocation problem). In contrast, parallelism in irregular algorithms can be a function of input parameters, and the amount of parallelism can vary dramatically during the execution of the irregular algorithm. Therefore, the processor allocation problem for irregular algorithms is very difficult. In this paper, we describe the first systematic strategy for addressing this pro...

  3. Caseload Allocation and Special Judicial Skills: Finding the 'Right Judge'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wallace

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian courts, as with those in most common law systems, value judicial officers who are generalists. Appointment to a court indicates that the appointee is capable of dealing impartially with all types of cases that come before it. However, caseload allocation processes within courts also recognize and value different skills or expertise that may be applied to particular types of cases or to particular judicial tasks. Our research investigates ways magistrates courts in Australia (first instance courts of general criminal and civil jurisdiction manage caseload allocation processes to match magistrates' skills and abilities to specific work demands within their general jurisdictions as well as to the demands of specialist lists and courts. The research draws on interview data collected from judicial officers and court staff involved in caseload allocation in four Australian jurisdictions. This research finds that these courts place a high value on the principle that ‘everyone should be able to do everything’ and the entitlement of individual judicial officers to a caseload that is balanced and fair in relation to their colleagues. However, this preference for generalist judicial officers can create tensions in relation to the need to staff specialist lists, and to sometimes use particular skills in the general lists. Despite the presumption of competence, those allocating generalist and specialist caseload take into account different skills and expertise in the judicial workforce in the allocation decisions. Preferences of judicial officers for particular types of work can also play a role. However, the process by which assessments are made about expertise is also less than transparent in many cases, and draws largely on informal sources of knowledge. Magistrates and court users may benefit from a more clearly defined and transparent process to identify and develop skills and expertise, and allocate caseload accordingly. Such a process

  4. Adaptation of carbon allocation under light and nutrient reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Frederik; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The allocation of recently assimilated carbon (C) by plants depends on developmental stage and on environmental factors, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Whereas shifts in the allocation of photosynthates induced by reduced water availability, enhanced temperature and CO2 concentration were recently investigated in various studies, less is known about the response to light and nutrient reduction. We induced different allocation patterns in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium L. by a reduction of light (Low L treatment) and nutrient availability (Low N treatment) and analysed allocation parameters as well as morphological and physiological traits for 15 months. Finally, we conducted a 13CO2 pulse-labelling and followed the fate of recently assimilated carbon to eight different classes of plant tissues and respiration for 13 days. The results revealed a high intraspecific variability in C distribution to tissues and in respiration. Allocation changes even varied within leaf and stem tissue classes (e.g. more C in main stems, less in lateral stems). These results show that the common separation of plant tissues in only three classes, i.e. root, shoot and leaf tissues, can result in missing information about allocation changes. The nutrient reduction enhanced the transport of recently assimilated C from leaves to roots in terms of quantity (c. 200%) and velocity compared to control plants. Interestingly, a 57% light reduction enhanced photosynthetic capacity and caused no change in final biomass after 15 months. Therefore, our results support the recently discussed sink regulation of photosynthesis. Finally, our results indicate that growing heterotrophic tissues strongly reduce the C loss from storage and structural C pools and therefore enhance the fraction of recent assimilates used for respiration. We propose that this interruption of the C reflux from storage and structural C pools could be a control mechanism for C

  5. Patentometrics As Performance Indicators for Allocating Research Funding to Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    This paper is part of a preliminary investigation of potential indicators on the performance of universities and other public research institutions to be used for allocating general and other research funding. The paper will describe and discuss potential patentometrics and how they can be used...... in different types of analyses and evaluations in general and relating to universities and other public research institutions. Further, the relevance and possibility of including some patentometrics in the allocation of research funding is discussed. Also, other metrics regarding academic linkages...

  6. Allocation of cognitive processing capacity during human autonomic classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M E; Schell, A M; Beers, J R; Kelly, A

    1982-09-01

    In each of two experiments, allocation of cognitive processing capacity was measured in college-student subjects during autonomic discrimination classical conditioning. A 7.0-sec delay paradigm was used to establish classically conditioned responses to a reinforced visual conditioned stimulus (CS+). Electrodermal responses were the primary measures of autonomic classical conditioning. Allocation of processing capacity was measured by monitoring performance on a secondary reaction-time (RT) task. The auditory secondary-task RT signal was presented before, and 300, 500, 3500, 6500, and 7500 msec following CS onset. The RT signal was also presented following properly and improperly cued shock unconditioned stimuli (UCSs). Significant discrimination classical conditioning was obtained in both experiments. Comparison with control subjects who did not receive the RT signals indicated that the presence of the RT signals did not interfere with the development of classical conditioning. Four principal findings were obtained with the secondary-task RT measure. First, RTs to signals presented during CS+ were consistently slower than RTs to signals presented during CS-. This finding indicates that greater capacity allocation occurred during CS+ than CS- and is consistent with recent cognitive interpretations of classical conditioning. Second, the largest capacity allocation (i.e., slowing of RTs) occurred 300 msec following CS+ onset. This finding is consistent with the notion that subjects are actively processing the signal properties of the CS+ at 300 msec following CS+ onset. Third, presentation of the UCS when improperly cued (following CS-) significantly increased capacity allocation, whereas presentation of the same UCS when properly cued (following CS+) did not affect capacity allocation. These findings indicate that subjects were actively prepared for the UCS following CS+ but not following CS- and that a surprising UCS elicits greater capacity allocation than does an

  7. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    A long standing challenge has been understanding how plants and ecosystems respond to shifts in the balance of resource availabilities. The continuing rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will induce changes in the availability and use of several terrestrial ecosystem resources. We report on the acquisition and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Pinus ponderosa Laws. seedlings grown at three levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (370, 525, and 700 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) and three levels of soil nitrogen supply in a controlled environment experiment. Nitrogen was applied (0, 100, and 200 {micro}g N g soil{sup -1}) at planting and again at week 26 of a 58-week, 4-harvest experiment. At the final harvest, plants grown with variety low available soil nitrogen showed no significant response to atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Plants at higher N levels responded positively to CO{sub 2} with the highest biomass at the middle CO{sub 2} level. Plants growing at the lowest N levels immediately allocated a relatively large portion of their nitrogen and biomass to roots. Plants growing at near present ambient CO{sub 2} levels allocated relatively little material to roots when N was abundant but moved both carbon and nitrogen below-ground when N was withheld. Plants growing at higher CO{sub 2} levels, allocated more C and N to roots even when N was abundant, and made only small shifts in allocation patterns when N was no longer supplied. In general, allocation of C and N to roots tended to increase when N supply was restricted and also with increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. These allocation responses were consistent with patterns suggesting a functional balance in the acquisition of above-ground versus below-ground resources. In particular, variation in whole tree average nitrogen concentration can explain 68% of the variation ratio of root biomass to shoot biomass across the harvests. The capability to respond to temporal variation in nutrient conditions, the dynamics of nutrient

  8. Video coding bit allocation algorithm over wireless transmission channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; ZHOU Yuan-hua

    2006-01-01

    For two-way video communications over wireless channels using the automatic repeat request (ARQ) retransmission scheme, TMN8 rate control scheme is not effective in minimizing the number of frames skipped and cannot guarantee video quality during the retransmissions of error packets. This paper presents a joint source channel bit allocation scheme that allocates target bits according to encoder buffer fullness and estimation of channel condition by retransmission information. The results obtained from implementing our scheme in H. 263 + coder over wireless channel model show that our proposed scheme encodes the video sequences with lower and steadier buffer delay, fewer frames skipped and higher average PSNR compared to TMN8.

  9. Capital Allocation for Insurance Companies: Issues and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Perch; Poulsen, Rolf; Mumford, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We address some key issues related to risk and capital allocation in insurance companies. We argue that the Froot-Stein approach to risk is relevant to a number of important problems in the daily management of an insurance portfolio and that – taken to its consequence – this approach will lead...... a new way of combining capital allocation and pricing of insurance policies. Through a performance measure of return on capital, we suggest a way of evaluating the price of capital for a single policy, that this money is held as a reserve and that this reserve should run off in such a way that old...

  10. Sharing the skies: the Gemini Observatory international time allocation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheim, Steven J.

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory serves a diverse community of four partner countries (United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina), two hosts (Chile and University of Hawaii), and limited-term partnerships (currently Australia and the Republic of Korea). Observing time is available via multiple opportunities including Large and Long Pro- grams, Fast-turnaround programs, and regular semester queue programs. The slate of programs for observation each semester must be created by merging programs from these multiple, conflicting sources. This paper de- scribes the time allocation process used to schedule the overall science program for the semester, with emphasis on the International Time Allocation Committee and the software applications used.

  11. Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-07-01

    The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.

  12. Optimal Rate Allocation Algorithm for Multiple Source Video Streaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戢彦泓; 郭常杰; 钟玉琢; 孙立峰

    2004-01-01

    Video streaming is one of the most important applications used in the best-effort Internet.This paper presents a new scheme for multiple source video streaming in which the traditional fine granular scalable coding was rebuilt into a multiple sub-streams based transmission model.A peak signal to noise ratio based stream rate allocation algorithm was then developed based on the transmission model.In tests,the algorithm performance is about 1 dB higher than that of a uniform rate allocation algorithm.Therefore,this scheme can overcome bottlenecks along a single link and smooth jitter to achieve high quality and stable video.

  13. Automated fenestration allocation as complying with LEED rating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Mohamed Talaat El Daly

    2014-12-01

    The allocation of windows, through the help of certain well known heuristic algorithms and simulation programs, could be reached automatically to compromise with the LEED rating system by achieving the required daylight amounts with a minimum solar radiation inside a particular building. This research shows a design method based on simulation techniques with the help of heuristic algorithms through a parametric design that automatically allocate windows to comply with LEED. At the end of the research, a small project is discussed for evaluating the design process.

  14. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  15. Solving the optimal attention allocation problem in manual control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Within the context of the optimal control model of human response, analytic expressions for the gradients of closed-loop performance metrics with respect to human operator attention allocation are derived. These derivatives serve as the basis for a gradient algorithm that determines the optimal attention that a human should allocate among several display indicators in a steady-state manual control task. Application of the human modeling techniques are made to study the hover control task for a CH-46 VTOL flight tested by NASA.

  16. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    of the complexity and dimensionality of the Dynamic Program (DP), which prohibits computation for realistic size problems. We review several DP models developed for seat-allocation and overbooking over a time span of 40 years, reflecting changed business environments. In this report we link these models together...... by means of two transformations: The marginal revenue transformation of Fiig et al. [2010] and the equivalence charging scheme of Subramanian et al. [1999]. These transformations enable us to transform the joint seat allocation and overbooking problem for fare family fare structures into an equivalent...

  17. Modelling C allocation in response to nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation in ecosystems is a key variable of the global terrestrial C cycle. While photosynthesis governs the amount of C that enters ecosystems, its subsequent allocation to compartments with different life times determines its over-all residence time and variations in allocation patterns drive changes in ecosystem C balance and its response to environmental change. A better understanding of the controls on allocation is thus key to improving global vegetation models that commonly rely on using fixed partitioning factors. Observational data suggests variations of ecosystem structure and functioning along large-scale gradients of resource availability. Below-ground C allocation, inferred as gross primary production minus above-ground biomass production increases along gradients of decreasing nutrient availability. This is not only due to more root growth, but also due to enhanced production of exudates and stimulation of root symbionts and has been interpreted to reflect optimal plant allocation decisions under a varying soil fertility status. Here, we propose a model that accounts for trade-offs between (i) growth in above-ground and (ii) below-ground plant compartments, (iii) exudation to the rhizosphere and root symbionts and (iv) temporary storage in non-structural pools. By postulating the maximization of long-term growth under a given (seasonal regime) of soil nitrogen (N) availability, we attempt to reproduce observed large-scale gradients. The model is formulated based on a C cost for different N uptake decisions, where the cost is a function of N availability, root mass, and soil temperature (for biological N fixation). On a daily time scale, ecosystem N uptake may be realized by C exudation to the rhizosphere and/or symbiotic fixation of atmospheric N2. On an annual time scale, allocation to roots versus leaves is adjusted to soil inorganic N availability and modeled to yield maximum total growth. Exudation versus temporary storage of C is

  18. Resource allocation for multichannel broadcasting visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam-Tuan; Jang, Yeong Min

    2015-11-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which offers the possibility of using light sources for both illumination and data communications simultaneously, will be a promising incorporation technique with lighting applications. However, it still remains some challenges especially coverage because of field-of-view limitation. In this paper, we focus on this issue by suggesting a resource allocation scheme for VLC broadcasting system. By using frame synchronization and a network calculus QoS approximation, as well as diversity technology, the proposed VLC architecture and QoS resource allocation for the multichannel-broadcasting MAC (medium access control) protocol can solve the coverage limitation problem and the link switching problem of exhibition service.

