WorldWideScience

Sample records for allocations

  1. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  2. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  3. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    21 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding.................................................22 F. SUMMARY...on demand, hybrid channel allocation in wireless networks, and 3 Beowulf Ethernet channel bonding. The background information presented in this...channels are available for dynamic allocation [Ref 32]. 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding A by-product of using older computers in a NASA research lab

  4. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  5. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than th...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...

  6. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  7. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  8. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...

  9. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  11. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  12. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  13. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  14. FY12 CPD Formula Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...

  15. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  16. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design

  17. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  18. Generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitsch, Jonathan; Ge, Yan; Young, Benjamin; Hu, Feifang

    2012-12-10

    Dynamic allocation has received considerable attention since it was first proposed in the 1970s as an alternative means of allocating treatments in clinical trials which helps to secure the balance of prognostic factors across treatment groups. The purpose of this paper is to present a generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method that simultaneously balances treatment assignments at three key levels: within the overall study, within each level of each prognostic factor, and within each stratum, that is, combination of levels of different factors Further it offers capabilities for unbalanced and adaptive designs for trials. The treatment balancing performance of the proposed method is investigated through simulations which compare multidimensional dynamic allocation with traditional stratified block randomization and the Pocock-Simon method. On the basis of these results, we conclude that this generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method is an improvement over conventional dynamic allocation methods and is flexible enough to be applied for most trial settings including Phases I, II and III trials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  20. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  1. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  2. Preserving the allocation ratio at every allocation with biased coin randomization and minimization in studies with unequal allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2012-04-13

    The demand for unequal allocation in clinical trials is growing. Most commonly, the unequal allocation is achieved through permuted block randomization. However, other allocation procedures might be required to better approximate the allocation ratio in small samples, reduce the selection bias in open-label studies, or balance on baseline covariates. When these allocation procedures are generalized to unequal allocation, special care is to be taken to preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation step. This paper offers a way to expand the biased coin randomization to unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every allocation. The suggested expansion works with biased coin randomization that balances only on treatment group totals and with covariate-adaptive procedures that use a random biased coin element at every allocation. Balancing properties of the allocation ratio preserving biased coin randomization and minimization are described through simulations. It is demonstrated that these procedures are asymptotically protected against the shift in the rerandomization distribution identified for some examples of minimization with 1:2 allocation. The asymptotic shift in the rerandomization distribution of the difference in treatment means for an arbitrary unequal allocation procedure is explicitly derived in the paper. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk......-to-one matching model by including a set of objects, such that a matching consists of two agents from disjoint sets, and an object. Agents' preference lists consist of all possible pairs of objects and agents from the other set, and thus contain important information about agent-object tradeoffs. The notion...

  4. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  5. Operational risk economic capital allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Vlasov, Vladimir E.; Medvedeva, Marina A.

    2013-10-01

    In the paper we describe a model of operational risk of economic capital estimation and allocation based on Loss Distribution Approach (LDA). Bank's total losses are modeled through Monte-Carlo simulations of its business units' losses. It allows to fairly distributing the corresponding capital between business units in order to assess and manage their risk adjusted performance.

  6. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  7. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  8. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In addition, this chapter develops a microeconomic model to explore donors’ aid allocation decisions and their potential impact on aid effectiveness...the promotion of market-based principles to restructure macroeconomic policies in developing countries. The greater focus on...be explained by successful development 29 efforts of number of countries in the region, such as Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Singapore, and Peoples

  9. Integer Programming Models for Sales Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1980-01-01

    A practical conceptual framework for sales resource allocation modeling is presented in this paper. A literature review of sales resource allocation models is described in terms of this framework. The conceptual framework also lends itself to several integer programming models which may be used to address the variety of sales resource allocation decisions faced by every sales organization. A general model for sales resource allocation is developed which incorporates multiple sales resources, ...

  10. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes

  11. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  12. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  13. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  14. Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...... governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met...... by decision makers at the institutional level, provide, so it is promised, legitimate decisions. While we agree that A4R represents an important contribution to the priority-setting debate, we challenge the framework in two respects. First, we argue that A4R, and more specifically the relevance condition of A...

  15. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  16. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  17. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  18. Credit allocation for research institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-P.; Guo, Q.; Yang, K.; Han, J.-T.; Liu, J.-G.

    2017-05-01

    It is a challenging work to assess research performance of multiple institutes. Considering that it is unfair to average the credit to the institutes which is in the different order from a paper, in this paper, we present a credit allocation method (CAM) with a weighted order coefficient for multiple institutes. The results for the APS dataset with 18987 institutes show that top-ranked institutes obtained by the CAM method correspond to well-known universities or research labs with high reputation in physics. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the CAM method when citation links are added or rewired randomly quantified by the Kendall's Tau and Jaccard index. The experimental results indicate that the CAM method has better performance in robustness compared with the total number of citations (TC) method and Shen's method. Finally, we give the first 20 Chinese universities in physics obtained by the CAM method. However, this method is valid for any other branch of sciences, not just for physics. The proposed method also provides universities and policy makers an effective tool to quantify and balance the academic performance of university.

  19. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... examples and an empirical illustration are also provided....

  1. 'Unconscionable and irrational' SAPS human resource allocation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These areas also suffer among the highest rates of murder and serious violent crime in the province. The allocation of human resources to policing impinges on various constitutional rights. Given the inequity and irrationality apparent in the allocation of police personnel, the Khayelitsha Commission recommended that this ...

  2. Nash Social Welfare in Multiagent Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramezani (Sara); U. Endriss; E. David; E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D. Sarne; O. Shehory (Onn)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and

  3. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  4. Risk and reliability allocation to risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The risk allocation procedure is used as an analytical model to support the optimal decision making for reliability/availability improvement planning. Both levels of decision criteria, the plant risk measures and plant performance indices, are used in risk allocation procedure. Decision support system uses the multi objective decision making concept. (author) [sl

  5. Optimal Allocation in Stratified Randomized Response Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Shabbir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A Warner (1965 randomized response model based on stratification is used to determine the allocation of samples. Both linear and log-linear cost functions are discussed under uni and double stratification. It observed that by using a log-linear cost function, one can get better allocations.

  6. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  7. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    to submissions in such a way that all submissions receive feedback of similar quality and that we are able to significantly outperform simple random allocation of reviewers. Additionally we investigate the effect of pre-allocating reviews in comparison to allocating reviewers live during the review process......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good...

  8. Optimal allocation of resources in systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, C.; Lieberman, G.J.; Ross, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the design of a new system, or the maintenance of an old system, allocation of resources is of prime consideration. In allocating resources it is often beneficial to develop a solution that yields an optimal value of the system measure of desirability. In the context of the problems considered in this paper the resources to be allocated are components already produced (assembly problems) and money (allocation in the construction or repair of systems). The measure of desirability for system assembly will usually be maximizing the expected number of systems that perform satisfactorily and the measure in the allocation context will be maximizing the system reliability. Results are presented for these two types of general problems in both a sequential (when appropriate) and non-sequential context

  9. Identifying Memory Allocation Patterns in HEP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Rauschmayr, N.

    2017-10-01

    HEP applications perform an excessive amount of allocations/deallocations within short time intervals which results in memory churn, poor locality and performance degradation. These issues are already known for a decade, but due to the complexity of software frameworks and billions of allocations for a single job, up until recently no efficient mechanism has been available to correlate these issues with source code lines. However, with the advent of the Big Data era, many tools and platforms are now available to do large scale memory profiling. This paper presents, a prototype program developed to track and identify each single (de-)allocation. The CERN IT Hadoop cluster is used to compute memory key metrics, like locality, variation, lifetime and density of allocations. The prototype further provides a web based visualization back-end that allows the user to explore the results generated on the Hadoop cluster. Plotting these metrics for every single allocation over time gives a new insight into application’s memory handling. For instance, it shows which algorithms cause which kind of memory allocation patterns, which function flow causes how many short-lived objects, what are the most commonly allocated sizes etc. The paper will give an insight into the prototype and will show profiling examples for the LHC reconstruction, digitization and simulation jobs.

  10. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  11. U.S. Army Recruiter Allocation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...

  12. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine...... the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption...

  13. Resource allocation criteria in a hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Bodina, A.; Pavan, A.; Castaldi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Allocate fixed resources among competing users is a challenge in terms of hospital management in order to obtain the best performance considering strategic objectives. In order to address this need, a system of evaluation in an important research and teaching hospital was designed. This study describes resource allocation criteria in a hospital focusing on the evaluation system and its developed application methodology. Methods. The indicator system allows the strategic ...

  14. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  15. Macroeconomic Influences on Optimal Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Flavin, Thomas; Wickens, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a tactical asset allocation strategy that incorporates the effects of macroeconomic variables. The joint distribution of financial asset returns and the macroeconomic variables is modelled using a VAR with a multivariate GARCH (M-GARCH) error structure. As a result, the portfolio frontier is time varying and subject to contagion from the macroeconomic variable. Optimal asset allocation requires that this be taken into account. We illustrate how to do this using three ri...

  16. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  17. Discrete Tolerance Allocation for Product Families

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper extends earlier research on the discrete tolerance allocation problem in order to optimize an entire product family simultaneously. This methodology enables top-down tolerancing approach where requirements on assembly level on products within a family are allocated to single part requirements. The proposed solution has been implemented as an interface with an optimization algorithm coupled with a variation simulation software. The paper also consists of an exten...