  19. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  20. Augmented metacognition addressing dynamic allocation of tasks requiring visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Doesburg, W. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cognitive models as augmented metacognition on task allocation for tasks requiring visual attention. In the domain of naval warfare, the complex and dynamic nature of the environment makes that one has to deal with a large number of tasks in parallel. Therefore, human

  1. Gestational experience alters sex allocation in the subsequent generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E. Z.; Pereira, J. C.; Wapstra, E.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Horton, S. R.; Thomasson, K.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical tests of adaptive maternal sex allocation hypotheses have presented inconsistent results in mammals. The possibility that mothers are constrained in their ability to adjust sex ratios could explain some of the remaining variation. Maternal effects, the influence of the maternal phenotype or genotype on her developing offspring, may constrain sex allocation through physiological changes in response to the gestational environment. We tested if maternal effects constrain future parental sex allocation through a lowered gestational stress environment in laboratory mice. Females that experienced lowered stress as embryos in utero gave birth to female-biased litters as adults, with no change to litter size. Changes in offspring sex ratio was linked to peri-conceptual glucose, as those females that had increasing blood glucose peri-conceptionally gave birth to litters with a higher male to female sex ratio. There was, however, no effect of the lowered prenatal stress for developing male embryos and their sperm sex ratio when adult. We discuss the implications of maternal effects and maternal stress environment on the lifelong physiology of the offspring, particularly as a constraint on later maternal sex allocation. PMID:27493776

  2. Unconstrained and Constrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Kewen

    2011-01-01

    First, we study the Unconstrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation (UFTRA) problem (a.k.a. FTFA problem in \\cite{shihongftfa}). In the problem, we are given a set of sites equipped with an unconstrained number of facilities as resources, and a set of clients with set $\\mathcal{R}$ as corresponding connection requirements, where every facility belonging to the same site has an identical opening (operating) cost and every client-facility pair has a connection cost. The objective is to allocate facilities from sites to satisfy $\\mathcal{R}$ at a minimum total cost. Next, we introduce the Constrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation (CFTRA) problem. It differs from UFTRA in that the number of resources available at each site $i$ is limited by $R_{i}$. Both problems are practical extensions of the classical Fault-Tolerant Facility Location (FTFL) problem \\cite{Jain00FTFL}. For instance, their solutions provide optimal resource allocation (w.r.t. enterprises) and leasing (w.r.t. clients) strategies for the cont...

  3. Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  4. Dynamic Task Allocation for Human-Robot Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, T.R.A.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial agents, such as robots, are increasingly deployed for teamwork in dynamic, high-demand environments. This paper presents a framework, which applies context information to establish task (re)allocations that improve human-robot team’s performance. Based on the framework, a model for adapti

  5. Properties and solution methods for large location-allocation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    Location-allocation with l$ _p$ distances is studied. It is shown that this structure can be expressed as a concave minimization programming problem. Since concave minimization algorithms are not yet well developed, five solution methods are developed which utilize the special properties of the l...

  6. Using Reinforcement Learning to Examine Dynamic Attention Allocation during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Reichle, Erik D.; Gao, Ding-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in reading research concerns whether attention is allocated strictly serially, supporting lexical processing of one word at a time, or in parallel, supporting concurrent lexical processing of two or more words (Reichle, Liversedge, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2009). The origins of this debate are reviewed. We then report three…

  7. Computational modeling of memory allocation in neuronal and dendritic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George I Kastellakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies using molecular and cellular approaches have established that memory is supported by distributed and sparse populations of neurons. The allocation of neurons and synapses to store a long term memory engram is not random, but depends on properties such as neuronal excitability and CREB activation. The consolidation of synaptic plasticity, which is believed to serve long-term memory storage, is dependent on protein availability, and shaped by the mechanism of synaptic tagging and capture. In addition, dendritic protein synthesis allows for compartmentalized plasticity and synapse clustering. The implications of the rules governing long-term memory allocation in neurons and their dendrites are not yet known. To this aim, we present a model that incorporates multiple plasticity-related mechanisms which are known to be active during memory allocation and consolidation. Using this model, we show that memory allocation in neurons and their dendrites is affected by dendritic protein synthesis, and that the late-LTP associativity mechanisms allow related memories to be stored in overlapping populations of neurons.

  8. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald); F. Schlichter (Felix)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to alloc

  9. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5208 Allotment of... (agreeing associations): (1) The allotment formula must be calculated annually. (2) The permanent capital... allotted to the bank under applicable allocation agreements. The permanent capital ratio of...

  10. Dynamic asset allocation and downside-risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers dynamic asset allocation in a mean versus downside-risk framework. We derive closed-form solutions for the optimal portfolio weights when returns are lognormally distributed. Moreover, we study the impact of skewed and fat-tailed return distributions. We find that th

  11. A framework for resources allocation in virtualised C-RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Samman, Imad; Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    virtualization algorithm (Traffic Aware Joint Scheduling) in Cloud-RANs (C-RAN). Air interface resources are coordinated and allocated dynamically by a hypervisor among different virtual operators (VOs). Three distinctive schemes are proposed and evaluated against standard Round Robin (RR) C-RAN scheduling...

  12. 24 CFR 791.403 - Allocation of housing assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... each State shall receive not less than one-half of one percent of the amount of funds available for... program is insufficient to fund feasible projects, or to promote meaningful competition, at the field office level, budget authority may be allocated among the ten geographic areas of the country. The...

  13. 76 FR 33615 - Energy Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... priorities and allocations actions in order to maximize domestic energy supplies pursuant to its authority... necessary or appropriate to promote the national defense. Section 217.2 provides an overview of the EPAS... throughout the entire procurement chain. Section 217.36, ``Changes or cancellations of priority ratings...

  14. 75 FR 41405 - Energy Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... administration of priorities and allocations actions in order to maximize domestic energy supplies pursuant to... promote the national defense. Proposed Sec. 217.2 would provide an overview of the EPAS program. This... supplier throughout the entire procurement chain. Proposed Sec. 217.36, ``Changes or cancellations...

  15. How and Why Decision Models Influence Marketing Resource Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Lilien (Gary); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind); K. Starke (Katrin); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe study how and why model-based Decision Support Systems (DSSs) influence managerial decision making, in the context of marketing budgeting and resource allocation. We consider several questions: (1) What does it mean for a DSS to be "good?"; (2) What is the relationship between an anch

  16. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...

  17. Stochastic Resource Allocation for Energy-Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs DanielGrobe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery-powered wireless systems running media applications have tight constraints on energy, CPU, and network capacity, and therefore require the careful allocation of these limited resources to maximize the system's performance while avoiding resource overruns. Usually, resource-allocation problems are solved using standard knapsack-solving techniques. However, when allocating conservable resources like energy (which unlike CPU and network remain available for later use if they are not used immediately knapsack solutions suffer from excessive computational complexity, leading to the use of suboptimal heuristics. We show that use of Lagrangian optimization provides a fast, elegant, and, for convex problems, optimal solution to the allocation of energy across applications as they enter and leave the system, even if the exact sequence and timing of their entrances and exits is not known. This permits significant increases in achieved utility compared to heuristics in common use. As our framework requires only a stochastic description of future workloads, and not a full schedule, we also significantly expand the scope of systems that can be optimized.

  18. Elderly Care and Intrafamily Resource Allocation when Children Migrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the intrafamily allocation of elderly care in the context of international migration where migrant children may be able to provide financial assistance to their parents but are unable to offer physical care. To investigate sibling interaction, I estimate best response functions for individual physical and financial…

  19. A distributed resource allocation algorithm for many processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Resource allocation is the problem that a process may enter a critical section CS of its code only when its resource requirements are not in conflict with those of other processes in their critical sections. For each execution of CS, these requirements are given anew. In the resource requirements, l

  20. Alternatives Reality: What to Expect from Future Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2014-01-01

    For well more than a decade, the "endowment model" of investing has been synonymous with increasing allocations to alternative investment strategies, defined largely as hedge funds, private real estate, private equity and venture capital and other, generally less liquid or illiquid strategies compared to public markets. This trend…

  1. The dynamics of female time allocation upon a first birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belzil, Christian

    1997-01-01

    I estimate a non-stationary dynamic programming model of time allocation decisions between full-time work, child care and search activities upon a first birth using recursive methods. The model incorporates the following sequence of decisions; whether to stop working or not (for those who work...

  2. 76 FR 29083 - Agriculture Priorities and Allocations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... May 19, 2011 Part III Department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 789 Agriculture..., 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 789 RIN 0560-AH68 Agriculture Priorities and Allocations System AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION:...

  3. ON OPTIMAL LOCAL BUFFER ALLOCATION IN FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    An optimal design problem of local buffer allocation in the FMS is discussed in order to maximize a reward earned from processed jobs at all workstations. Structural properties of the optimal design problem are analyzed for the model with two job routing policies. Based on these properties, approaches to optimal solutions are given.

  4. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42-17 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES... accordance with generally accepted auditing standards. The auditor's report must be unqualified. (6)...

  5. 75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Part 1600 Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations AGENCY: Federal Retirement...), which was established by the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 (FERSA), Public Law 99-335...-79. The TSP is a tax-deferred retirement savings plan for Federal civilian employees and members...

  6. 14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commercial air tours outside the Dragon and Zuni Point corridors may not be transferred into the Dragon and Zuni Point corridors. Allocations authorizing commercial air tours within the Dragon and Zuni Point corridors may be transferred outside of the Dragon and Zuni Point corridors. (iii) A certificate holder...

  7. 34 CFR 300.807 - Allocations to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocations to States. 300.807 Section 300.807 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  8. 34 CFR 300.816 - Allocations to LEAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... numbers of children with disabilities aged three through five years currently provided special education... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocations to LEAs. 300.816 Section 300.816 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  9. Software Operational Profile Based Test Case Allocation Using Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Software operational profile (SOP) is used in software reliability prediction, software quality assessment, performance analysis of software, test case allocation, determination of "when to stop testing," etc. Due to the limited data resources and large efforts required to collect and convert the gathered data into point estimates, reluctance is observed by the software professionals to develop the SOP. A framework is proposed to develop SOP using fuzzy logic, which requires usage data in the form of linguistics. The resulting profile is named fuzzy software operational profile (FSOP). Based on this work, this paper proposes a generalized approach for the allocation of test cases, in which occurrence probability of operations obtained from FSOP are combined with the criticality of the operations using fuzzy inference system (FIS). Traditional methods for the allocation of test cases do not consider the application in which software operates. This is intuitively incorrect. To solve this problem, allocation of test cases with respect to software application using the FIS model is also proposed in this paper.

  10. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Downlink Subcarrier Allocation Schemes in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The efficient utilization of the air interface in the LTE standard is achieved through a combination of subcarrier allocation schemes, adaptive modulation and coding, and transmission power allotment. The scheduler in the base station has a major role in achieving the required QoS and the overall...

  12. Computer System Reliability Allocation Method and Supporting Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a computer system reliability allocationmethod that is based on the theory of statistic and Markovian chain,which can be used to allocate reliability to subsystem, to hybrid system and software modules. Arele vant supporting tool built by us is introduced.

  13. Strategically Allocating Resources to Support Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    As the enduring economic recession forces state and local governments to cut education budgets, astute allocation of resources is becoming more important. The author analyses three basic categories of educational resources: money, human capital, and time before moving to a discussion of resources as a component of school reform. The author…

  14. Power Allocation over Two Identical Gilbert-Elliott Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Junhua

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of power allocation over two identical Gilbert-Elliot communication channels. Our goal is to maximize the expected discounted number of bits transmitted over an infinite time horizon. This is achieved by choosing among three possible strategies: (1) betting on channel 1 by allocating all the power to this channel, which results in high data rate if channel 1 happens to be in good state, and zero bits transmitted if channel 1 is in bad state (even if channel 2 is in good state) (2) betting on channel 2 by allocating all the power to the second channel, and (3) a balanced strategy whereby each channel is allocated half the total power, with the effect that each channel can transmit a low data rate if it is in good state. We assume that each channel's state is only revealed upon transmission of data on that channel. We model this problem as a partially observable Markov decision processes (MDP), and derive key threshold properties of the optimal policy. Further, we show that by formulating a...

  15. Resource Allocation to Government Documents Departments in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin L.

    1985-01-01

    Explores both the allocation of resources to documents departments in academic libraries and the wide variation in local levels of support. Ways in which documents librarians may change levels of support through sources within and beyond their libraries are suggested. (CLB)

  16. Estimating Causal Effects from Multilevel Group-Allocation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelman, Alix I.

    2005-01-01

    In group-allocation studies for comparing behavioral, social, or educational interventions, subjects in the same group necessarily receive the same treatment, whereby a group and/or group-dynamic effect can confound the treatment effect. General counterfactual outcomes that depend on group characteristics, group membership, and treatment are…

  17. Preventing Under-Reporting in Social Task Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerdt, Mathijs; Zhang, Yingqian

    In games where agents are asked to declare their available resources, they can also strategize over this declaration. Surprisingly, not in all such games a VCG payment can be applied to construct a truthful mechanism using an optimal algorithm, though such payments can prevent under-reporting of resources. We show this for the problem of allocating tasks in a social network (STAP).

  18. Multiple-Agent Task Allocation Algorithm Utilizing Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Task allocation in multiple agent system has been widely applied many application fields, such as unmanned aerial vehicle, multi-robot system and manufacturing system et al. Therefore, it becomes one of the hot topics in distributed artificial intelligence research field for several years. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel task allocation algorithm in multiple agent systems utilizing ant colony optimization. Firstly, the basic structure of agent organization is described, which include context-aware module, information processing module, the executing module, decision-making and intelligent control module, knowledge base and task table. Based the above agent structure, these module utilize the knowledge in the external environment to process the information in agent communicating. Secondly, we point out that task allocation process in multiple agent systems can be implement by creating the space to the mapping of the multi-agent organization. Thirdly, a modified multiple agent system oriented ant colony optimization algorithm is given, which contain pre-processing steps and the task allocation results are obtained by executing the trust region sqp algorithm in local solver. Finally, performance evaluation is conducted by experiments comparing with Random strategy and Instant optimal strategy, and very positive results are obtained

  19. Job Admission and Resource Allocation in Distributed Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joel; Bansal, Nikhil; Hildrum, Kirsten; Parekh, Sujay; Rajan, Deepak; Wagle, Rohit; Wu, Kun-Lung

    This paper describes a new and novel scheme for job admission and resource allocation employed by the SODA scheduler in System S. Capable of processing enormous quantities of streaming data, System S is a large-scale, distributed stream processing system designed to handle complex applications. The problem of scheduling in distributed, stream-based systems is quite unlike that in more traditional systems. And the requirements for System S, in particular, are more stringent than one might expect even in a “standard” stream-based design. For example, in System S, the offered load is expected to vastly exceed system capacity. So a careful job admission scheme is essential. The jobs in System S are essentially directed graphs, with software “processing elements” (PEs) as vertices and data streams as edges connecting the PEs. The jobs themselves are often heavily interconnected. Thus resource allocation of individual PEs must be done carefully in order to balance the flow. We describe the design of the SODA scheduler, with particular emphasis on the component, known as macroQ, which performs the job admission and resource allocation tasks. We demonstrate by experiments the natural trade-offs between job admission and resource allocation.