  18. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  19. The enigma of sex allocation in Selaginella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kurt B; Burd, Martin

    2018-02-12

    The division of resource investment between male and female functions is poorly known for land plants other than angiosperms. The ancient lycophyte genus Selaginella is similar in some ways to angiosperms (in heterospory and in having sex allocation occur in the sporophyte generation, for example) but lacks the post-fertilization maternal investments that angiosperms make via fruit and seed tissues. One would therefore expect Selaginella to have sex allocation values less female-biased than in flowering plants and closer to the theoretical prediction of equal investment in male and female functions. Nothing is currently known of sex allocation in the genus, so even the simplest predictions have not been tested. Volumetric measurements of microsporangial and megasporangial investment were made in 14 species of Selaginella from four continents. In five of these species the length of the main above-ground axis of each plant was measured to determine whether sex allocation is related to plant size. Of the 14 species, 13 showed male-biased allocations, often extreme, in population means and among the great majority of individual plants. There was some indication from the five species with axis length measurements that relative male allocation might be related to the release height of spores, but this evidence is preliminary. Sex allocation in Selaginella provides a phylogenetic touchstone showing how the innovations of fruit and seed investment in the angiosperm life cycle lead to typically female-biased allocations in that lineage. Moreover, the male bias we found in Selaginella requires an evolutionary explanation. The bias was often greater than what would occur from the mere absence of seed and fruit investments, and thus poses a challenge to sex allocation theory. It is possible that differences between microspores and megaspores in their dispersal ecology create selective effects that favour male-biased sexual allocation. This hypothesis remains tentative. © The

  20. SOME NOTES ON COST ALLOCATION IN MULTICASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Skorin-Kapov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the cost allocation strategies with the problef of broadcasting information from some source to a number of communication network users. A multicast routing chooses a minimum cost tree network that spans the source and all the receivers. The cost of such a network is distributed among its receivers who may be individuals or organizations with possibly conflicting interests. Providing network developers, users and owners with practical computable 'fair' cost allocation solution procedures is of great importance for network mamagement. Consequently, this multidisciplinary problem was extensively studied by Operational Researchers, Economists, Mathematicians and Computer Scientists. The fairness of various proposed solutions was even argued in US courts. This presentation overviews some previously published, as well as some recent results, in the development of algorithmic mechanisms to efficiently compute 'attractive' cost allocation solutions for multicast networks. Specifically, we will analyze cooperative game theory based cost allocation models that avoid cross subsidies and/or are distance and population monotonic. We will also present some related open cost allocation problems and the potential contribution that such models might make to this problem in the future.

  1. Methodology for allocating reliability and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes a methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants. The work investigates the technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk, which are expressed in a set of global safety criteria and which may not necessarily be rigid, to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner. The report also provides general discussions on the problem of reliability and risk allocation. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm. The work mainly addresses the first two steps of a typical decision analysis, i.e., (1) identifying alternatives, and (2) generating information on outcomes of the alternatives, by performing a multiobjective optimization on a PRA model and reliability cost functions. The multiobjective optimization serves as the guiding principle to reliability and risk allocation. The concept of ''noninferiority'' is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The final step of decision analysis, i.e., assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided, and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation, preference assessment, and uncertainty are discussed. 29 refs., 44 figs., 39 tabs

  2. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller tha...... fairness tests related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies all three tests in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual subunits. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the group among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose three...

  3. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  4. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  6. Allocating environmental liabilities within a facilities agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, A.

    2000-01-01

    Some environmental issues at jointly owned oil and gas facilities in Alberta are examined, including ways to allocate liability for those issues among the facility's owners, and between the facility's owners and custom users. Causes of environmental contamination, the scope of clean-up costs and some industry initiatives to sort out the question of who pays the environmental costs are also discussed. Some aspects of the legislation in Alberta imposing environmental liabilities on parties to a construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreement, and relevant provisions of the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA)'s Model Operating Procedure are also explained. The author concludes by regretting the industry's failure to develop adequate mechanisms to allocate the costs of environmental damage resulting from operations, and by recommending that agreements pertaining to joint ownership of a facility should address the issues involved in allocating environmental liabilities

  7. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good...... feedback. In this paper we present a novel way to intelligently allocate reviewers for peer feedback. We train a statistical model to infer the quality of feedback based on a dataset of feedback quality evaluations. This dataset contains more than 20,000 reviews where the receiver of the feedback has...

  8. Robust resource allocation in future wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Parsaeefard, Saeedeh; Mokari, Nader

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art research on robust resource allocation in current and future wireless networks. The authors describe the nominal resource allocation problems in wireless networks and explain why introducing robustness in such networks is desirable. Then, depending on the objectives of the problem, namely maximizing the social utility or the per-user utility, cooperative or competitive approaches are explained and their corresponding robust problems are considered in detail. For each approach, the costs and benefits of robust schemes are discussed and the algorithms for reducing their costs and improving their benefits are presented. Considering the fact that such problems are inherently non-convex and intractable, a taxonomy of different relaxation techniques is presented, and applications of such techniques are shown via several examples throughout the book. Finally, the authors argue that resource allocation continues to be an important issue in future wireless networks, and propose spec...

  9. How to Optimize the Commission Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available in this paper, the commission allocation mechanism between the mobile application store and the mobile application developer is studied under the game theory. Firstly, based on the non-cooperative game theory, the paper researches the equilibrium solution of the inter-firm game under the conditions of different sales scale, and then extend the study to the circumstance of infinite game. In addition, the paper analyzes the Pareto improvement achieved by choosing cooperative strategy of strategic alliance from different parts. Finally, problem of the commission allocation problem is resolved.

  10. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2011-11-01

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  11. Type monotonic allocation schemes for multi-glove games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Solymosi, T.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiglove markets and corresponding games are considered.For this class of games we introduce the notion of type monotonic allocation scheme.Allocation rules for multiglove markets based on weight systems are introduced and characterized.These allocation rules generate type monotonic allocation schemes for multiglove games and are also helpful in proving that each core element of the corresponding game is extendable to a type monotonic allocation scheme.The T-value turns out to generate a ty...

  12. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ivan B.; Bohte, Sander M.; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Lameris, Han; Bakker, Piet J. M.; La Poutré, Han

    2009-01-01

    Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in demand,

  13. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye...

  14. Approximate Dynamic Programming for Military Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    18] Gerald Brown, Matthew Carlyle, Douglas Diehl, Jeffrey Kline, and Kevin Wood. A two-sided optimization for theater ballistic missile defense. Oper...Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on, volume 1, pages 1061–1066. IEEE, 1999. [78] TE Phipps and AL Karp . Optimum allocation of

  15. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  16. Patient flow based allocation of hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M

    1995-01-01

    The current practice of allocating resources within a hospital introduces peaks and troughs in the workloads of departments and leads therefore to loss of capacity. This happens when requirements for capacity coordination are not adequately taken into account in the decision making process of allocating resources to specialties. The first part of this research involved an analysis of the hospital's production system on dependencies between resources, resulting in a number of capacity coordination requirements that need to be fulfilled for optimized resource utilization. The second, modelling, part of the study involved the development of a framework for resource management decision making, of a set of computer models to support hospital managerial decision making on resource allocation issues in various parts of the hospital, and of an implementation strategy for the application of the models to concrete hospital settings. The third part of the study was devoted to a number of case-studies, illustrating the use of the models when applied in various resource management projects, such as a reorganization of an operating theatre timetable, or the development of a master plan for activities of a group of general surgeons serving two locations of a merged hospital system. The paper summarizes the main findings of the study and concludes with a discussion of results obtained with the new allocation procedure and with recommendations for future research.

  17. FARM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PROFITABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...

  18. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  19. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  20. Do capital flows change domestic credit allocation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Bezemer, Dirk

    Since the 1990s, domestic bank credit has been reallocated away from lending to non-financial business and toward households. An expanding literature discusses negative effects on growth and stability of this change in credit allocation. We research its drivers. We hypothesize that if foreign

  1. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  2. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  3. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  4. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  5. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and restrictions of this section. The sector allocation proposal must contain an appropriate analysis... partners in a corporation owning a permit; who are partners (general or limited) to a permit owner; who, in... biological, economic, and social impacts of sectors and their fishing operations consistent with...

  6. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the optimum compromise allocation in multivariate stratified sampling with non-linear objective function and probabilistic non-linear cost constraint. The probabilistic non-linear cost constraint is converted into equivalent deterministic one by using Chance Constrained programming. A numerical ...

  7. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  8. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information retrieval system described in § 1355.53 of this part shall be treated as necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan under title IV-E, without regard to whether the system... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public...

  9. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... talent. (e) The Secretary will ensure that SBRS slots are used in support of high priority programs...

  10. Cost Allocation in a Bank ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorndal, E.; Hamers, H.; Koster, M.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a situation in which a group of banks consider connecting their Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) in a network, so that the banks customers may use ATMs of any bank in the network. The problem studied is that of allocating the total transaction costs arising in the network, among the

  11. Cost Allocation in a Bank ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorndal, E.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Koster, M.A.L.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a situation in which a group of banks consider connecting their Automated TellerMachines (ATMs) in a network, so that the banks customers may use ATMs of any bank in the network.The problem studied is that of allocating the total transaction costs arising in the network, among the

  12. Capital Allocation Effects of Financial Reporting Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of stricter financial reporting enforcement on capital allocation and reporting quality in a game-theoretic model and derives conclusions about optimal enforcement strictness. Analysis of the model shows that reporting quality strictly increases with tighter

  13. Sequential auctions for full truckload allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we examine the use of sequential auctions for the dynamic allocation of transportation jobs. For all players, buyers and sellers, we develop strategies and examine their performance both in terms of individual benefits and with respect to the global logistical performance (resource

  14. Spatial allocation of forest recreation value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Catrina Paez; Edgard Chavez

    2009-01-01

    Non-market valuation methods and geographic information systems are useful planning and management tools for public land managers. Recent attention has been given to investigation and demonstration of methods for combining these tools to provide spatially-explicit representations of non-market value. Most of these efforts have focused on spatial allocation of...

  15. Financial Resource Allocation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušpuriene, Ana; Sakalauskas, Leonidas; Dumskis, Valerijonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers a problem of financial resource allocation in a higher education institution. The basic financial management instruments and the multi-stage cost minimization model created are described involving financial instruments to constraints. Both societal and institutional factors that determine the costs of educating students are…

  16. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, Ian A.; Hanley, Nick; Kornienko, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives.

  17. Time-allocation matching between punishing situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, M Z; Church, R M

    1978-03-01

    In the presence and absence of white noise, response-independent aversive events were delivered to rats according to several variable-time electric-shock schedules. The animals could switch from the noise component to the no-noise component and vice versa by making a single lever-press response. If the schedule in one component was not in operation when the animal was in the other component, the proportion of time allocated to one component equalled or matched the proportion of obtained punishers in the other component. If both schedules were always in operation, minimizing tended to occur: the animals allocated almost all of their time to the component having the lower shock rate. An analysis of these results, in terms of the expected time until an aversive event, is presented.

  18. Fund Allocation in Complex Rehabilitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hegazy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil Infrastructure assets require continuous renewal actions to sustain their operability and safety. Allocating limited renewal funds amongst numerous building components, however, represents a large-scale optimization problem and earlier efforts utilized genetic algorithms (GAs to optimize medium size problems yet exhibit steep performance degradation as problem size increases. In this research, after experimenting with various approaches of segmenting a large problem into multiple smaller sub-problems, clustered segmentation proved to be the most promising. The paper discusses the underlying life cycle analysis model, the various segmentation methods, and the optimization results using the improved GAs + clustered segmentation, which proved to be able to optimize asset renewals for 50,000 components with no noticeable performance degradation. The proposed method is simple and logical, and can be used on variety of asset types to improve infrastructure fund allocation. Future extension of this research is then highlighted.

  19. Risk allocation in independent power supply contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Campbell, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Congress has made significant progress in recent months toward amending the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA). The purposes of such amendment are to broaden power supply options for electric utilities and expand competition in whole-sale power generation markets. PUHCA reform is an integral part of President Bush's National Energy Strategy and has been included in legislation pending in both Houses of Congress. Congress will, hopefully, approve energy legislation that includes PUHCA reform before it adjourns this year. PUHCA reform has, however, stimulated heated debate within the power industry itself as well as among various consumer interest groups. One important issue in the public debate concerns risk allocation. If PUHCA is reformed, will risk be allocated efficiently and equitably between independent power producers and electric utility buyers? This article addresses that important question

  20. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Long Jian-Cheng; Ding Jian-Xun; Shi Qin; Hu Mao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks. The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth. An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity). Three network structures (scale-free, small-world, and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy. Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Register allocation for fine grain threads on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicore processor has multiple processing cores on the same chip. Unicore and multicore processors are architecturally different. Since individual instructions are needed to be scheduled onto one of the available cores, it effectively decreases the number of instructions executed on the individual core of a multicore processor. As each core of a multicore processor has a private register file, it results in reduced register pressure. To effectively utilize the potential benefits of the multicore processor, the sequential program must be split into small parallel regions to be run on different cores, and the register allocation must be done for each of these cores. This article discusses register allocating heuristics for fine grained threads which can be scheduled on multiple cores. Spills are computed and its effect on speed-up, power consumption and performance per power is compared for a RAW benchmark suite.

  2. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  3. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    h a,c , j k and h. N are all positive constants. If the budget of the survey is fixed in advance, say, C , then the multivariate allocation problem is stated to minimize the variances for various characters for a desired precision as the following p convex programming problems. p,..., j .L,..., h;N n and. C c nc to. Subject. N a n a. V.Min.

  4. Allocating nuclear power plant costs: an extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The author modifies and extends the argument presented in the September 22, 1983 issue by Richard E. Nellis for using economic depreciation to allocate nuclear power plant costs. The two goals of his model are to charge constant real costs to consumers and to provide a fair return of .125 to investors in each period. The addition of other objectives requires further modification of the model since the schedule of revenues that are deemed to be optimum defines the depreciation schedule. 1 table

  5. Student Time Allocation and Educational Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano BRATTI; Stefano STAFFOLANI

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of lecture attendance and self-study on undergraduate students' academic performance. We first introduce a simple theoretical model in which students decide the optimal allocation of their time between lecture attendance, self-study and leisure. Under some assumptions, we find a positive relationship between lecture attendance and time devoted to self-study in each course, from which we infer that estimates of the elasticity of student performance with ...

  6. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  7. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  8. Resource allocation criteria in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodina, A; Pavan, A; Castaldi, S

    2017-06-01

    Allocate fixed resources among competing users is a challenge in terms of hospital management in order to obtain the best performance considering strategic objectives. In order to address this need, a system of evaluation in an important research and teaching hospital was designed. This study describes resource allocation criteria in a hospital focusing on the evaluation system and its developed application methodology. The indicator system allows the strategic management to rapidly detect the priorities in the evaluations of the Strategic, Organizational, Managerial, Economic, Research and Qualitative conditions of each unit. The chosen indicators are expressed with three numerical values, (1 indicating critical status, 2 acceptable conditions and 3 a good operational situation). The adopted evaluation system considered different thematic areas: Strategic, Organizational, Managerial, Economic, Research and Qualitative. In order to define each area, 3 fields of evaluation have been chosen. The indicators have been structured according to a pyramid system allowing creating a single indicator for each area for each unit. Furthermore, a single indicator has been fixed in order to facilitate a first consideration on whether to carry out or not closer examinations of the most critical units. This manuscript describes an attempt to define objective criteria for the allocation of scarce resources in order to achieve the hospital's strategic objectives. The indicators identified allow to obtain an overall score for each unit, which allows the management to prioritize the needs.

  9. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  12. A Channel Allocation Mechanism for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed and the user behavior (e.g., call inter-arrival time and call holding time to analyze the adaptable number of communication calls in the specific cell for channel allocation. In experiments about call block probabilities (CBP, this study simulated two cases that are the situations of the whole day and traffic accident. The simulation results show that all CBPs in the scenario of whole day are less than 21.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the static channel allocation (SCA mechanism. Moreover, all CBPs in the scenario of traffic accidents are less than 16.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the SCA mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can decrease the number of CBPs effectively.

  13. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution.

  14. Dynamic capacity allocation for low-cost multicarrier multimode PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, R.O.; van Bochove, A.C.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Sikkes, B.

    A stable-matching-based multiuser multicarrier capacity allocation algorithm is proposed. It responds to ONU backlogs and dynamic subchannel gains. Benchmarked against Binary Linear Programming, it results in just 5% less allocated capacity, at much lower complexity.

  15. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because of...

  16. Sapwood allocation in tropical trees: a test of hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Vlam, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Sterck, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon allocation to sapwood in tropical canopy trees is a key process determining forest carbon sequestration, and is at the heart of tree growth and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM). Several allocation hypotheses exist including those applying assumptions on fixed allocation, pipe model,

  17. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability...

  18. Reward-allocation judgments in Romania : A factorial survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzea, C.; Meseşan-Schmitz, L.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated reward-allocation judgments when positive outcomes (monetary rewards) were distributed and the allocator was not a co-recipient, in a sample of 200 Romanian students. Within a full factorial survey design, seven factors, selected to affect the allocation decision, were orthogonally

  19. 11 CFR 106.4 - Allocation of polling expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of polling expenses. 106.4 Section 106.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL ALLOCATIONS OF CANDIDATE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES § 106.4 Allocation of polling expenses. (a) The purchase of opinion poll results by a candidate or...

  20. Matching today's allocation of LDC expenses with cost causation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankel, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the costs of natural gas distribution and how to integrate these costs into the allocation of local distribution companies expenses for the purpose of establishing rate structures. The author's contention is that costs related to throughput are a larger share than historically used allocation factors suggest. Topics include the historical allocation factors, a case study and the conclusions drawn from it

  1. 12 CFR 327.53 - Allocation and payment of dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS Implementation of Dividend Requirements § 327.53 Allocation and payment of dividends. (a)(1) The allocation of any dividend among insured depository institutions shall be based on the... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and payment of dividends. 327.53...

  2. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-10-07

    Selective allocation of patients into the compared groups of a randomised trial may cause allocation bias, but the mechanisms behind the bias and its directionality are incompletely understood. We therefore analysed the mechanisms and directionality of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials. Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included various manipulations with randomisation envelopes. Out of 57 methods publications 11 (19 %) mentioned explicitly that allocation bias can go in either direction. We hypothesised that the direction of allocation bias is mainly decided by the interaction between the patient allocators' motives and treatment preference. Inadequate allocation concealment may exaggerate treatment effects in some trials while underestimate effects in others. Our hypothesis provides a theoretical overview of the main factors responsible for the direction of allocation bias.

  3. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section 28.52 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING... allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve...