  20. MAC Layer Resource Allocation for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Shen; Xuemin Sherman Shen; Tom HLuan; Jing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) can provide low-cost, timely healthcare services and are expected to be widely used for e-healthcare in hospitals. In a hospital, space is often limited and multiple WBANs have to coexist in an area and share the same channel in order to provide healthcare services to different patients. This causes severe interference between WBANs that could significantly reduce the network throughput and increase the amount of power consumed by sensors placed on the body. There-fore, an efficient channel-resource allocation scheme in the medium access control (MAC) layer is crucial. In this paper, we devel-op a centralized MAC layer resource allocation scheme for a WBAN. We focus on mitigating the interference between WBANs and reducing the power consumed by sensors. Channel and buffer state are reported by smartphones deployed in each WBAN, and channel access allocation is performed by a central controller to maximize network throughput. Sensors have strict limitations in terms of energy consumption and computing capability and cannot provide all the necessary information for channel allocation in a timely manner. This deteriorates network performance. We exploit the temporal correlation of the body area channel in order to minimize the number of channel state reports necessary. We view the network design as a partly observable optimization prob-lem and develop a myopic policy, which we then simulate in Matlab.

  1. Cross-Layer Optimal Rate Allocation for Heterogeneous Wireless Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous multicast is an efficient communication scheme especially for multimedia applications running over multihop networks. The term heterogeneous refers to the phenomenon when multicast receivers in the same session require service at different rates commensurate with their capabilities. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions over multihop wireless networks. We propose an iterative algorithm that achieves the optimal rates for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions such that the aggregate utility for all sessions is maximized. We present the formulation of the multicast resource allocation problem as a nonlinear optimization model and highlight the cross-layer framework that can solve this problem in a distributed ad hoc network environment with asynchronous computations. Our simulations show that the algorithm achieves optimal resource utilization, guarantees fairness among multicast sessions, provides flexibility in allocating rates over different parts of the multicast sessions, and adapts to changing conditions such as dynamic channel capacity and node mobility. Our results show that the proposed algorithm not only provides flexibility in allocating resources across multicast sessions, but also increases the aggregate system utility and improves the overall system throughput by almost 30% compared to homogeneous multicast.

  2. Popularity-aware rate allocation in multiview video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiandrotti, Attilio; Chakareski, Jacob; Frossard, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    We propose a framework for popularity-driven rate allocation in H.264/MVC-based multi-view video communications when the overall rate and the rate necessary for decoding each view are constrained in the delivery architecture. We formulate a rate allocation optimization problem that takes into account the popularity of each view among the client population and the rate-distortion characteristics of the multi-view sequence so that the performance of the system is maximized in terms of popularity-weighted average quality. We consider the cases where the global bit budget or the decoding rate of each view is constrained. We devise a simple ratevideo- quality model that accounts for the characteristics of interview prediction schemes typical of multi-view video. The video quality model is used for solving the rate allocation problem with the help of an interior point optimization method. We then show through experiments that the proposed rate allocation scheme clearly outperforms baseline solutions in terms of popularity-weighted video quality. In particular, we demonstrate that the joint knowledge of the rate-distortion characteristics of the video content, its coding dependencies, and the popularity factor of each view is key in achieving good coding performance in multi-view video systems.

  3. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... actions taken to restore debt service capability; (3) Prospects for restored asset quality; and (4) Such other factors as the Federal banking agencies may consider relevant to the quality of the asset. (B) The... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43...

  4. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...

  5. Optimization of reliability allocation strategies through use of genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E.; Painton, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines a novel optimization technique called genetic algorithms and its application to the optimization of reliability allocation strategies. Reliability allocation should occur in the initial stages of design, when the objective is to determine an optimal breakdown or allocation of reliability to certain components or subassemblies in order to meet system specifications. The reliability allocation optimization is applied to the design of a cluster tool, a highly complex piece of equipment used in semiconductor manufacturing. The problem formulation is presented, including decision variables, performance measures and constraints, and genetic algorithm parameters. Piecewise ``effort curves`` specifying the amount of effort required to achieve a certain level of reliability for each component of subassembly are defined. The genetic algorithm evolves or picks those combinations of ``effort`` or reliability levels for each component which optimize the objective of maximizing Mean Time Between Failures while staying within a budget. The results show that the genetic algorithm is very efficient at finding a set of robust solutions. A time history of the optimization is presented, along with histograms or the solution space fitness, MTBF, and cost for comparative purposes.

  6. Intraspecific variation in sex allocation in hermaphroditic Plantago coronopus (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Models for sex allocation assume that increased expenditure of resources on male function decreases the resources available for female function. Under some circumstances, a negative genetic correlation between investment in stamens and investment in ovules or seeds is expected. Moreover, if fitness

  7. A Combinatorial Allocation Mechanism for Banner Advertisement with Penalties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feige, U.; Immorlica, N.S.; Mirrokni, V.; Nazerzadeh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Most current banner advertising is sold through negotiation thereby incurring large transaction costs and possibly sub-optimal allocations. We propose a new automated system for selling banner advertising. In this system, each advertiser specifies a collection of host webpages which are relevant to

  8. Funding the Plan: Integration of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    California Community Colleges are facing increased accountability while at the same time experiencing reduced and uncertain state funding. When resources are not properly allocated there is waste, public criticism, and ultimately increased oversight. A review of the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) sanction letters…

  9. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... costs; direct labor costs; and depreciation, amortization, and cost recovery allowances on equipment and... are considered either direct material or direct labor costs, as appropriate, and therefore must be... must allocate to each exempt construction contract all direct costs as defined in §...

  10. Heterogenous allocation of chips promotes fairness in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wu, Naiqi; Wang, Long

    2015-03-01

    In an economic Ultimatum Game, two players interact to decide how to split a certain amount of money. The proposer formulates an allocation scheme to divide the sum, and the responder's decision is, either adoption, in which case both players are rewarded in accordance with the scheme, or rejection, in which case neither player is benefited. The economic theory and game theory predict that a rational proposer will offer his opponent a minimal but nonzero share and the responder will admit this scheme. However, this prediction is impractical in real situations and abundant experiments and theories are presented to resolve the discrepancy. Here, we concentrate on investigating the impact of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness in the framework of the evolutionary game theory. The proposer has the privilege to offer the amount of the chips and make the allocation resolution to the responder. Interestingly, it is found that fairness prevails when the proposer is courageous enough to offer more chips to unsuccessful opponents. Moreover, we find that an amplifying group interaction enlarges the effects of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness.

  11. Augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Rank Threshold Detection with Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Department of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCS/ENG/10-03 Augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Rank Threshold Detection with...dog great pyrenees dalmation dog domestic dog canis familiaris dog andiron firedog dog dog-iron frump dog pawl detent click dog chap fellow feller

  12. A Survey on Resource Allocation Strategies in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Vinothina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has become a new age technology that has got huge potentials in enterprises and markets. Clouds can make it possible to access applications and associated data from anywhere. Companies are able to rent resources from cloud for storage and other computational purposes so that their infrastructure cost can be reduced significantly. Further they can make use of company-wide access to applications, based on pay-as-you-go model. Hence there is no need for getting licenses for individual products. However one of the major pitfalls in cloud computing is related to optimizing the resources being allocated. Because of the uniqueness of the model, resource allocation is performed with the objective of minimizing the costs associated with it. The other challenges of resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements. In this paper, various resource allocation strategies and their challenges are discussed in detail. It is believed that this paper would benefit both cloud users and researchers in overcoming the challenges faced.

  13. Linear data structures for storage allocation in attribute evaluators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiman, Frederik Jan

    2002-01-01

    Practical and theoretical results have been found concerning the use of global storage allocation for the instances of applied occurrences of an attribute. The practical results focus on the necessary and sufficient conditions to decide at evaluator construction time whether an evaluator can allocat

  14. Multi-Constraint multi-processor Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrouzian, A.R.B.; Goswami, D.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Ara, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a Multi-Constraint Resource Allocation (MuCoRA) method for applications from multiple domains onto multi-processors. In particular, we address a mapping problem for multiple throughput-constrained streaming applications and multiple latency-constrained feedback control application

  15. The strategic labor allocation proces : a model of strategic HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, Erik H.

    2002-01-01

    In this article the Strategic Labor Allocation Process model (SLAP) is described. The model relates HR-strategies to structure, culture and task technology to HR-policies like recruitment, appraisal and rewarding, to business strategy and to socio-cultural, economic, institutional and technological

  16. 7 CFR 1738.13 - Allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... available, RUS will: (1) Establish a national reserve for broadband loans, and (2) Allocate amounts in the reserve to each State, territory, and insular possession, based on the ratio of the number of communities...) To be considered eligible for funding from the State reserve during the fiscal year, an...

  17. 44 CFR 302.5 - Allocations and reallocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (33) percent will be allocated on the basis of the ratio of the State's population to the national... held temporarily in reserve, to be used first to fund the four territories of the Virgin Islands... balance of the reserve fund will then be used to restore any State which would receive less by...

  18. Personnel Resource Allocation Strategies in a Time of Fiscal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Larry Joseph, III

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze school level data related to the allocation of resources, and to determine how those resources are used to increase student achievement in the Hampton School District. The study was based on an analysis of one school district located in Los Angeles County in Southern California. All of the…

  19. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  20. Dynamic optimization model for allocating medical resources in epidemic controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The model proposed in this paper addresses a dynamic optimization model for allocating medical resources in epidemic controlling.Design/methodology/approach: In this work, a three-level and dynamic linear programming model for allocating medical resources based on epidemic diffusion model is proposed. The epidemic diffusion model is used to construct the forecasting mechanism for dynamic demand of medical resources. Heuristic algorithm coupled with MTLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the model. A numerical example is presented for testing the model’s practical applicability.Findings: The main contribution of the present study is that a discrete time-space network model to study the medical resources allocation problem when an epidemic outbreak is formulated. It takes consideration of the time evolution and dynamic nature of the demand, which is different from most existing researches on medical resources allocation.Practical implications: In our model, the medicine logistics operation problem has been decomposed into several mutually correlated sub-problems, and then be solved systematically in the same decision scheme. Thus, the result will be much more suitable for real operations.Originality/value: In our model, the rationale that the medical resources allocated in early periods will take effect in subduing the spread of the epidemic spread and thus impact the demand in later periods has been for the first time incorporated. A win-win emergency rescue effect is achieved by the integrated and dynamic optimization model. The total rescue cost is controlled effectively, and meanwhile, inventory level in each urban health departments is restored and raised gradually.

  1. The role of physical formidability in human social status allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Simmons, Zachary L; Anderson, Cameron; Roney, James R

    2016-03-01

    Why are physically formidable men willingly allocated higher social status by others in cooperative groups? Ancestrally, physically formidable males would have been differentially equipped to generate benefits for groups by providing leadership services of within-group enforcement (e.g., implementing punishment of free riders) and between-group representation (e.g., negotiating with other coalitions). Therefore, we hypothesize that adaptations for social status allocation are designed to interpret men's physical formidability as a cue to these leadership abilities, and to allocate greater status to formidable men on this basis. These hypotheses were supported in 4 empirical studies wherein young adults rated standardized photos of subjects (targets) who were described as being part of a white-collar business consultancy. In Studies 1 and 2, male targets' physical strength positively predicted ratings of their projected status within the organization, and this effect was mediated by perceptions that stronger men possessed greater leadership abilities of within-group enforcement and between-group representation. Moreover, (a) these same patterns held whether status was conceptualized as overall ascendancy, prestige-based status, or dominance-based status, and (b) strong men who were perceived as aggressively self-interested were not allocated greater status. Finally, 2 experiments established the causality of physical formidability's effects on status-related perceptions by manipulating targets' relative strength (Study 3) and height (Study 4). In interpreting our findings, we argue that adaptations for formidability-based status allocation may have facilitated the evolution of group cooperation in humans and other primates. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Consumer-resource dynamics: quantity, quality, and allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne M Getz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senescence more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the

  3. Wide brick tunnel randomization - an unequal allocation procedure that limits the imbalance in treatment totals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2014-04-30

    In open-label studies, partial predictability of permuted block randomization provides potential for selection bias. To lessen the selection bias in two-arm studies with equal allocation, a number of allocation procedures that limit the imbalance in treatment totals at a pre-specified level but do not require the exact balance at the ends of the blocks were developed. In studies with unequal allocation, however, the task of designing a randomization procedure that sets a pre-specified limit on imbalance in group totals is not resolved. Existing allocation procedures either do not preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation or do not include all allocation sequences that comply with the pre-specified imbalance threshold. Kuznetsova and Tymofyeyev described the brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every step and, in the two-arm case, includes all sequences that satisfy the smallest possible imbalance threshold. This article introduces wide brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that allows all allocation sequences with imbalance not exceeding any pre-specified threshold while preserving the allocation ratio at every step. In open-label studies, allowing a larger imbalance in treatment totals lowers selection bias because of the predictability of treatment assignments. The applications of the technique in two-arm and multi-arm open-label studies with unequal allocation are described.