  4. Resource Allocation for A Mobile Application Oriented Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Lu, W.W.; Xie, X.

    2005-01-01

    A Montium is a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture designed by the CADTES group of the University of Twente for mobile applications. This paper presents a resource allocation method to allocate variables to storage places and to schedule data movements for the Montium. The resource allocation

  5. Risk allocation approach to reactor safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcek, O.; Temme, M.I.; Derby, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a risk allocation technique used for determining nuclear power plant design reliability requirements. The concept of risk allocation-optimum choice of safety function reliabilities under a maximum risk constraint - is described. An example of risk allocation is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology

  6. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO or...

  7. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  8. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  9. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  10. Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog

    that these processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation....... It contributes to both the introduction and definition of various ground handling resource allocation problems, and proposes a mathematical formulation of the problems. These contributions are presented in four scientific papers and one technical report, which are included. All the models and solution methods...

  11. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  12. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  13. FAME - a function allocation design tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Andreas; Hoffmann, Mario

    2001-02-01

    Function allocation between man and machine is a key issue when designing automation systems. One should allocate functions in order to maximise the operator's understanding of the situation and ability to handle unexpected events. This should be done by optimising his/her possibility to observe the state of the plant and to control the plant. Thus function allocation cannot be separated from an analysis of the human system interaction, since the information presented to the operators and the controls available for them to manipulate the process significantly affect their tasks and thus influence their role. FAME is a design support tool for analysis of these issues at an early stage in the design process. Simulations in FAME, utilising analytical models, provide a useful supplement to empirical data when studying the effects of automation on the performance of control room operators. FAME consists of components simulating the behaviour of the operator and the automation, as well as a component for the interaction with a process simulator. The Contextual Control Model, COCOM, is chosen as the basis for the operator component in FAME. A goal-oriented approach is taken, and Goals-Means Task Analysis, GMTA, is used to represent the relations between the goals and the means in the simulation of the scenarios. This report discusses how FAME can support the design process through a series of simulations analysing the operator's ability to control the system and their situation understanding during dynamic plant operation. This is done by emphasizing the fulfilment of goals when evaluating input and selecting actions for output. FAME thus puts the operator in the centre of the analysis, and a comparison between human and machine capabilities is not included in this approach. This report describes the underlying principles of FAME and the main requirements to operator simulation in this context. (Author)

  14. An overview on network cost allocation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Delberis A. [PUC - Pontificia University Catholic, Department of Electrical Engineering, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, 22453-900 Gavea - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio [UNESP - State University of Sao Paulo, Department of Electrical Engineering, Campus of Ilha Solteira, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Contreras, Javier [UCLM - Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This work is devoted to study and discuss the main methods to solve the network cost allocation problem both for generators and demands. From the presented, compared and discussed methods, the first one is based on power injections, the second deals with proportional sharing factors, the third is based upon Equivalent Bilateral Exchanges, the fourth analyzes the power flow sensitivity in relation to the power injected, and the last one is based on Z{sub bus} network matrix. All the methods are initially illustrated using a 4-bus system. In addition, the IEEE 24-bus RTS system is presented for further comparisons and analysis. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  15. An overview on network cost allocation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Delberis A.; Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio; Contreras, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This work is devoted to study and discuss the main methods to solve the network cost allocation problem both for generators and demands. From the presented, compared and discussed methods, the first one is based on power injections, the second deals with proportional sharing factors, the third is based upon Equivalent Bilateral Exchanges, the fourth analyzes the power flow sensitivity in relation to the power injected, and the last one is based on Z bus network matrix. All the methods are initially illustrated using a 4-bus system. In addition, the IEEE 24-bus RTS system is presented for further comparisons and analysis. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  16. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  17. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  18. Optimal Asset Allocation under Quadratic Loss Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Ines; Hlouskova, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the asset allocation of a quadratic loss-averse (QLA) investor and derive conditions under which the QLA problem is equivalent to the mean-variance (MV) and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) problems. Then we solve analytically thetwo-asset problem of the QLA investor for a risk-free and a risky asset. We find that the optimal QLA investment in the risky asset is finite, strictly positive and is minimal with respect to the reference point for a value strictly larger than the...

  19. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural...... breaks in correlations. Only when correlations are constant does the parametric DCC model deliver the best outcome. The methodologies are illustrated by evaluating two interesting portfolios. The first portfolio consists of the equity sector SPDRs and the S&P 500, while the second one contains major...

  20. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  1. Temporal Variations on Allocation of Time

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Ajay Kumar

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the allocation of time and trip-making across time-of-day, day-of-week, and month-of-year, as well as over the past forty years. Some interesting findings result. People are working much more, shopping somewhat more on weekends, and stay at home less today than forty years ago. Time spent in travel on each weekend day (Saturday or Sunday) exceeds that on any weekday, as it did forty years ago. Time spent shopping on a typical day in the busiest month (December) is more...

  2. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective allocation of patients into the compared groups of a randomised trial may cause allocation bias, but the mechanisms behind the bias and its directionality are incompletely understood. We therefore analysed the mechanisms and directionality of allocation bias in randomised...... the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Results: Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included...... various manipulations with randomisation envelopes. Out of 57 methods publications 11 (19 %) mentioned explicitly that allocation bias can go in either direction. We hypothesised that the direction of allocation bias is mainly decided by the interaction between the patient allocators’ motives...

  3. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  5. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... an investor: (i) Commits to make an investment in the Allocatee in a specified amount and on... NMTCs to its investors. A non-profit applicant wishing to apply for a NMTC Allocation must demonstrate... record of raising capital, particularly from for-profit investors; the extent to which the applicant has...

  7. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... only those Equity Investments that are evidenced by a written, signed document in which an investor: (i... NMTCs to its investors. A non-profit applicant wishing to apply for a NMTC Allocation must demonstrate... Controlling Entity) and their track record of raising capital, particularly from for-profit investors; the...

  8. Tests of sex allocation theory in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärer, Lukas

    2009-06-01

    Sex allocation is a crucial life-history parameter in all sexual organisms. Over the last decades a body of evolutionary theory, sex allocation theory, was developed, which has yielded capital insight into the evolution of optimal sex allocation patterns and adaptive evolution in general. Most empirical work, however, has focused on species with separate sexes. Here I review sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites and summarize over 50 empirical studies, which have aimed at evaluating this theory in a diversity of simultaneous hermaphrodites spanning nine animal phyla. These studies have yielded considerable qualitative support for several predictions of sex allocation theory, such as a female-biased sex allocation when the number of mates is limited, and a shift toward a more male-biased sex allocation with increasing numbers of mates. In contrast, many fundamental assumptions, such as the trade-off between male and female allocation, and numerous predictions, such as brooding limiting the returns from female allocation, are still poorly supported. Measuring sex allocation in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals remains experimentally demanding, which renders evaluation of more quantitative predictions a challenging task. I identify the main questions that need to be addressed and point to promising avenues for future research.

  9. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Masaki, Emiko; Fraser, Nicole; Benedikt, Clemens; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David P; Gray, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1) when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2) when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8%) decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6%) reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to expand or contract programmes and to which coverage levels to maximize impact.

  10. Dynamic asset allocation and latent variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten; Trolle, Anders Bjerre

    -models where some ofthe state-variables (e.g. expected excess returns) may not be directly observable.A realistic multivariate model is estimated and applied to analyze the portfolioimplications of investment horizon and return predictability when real interest ratesand expected excess returns on stock......We derive an explicit solution to the portfolio problem of a power utility investorwith preferences for wealth at a ¯nite investment horizon. The investor can investin assets with return dynamics described as part of a general multivariate model.The modeling framework encompasses discrete-time VAR...... and bonds are not directly observed but mustbe estimated as part of the problem faced by the investor. The solution exhibitssmall variability in portfolio allocations over time compared to the case when excessreturns are assumed observable.JEL Classification: G11Keywords: Portfolio choice, predictability...

  11. Pediatric heart allocation and transplantation in Eurotransplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jacqueline M; Thul, Josef; De Pauw, Michel; Delmo Walter, Eva; Strelniece, Agita; Green, Dave; de Vries, Erwin; Rahmel, Axel; Bauer, Juergen; Laufer, Guenther; Hetzer, Roland; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Meiser, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric heart allocation in Eurotransplant (ET) has evolved over the past decades to better serve patients and improve utilization. Pediatric heart transplants (HT) account for 6% of the annual transplant volume in ET. Death rates on the pediatric heart transplant waiting list have decreased over the years, from 25% in 1997 to 18% in 2011. Within the first year after listing, 32% of all infants (heart transplant. Survival after transplantation improved over the years, and in almost a decade, the 1-year survival went from 83% to 89%, and the 3-year rates increased from 81% to 85%. Improved medical management of heart failure patients and the availability of mechanical support for children have significantly improved the prospects for children on the heart transplant waiting list. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  13. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  14. Portfolio Allocation Subject to Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio de Deus Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Credit Risk is an important dimension to be considered in the risk management procedures of financial institutions. Is a particularly useful in emerging markets where default rates on bank loan products are usually high. It is usually calculated through highly costly Monte Carlo simulations which consider different stochastic factors driving the uncertainly associated to the borrowers liabilities. In this paper, under some restrictions, we drive closed form formulas for the probability distributions of default rates of bank loans products involving a big number of clients. This allows us to quickly obtain the credit risk of such products. Moreover, using these probability distributions, we solve the problem of optimal portfolio allocation under default risk.

  15. Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mocková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers. 