  4. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in geometrid moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Sami M.; Välimäki, Panu; Carrasco, David; Mäenpää, Maarit I.; Mänttäri, Satu

    2012-08-01

    A resource allocation trade-off is expected when resources from a common pool are allocated to two or more traits. In holometabolous insects, resource allocation to different functions during metamorphosis relies completely on larval-derived resources. At adult eclosion, resource allocation to the abdomen at the expense of other body parts can be seen as a rough estimate of resource allocation to reproduction. Theory suggests geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen, but there are currently no empirical data on it. We measured resource allocation to the abdomen at adult eclosion in four geometrid moths along a latitudinal gradient. Resource (total dry material, carbon, nitrogen) allocation to the abdomen showed positive allometry with body size. We found geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in each species, and this variation was independent of allometry in three species. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen was complex. Resource allocation to the abdomen was relatively high in partially bivoltine populations in two species, which fits theoretical predictions, but the overall support for theory is weak. This study indicates that the geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen is not an allometric consequence of geographic variation in resource acquisition (i.e., body size). Thus, there is a component of resource allocation that can evolve independently of resource acquisition. Our results also suggest that there may be intraspecific variation in the degree of capital versus income breeding.

  5. 75 FR 16160 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Allocation of Operating Subsidies Under the Operating Fund Formula: Data Collection AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Allocation of Operating Subsidies Under...

  6. 75 FR 70279 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...: Allocation of Operating Subsidies under the Operating Fund. Formula: Data Collection. OMB Approval Number... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Allocation of Operating Subsidies under the Operating Fund Formula: Data Collection AGENCY: Office of the...

  7. Least-cost allocation strategies for wood fuel supply for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study of geographical information system (GIS) for allocating forest wood chips resources to energy plants.......The article presents a study of geographical information system (GIS) for allocating forest wood chips resources to energy plants....

  8. Channel Allocation in Wireless Integrated Services Networks for Low-Bit-Rate Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Figure VI.3: Queueing Model of a Multiple-Hop Connection 170 Figure VI.4: Static Allocation with Partial Remote Status ( PMAC ) 173 Figure VI.5: Size...when the Remote Reports the Cells to Expire by the End of the Next Two Frames 179 Figure VI.9: STE Allocation with Partial Remote Status ( PMAC ) 182...Losses in a Remote-to-Remote Connection. 185 Figure VI. 13: BCLPR Allocation with Partial Remote Status ( PMAC ) 187 Figure VI.14: BCLPR Allocation

  9. 25 CFR 1000.102 - How are savings that result from downsizing allocated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are savings that result from downsizing allocated... Amounts § 1000.102 How are savings that result from downsizing allocated? Funds that are saved as a result of downsizing in BIA are allocated to Tribes/Consortia in the same manner as Tribal shares...

  10. 78 FR 34427 - 2012 Tax Information for Use In The Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board 2012 Tax Information for Use In The Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method... Shortfall Allocation Method (RSAM). DATES: Comments are due by July 9, 2013. If any comment opposing AAR's... Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method, EP 646 (Sub-No. 2) (STB served Nov. 21, 2008). RSAM is intended...

  11. 76 FR 40448 - 2010 Tax Information for Use in the Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board 2010 Tax Information for Use in the Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method... Allocation Method (RSAM). DATES: Comments are due by August 8, 2011. If any comment opposing AAR's... Shortfall Allocation Method, EP 646 (Sub-No. 2) (STB served Nov. 21, 2008). RSAM is intended to measure...

  12. 42 CFR 417.564 - Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment and allocation of administrative and... Apportionment and allocation of administrative and general costs. (a) Costs not directly associated with... administrative and general costs that are not included in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) The allocation...

  13. 26 CFR 1.904-6 - Allocation and apportionment of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation and apportionment of taxes. 1.904-6... apportionment of taxes. (a) Allocation and apportionment of taxes to a separate category or categories of income... for the direct allocation or apportionment of expenses, losses, or other deductions to a...

  14. 42 CFR 417.566 - Other methods of allocation and apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other methods of allocation and apportionment. 417..., AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.566 Other methods of allocation and apportionment. (a) Justification. A method of apportionment or allocation of costs, other than...

  15. An integrated model for part-operation allocation and investments in CNC technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Suresh, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of investment appraisal of new technology, specifically computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools in conjunction with optimal allocation of parts and operations on CNC machines as the investments take place. Part-operation allocation is the allocation of parts and

  16. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input data for allocations purposes. 96.76 Section 96.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... to provide heat input data for allocations purposes. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that elects... chapter for any source located in a state developing source allocations based upon heat input. (b)...

  17. 76 FR 42055 - Data Availability Concerning Transport Rule Allowance Allocations to Existing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 97 Data Availability Concerning Transport Rule Allowance Allocations to Existing Units... NODA notifies the public of the availability of data on these allowance allocations for existing units. Through this NODA, EPA is also making available to the public the data upon which the allocations...

  18. 26 CFR 1.338-6 - Allocation of ADSP and AGUB among target assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... allocated among Class II acquisition date assets of target in proportion to the fair market values of such... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of ADSP and AGUB among target assets... among target assets. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section prescribes rules for allocating ADSP...

  19. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction AGENCY: Federal Transit... by Hurricane Sandy. This amount was in addition to the initial $2 billion allocation announced in the... allocation restoration FTA Section 5324 Emergency Relief Program Allocations for Hurricane Sandy, by...

  20. Strategic allocation of flight plans: an evolutionary point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Gurtner, Gérald

    2016-01-01

    We consider the simplified model of strategic allocation of trajectories in the airspace presented in a previous publication. Two types of companies, characterized by different cost functions, compete for allocation of trajectories in the airspace. We study how the equilibrium state of the model depends on the traffic demand and number of airports. We show that in a mixed population environment the equilibrium solution is not the optimal at the global level, but rather than it tends to have a larger fraction of companies who prefer to delay the departure time rather taking a longer routes. Finally we study the evolutionary dynamics investigating the fluctuations of airline types around the equilibrium and the speed of convergence toward it in finite populations. We find that the equilibrium point is shifted by the presence of noise and is reached more slowly.

  1. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    to the classic interpretation of financial information. The quantitative environmental information included in the experiment seems to mitigate rather than extend the directional effect of more environmental information. The evidence also seems to indicate that decision makers are not always aware which......This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...

  2. SHALE: An Efficient Algorithm for Allocation of Guaranteed Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, Vijay; Ma, Wenjing; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Tomlin, John; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of optimizing allocation in guaranteed display advertising, we develop an efficient, lightweight method of generating a compact {\\em allocation plan} that can be used to guide ad server decisions. The plan itself uses just O(1) state per guaranteed contract, is robust to noise, and allows us to serve (provably) nearly optimally. The optimization method we develop is scalable, with a small in-memory footprint, and working in linear time per iteration. It is also "stop-anytime", meaning that time-critical applications can stop early and still get a good serving solution. Thus, it is particularly useful for optimizing the large problems arising in the context of display advertising. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm using actual Yahoo! data.

  3. A novel model on dynamic resource allocation in optical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yong; RAO Min; LI Lei; CHEN Yu; JIANG Jianfeng; ZHANG Mingde; SUN Xiaohan

    2005-01-01

    A novel model on dynamic resource allocation in the WDM optical networks is proposed, basing on the integrated considerations of the impacts of transmission impairments and service classification on dynamic resource allocation in the optical layer.In this model, the priorities of optical connection requests are mapped into different thresholds of transmission impairments, and a uniform method which is adopted to evaluate the virtual wavelength path (VWP) candidates is defined. The Advanced Preferred Wavelength Sets Algorithm (A-PWS) and the heuristic Dynamic Min-Cost & Optical Virtual Wavelength Path Algorithm (DMC-OVWP) are presented addressing the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem based on dynamic traffic and multi priorities in wavelength-routed optical networks. For a received optical connection request,DMC-OVWP is employed to calculate a list of the VWP candidates, and an appropriate VWP which matches the request's priority is picked up to establish the lightpath by analyzing the transmission qualities of the VWP candidates.

  4. Multi- Path Routing and Resource Allocation in Active Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wu-ping; YAN Pu-liu; WU Ming

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm of traffic distribution called active multi-path routing (AMR) in active network is proposed.AMR adopts multi-path routing and applies nonlinear optimize approximate method to distribute network traffic amongmultiple paths. It is combined to bandwidth resource allocation and the congestion restraint mechanism to avoid congestion happening and worsen. So network performance can be improved greatly. The frame of AMR includes adaptive trafficallocation model, the conception of supply bandwidth and its'allocation model, the principle of congestion restraint and its'model, and the implement of AMR based on multi-agents system in active network. Through simulations, AMR has distinct effects on network performance. The results show AMR is a valid traffic regulation algorithm.

  5. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming Method for Concave Resource Allocation Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜计荣; 孙小玲

    2005-01-01

    Concave resource allocation problem is an integer programming problem of minimizing a nonincreasing concave function subject to a convex nondecreasing constraint and bounded integer variables. This class of problems are encountered in optimization models involving economies of scale. In this paper, a new hybrid dynamic programming method was proposed for solving concave resource allocation problems. A convex underestimating function was used to approximate the objective function and the resulting convex subproblem was solved with dynamic programming technique after transforming it into a 0-1 linear knapsack problem. To ensure the convergence, monotonicity and domain cut technique was employed to remove certain integer boxes and partition the revised domain into a union of integer boxes. Computational results were given to show the efficiency of the algorithm.

  6. Proactive Resource Allocation: Turning Predictable Behavior into Spectral Gain

    CERN Document Server

    El-Gamal, Hesham; Eryilmaz, Atilla

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the novel concept of proactive resource allocation in which the predictability of user behavior is exploited to balance the wireless traffic over time, and hence, significantly reduce the bandwidth required to achieve a given blocking/outage probability. We start with a simple model in which the smart wireless devices are assumed to predict the arrival of new requests and submit them to the network T time slots in advance. Using tools from large deviation theory, we quantify the resulting prediction diversity gain to establish that the decay rate of the outage event probabilities increases linearly with the prediction duration T. This model is then generalized to incorporate the effect of prediction errors and the randomness in the prediction lookahead time T. Remarkably, we also show that, in the cognitive networking scenario, the appropriate use of proactive resource allocation by the primary users results in more spectral opportunities for the secondary users at a marginal, or no, cos...

  7. Toward allocative efficiency in the prescription drug industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, R C; Fischbaum, M

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, monopoly power in the pharmaceutical industry has been measured by profits. An alternative method estimates the deadweight loss of consumer surplus associated with the exercise of monopoly power. Although upper and lower bound estimates for this inefficiency are far apart, they at least suggest a dramatically greater welfare loss than measures of industry profitability would imply. A proposed system would have the U.S. government employing its power of eminent domain to "take" and distribute pharmaceutical patents, providing as "just compensation" the present value of the patent's expected future monopoly profits. Given the allocative inefficiency of raising taxes to pay for the program, the impact of the proposal on allocative efficiency would be at least as good at our lower bound estimate of monopoly costs while substantially improving efficiency at or near our upper bound estimate.

  8. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  9. Optimal Constrained Resource Allocation Strategies under Low Risk Circumstances

    CERN Document Server

    Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Visan, Costel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider multiple constrained resource allocation problems, where the constraints can be specified by formulating activity dependency restrictions or by using game-theoretic models. All the problems are focused on generic resources, with a few exceptions which consider financial resources in particular. The problems consider low-risk circumstances and the values of the uncertain variables which are used by the algorithms are the expected values of the variables. For each of the considered problems we propose novel algorithmic solutions for computing optimal resource allocation strategies. The presented solutions are optimal or near-optimal from the perspective of their time complexity. The considered problems have applications in a broad range of domains, like workflow scheduling in industry (e.g. in the mining and metallurgical industry) or the financial sector, motion planning, facility location and data transfer or job scheduling and resource management in Grids, clouds or other distribute...

  10. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retransmission. Through the collection of Hello packets periodically sent by neighbors, nodes obtain their Network Allocation Vector, and then estimate the available bandwidth. The simulation results show that the strategy is simple and effective, can accurately estimate the collision of data frames as well as the available bandwidth of Wireless Sensor Networks.

  11. Power Efficient Resource Allocation for Clouds Using Ant Colony Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chimakurthi, Lskrao

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the rapidly improving technologies. It provides scalable resources needed for the ap- plications hosted on it. As cloud-based services become more dynamic, resource provisioning becomes more challenging. The QoS constrained resource allocation problem is considered in this paper, in which customers are willing to host their applications on the provider's cloud with a given SLA requirements for performance such as throughput and response time. Since, the data centers hosting the applications consume huge amounts of energy and cause huge operational costs, solutions that reduce energy consumption as well as operational costs are gaining importance. In this work, we propose an energy efficient mechanism that allocates the cloud resources to the applications without violating the given service level agreements(SLA) using Ant colony framework.

  12. CPU and memory allocation optimization using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David

    2002-12-01

    The allocation of CPU time and memory resources, are well known problems in organizations with a large number of users, and a single mainframe. Usually the amount of resources given to a single user is based on its own statistics, not on the entire statistics of the organization therefore patterns are not well identified and the allocation system is prodigal. In this work the authors suggest a fuzzy logic based algorithm to optimize the CPU and memory distribution between the users based on the history of the users. The algorithm works separately on heavy users and light users since they have different patterns to be observed. The result is a set of rules, generated by the fuzzy logic inference engine that will allow the system to use its computing ability in an optimized manner. Test results on data taken from the Faculty of Engineering in Tel Aviv University, demonstrate the abilities of the new algorithm.

  13. Location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, in order for the secondary users to opportunistically share the spectrum without interfering the primary users, an accurate spectrum measurement and a precise estimation of the interference at the primary users are necessary but are challenging tasks. Since it is impractical in cognitive radio systems to assume that the channel state information of the interference link is available at the cognitive transmitter, the interference at the primary users is hard to be estimated accurately. This paper introduces a resource allocation algorithm for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems, which utilizes location information of the primary and secondary users instead of the channel state information of the interference link. Simulation results show that it is indeed effective to incorporate location information into resource allocation so that a near-optimal capacity is achieved.

  14. The veil of ignorance and health resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Some authors view the veil of ignorance as a preferred method for allocating resources because it imposes impartiality by stripping deliberators of knowledge of their personal identity. Using some prominent examples of such reasoning in the health care sector, I will argue for the following claims. First, choice behind a veil of ignorance often fails to provide clear guidance regarding resource allocation. Second, regardless of whether definite results could be derived from the veil, these results do not in themselves have important moral standing. This is partly because the veil does not determine which features are morally relevant for a given distributive problem. Third, even when we have settled the question of what features to count, choice behind a veil of ignorance arguably fails to take persons seriously. Ultimately, we do not need the veil to solve distributive problems, and we have good reason to appeal to some other distributive model.

  15. A bat algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafuse, T. P.; Pohl, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    This article uses a recently developed bat algorithm (BA) meta-heuristic optimization method to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP is a well-known NP-hard problem which has been the subject of much prior work, generally of a restricted form where each component must consist of identical components in parallel to make computations tractable. Meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation and allow for larger instances to be solved for a more general case where different components can be placed in parallel. The BA has not yet been used in reliability design, as it was a method initially designed for continuous problems. A BA is devised and tested on a well-known suite of problems from the literature. It is shown that the BA is competitive with the best known heuristics for redundancy allocation.

  16. Hybrid particle swarm optimization for multiobjective resource allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Li Xiaoxing; Gu Chunqin

    2008-01-01

    Resource allocation (RA) is the problem of allocating resources among various artifacts or business units to meet one or more expected goals,such as maximizing the profits,minimizing the costs,or achieving the best qualities.A complex multiobjective RA is addressed,and a multiobjective mathematical model is used to find solutions efficiently.Then,an improved particle swarm algorithm (mO_PSO) is proposed combined with a new particle diversity controller policies and dissipation operation.Meanwhile,a modified Pareto methods used in PSO to deal with multiobjectives optimization is presented.The effectiveness of the provided algorithm is validated by its application to some illustrative example dealing with multiobjective RA problems and with the comparative experiment with other algorithm.

  17. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  18. An Efficient Graph-Coloring Algorithm for Processor Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hasan Mahafzah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an efficient exact graph-coloring algorithm based on Maximum Independent Set (MIS for allocating processors in distributed systems. This technique represents the allocated processors in specific time in a fully connected graph and prevents each processor in multiprocessor system to be assigned to more than one process at a time. This research uses a sequential technique to distribute processes among processors. Moreover, the proposed method has been constructed by modifying the FMIS algorithm. The proposed algorithm has been programmed in Visual C++ and implemented on an Intel core i7. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm gets better performance in terms of CPU utilization, and minimum time for of graph coloring, comparing with the latest FMIS algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be developed to detect defected processor in the system.

  19. Performance Investigation of Virtual Private Networks with Different Bandwidth Allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Muthiah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Virtual Private Network (VPN provides private network connections over a publicly accessible shared network. The effective allocation of bandwidth for VPNs assumes significance in the present scenario due to varied traffic. Each VPN endpoint specifies bounds on the total amount of traffic that it is likely to send or receive at any time. The network provider tailors the VPN so that there is sufficient bandwidth for any traffic matrix that is consistent with these bounds. The approach incorporates the use of Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, with a view to accomplish an enhancement in the performance of the mobile networks. The NS2 based simulation results are evaluated in terms of its metrics for different bandwidth allocations, besides analyzing its performance in the event of exigencies such as link failures. The results highlight the suitability of the proposed strategy in the context of real time applications.

  20. Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    With the current development of mobile devices, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, and many researches on short range wireless communications, such as Bluetooth, have gained special interests, in industry as well as in academy. This paper analyzes capacity...... allocation issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme is proposed as an approximated solution of the formulated problem that satisfies quality...... of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...

  1. Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2002-01-01

    With the current development of mobile devices, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, and many researches on short range wireless communications, such as Bluetooth, have gained special interests, in industry as well as in academy. This paper analyzes capacity...... allocation issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme is proposed as an approximated solution of the formulated problem that satisfies quality...... of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...

  2. Cooperative Task Allocation Method of MCAV/UCAV Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV cooperative task allocation under Manned Combat Aerial Vehicle’s (MCAV limited control is one of the important problems in UCAV research field. Hereto, we analyze the key technical and tactical indices influence task allocation problem and build an appropriate model to maximize the objective function values as well as reflecting various constraints. A novel improved multigroup ant colony algorithm (IMGACA is proposed to solve the model; the algorithm mainly includes random sequence-based UCAV selection strategy, constraint-based candidate task generation strategy, objective function value-based state transition strategy, and crossover operator-based local search strategy. Simulation results show that the built model is reasonable and the proposed algorithm performs well in feasibility, timeliness, and stability.

  3. A novel dynamic wavelength bandwidth allocation scheme over OFDMA PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Guo, Wei; Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng

    2011-12-01

    With rapid growth of Internet applications, supporting differentiated service and enlarging system capacity have been new tasks for next generation access system. In recent years, research in OFDMA Passive Optical Networks (PON) has experienced extraordinary development as for its large capacity and flexibility in scheduling. Although much work has been done to solve hardware layer obstacles for OFDMA PON, scheduling algorithm on OFDMA PON system is still under primary discussion. In order to support QoS service on OFDMA PON system, a novel dynamic wavelength bandwidth allocation (DWBA) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Per-stream QoS service is supported in this algorithm. Through simulation, we proved our bandwidth allocation algorithm performs better in bandwidth utilization and differentiate service support.

  4. Error rate information in attention allocation pilot models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, W. H.; Onstott, E. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Northrop urgency decision pilot model was used in a command tracking task to compare the optimized performance of multiaxis attention allocation pilot models whose urgency functions were (1) based on tracking error alone, and (2) based on both tracking error and error rate. A matrix of system dynamics and command inputs was employed, to create both symmetric and asymmetric two axis compensatory tracking tasks. All tasks were single loop on each axis. Analysis showed that a model that allocates control attention through nonlinear urgency functions using only error information could not achieve performance of the full model whose attention shifting algorithm included both error and error rate terms. Subsequent to this analysis, tracking performance predictions for the full model were verified by piloted flight simulation. Complete model and simulation data are presented.

  5. Performance Investigation of Virtual Private Networks with Different Bandwidth Allocations

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Mahalakshmi Chidambara; Nachiappan, Alamelu

    2010-01-01

    A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides private network connections over a publicly accessible shared network. The effective allocation of bandwidth for VPNs assumes significance in the present scenario due to varied traffic. Each VPN endpoint specifies bounds on the total amount of traffic that it is likely to send or receive at any time. The network provider tailors the VPN so that there is sufficient bandwidth for any traffic matrix that is consistent with these bounds. The approach incorporates the use of Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, with a view to accomplish an enhancement in the performance of the mobile networks. The NS2 based simulation results are evaluated in terms of its metrics for different bandwidth allocations, besides analyzing its performance in the event of exigencies such as link failures. The results highlight the suitability of the proposed strategy in the context of real time applications.

  6. Intra-regional Diffusion of Spectrum License Allocation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai; Maitland, Carleen F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to develop a greater understanding of international telecommunications policy diffusion through preliminary, qualitative analysis of an expected utility model. The model is tested through analyses of diffusion of spectrum license allocation policies within and between......-depth qualitative analyses to compare effects of various diffusion mechanisms; diffusion of spectrum license allocation policies at the regional level was more strongly driven by a policy’s likely effectiveness, as compared to potential payoffs for policymakers; and conversely, at the national level diffusion...... and its application in the telecommunications domain. Practical contributions include providing a framework for systematic analysis of a telecommunications policy’s benefits for the public as well as policymakers....

  7. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;

    2015-01-01

    be the focus in China in future research:More attention need to paid to studying the unified management policy and mechanism of water resources, studying the water resources cycle and transformation under environmental change, studying new methods for water resources carrying capacity and evaluation......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area....... The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...

  8. How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Christian; Hammond, John P; White, Philip J; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2006-12-01

    Plants constantly sense the changes in their environment; when mineral elements are scarce, they often allocate a greater proportion of their biomass to the root system. This acclimatory response is a consequence of metabolic changes in the shoot and an adjustment of carbohydrate transport to the root. It has long been known that deficiencies of essential macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium) result in an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves and roots, and modify the shoot-to-root biomass ratio. Here, we present an update on the effects of mineral deficiencies on the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism in the shoot, the evidence for increased carbohydrate concentrations and altered biomass allocation between shoot and root, and the consequences of these changes on the growth and morphology of the plant root system.

  9. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  10. Auction-Based Resource Allocation in Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Marzolla, Moreno; D'Angelo, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of portable devices (PDAs, smartphones, digital multimedia players, and so forth) allows mobile users to carry around a pool of computing, storage and communication resources. Sharing these resources with other users ("Digital Organisms" -- DOs) opens the door to novel interesting scenarios, where people trade resources to allow the execution, anytime and anywhere, of applications that require a mix of capabilities. In this paper we present a fully distributed approach for resource sharing among multiple devices owned by different mobile users. Our scheme enables DOs to trade computing/networking facilities through an auction-based mechanism, without the need of a central control. We use a set of numerical experiments to compare our approach with an optimal (centralized) allocation strategy that, given the set of resource demands and offers, maximizes the number of matches. Results confirm the effectiveness of our approach since it produces a fair allocation of resources with low computation...

  11. Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Peng-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.

  12. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Allocation Optimization of Distribution Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晶; 庞小红; 吴智铭

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced an integrated allocation model for distribution centers (DCs). The facility cost, inventory cost, transportation cost and service quality were considered in the model. An improved genetic algorithm (IGA) was proposed to solve the problem. The improvement of IGA is based on the idea of adjusting crossover probability and mutation probability. The IGA is supplied by heuristic rules too. The simulation results show that the IGA is better than the standard GA(SGA) in search efficiency and equality.

  13. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B.G.; Vieira Filho, X. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H.J.; Alvarenga Filho, S. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Validation Effectiveness of Develop Maintainability Allocation on Aircraft Mechanical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Husain W.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintainability Allocation is a process to identify the allowable maximum task time for each individual component. Consequently, this provides clear pictures to the designers to design and identify potential design improvement within allowable maintenance allocation time limits. During the design process elements such as missteps or misapplications most commonly occur. Here, the authors propose having the maximum target for each individual maintainability component. The main objective of this paper is to present the validation process of developed Maintainability Allocation to potentially eliminate previous problems. The process of validation begins with analysed all the data collected from Service Difficulty Reports (SDR for selected aircraft. This is to understand the problems from existing aircraft before a new design is proposed through the process of Maintainability Allocation prediction. The validation processes have discovered the importance of utilising historical information such as feedback information. The second area is looking at the element of quantifying the data collected from aircraft feedback information which contains various types of information that could be used for future improvement. Validation process shows that feedback information has helped to identify the critical and sensitive components that need more attention for further improvement. The study shows that the aircraft maintenance related feedback information systems analyses were very useful for deciding maintainability effectiveness; these include planning, organising maintenance and design improvement. There is no doubt that feedback information has the ability to contribute an important role in design activities. The results also show that maintainability is an important measure that can be used as a guideline for managing efforts made for the improvement of aircraft components.

  15. Predetermined Prices and the Allocation of Social Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Azariadis; Russell Cooper

    1983-01-01

    We propose a Walrasian explanation for the existence of fixed prices, i.e., of trades in which either the price or the quantity exchanged do not reflect all publicly available information. Such trades result in a rigid price system that facilitates the sharing of social risks; they may also cause allocative distortions which tend to increase the equilibrium price of insurance above its actuarially fair level. The simple overlapping generations model we consider here exhibits a tradeoff betwee...

  16. Allocation of Operations and Support Cost Targets Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Logistics Technology Dept P.O. Box 225907, Dallas TX 75265 Sa. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING ORGANIZATION AF Business Research Mgt Center AFBRMC/RDCB Sb...REPORT (Yr., Mo.. Day) 84 Apr 5 15. PAGE COUNT 42 COSAT1 CODES FIELD 05 GROUP 01 SUB. GR. 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if...necessary and identify by block number) Allocation of 0&S Cost Targets, Guarantees Life Cycle Cost, Costs, Cost Targets 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  17. Lossless compression catalyst based on binary allocation via modular arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Mastriani, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A new binary (bit-level) lossless compression catalyst method based on a modular arithmetic, called Binary Allocation via Modular Arithmetic (BAMA), has been introduced in this paper. In other words, BAMA is for storage and transmission of binary sequences, digital signal, images and video, also streaming and all kinds of digital transmission. As we said, our method does not compress, but facilitates the action of the real compressor, in our case, any lossless compression algorithm (Run Lengt...

  18. A new traffic allocation algorithm in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; MIAO Jian-song; SUN Dan-dan; ZHOU Li-gang; DING Wei

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic traffic distribution algorithm based on the minimization product of packet delay and packet energy consumption is proposed. The algorithm is based on packet delay and energy consumption in allocating traffic, which can optimize the network performance. Simulation demonstrated that the algorithm could dynamically adjust to the traffic distribution between paths, which can minimize the product of packet delay and energy consumption in mobile Ad hoc networks.