  16. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  17. Optimal defense resource allocation in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Guoqiang; Xia, Yongxiang

    2018-02-01

    The robustness research of networked systems has drawn widespread attention in the past decade, and one of the central topics is to protect the network from external attacks through allocating appropriate defense resource to different nodes. In this paper, we apply a specific particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the defense resource allocation in scale-free networks. Results reveal that PSO based resource allocation shows a higher robustness than other resource allocation strategies such as uniform, degree-proportional, and betweenness-proportional allocation strategies. Furthermore, we find that assigning less resource to middle-degree nodes under small-scale attack while more resource to low-degree nodes under large-scale attack is conductive to improving the network robustness. Our work provides an insight into the optimal defense resource allocation pattern in scale-free networks and is helpful for designing a more robust network.

  18. On the allocation of functions between human and machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1979-09-01

    The idea of allocating functions between human and machine was proceduralized early through aids like Fitts' List which describes the relative advantages of men and machines. Although the principle is clear, function allocation has never worked in practice. Some conditions for function allocations are discussed; adequate logic, a common man-machine system language, usable human engineering guides and data and professional habits and attitudes. Trends which will influence ergonomics procedures are described; influence from technology, increasing work environment requirements and user participation requirements. A procedural structure for human engineering or ergonomics in control system design is suggested. This does not include a separate function allocation activity but a number of activities, the result of which will be a systematic function allocation. A case study on ergonomics techniques for systematic function allocation in a control system is described in an appendix to the report. (author)

  19. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  20. Preemptive kidney transplantation: an ethical challenge for organ allocation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2017-01-01

    Preemptive transplants are advisable in advanced stages of kidney disease. The clinical advantages of preemptive transplantation over dialysis are evident. Nevertheless, preemptive transplantations raise ethical concerns, particularly regarding the allocation of medical resources. The present article proposes some criteria for organ allocation policies regarding preemptive transplantations: criteria regarding medical benefit and justice are absolutely essential when addressing the issue of organ allocation, but other ethical values should also be taken into account. The "principle of double effect" offers useful pointers.

  1. Modeling the multi-scale mechanisms of macromolecular resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Laurence; Yurkovich, James T; King, Zachary A

    2018-01-01

    As microbes face changing environments, they dynamically allocate macromolecular resources to produce a particular phenotypic state. Broad 'omics' data sets have revealed several interesting phenomena regarding how the proteome is allocated under differing conditions, but the functional consequen...... and detail how mathematical models have aided in our understanding of these processes. Ultimately, such modeling efforts have helped elucidate the principles of proteome allocation and hold promise for further discovery....

  2. EXPERIENCED TASK-BASED MULTI ROBOT TASK ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ezercan Kayır, H. Hilal

    2017-01-01

    In multi robot system applications, itis possible that the robots transform their past experiences into usefulinformation which will be used for next task allocation processes by usinglearning-based task allocation mechanisms. The major disadvantages of multi-robotQ-learning algorithm are huge learning space and computational cost due togeneralized state and joint action spaces of robots. In this study, experiencedtask-based multi robot task allocation approach is proposed. According to thisa...

  3. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  4. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  5. Online Job Allocation with Hard Allocation Ratio Requirement (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    of the Nineteenth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA ’08, (Philadelphia, PA, USA), pp. 982–991, Society for Industrial and...when jobs arrive according to some random process . I. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we discuss the problem of online job allocation for cloud computing...not only stores the video but also has remaining capacity to process this request. If no server can process this request, the request is dropped, which

  6. Predicting Component Failures Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA is a statistical topic model that has been widely used to abstract semantic information from software source code. Failure refers to an observable error in the program behavior. This work investigates whether semantic information and failures recorded in the history can be used to predict component failures. We use LDA to abstract topics from source code and a new metric (topic failure density is proposed by mapping failures to these topics. Exploring the basic information of topics from neighboring versions of a system, we obtain a similarity matrix. Multiply the Topic Failure Density (TFD by the similarity matrix to get the TFD of the next version. The prediction results achieve an average 77.8% agreement with the real failures by considering the top 3 and last 3 components descending ordered by the number of failures. We use the Spearman coefficient to measure the statistical correlation between the actual and estimated failure rate. The validation results range from 0.5342 to 0.8337 which beats the similar method. It suggests that our predictor based on similarity of topics does a fine job of component failure prediction.

  7. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  8. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    Full Text Available Root to shoot ratio (RS is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP and potential water deficit index (PWDI. Mean annual temperature (MAT also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  9. Freedom of Establishment and the Balanced Allocation of Tax Jurisdiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in order to present a (more) coherent approach to evaluating national anti-abuse legislation. It is submitted that the justification ground of “balanced allocation of tax jurisdiction” and the arm’s length principle for allocation of income should form an important basis under EU law for the evaluation...

  10. Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    200 records consisting of the budget allocation summary for the year 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 across 40 data points containing Ministries, Departments, Commissions and Agencies (MDCAs) were used. A web-based data mining tool that employed linear regression to predict both Nigeria budget allocation across ...

  11. Computation of loss allocation in electric power networks using loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the computation of loss allocation that can be applied to sellers and buyers participating in electric power trade in a deregulated power market. The approach is based on the Jacobian and Hessian matrices of the power flow equations. The losses to be allocated are derived from load flow of a specified ...

  12. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  13. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  14. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  15. 14 CFR 1214.113 - Allocation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.113 Allocation of risk. The U.S. Government will assume no risk for damages to the customer resulting... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk. 1214.113 Section 1214...

  16. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45... ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of a petition or a proposal to list a color additive or to alter an existing listing, the data before the...

  17. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has not...

  18. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation. L van Eck, S E Visagie, H C de Kock. Abstract. In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR) voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary ...

  19. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  20. Capacity allocation in wireless communication networks - models and analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, Remco

    2003-01-01

    This monograph has concentrated on capacity allocation in cellular and Wireless Local Area Networks, primarily with a network operator’s perspective. In the introduc- tory chapter, a reference model has been proposed for the extensive suite of capacity allocation mechanisms that can be applied at

  1. 7 CFR 1435.310 - Sharing processors' allocations with producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sharing processors' allocations with producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.310 Sharing processors' allocations with producers. (a) Every sugar beet and sugarcane processor must provide CCC a certification that: (1) The processor...

  2. Fast Allocation and Deallocation with an Improved Buddy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Demaine, Erik D.; Munro, J. Ian

    2005-01-01

    We propose several modifications to the binary buddy system for managing dynamic allocation of memory blocks whose sizes are powers of two. The standard buddy system allocates and deallocates blocks in Theta(lg n) time in the worst case (and on an amortized basis), where n is the size of the memo...

  3. 24 CFR 1003.101 - Area ONAP allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds will be allocated based upon each Area ONAP's share of the total eligible Indian population; (ii... of poverty among the eligible Indian population; and (iii) Twenty percent (20%) of the funds will be allocated based upon each Area ONAP's share of the total extent of overcrowded housing among the eligible...

  4. Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in a Decentralized System in Tanzania: Perspectives of National and District Level Officers. ... are restricted on the percentage they can allocate to different areas – so there is severe under-funding of disease prevention and health promotion initiatives at the ...

  5. Resource allocation in food crop production and farming household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the average household land size, labour and capital of 2.236 hectares, 271.57 man-day and N15,677.30 respectively, optimal resources allocation will yield the highest annual farm income of N110,473.50. To improve the food security status of farming households in the study area, farmers should allocate their ...

  6. 77 FR 2240 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... allocation and apportionment of interest expense using the fair market value asset method. The temporary regulations also update the interest allocation regulations to conform to the changes made to the applicable... using the fair market value method. The text of those regulations also serves as the text of these...

  7. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and

  8. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and

  9. 77 FR 9844 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ84 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense... of interest expense. DATES: This correction is effective on February 21, 2012, and is applicable on...) to read as follows: Sec. 1.861-9T Allocation and apportionment of interest expense (temporary...

  10. Family Differences in Aboveground Biomass Allocation in Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts

    2002-01-01

    The proportion of tree growth allocated to stemwood is an important economic component of growth efficiency. Differences in growth efficiency between species, or between families within species, may therefore be related to how growth is proportionally allocated between the stem and other aboveground biomass components. This study examines genetically related...

  11. Comment: Risk Allocation Norms of Civil Construction Contracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment discusses risk allocation under Ethiopian construction law and examines risks in civil construction contracts. The comment highlights the gaps in risk allocation norms under the standard format of construction contract that was issued by the Ethiopian Ministry of Work and Urban Development (MoWUD) in 1994 ...

  12. Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov decision process. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... a review of Markov decision processes and investigates its suitability for solutions to portfolio allocation problems under vendor managed inventory in an uncertain market ...

  13. On the detection of custom memory allocators in C binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Slowinska, J.M.; Bos, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many reverse engineering techniques for data structures rely on the knowledge of memory allocation routines. Typically, they interpose on the system’s malloc and free functions, and track each chunk of memory thus allocated as a data structure. However, many performance-critical applications

  14. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form .... these trials (Lewis et al., 2007) the researchers monitored the effects of feed allocation and feed form on the time taken to ..... This phenomenon has been reported many ...

  15. Models for the discrete berth allocation problem: A computational comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  16. Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg Budget...