  19. Dynamic Frequency Allocation in SLICE Considering both BER and Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is a dynamic resource-aware routing and frequency slots allocation scheme with consideration of both BER requirement and distance adaptive modulation (RA-BERR-DA for spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE.Numerical simulations are conducted to analysis network performance such as blocking rate and the number of used frequency slots. The results demonstrate that this scheme is able to decrease traffic blocking and improve resource utilization in dynamic spectrum assignment.

  20. How to make allocation decisions: a theory and test questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Hospital administrators are regularly faced with having to cut patient services. Such decisions are essentially questions of distributive justice, and administrators may welcome some guidance. We begin with a key idea from the most influential theory of justice of our times, that of John Rawls, and generate from it a series of test questions against which the ethical dimensions of allocation decisions can be judged.

  1. A woman's place: household labour allocation in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, M

    1994-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on household labor allocation. The review reveals that development policies impacting on the labor market favor men over women. Male favoritism also occurs in household decision-making. Data from the 1988 Rural Labor Force Survey were used to examine rural household labor allocation in 1988 and the extent of female and male participation in home and market production and the degree of labor market discrimination against women. It is argued that the standard neoclassical model of economics does not recognize the unequal bargaining power of each member of the household in arriving at a solution to the joint welfare maximization problem. Women's position is expected to worsen during economic development. Women will have less than full participation in the labor market. Women's distinct role in household welfare provision is often disregarded. Development policy mainly focuses on market activities where women hold few positions. Labor allocation in the empirical analysis pertains to the mean hours per week in farm activities, household activities, schooling, and paid or unpaid non-farm work. Findings indicate that average earnings were lower for females than males and that returns to education and training were higher for males than females. Wage discrimination accounted for 30-66% of the earnings gap between rural men and women. Women faced discrimination on their returns to human capital and occupational choices. The concentration of women in low-paying jobs accounted for 21% of the wage gap. Women's lower education accounted for over 10%. Findings suggest that Kenyan households respond to market incentives. Women worked longer hours than men and contributed more to household welfare. Policy should focus on models of household provisioning and not on a joint utility function. Policy should encourage households to revise labor allocation strategies.

  2. Storage Allocation for Multi-Class Distributed Data Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Roshandeh, Koosha Pourtahmasi; Noori, Moslem; Ardakani, Masoud; Tellambura, Chintha

    2017-01-01

    Distributed storage systems (DSSs) provide a scalable solution for reliably storing massive amounts of data coming from various sources. Heterogeneity of these data sources often means different data classes (types) exist in a DSS, each needing a different level of quality of service (QoS). As a result, efficient data storage and retrieval processes that satisfy various QoS requirements are needed. This paper studies storage allocation, meaning how data of different classes must be spread ove...

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL VARIABLES ALLOCATION IN MESOSCALE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇迪; 陆汉城

    2004-01-01

    Forecasts and simulations are varied owing to different allocation of 3-dimensional variables in mesoscale models. No attempts have been made to address the issue of optimizing the simulation with a 3-dimensional variables distribution that should come to be. On the basis of linear nonhydrostatic anelastic equations, the paper hereby compares, mainly graphically, the computational dispersion with analytical solutions for four kinds of 3-dimensional meshes commonly found in mesoscale models, in terms of frequency, horizontal and vertical group velocities. The result indicates that the 3-D mesh C/CP has the best computational dispersion, followed by Z/LZ and Z/LY, with the C/L having the worst performance. It is then known that the C/CP mesh is the most desirable allocation in the design of nonhydrostatic baroclinic models. The mesh has, however, larger errors when dealing with shorter horizontal wavelengths. For the simulation of smaller horizontal scales, the horizontal grid intervals have to be shortened to reduce the errors. Additionally, in view of the dominant use of C/CP mesh in finite-difference models, it should be used in conjunction with the Z/LZ or Z/LY mesh if variables are allocated in spectral models.

  4. [Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuai; Zhang, Shu-qing

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and economy, as well as the rapid increase of population, more and more water is needed by human, which intensified the shortage of water resources. The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation, so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security. Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use. However, present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale, which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation. By summarizing previous related studies, especially those based on intelligent algorithms, this article proposed a multi-level, multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water, and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework. Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water allocation can not only control the total volume of irrigation water on the time scale, but also reduce water loss on the spatial scale. It could provide scientific basis and technical support for improving the irrigation water management level and ensuring the food security.

  5. Survey On Scheduling And Radio Resources Allocation In Lte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayssal Bendaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an essential task of the enhanced NodeB eNodeB element in LTE architecture, the Radio Resource Manager RRM, which aims to accept or reject requests for connection to the network based on some constraints and ensuring optimal distribution of radio resources between Users Equipments UEs. Its main functionalities include Admission Control AC and Packet Scheduling PS. This paper will center mainly on the PS part of the RRM task, which performs the radio resource allocation in both uplink and downlink directions. Several approaches and algorithms have been proposed in the literature to address this need (allocate resources efficiently, the diversity and multitude of algorithms is related to the factors considered for the optimal management of radio resource, specifically, the traffic type and the QoS (Quality of Service requested by the UE. In this article, an art’s state of the radio resource allocation strategies and a detailed study of several scheduling algorithms proposed for LTE (uplink and downlink are made. Therefore, we offer our evaluation and criticism.

  6. Radio Resource Allocation on Complex 4G Wireless Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psannis, Kostas E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  7. German hospital database-allocation of patients to appropriate hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rita; Reiners, Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Effective response to radiological emergencies requires information about available qualified hospitals and defined methods to timely allocate patients to appropriate hospitals. In Germany, updated information about hospitals concerning their qualification and willingness to treat radiological emergency patients is not summarized. The objectives were to identify qualified hospitals, assess hospital capacities and treatment capabilities, to examine willingness to respond to various radiological emergencies and to develop a concept for matching patients to hospitals. A Germany-wide combined postal/Web survey of 99 selected hospitals conducted in 2007 covered relevant organizational characteristics, hospital resources, treatment expertise, and the willingness to accept radiological emergency patients by a self-reported written questionnaire with 57 items. Survey results were documented in a Microsoft Access database. A database-driven Web application was developed to allocate patients to hospitals. Of 99 hospitals, 69 responded and 54 indicated their willingness to accept radiological emergency patients. 17,512 total hospital beds, 2,084 intensive care, and 170 reverse isolation beds were reported. Availability of laboratory and in-patient departments ranged from 14 radiobiology to 47 laboratory medicine departments and from 13 burn care to 52 trauma surgery departments. 48 and 40 hospitals stated treatment competence for local and whole body external exposure, respectively. 34 and 29 hospitals reported treatment expertise for contamination and incorporation, respectively. In this publication baseline data of qualified hospitals concerning capacities and competence to manage radiological emergency patients are presented, and an allocation concept for radiological emergency patients is provided.

  8. HIV/AIDS and time allocation in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bignami-Van Assche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AIDS morbidity and mortality are expected to have a large impact on households' labor supply in rural Malawi since they reduce the time that adults can spend on production for subsistence and on income generating activities. However, the data demands for estimating this impact are high, limiting the amount of empirical evidence. In this paper, we utilize a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative data, including biomarkers for HIV, collected by the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project, to analyze the impact of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality on time allocation decisions for rural Malawians. We evaluate both the direct effect of HIV/AIDS on the time allocation of affected individuals as well as its indirect effect on the time allocation of surviving household members. We find that the latter is the most important effect of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, especially on women's time. Specifically, AIDS induces diversification of income sources, with women reallocating their time from work-intensive (typically farming and heavy chores to cash-generating tasks (such as casual labor.

  9. Allocating Bandwidth in Datacenter Networks:A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽; 李葆春; 李波

    2014-01-01

    Datacenters have played an increasingly essential role as the underlying infrastructure in cloud computing. As implied by the essence of cloud computing, resources in these datacenters are shared by multiple competing entities, which can be either tenants that rent virtual machines (VMs) in a public cloud such as Amazon EC2, or applications that embrace data parallel frameworks like MapReduce in a private cloud maintained by Google. It has been generally observed that with traditional transport-layer protocols allocating link bandwidth in datacenters, network traffic from competing applications interferes with each other, resulting in a severe lack of predictability and fairness of application performance. Such a critical issue has drawn a substantial amount of recent research attention on bandwidth allocation in datacenter networks, with a number of new mechanisms proposed to efficiently and fairly share a datacenter network among competing entities. In this article, we present an extensive survey of existing bandwidth allocation mechanisms in the literature, covering the scenarios of both public and private clouds. We thoroughly investigate their underlying design principles, evaluate the trade-off involved in their design choices and summarize them in a unified design space, with the hope of conveying some meaningful insights for better designs in the future.

  10. Declining spatial efficiency of global cropland nitrogen allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Lassaletta, Luis; Runck, Bryan C.; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Gerber, James S.

    2017-02-01

    Efficiently allocating nitrogen (N) across space maximizes crop productivity for a given amount of N input and reduces N losses to the environment. Here we quantify changes in the global spatial efficiency of cropland N use by calculating historical trade-off frontiers relating N inputs to possible N yield assuming efficient allocation. Time series cropland N budgets from 1961 to 2009 characterize the evolution of N input-yield response functions across 12 regions and are the basis for constructing trade-off frontiers. Improvements in agronomic technology have substantially increased cropping system yield potentials and expanded N-driven crop production possibilities. However, we find that these gains are compromised by the declining spatial efficiency of N use across regions. Since the start of the Green Revolution, N inputs and yields have moved farther from the optimal frontier over time; in recent years (1994-2009), global N surplus has grown to a value that is 69% greater than what is possible with efficient N allocation between regions. To reflect regional pollution and agricultural development goals, we construct scenarios that restrict reallocation, finding that these changes only slightly decrease potential gains in nitrogen use efficiency. Our results are inherently conservative due to the regional unit of analysis, meaning a larger potential exists than is quantified here for cross-scale policies to promote spatially efficient N use.

  11. Lessons learned from a regional strategy for resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Janine C; Stapley, Jonathan; Akins, Ralitsa; Silenas, Rasa; Williams, Josie R

    2005-01-01

    Two qualitative case studies focus on the allocation of CDC funds distributed during 2002 for bioterrorism preparedness in two Texas public health regions (each as populous and complex as many states). Lessons learned are presented for public health officials and others who work to build essential public health services and security for our nation. The first lesson is that personal relationships are the cornerstone of preparedness. A major lesson is that a regional strategy to manage funds may be more effective than allocating funds on a per capita basis. One regional director required every local department to complete a strategic plan as a basis for proportional allocation of the funds. Control of communicable diseases was a central component of the planning. Some funds were kept at the regional level to provide epidemiology services, computer software, equipment, and training for the entire region. Confirmation of the value of this regional strategy was expressed by local public health and emergency management officials in a focus group 1 year after the strategy had been implemented. The group members also pointed out the need to streamline the planning process, provide up-to-date computer networks, and receive more than minimal communication. This regional strategy can be viewed from the perspective of adaptive leadership, defined as activities to bring about constructive change, which also can be used to analyze other difficult areas of preparedness.

  12. Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Ermolova

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.

  13. FORUM: Bilateral Monopoly: A Market for Intercountry River Water Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis

    1998-01-01

    / Collaboration of countries with an aim to share fresh surface water resources promises to generate potential joint benefits. Unfortunately, existing agreements lack the perspective and capacity to produce any real action in efficient cross-border water allocation. When that problem is encountered by any two adjacent countries claiming riparian rights to the same watercourse, this paper suggests that apossible solution to be examined is a water market. This market requires the relevant countries to engage in a bargaining process as described in the theory of bilateral monopoly. The bargaining process should determine both the water quantity to be transferred and the price to be paid. However, there has to be a fair allocation of the joint benefits resulting from the transfer for a sustainable price solution. As an empirical illustration, the paper examines the case of river Nestos shared by Bulgaria and Greece in the southern Balkans. A net revenue function quadratic in water is specified and estimated using scarce data on three agricultural crops in Greece. Sensitivity analysis on the size and distribution of the net benefits is also performed.KEY WORDS: Bilateral agreements; Water markets; Efficient allocation

  14. Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolova NY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.

  15. Genomics Mechanisms of Carbon Allocation and Partitioning in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias; Peter, Gary; Martin, Timothy

    2009-07-30

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration. It is also unclear how environmental cues such as nitrogen availability impact the genes that regulate growth, and biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. To address these questions we phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above and below ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Fifty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for twenty traits analyzed. The majority of QTL are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and QTL co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Gene expression analysis of all poplar genes was also characterized in differentiating xylem, whole-roots and developing leaves of 192 of the segregating population. By integrating the QTL and gene expression information we identified genes that regulate carbon partitioning and several biomass growth related properties. The work developed in this project resulted in the publication of three book chapters, four scientific articles (three others currently in preparation), 17 presentations in international conferences and two provisional patent applications.

  16. Load Balancing in Local Computational Grids within Resource Allocation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Golmohammadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A suitable resource allocation method in computational grids should schedule resources in a way that provides the requirements of the users and the resource providers; i.e., the maximum number of tasks should be completed in their time and budget constraints and the received load be distributed equally between resources. This is a decision-making problem, while the scheduler should select a resource from all ones. This process is a multi criteria decision-making problem; because of affect of different properties of resources on this decision. The goal of this decision-making process is balancing the load and completing the tasks in their defined constraints. The proposed algorithm is an analytic hierarchy process based Resource Allocation (ARA method. This method estimates a value for the preference of each resource and then selects the appropriate resource based on the allocated values. The simulations show the ARA method decreases the task failure rate at least 48% and increases the balance factor more than 3.4%.