  18. Multisorted Tree-Algebras for Hierarchical Resources Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Patrick Zobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generic abstract model for the study of disparities between goals and results in hierarchical multiresources allocation systems. In an organization, disparities in resource allocation may occur, when, after comparison of a resource allocation decision with an allocation reference goal or property, some agents have surplus resources to accomplish their tasks, while at the same time other agents have deficits of expected resources. In the real world, these situations are frequently encountered in organizations facing scarcity of resources and/or inefficient management. These disparities can be corrected using allocation decisions, by measuring and reducing gradually such disparities and their related costs, without totally canceling the existing resource distribution. While a lot of research has been carried out in the area of resource allocation, this specific class of problems has not yet been formally studied. The paper exposes the results of an exploratory research study of this class of problems. It identifies the commonalities of the family of hierarchical multiresource allocation systems and proposes the concept of multisorted tree-algebra for the modeling of these problems. The research presented here is not yet an in-depth descriptive research study of the mathematical theory of multisorted tree-algebra, but a formal study on modelling hierarchical multiresource allocation problems.

  19. Oil Economy and the Revenue Allocation Debacle in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argue that the displacement of agricultural products by oil as the focal point of national revenue, and the attendant relegation of the principle of derivation in revenue allocation, is the root cause of the revenue allocation debacle in Nigerian federalism. The focus on revenue sharing rather than revenue generation ...

  20. An Optimization Approach to the Dynamic Allocation of Economic Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Goovaerts, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We propose an optimization approach to allocating economic capital, distinguishing between an allocation or raising principle and a measure for the risk residual. The approach is applied both at the aggregate (conglomerate) level and at the individual (subsidiary) level and yields an integrated

  1. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  2. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area....... The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...

  3. 4G femtocells resource allocation and interference management

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haijun; Wen, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines resource allocation and interference management for 4G femtocells. It introduces 4G femtocells in the context of 4G mobile networks and discusses related technical challenges in resource allocation and interference management. Topics include ant colony algorithm based downlink resource allocation, intelligent scheduling and power control, uplink and downlink for two-tier networks, quality of service (QoS) constraints and the cross-tier interference constraint. The authors present algorithms to alleviate common femtocell-related problems such as subchannel power allocation. The complexity of the proposed resource allocation algorithms is analyzed, and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is verified by simulations. This concise and practical book directly addresses common problems relating to femtocells and resource management. It serves as a useful tool for researchers in the field. Advanced-level students or professionals interested in femtocells and networks will also find the co...

  4. Optimization of power allocation in wireless cooperative communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunling; Mou, Yangyang; Pan, Chengsheng

    2017-05-01

    As an important part of resource allocation, power allocation affects the performance of wireless cooperative system to a great extent. However, the existing cooperative communication power allocation scheme using only a single index to optimize the performance of the system makes the optimization effect unideal, put forward a cooperative communication power allocation scheme comprehensively consider of the capacity and error probability as objective function. In this paper, the capacity and error probability of the cooperative communication technology are analyzed and the corresponding theoretical formulas are derived, then prove the nonlinear relationship between the two. On this basis, make the maximizing the capacity and minimizing error probability as objective function, present the power allocation scheme based on particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better effect on cooperative communication system, and is more suitable for the future development of cooperative communication technology.

  5. Suboptimal Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Sadr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the performance of low complexity adaptive resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA systems with fixed or variable rate requirements (with fairness consideration. Two suboptimal resource allocation algorithms are proposed using the simplifying assumption of transmit power over the entire bandwidth. The objective of the first algorithm is to maximize the total throughput while maintaining rate proportionality among the users. The proposed suboptimal algorithm prioritizes the user with the highest sensitivity to the subcarrier allocation, and the variance over the subchannel gains is used to define the sensitivity of each user. The second algorithm concerns rate adaptive resource allocation in multiuser systems with fixed rate constraints. We propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm which prioritizes the users with the highest required data rates. The main feature of this algorithm is its low complexity while achieving the rate requirements.

  6. Accounting of allocation of production enterprises’ overhead costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Ivaniuta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the complexity of engineering technological cycles, the use of traditional approaches to the allocation of overhead costs at the researching enterprises is inexpedient and inefficient. The authors find out that to solve this problem it is not enough to choose only one base of allocation because the formed prime cost with such an approach will not meet the reality. That is why it is suggested to use a multilevel allocation of overhead costs. The proposed approach involves the allocation of overhead costs at the following levels: fixed and variable, with shops of main and auxiliary production, calculation stations, some orders. Each level involves the selection of individual allocation bases that are grouped on economic, technological and integrated ones.

  7. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  8. Development and analysis of a three phase cloudlet allocation algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Roy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is one of the most popular and pragmatic topics of research nowadays. The allocation of cloudlet(s to suitable VM(s is one of the most challenging areas of research in the domain of cloud computing. This paper highlights a new cloudlet allocation algorithm which improves the performance of a cloud service provider (CSP in comparison with the other existing cloudlet allocation algorithms. The proposed Range wise Busy-checking 2-way Balanced (RB2B cloudlet allocation algorithm optimizes few basic parameters associated with the performance analysis. An extensive simulation is done to evaluate the proposed algorithm using Cloudsim to attest its efficacy in comparison to the other existing allocation policies.

  9. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2017-05-12

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  10. Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlich, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed

  11. Resource allocation processes at multilateral organizations working in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Y-Ling; Bump, Jesse B

    2018-02-01

    International institutions provide well over US$10 billion in development assistance for health (DAH) annually and between 1990 and 2014, DAH disbursements totaled $458 billion but how do they decide who gets what, and for what purpose? In this article, we explore how allocation decisions were made by the nine convening agencies of the Equitable Access Initiative. We provide clear, plain language descriptions of the complete process from resource mobilization to allocation for the nine multilateral agencies with prominent agendas in global health. Then, through a comparative analysis we illuminate the choices and strategies employed in the nine international institutions. We find that resource allocation in all reviewed institutions follow a similar pattern, which we categorized in a framework of five steps: strategy definition, resource mobilization, eligibility of countries, support type and funds allocation. All the reviewed institutions generate resource allocation decisions through well-structured and fairly complex processes. Variations in those processes seem to reflect differences in institutional principles and goals. However, these processes have serious shortcomings. Technical problems include inadequate flexibility to account for or meet country needs. Although aid effectiveness and value for money are commonly referenced, we find that neither performance nor impact is a major criterion for allocating resources. We found very little formal consideration of the incentives generated by allocation choices. Political issues include non-transparent influence on allocation processes by donors and bureaucrats, and the common practice of earmarking funds to bypass the normal allocation process entirely. Ethical deficiencies include low accountability and transparency at international institutions, and limited participation by affected citizens or their representatives. We find that recipient countries have low influence on allocation processes themselves

  12. Waste package performance allocation system study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memory, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Package Performance Allocation system study was performed in order to provide a technical basis for the selection of the waste package period of substantially complete containment and its resultant contribution to the overall total system performance. This study began with a reference case based on the current Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) baseline design and added a number of alternative designs. The waste package designs were selected from the designs being considered in detail during Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). The waste packages considered were multi-barrier packages with a 0.95 cm Alloy 825 inner barrier and a 10, 20, or 45 cm thick carbon steel outer barrier. The waste package capacities varied from 6 to 12 to 21 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The vertical borehole and in-drift emplacement modes were also considered, as were thermal loadings of 25, 57, and 114 kW/acre. The repository cost analysis indicated that the 21 PWR in-drift emplacement mode option with the 10 cm and 20 cm outer barrier thicknesses are the least expensive and that the 12 PWR in-drift case has approximately the same cost as the 6 PWR vertical borehole. It was also found that the cost increase from the 10 cm outer barrier waste package to the 20 cm waste package was less per centimeter than the increase from the 20 cm outer barrier waste package to the 45 cm outer barrier waste package. However, the repository cost was nearly linear with the outer barrier thickness for the 21 PWR in-drift case. Finally, corrosion rate estimates are provided and the relationship of repository cost versus waste package lifetime is discussed as is cumulative radionuclide release from the waste package and to the accessible environment for time periods of 10,000 years and 100,000 years

  13. RESSOURCES ALLOCATION POSSIBILITIES WITHIN HEALTH SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Liliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The state policy in the health care area must take into account the complexity and specificity of the domain. Health means not only “to treat”, but also “to prevent” and “to recover and rehabilitate the individual physically”. Regardless of the adopted health insurance system, the health system is facing a big problem and this is the insufficient funds necessary to function properly. The underfunding may have various causes, from a wrong health policy, based on “treating” instead of “preventing”, by the misuse of funds. This papers intended to formulate assumptions that underpin the research I am conducting within the Doctoral Research Program held at the Valahia University of Targoviste, which aims at using the management control in increasing the health services performance. The application of the accounting and management control methods in determining health costs can be a beginning to streamline the system. This is also a result of the fact that health care is a public service with specific characteristics: it can not be subject only to market requirements but at the same time he must undergo an administrative savings, representing a typical case of market failure. The increased cost of treatment, as well as the decline in their quality can be determined by the discrepancy between the funding and payment mechanisms. Different payment systems currently available do nothing but perpetuate the shortcomings in the system. Switching to the introduction of cost and budgets by cost centers or object (if solved can be a step forward for a better management of resources. In this context, we consider as a necessity to be imposed the cost analysis on responsibility centers, the definition of the cost object and cost center identification and determination of direct costs and those indirect services to choose the basis for the allocation of cost centers and the determination of each actual cost per diagnosis.

  14. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  15. Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Verena S; Schärer, Lukas; Michiels, Nico K

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites have typically focused either on evolutionary or one-time, ontogenetic optimization of sex allocation, ignoring variation within an individual's lifetime. Here, we study whether hermaphrodites also possess facultative sex allocation, that is, a phenotypic flexibility, allowing them to distribute resources to either sex in an opportunistic way during their adult lifetime. We used the simultaneously hermaphroditic free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano and raised individuals in pairs and groups of eight worms (further called octets) until sexual maturity was reached and sex allocation for the current conditions was expected to be set. Treatment groups were subsequently transferred to the alternative group size, that is, from pairs to octets or from octets to pairs, and compared to two control groups, which were transferred without changing group size. The results show that worms in treatment groups responded as expected by the local mate competition theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites: increasing group size resulted in a shift toward a more male-biased sex allocation and vice versa. These findings reveal that sex allocation in these animals is not fixed during ontogeny, but remains flexible after maturation. We argue that phenotypically flexible sex allocation in hermaphroditic animals may help us to understand the evolution and ecology of hermaphroditism.

  16. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality operates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard D; Kapranas, Apostolos; Hardy, Ian C W

    2016-11-07

    Optimal sex allocation theory is one of the most intricately developed areas of evolutionary ecology. Under a range of conditions, particularly under population sub-division, selection favours sex being allocated to offspring non-randomly, generating non-binomial variances of offspring group sex ratios. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation is complicated by stochastic developmental mortality, as offspring sex can often only be identified on maturity with the sex of non-maturing offspring remaining unknown. We show that current approaches for detecting non-binomiality have limited ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality has occurred. We present a new procedure using an explicit model of sex allocation and mortality and develop a Bayesian model selection approach (available as an R package). We use the double and multiplicative binomial distributions to model over- and under-dispersed sex allocation and show how to calculate Bayes factors for comparing these alternative models to the null hypothesis of binomial sex allocation. The ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation is greatly increased, particularly in cases where mortality is common. The use of Bayesian methods allows for the quantification of the evidence in favour of each hypothesis, and our modelling approach provides an improved descriptive capability over existing approaches. We use a simulation study to demonstrate substantial improvements in power for detecting non-binomial sex allocation in situations where current methods fail, and we illustrate the approach in real scenarios using empirically obtained datasets on the sexual composition of groups of gregarious parasitoid wasps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal safety goal allocation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.P.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is on the development of a methodology for safety goal allocation given cost functions and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models. The safety goal allocation problem is formulated as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Based on the decomposition principle, the safety goal allocation problem is first reduced to a lower order optimization problem. Then, a set of optimization algorithms is used to solve the decomposed optimization problem. In order to introduce expert opinion, weighting factors are incorporated in the objective function. Computer software was developed to perform the optimization and sensitivity analysis. The proposed method is demonstrated by using an industrially developed PRA model. (author)

  18. Optimal resource allocation strategy for two-layer complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlong; Wang, Lixin; Li, Sufeng; Duan, Congwen; Liu, Yu

    2018-02-01

    We study the traffic dynamics on two-layer complex networks, and focus on its delivery capacity allocation strategy to enhance traffic capacity measured by the critical value Rc. With the limited packet-delivering capacity, we propose a delivery capacity allocation strategy which can balance the capacities of non-hub nodes and hub nodes to optimize the data flow. With the optimal value of parameter αc, the maximal network capacity is reached because most of the nodes have shared the appropriate delivery capacity by the proposed delivery capacity allocation strategy. Our work will be beneficial to network service providers to design optimal networked traffic dynamics.

  19. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  20. Study on the methodology for allocating costs of grid losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalberts, A.; Dekker, G.; Jaarsma, S.; Tieben, B.; Vlug, N.

    2011-01-01

    The research question in this report: 'Where are grid losses caused and in which (objective) manner can the costs of these grid losses be allocated to the buyers. The key questions answered in the research are: (1) In which locations of the electricity grid are losses caused and what is the volume of these losses?; (2) How are the costs of grid losses allocated to the various groups of end users?; and (3) What are alternative way(s) to allocate the costs of grid losses to the buyers?. [nl

  1. Joint Resource Allocation for Dual - Band Heterogeneous Wireless Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeogun, Ramoni

    2018-01-01

    is proposed for adaptively switching the SC transmission frequency based on the location of small cell users and interference to macrocell users. We propose a resource allocation approach which maximizes the sum rate of small cell users while minimizing interference to macrocell users and the total power......In this paper, we investigate downlink resource allocation in two-tier OFDMA heterogeneous networks comprising a macrocell transmitting at a microwave frequency and dual band small cells utilizing both microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. A non - cooperative game theoretic approach...... consumption. The performance of the proposed resource allocation solution is evaluated via rigorous MATLAB simulations...

  2. Competition for export markets and the allocation of foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We account for competition for export markets among donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. Employing sector-specific aid data, we find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods...... and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  3. Approaches to expanding the two-arm biased coin randomization to unequal allocation while preserving the unconditional allocation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Johnson, Victoria Plamadeala

    2017-07-20

    The paper discusses three methods for expanding the biased coin randomization (BCR) to unequal allocation while preserving the unconditional allocation ratio at every step. The first method originally proposed in the contexts of BCR and minimization is based on mapping from an equal allocation multi-arm BCR. Despite the improvement proposed in this paper to ensure tighter adherence to the targeted unequal allocation, this method still distributes the probability mass at least as wide as the permuted block randomization (PBR). This works for smaller block sizes, but for larger block sizes, a tighter control of the imbalance in the treatment assignments is desired. The second method, which has two versions, allows to tighten the distribution of the imbalance compared with that achieved with the PBR. However, the distribution of the imbalance remains considerably wider than that of the brick tunnel randomization - the unequal allocation procedure with the tightest possible imbalance distribution among all allocation ratio preserving procedures with the same allocation ratio. Finally, the third method, the BCR with a preset proportion of maximal forcing, mimics the properties of the equal allocation BCR. With maximum forcing, it approaches the brick tunnel randomization, similar to how 1:1 BCR approaches 1:1 PBR with the permuted block size of 2 (the equal allocation procedure with the lowest possible imbalance) when the bias approaches 1. With minimum forcing, the BCR with a preset proportion of maximal forcing approaches complete randomization (similar to 1:1 BCR). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  5. Analysis of national allocation plans for the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Nilsson, Kristina; Aahman, Markus; Kumlin, Anna-Sofia; Birgersdotter, Lena

    2004-08-01

    The EU ETS is a Community-wide scheme established by Directive 2003/87/EC for trading allowances to cover the emissions of greenhouse gases from permitted installations. The first phase of the EU ETS runs from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. Each Member State must develop a National Allocation Plan for the first phase stating: the total quantity of allowances that the Member State intends to issue during that phase; and how it proposes to distribute those allowances among the installations which are subject to the scheme In this paper twelve of the national allocation plans have been analysed and compared to the criteria stated in the EU Directive. The twelve allocation plans analysed are: the Austrian, the Danish, the Finnish, the German, the Irish, the Lithuanian, the Luxembourg, the Dutch, the Swedish, the British and the draft Flemish (Belgium) and Portuguese. Generally most countries have allocated generously to the trading sector. The allocation has often been based on future needs. For most sectors the allocation is higher than current emissions. Many countries will have to make large reductions in the non-trading sector and/or buy credits through JI- and CDM-projects in order to fulfil their commitment according to the EU burden sharing agreement of the Kyoto Protocol. In many of the allocation plans the emission reducing measures in the non-trading sector is poorly described and the credibility of the measures are hard to determine. Two sectors have been analysed in more detail, the energy and the mineral oil refining sectors. Figures presenting allocation vs. current emissions for those sectors are given for those countries where data was available in the allocation plan. The energy sector has been considered to have the best possibilities to pass on costs for the allowances to the consumers and hence the allocation to this sector is often more restricted than the allocation to other sectors. The mineral oil refining sector is more exposed to

  6. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25 percent...

  7. Complexity of scheduling multiprocessor tasks with prespecified processor allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.; Veltman, Bart

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of scheduling multiprocessor tasks with prespecified processor allocations. We consider two criteria: minimizing schedule length and minimizing the sum of the task completion times. In addition, we investigate the complexity of problems when precedence

  8. Dynamic computing resource allocation in online flood monitoring and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, S.; Podhoranyi, M.; Vavrik, R.; Portero, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents tools and methodologies for dynamic allocation of high performance computing resources during operation of the Floreon+ online flood monitoring and prediction system. The resource allocation is done throughout the execution of supported simulations to meet the required service quality levels for system operation. It also ensures flexible reactions to changing weather and flood situations, as it is not economically feasible to operate online flood monitoring systems in the full performance mode during non-flood seasons. Different service quality levels are therefore described for different flooding scenarios, and the runtime manager controls them by allocating only minimal resources currently expected to meet the deadlines. Finally, an experiment covering all presented aspects of computing resource allocation in rainfall-runoff and Monte Carlo uncertainty simulation is performed for the area of the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic.