  17. Real time target allocation in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudleppanavar, Ganesh

    The prolific development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) in recent years has the potential to provide tremendous advantages in military, commercial and law enforcement applications. While safety and performance take precedence in the development lifecycle, autonomous operations and, in particular, cooperative missions have the ability to significantly enhance the usability of these vehicles. The success of cooperative missions relies on the optimal allocation of targets while taking into consideration the resource limitation of each vehicle. The task allocation process can be centralized or decentralized. This effort presents the development of a real time target allocation algorithm that considers available stored energy in each vehicle while minimizing the communication between each UAV. The algorithm utilizes a nearest neighbor search algorithm to locate new targets with respect to existing targets. Simulations show that this novel algorithm compares favorably to the mixed integer linear programming method, which is computationally more expensive. The implementation of this algorithm on Arduino and Xbee wireless modules shows the capability of the algorithm to execute efficiently on hardware with minimum computation complexity.

  18. User Equilibrium Exchange Allocation Algorithm Based on Super Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyi Dong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of super network is an effective method to various traffic networks with means of multiple decision-making. It provides us with a favorable pricing decision tool for it combines a practical transport network with the space pricing decision. Spatial price equilibrium problem has always been the important research direction of the Transport Economics and regional transportation planning. As to how to combine the two, this paper presents the user equilibrium exchange allocation algorithm based on super network, which successfully keep the classical spatial price equilibrium problems (SPE into a super-network analysis framework. Through super-network analysis, we can add two virtual nodes in the network, which correspond to the virtual supply node and the super-super-demand virtual node, analysis the user equivalence with the SPE equilibrium and find the concrete steps of users exchange allocation algorithm based on super-network equilibrium. Finally, we carried out experiments to verify. The experiments show that: through the user equilibrium exchange SPE allocation algorithm based on super-network, we can get the steady-state equilibrium solution, which demonstrate that the algorithm is reasonable.

  19. Energy-efficient Power Allocation Strategy in Cognitive Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio and cooperative technique are two essential techniques for the future generation green communication paradigm owing to its inherent advantages of adaptability and cognition. Typically, previous studies on power allocation in the cognitive relay networks often concentrate on two goals independently: the first goal is to minimize the transmit power to reduce energy consumption, as depicted in strategy 1; the second goal is to maximize the transmit rate, as depicted in strategy 2. In this paper, we shift our focus to energy-efficient-oriented design, that is, green power allocation between source and relay. Therefore, we present a novel power allocation strategy considering the two goals jointly, as depicted in strategy 3, and compare the proposed strategy with two previous strategies. Specifically, because the strategy 3 is nonlinear, we use the Lagrange dual method to solve it effectively. Finally, the numerical results are presented to validate our theoretical results through theory simulation and Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical performance results show that the proposed strategy works better than that of the two previous strategies from the viewpoints of energy-efficient.

  20. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings.

  1. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  2. DYNAMIC RESOURCE ALLOCATION SCHEME UNDER TRAFFIC CONDITION IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jia; Zong Peng

    2012-01-01

    As the traffic distribution in China mainland is far from uniform,a new traffic model in China mainland is presented on the basis of per-capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and density of population.Based on this characteristic traffic model,a new Traffic Dependent Dynamic Channel Allocation and Reservation (TDDCAR) technique is proposed,the simulation model is built,and the strategies' performance is evaluated through computer simulation.The simulation results show that,compared to the conventional Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA),TDDCAR estimates the traffic conditions in every spot beam and frequently adjusts the traffic according to current traffic conditions.Ithas achieved a significant improvement in new call blocking probability,handover blocking probability,and fair index,particularly,in heavy traffic conditions.The building of traffic model in China mainland and the analysis of the simulation results has been a key foundation for the study of resource allocation schemes in the future.

  3. Maternal-fetal resource allocation: co-operation and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Moore, T

    2012-11-01

    Pregnancy is generally a co-operative interaction between mother and fetus in which the evolutionary genetic interests of both benefit from production of healthy offspring. While this view is largely supported by empirical data, Kinship Theory predicts that mother and fetus will disagree over the optimum level of maternal investment that maximises their respective fitnesses. This conflict will be more evident with polyandrous than monogamous mating systems, when resources are scarce and in late gestation when the fetus is growing maximally, particularly if conceptus mass is large relative to maternal mass. As the site of nutrient transfer, the placenta is pivotal in the tug-of-war between mother and fetus over resource allocation. It responds to both fetal signals of nutrient demand and maternal signals of nutrient availability and, by adapting its phenotype, regulates the distribution of available resources. These adaptations involve changes in placental size, morphology, transport characteristics, metabolism and hormone bioavailability. They are mediated by key growth regulatory, endocrine and nutrient supply genes responsive to mismatches between nutrient availability and the fetal genetic drive for growth. Indeed, evolution of genomic imprinting and placental secretion of hormones are believed to have been driven by maternal-fetal conflict over resource allocation. Although many of the specific mechanisms involved still have to be identified, the placenta confers optimal fitness on the offspring for its developmental environment by balancing conflict and cooperation in the allocation of resources through generation of nutrient transport phenotypes specific to the prevailing nutritional conditions and/or fetal genotype.

  4. Carbon allocation in a Bornean tropical rainforest without dry seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Komatsu, Hikaru; Saitoh, Taku M; Ohashi, Mizue; Nakagawa, Michiko; Suzuki, Masakazu; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2013-07-01

    To clarify characteristics of carbon (C) allocation in a Bornean tropical rainforest without dry seasons, gross primary production (GPP) and C allocation, i.e., above-ground net primary production (ANPP), aboveground plant respiration (APR), and total below-ground carbon flux (TBCF) for the forest were examined and compared with those from Amazonian tropical rainforests with dry seasons. GPP (30.61 MgC ha(-1) year(-1), eddy covariance measurements; 34.40 MgC ha(-1) year(-1), biometric measurements) was comparable to those for Amazonian rainforests. ANPP (6.76 MgC ha(-1) year(-1)) was comparable to, and APR (8.01 MgC ha(-1) year(-1)) was slightly lower than, their respective values for Amazonian rainforests, even though aboveground biomass was greater at our site. TBCF (19.63 MgC ha(-1) year(-1)) was higher than those for Amazonian forests. The comparable ANPP and higher TBCF were unexpected, since higher water availability would suggest less fine root competition for water, giving higher ANPP and lower TBCF to GPP. Low nutrient availability may explain the comparable ANPP and higher TBCF. These data show that there are variations in C allocation patterns among mature tropical rainforests, and the variations cannot be explained solely by differences in soil water availability.

  5. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  6. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  7. Optimal Energy Allocation for Wireless Communications with Energy Harvesting Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Chin Keong

    2011-01-01

    We consider the use of energy harvesters, in place of conventional batteries with fixed energy storage, for point-to-point wireless communications. In addition to the challenge of transmitting in a channel with time selective fading, energy harvesters provide a perpetual but unreliable energy source. In this paper, we consider the problem of energy allocation over a finite horizon, taking into account channel conditions and energy sources that are time varying, so as to maximize the throughput. Two types of side information (SI) on the channel conditions and harvested energy are assumed to be available: causal SI (of the past and present slots) and full SI (of the past, present and future slots). We obtain structural results for the optimal energy allocation, via the use of dynamic programming and convex optimization techniques. In particular, if unlimited energy can be stored in the battery with harvested energy and full SI is available, we prove the optimality of a water-filling energy allocation solution w...

  8. Random allocation software for parallel group randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghaei Mahmood

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typically, randomization software should allow users to exert control over the different aspects of randomization including block design, provision of unique identifiers and control over the format and type of program output. While some of these characteristics have been addressed by available software, none of them have all of these capabilities integrated into one package. The main objective of the Random Allocation Software project was to enhance the user's control over different aspects of randomization in parallel group trials, including output type and format, structure and ordering of generated unique identifiers and enabling users to specify group names for more than two groups. Results The program has different settings for: simple and blocked randomizations; length, format and ordering of generated unique identifiers; type and format of program output; and saving sessions for future use. A formatted random list generated by this program can be used directly (without further formatting by the coordinator of the research team to prepare and encode different drugs or instruments necessary for the parallel group trial. Conclusions Random Allocation Software enables users to control different attributes of the random allocation sequence and produce qualified lists for parallel group trials.

  9. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Hybrid Access Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercell interference is one of the most challenging issues in femtocell deployment under the coverage of existing macrocell. Allocation of resources between femtocell and macrocell is essential to counter the effects of interference in dense femtocell networks. Advances in resource management strategies have improved the control mechanism for interference reduction at lower node density, but most of them are ineffective at higher node density. In this paper, a dynamic resource allocation management algorithm (DRAMA for spectrum shared hybrid access OFDMA femtocell network is proposed. To reduce the macro-femto-tier interference and to improve the quality of service, the proposed algorithm features a dynamic resource allocation scheme by controlling them both centrally and locally. The proposed scheme focuses on Femtocell Access Point (FAP owners’ satisfaction and allows maximum utilization of available resources based on congestion in the network. A simulation environment is developed to study the quantitative performance of DRAMA in hybrid access-control femtocell network and compare it to closed and open access mechanisms. The performance analysis shows that higher number of random users gets connected to the FAP without compromising FAP owners’ satisfaction allowing the macrocell to offload a large number of users in a dense heterogeneous network.

  10. Dual Kidney Allocation Score: A Novel Algorithm Utilizing Expanded Donor Criteria for the Allocation of Dual Kidneys in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam P; Price, Thea P; Lieby, Benjamin; Doria, Cataldo

    2016-09-08

    BACKGROUND Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) of expanded-criteria donors is a cost-intensive procedure that aims to increase the pool of available deceased organ donors and has demonstrated equivalent outcomes to expanded-criteria single kidney transplantation (eSKT). The objective of this study was to develop an allocation score based on predicted graft survival from historical dual and single kidney donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for 1547 DKT and 26 381 eSKT performed between January 1994 and September 2013. We utilized multivariable Cox regression to identify variables independently associated with graft survival in dual and single kidney transplantations. We then derived a weighted multivariable product score from calculated hazard ratios to model the benefit of transplantation as dual kidneys. RESULTS Of 36 donor variables known at the time of listing, 13 were significantly associated with graft survival. The derived dual allocation score demonstrated good internal validity with strong correlation to improved survival in dual kidney transplants. Donors with scores less than 2.1 transplanted as dual kidneys had a worsened median survival of 594 days (24%, p-value 0.031) and donors with scores greater than 3.9 had improved median survival of 1107 days (71%, p-value 0.002). There were 17 733 eSKT (67%) and 1051 DKT (67%) with scores in between these values and no differences in survival (p-values 0.676 and 0.185). CONCLUSIONS We have derived a dual kidney allocation score (DKAS) with good internal validity. Future prospective studies will be required to demonstrate external validity, but this score may help to standardize organ allocation for dual kidney transplantation.

  11. National plan of quotas allocations and territories; Plan national d'allocation des quotas et territoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, E

    2002-03-15

    The european system of quotas exchange has been developed to encourage the heavy industry to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions, as the steel industry, the refining or the chemical industry. Meanwhile, the National Plan for the Quotas Allocations (PNAQ) includes also a great number of more little installations. This document aims to present the french PNAQ in the european context, and to realize a deep study in order to more detail the territorial actors. (A.L.B.)

  12. A Power Allocation Algorithm Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Multi-cell OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A centralized resource allocation algorithm in multi-cell OFDM systems is studied, which aims at improving the performance of wireless communication systems and enhancing user’s spectral efficiency on the edge of the cell. The proposed resource allocation algorithm can be divided into two steps. The first step is sub-carrier allocation based on matrix searching in single cell and the second one is joint power allocation based on cooperative game theory in multi-cell. By comparing with traditional resource allocation algorithms in multi-cell scenario, we find that the proposed algorithm has lower computational complexity and good fairness performance.

  13. Power allocation for MIMO-OFDM systems with multi-user decoupling and scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A power allocation scheme for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems with channel state information (CSI) on transmitter and receiver is pressed. Multi-user power allocation can be decoupled into single user power allocation throughout null space mapping of multi-user channel and power allocation can be performed throughout spatial-spectral water-filling for per user. To deal with more users in system and fading correlation, scheduling is performed to maintain the gain of power allocation. The proposed scheme can substantially improve system's spectral efficiency with low omplexity. Simulation results validate the accuracy of theoretic analyses.

  14. Hardware Resource Allocation for Hardware/Software Partitioning in the LYCOS System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware resource allocation technique for hardware/software partitioning. It allocates hardware resources to the hardware data-path using information such as data-dependencies between operations in the application, and profiling information. The algorithm is useful...... as a designer's/design tool's aid to generate good hardware allocations for use in hardware/software partitioning. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool under the LYCOS system. The results show that the allocations produced by the algorithm come close to the best allocations obtained by exhaustive search....

  15. Understanding the allocation of attention when faced with varying perceptual load in partial report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Sy, Jocelyn L; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The allocation of visual processing capacity is a key topic in studies and theories of visual attention. The load theory of Lavie (1995) proposes that allocation happens in two steps where processing resources are first allocated to task-relevant stimuli and secondly remaining capacity 'spills over......' to task-irrelevant distractors. In contrast, the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) proposed by Bundesen (1990) assumes that allocation happens in a single step where processing capacity is allocated to all stimuli, both task-relevant and task-irrelevant, in proportion to their relative attentional weight...... theory of visual attention by Bundesen et al. (2005)....

  16. Hardware Resource Allocation for Hardware/Software Partitioning in the LYCOS System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Madsen, Jan; Knudsen, Peter Voigt

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware resource allocation technique for hardware/software partitioning. It allocates hardware resources to the hardware data-path using information such as data-dependencies between operations in the application, and profiling information. The algorithm is useful...... as a designer's/design tool's aid to generate good hardware allocations for use in hardware/software partitioning. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool under the LYCOS system. The results show that the allocations produced by the algorithm come close to the best allocations obtained by exhaustive search...

  17. Plants adapted to nutrient limitation allocate less biomass into stems in an arid-hot grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bangguo; Ji, Zhonghua; Fan, Bo; Wang, Xuemei; He, Guangxiong; Shi, Liangtao; Liu, Gangcai

    2016-09-01

    Biomass allocation can exert a great influence on plant resource acquisition and nutrient use. However, the role of biomass allocation strategies in shaping plant community composition under nutrient limitations remains poorly addressed. We hypothesized that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations, resulting in species turnover and changes in community-level biomass allocations across nutrient gradients. In this study, we measured species abundance and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves and soil nutrients in an arid-hot grassland. We quantified species-specific allocation parameters for stems vs leaves based on allometric scaling relationships. Species-specific stem vs leaf allocation parameters were weighted with species abundances to calculate the community-weighted means driven by species turnover. We found that the community-weighted means of biomass allocation parameters were significantly related to the soil nutrient gradient as well as to leaf stoichiometry, indicating that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations in the studied grassland. Species that allocate less to stems than leaves tend to dominate nutrient-limited environments. The results support the hypothesis that species-specific allocations affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations. The allocation trade-off between stems and leaves has the potential to greatly affect plant distribution across nutrient gradients.

  18. Antenna allocation in MIMO radar with widely separated antennas for multi-target detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-10-27

    In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes.

  19. Optimum Power and Rate Allocation for Coded V-BLAST: Average Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Kostina, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    An analytical framework for performance analysis and optimization of coded V-BLAST is developed. Average power and/or rate allocations to minimize the outage probability as well as their robustness and dual problems are investigated. Compact, closed-form expressions for the optimum allocations and corresponding system performance are given. The uniform power allocation is shown to be near optimum in the low outage regime in combination with the optimum rate allocation. The average rate allocation provides the largest performance improvement (extra diversity gain), and the average power allocation offers a modest SNR gain limited by the number of transmit antennas but does not increase the diversity gain. The dual problems are shown to have the same solutions as the primal ones. All these allocation strategies are shown to be robust. The reported results also apply to coded multiuser detection and channel equalization systems relying on successive interference cancelation.

  20. OPTIMAL POWER ALLOCATION WITH AF AND SDF STRATEGIES IN DUAL-HOP COOPERATIVE MIMO NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaorong; Zheng Baoyu; Zhang Jianwu

    2010-01-01

    Dual-hop cooperative Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) network with multi-relay cooperative communication is introduced. Power allocation problem with Amplify-and-Forward (AF) and Selective Decode-and-Forward (SDF) strategies in multi-node scenario are formulated and solved respectively. Optimal power allocation schemes that maximize system capacity with AF strategy are presented. In addition,optimal power allocation methods that minimize asymptotic Symbol Error Rate (SER) with SDF cooperative protocol in multi-node scenario are also proposed. Furthermore,performance comparisons are provided in terms of system capacity and approximate SER. Numerical and simulation results confirm our theoretical analysis. It is revealed that,maximum system capacity could be obtained when powers are allocated optimally with AF protocol,while minimization of system's SER could also be achieved with optimum power allocation in SDF strategy. In multi-node scenario,those optimal power allocation algorithms are superior to conventional equal power allocation schemes.

  1. Target allocation yields for massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys with fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Will [Australian Astron. Observ.; Smedley, Scott [Australian Astron. Observ.; Gillingham, Peter [Australian Astron. Observ.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E. [Andes U., Bogota; Jouvel, Stephanie [ICE, Bellaterra; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-08-05

    We present Simulated Annealing fiber-to-target allocation simulations for the proposed DESI and 4MOST massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys, and for both Poisson and realistically clustered mock target samples. We simulate both Echidna and theta-phi actuator designs, including the restrictions caused by the physical actuator characteristics during repositioning. For DESI, with theta-phi actuators, used in 5 passes over the sky for a mock ELG/LRG/QSO sample, with matched fiber and target densities, a total target allocation yield of 89.3% was achieved, but only 83.7% for the high-priority Ly-alpha QSOs. If Echidna actuators are used with the same pitch and number of passes, the yield increases by 5.7% and 16% respectively. Echidna also allows a factor-of-two increase in the number of close Ly-alpha QSO pairs that can be observed. Echidna spine tilt causes a variable loss of throughput, with average loss being the same as the loss at the rms tilt. With a natural tilt minimization scheme, we find an rms tilt always close to 0.58 x maximum. There is an additional but much smaller defocus loss, equivalent to an average defocus of 30microns. These tilt losses offset the gains in yield for Echidna, but because the survey strategy is driven by the higher priority targets, a clear survey speed advantage remains. For 4MOST, high and low latitude sample mock catalogs were supplied by the 4MOST team, and allocations were carried out with the proposed Echidna-based positioner geometry. At high latitudes, the resulting target completeness was 85.3% for LR targets and 78.9% for HR targets. At low latitude, the target completeness was 93.9% for LR targets and 71.2% for HR targets.

  2. Life-cycle asset allocation with focus on retirement savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina

    costs, taxes, and uncertain labor income. The problem is solved using a combination of a multi-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP) model and stochastic optimal control, such that the practical application is emphasized. Both solutions are integrated into the SLP formulation. The decisions......We consider optimal asset allocation of a pension saver with uncertain lifetime. The objective is to maximize the expected utility of the retirement savings. The model accounts for characteristics of a pension saver given by her mortality risk, risk attitude, type of retirement contract, trading...

  3. Loss Allocation in a Distribution System with Distributed Generation Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, a large part of the electricity is produced by wind turbines and combined heat and power plants (CHPs). Most of them are connected to the network through distribution systems. This paper presents a new algorithm for allocation of the losses in a distribution system with distributed...... generation. The algorithm is based on a reduced impedance matrix of the network and current injections from loads and production units. With the algorithm, the effect of the covariance between production and consumption can be evaluated. To verify the theoretical results, a model of the distribution system...

  4. Network resource allocation attack detection with long range dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; FANG Bin-xing

    2007-01-01

    The approach of traffic abnormality detection of network resource allocation attack did not have reliable signatures to depict abnormality and identify them. However, it is crucial for us to detect attacks accurately.The technique that we adopted is inspired by long range dependence ideas. We use the number of packet arrivals of a flow in fixed-length time intervals as the signal and attempt to extend traffic invariant "self-similarity".We validate the effectiveness of the approach with simulation and trace analysis.

  5. An Adaptive Bandwidth Allocation for Energy Efficient Wireless Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Fa Huang,Che-Hao Li; Chuan-Bi Lin; Chia-Chi Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract―In this paper, an energy efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is proposed for wireless communication systems. An optimal bandwidth expansion (OBE) scheme is proposed to assign the available system bandwidth for users. When the system bandwidth does not reach the full load, the remaining bandwidth can be energy-efficiently assigned to the other users. Simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the proposed OBE scheme outperforms the traditional same bandwidth expansion (SBE) scheme. Thus, the proposed OBE can effectively assign the system bandwidth and improve energy efficiency.

  6. Delegated Portfolio Management and Optimal Allocation of Portfolio Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Vangsgaard Christensen, Michael; Gamskjaer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether the application of the mean-variance framework on portfolio manager allocation offers any out-of-sample benefits compared to a naïve strategy of equal weighting. Based on an exclusive data-set of high-net-worth (HNW) investors, we utilize a wide variety...... of methodologies to estimate the input parameters including exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) and Bayes–Stein shrinkage estimation. We apply nine different mean-variance models, but find that none of these present any consistent benefit...

  7. Allocating Network Resources by Weight Between TCP Traffics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    xU ChangBiao(徐昌彪); LONG KePing(隆克平); YANG ShiZhong(杨士中)

    2003-01-01

    Under the current TCP/IP architecture, all TCP traffics compete for networkresources completely fairly, which makes it difficult to satisfy applications' versatile communicationrequirements. This paper presents an improved TCP congestion control mechanism where thecongestion window becomes ω(1 - b)W rather than (1 - b)W for every window W containing apacket loss. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that it can be easily implementedwith less additional overhead and can easily perform network resource allocation by weightedparameter w for traffics under the similar communication environments, which can efficiently leadto guaranteed relative quality of services and improve network performances.

  8. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  9. China Adjusts Natural Gas Price for Better Allocation of Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shichao

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has recently increased the wholesale prices of natural gas by around 25 percent to curb demand and better allocate resources.Natural gas benchmark prices went up by 230 yuan to 1,155 yuan per thousand cubic meters,according to the announcement made by the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC)at the end of May."It is necessary to make the adjustment,as the country's natural gas price is significantly lower than that of other fuels,"said Cap Changqing,head of NDRC's pricing department.

  10. Affirmative action and the allocation of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L P

    1999-09-01

    The justifications of affirmative action, the compensatory, corrective and redistributive, have been widely recognized in legal thinking. They have been applied, principally, to employment practices. They can also be applied to health care. Arguments for affirmative action in health care allocation shift the burden of proof to those who deny that racism is the root cause of differential morbidity and mortality experienced by, for example, African Americans. At the very least, these arguments mandate much needed research into the causes of minorities' poor health. Without such research, racism remains the presumptive cause of, and affirmative action the appropriate remedy for, the health care problems minorities face.

  11. A study of multiagent systems for resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haixiao; Shao, Zhichao; Li, Shanfei; Tan, Xianglin

    2017-03-01

    The agent and multiagent system is one of the most active methods for solving complicated problems as to resource allocation recently. Here, an agent can be considered as a computer program who takes autonomous actions to obtain some units of resources for individual purposes and common goals. The environment can be referred to the place where scattered resources and agent behavior-restricted rules are stored. And a multiagent system is a type of computing system built upon multiple situated agents who interact with each other under mechanisms. This paper aims to overview the techniques regarding agents and the environment.

  12. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  13. Finite-size scaling approach to dynamic storage allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2003-09-01

    It is demonstrated how dynamic storage allocation algorithms can be analyzed in terms of finite-size scaling. The method is illustrated in the three simple cases of the first-fit, next-fit and best-fit algorithms, and the system works at full capacity. The analysis is done from two different points of view-running speed and employed memory. In both cases, and for all algorithms, it is shown that a simple scaling function exists and the relevant exponents are calculated. The method can be applied on similar problems as well.

  14. Perceptual importance analysis for H.264/AVC bit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The existing H.264/AVC rate control schemes rarely include the perceptual considerations. As a result, the improvements in visual quality are hardly comparable to those in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). In this paper, we propose a perceptual importance analysis scheme to accurately abstract the spatial and temporal perceptual characteristics of video contents. Then we perform bit allocation at macroblock (MB) level by adopting a perceptual mode decision scheme, which adaptively updates the Lagrangian multiplier for mode decision according to the perceptual importance of each MB. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can efficiently reduce bit rates without visual quality degradation.

  15. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a

  16. Developing an Allocation Framework for Information Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Databases hold a critical concentration of sensitive information and become available on the internet to facilitate access, and as a result, databases are vulnerable and become the target of hackers. Today the security of database system become one of the most urgent tasks in database research, so to protect database system from attacking and compromised through authorized users who abuse or misuse data and unauthorized users who made unprivileged access. In this paper most of database vulnerabilities and threats which may face database system are reviewed and allocated proposed security techniques to protect database system from these threats to reduce risk of attacking database system.

  17. Resource allocation for relay assisted cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this paper, we present two optimal resource allocation schemes that maximize throughput and symbol correct rate (SCR). The throughput and SCR are derived. The derived throughput and SCR are optimized with respect to the sensing time, the source transmission power and the relay transmission power. Numerical results show that the optimal sensing time is dependent on the primary user\\'s signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that SCR increases with increase in the number of relays. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. The JPL Resource Allocation Planning and Scheduling Office (RAPSO) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D. G.; Burke, E. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Resource Allocation Planning and Scheduling Office is chartered to divide the limited amount of tracking hours of the Deep Space Network amongst the various missions in as equitable allotment as can be achieved. To best deal with this division of assets and time, an interactive process has evolved that promotes discussion with agreement by consensus between all of the customers that use the Deep Space Network (DSN). Aided by a suite of tools, the task of division of asset time is then performed in three stages of granularity. Using this approach, DSN loads are either forecasted or scheduled throughout a moving 10-year window.

  19. Profit-Aware Server Allocation for Green Internet Services

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucco, Michele; Dikaiakos, Marios

    2011-01-01

    A server farm is examined, where a number of servers are used to offer a service to impatient customers. Every completed request generates a certain amount of profit, running servers consume electricity for power and cooling, while waiting customers might leave the system before receiving service if they experience excessive delays. A dynamic allocation policy aiming at satisfying the conflicting goals of maximizing the quality of users' experience while minimizing the cost for the provider is introduced and evaluated. The results of several experiments are described, showing that the proposed scheme performs well under different traffic conditions.

  20. Allocation Fairness for MIMO Precoded UTRA-LTE TDD System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    In future Time Division Duplex (TDD)-based broadband wireless systems, it will be possible to exploit the channel reciprocity to implement Channel State Information (CSI)-based Multi User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) techniques, which will ensure highly efficient spectrum usage...... allocation, in MU-MIMO precoding scenarios where the common approach of guaranteeing fairness at MAC layer is not feasible. The results presented in this paper show that the proposed algorithm is able to reduce the system outage event to a large extent, thus increases fairness....