  9. [Allocation problems in organ transplantation: practical medical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckert, Christoph; Quante, Markus; Jonas, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation is one the most successful medical innovations of the 20th century. Due to an increasing number of patients on the waiting lists for transplantation in the context of persisting organ shortage the aim of optimal allocation policy is the best possible balance between medical urgency and postoperative outcome. Because of scientific evolution and increasing waiting list mortality the allocation system for liver transplantation was altered in December 2006. As intended, the preferential treatment of sicker patients resulted in a reduced waiting list mortality. On the other hand, an unintentional decrease in postoperative survival was observed. This obvious imbalance between medical urgency and postoperative outcome has led to the current allocation problem. Several scientific approaches for optimising allocation policy will be presented and discussed in this paper. Finally, continuous review and adaptation will be a persisting challenge for people working in the field of solid organ transplantation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Allocation of Load-Loss Cost Caused by Voltage Sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the allocation of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag in the environment of electricity market. To compensate the loss of loads due to voltage sags, the load-loss cost is allocated to both sources and power consumers. On the basis of Load Drop Cost (LDC), a quantitative evaluation index of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag is identified. The load-loss cost to be allocated to power consumers themselves is calculated according to load classification. Based on the theory of power component the quantitative relation between sources and loads is established, thereby a quantitative calculation method for load-loss cost allocated to each source is deduced and the quantitative compensation from individual source to load is proposed. A simple five-bus system illustrates the main features of the proposed method.

  11. Investigation of rainfall and regional factors for maintenance cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The existing formulas used by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to allocate the statewide : maintenance budget rely heavily on inventory and pavement evaluation data. These formulas include : regional factors and rainfall indices that va...

  12. Optimal treatment cost allocation methods in pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenying; Fang Dong; Xue Dazhi

    1999-01-01

    Total emission control is an effective pollution control strategy. However, Chinese application of total emission control lacks reasonable and fair methods for optimal treatment cost allocation, a critical issue in total emission control. The author considers four approaches to allocate treatment costs. The first approach is to set up a multiple-objective planning model and to solve the model using the shortest distance ideal point method. The second approach is to define degree of satisfaction for cost allocation results for each polluter and to establish a method based on this concept. The third is to apply bargaining and arbitration theory to develop a model. The fourth is to establish a cooperative N-person game model which can be solved using the Shapley value method, the core method, the Cost Gap Allocation method or the Minimum Costs-Remaining Savings method. These approaches are compared using a practicable case study

  13. Dynamic Load Allocation for Multi-homing via Coded Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand and characterize policies that exploit multiple available technologies and/or het- erogeneous communication routes simultaneously with the goal of improving throughput and energy performance or economi- cal costs. Such policies may be instrumental towards allowing...... improved services to mobile devices in converged networks. We present an optimization framework and a set of allocation policies to provide efficient, channel-aware load allocation for multi- homed devices under different cost criteria. Network coding is used as a key enabler of these techniques as coding...... available to each technology as part of the resource allocation optimization. Numerical results are pro- vided showing that dynamic allocation policies are instrumental to improving resource efficiency by reducing energy consumption and/or channel utilization. The energy gains of our proposed policies...

  14. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    . The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...... be the focus in China in future research:More attention need to paid to studying the unified management policy and mechanism of water resources, studying the water resources cycle and transformation under environmental change, studying new methods for water resources carrying capacity and evaluation...

  15. The entity-to-algorithm allocation problem: Extending the analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the investigation into the algorithm selection problem in hyper-heuristics, otherwise referred to as the entity-to-algorithm allocation problem, introduced by Grobler et al.. Two newly developed population-based portfolio...

  16. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  17. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  18. Radio resource allocation over fading channels under statistical delay constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents radio resource allocation schemes for buffer-aided communications systems over fading channels under statistical delay constraints in terms of upper-bounded average delay or delay-outage probability. This Brief starts by considering a source-destination communications link with data arriving at the source transmission buffer. The first scenario, the joint optimal data admission control and power allocation problem for throughput maximization is considered, where the source is assumed to have a maximum power and an average delay constraints. The second scenario, optimal power allocation problems for energy harvesting (EH) communications systems under average delay or delay-outage constraints are explored, where the EH source harvests random amounts of energy from renewable energy sources, and stores the harvested energy in a battery during data transmission. Online resource allocation algorithms are developed when the statistical knowledge of the random channel fading, data arrivals...

  19. DETERMININGS OF FARM WORK ALLOCATION IN BRAZILIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.

  20. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all...... sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...... model searching for an optimal match between farm attributes and spatial characteristics subject to consistency constraints. The objective functions are derived from a Bayesian highest posterior density framework. The allocation procedure recovers the spatial farm type distributions satisfactorilly...

  1. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the draft report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) for a 30-day public comment period. The ICLUS version 2 (v2) modeling tool furthered land change modeling by providing nationwide housing development scenarios up to 2100. ICLUS V2 includes updated population and land use data sets and addressing limitations identified in ICLUS v1 in both the migration and spatial allocation models. The companion user guide describes the development of ICLUS v2 and the updates that were made to the original data sets and the demographic and spatial allocation models. [2017 UPDATE] Get the latest version of ICLUS and stay up-to-date by signing up to the ICLUS mailing list. The GIS tool enables users to run SERGoM with the population projections developed for the ICLUS project and allows users to modify the spatial allocation housing density across the landscape.

  2. Using dynamic input allocation for elongation control at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the dynamic allocation scheme for input redundant control systems proposed in to achieve elongation control on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The scheme first serves as a means for regulating the current in the F coils. Then, due to the quasi-static relationship between the plasma elongation and the F coils current, elongation control is achieved by suitably generalizing the allocation scheme. Both simulation and experimental results are reported.

  3. Application of Cournot's model on a couple's budget allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kostelić, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Budget allocation of the couples belongs to the field of family finance management, but also represents a source of dispute among them, which directed the research of this topic towards family therapy and psychology. This paper will offer quantitative approach, implementing Cournot’s duopoly model to a situation of a couple’s budget allocation. That will emphasis the underlying economic principles, as well as show that there exists an equilibrium solution or an equilibrium set of possible ...

  4. Cooperative Task Allocation Method of MCAV/UCAV Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Zhong; Peiyang Yao; Yu Sun; Juan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) cooperative task allocation under Manned Combat Aerial Vehicle’s (MCAV) limited control is one of the important problems in UCAV research field. Hereto, we analyze the key technical and tactical indices influence task allocation problem and build an appropriate model to maximize the objective function values as well as reflecting various constraints. A novel improved multigroup ant colony algorithm (IMGACA) is proposed to solve the model; the algorithm ma...

  5. Resolving Actuator Redundancy - Control Allocation vs. Linear Quadratic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola

    2004-01-01

    When designing control laws for systems with more inputs than controlled variables, one issue to consider is how to deal with actuator redundancy. Two tools for distributing the control effort among a redundant set of actuators are control allocation and linear quadratic control design. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between these two design tools when a quadratic performance index is used for control allocation. We show that for a particular class of linear systems, they give...

  6. Dynamic asset allocation for bank under stochastic interest rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Fatma; Abid, Fathi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal asset allocation strategy for bank with stochastic interest rates when there are three types of asset: Bank account, loans and securities. The asset allocation problem is to maximize the expected utility from terminal wealth of a bank's shareholders over a finite time horizon. As a consequence, we apply a dynamic programming principle to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation explicitly in the case of the CRRA utility function. A case study is given ...

  7. Price and welfare effects of emission quota allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-01-01

    Abstracts with downloadable Discussion Papers in PDF are available on the Internet: http://www.ssb.no Abstract: We analyze how different ways of allocating emission quotas may influence the electricity market. Using a large-scale numerical model of the Western European energy market, we show that different allocation mechanisms can have very different effects on the electricity market, even if the total emission target is fixed. This is particularly the case if output-based alloca...

  8. Fundamentals for the Allocation of Financial Benefits in Virtual Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jähn , Hendrik; Burghardt , Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Part 18: Cost, Benefits and Performance; International audience; In the following fundamentals for the allocation of financial benefits such as profit are introduced. The content is based on the concept of value-adding process-related virtual enterprises. Before applying exact rules for the calculation and allocation of the financial benefits some initial process steps need to be completed. That is indispensable for the success of virtual enterprises because financial benefits are the main ta...

  9. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  10. Modeling carbon allocation in trees: a search for principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar; Johansson, Jacob; Dewar, Roderick C; Dieckmann, Ulf; McMurtrie, Ross E; Brännström, Ake; Dybzinski, Ray

    2012-06-01

    We review approaches to predicting carbon and nitrogen allocation in forest models in terms of their underlying assumptions and their resulting strengths and limitations. Empirical and allometric methods are easily developed and computationally efficient, but lack the power of evolution-based approaches to explain and predict multifaceted effects of environmental variability and climate change. In evolution-based methods, allocation is usually determined by maximization of a fitness proxy, either in a fixed environment, which we call optimal response (OR) models, or including the feedback of an individual's strategy on its environment (game-theoretical optimization, GTO). Optimal response models can predict allocation in single trees and stands when there is significant competition only for one resource. Game-theoretical optimization can be used to account for additional dimensions of competition, e.g., when strong root competition boosts root allocation at the expense of wood production. However, we demonstrate that an OR model predicts similar allocation to a GTO model under the root-competitive conditions reported in free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiments. The most evolutionarily realistic approach is adaptive dynamics (AD) where the allocation strategy arises from eco-evolutionary dynamics of populations instead of a fitness proxy. We also discuss emerging entropy-based approaches that offer an alternative thermodynamic perspective on allocation, in which fitness proxies are replaced by entropy or entropy production. To help develop allocation models further, the value of wide-ranging datasets, such as FLUXNET, could be greatly enhanced by ancillary measurements of driving variables, such as water and soil nitrogen availability.

  11. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  12. An automated approach to monitoring low-level waste allocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Hill, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    A program is underway to identify a means for monitoring low-level waste (LLW) allocations for compliance with the limited availability provisions contained in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. These amendments establish annual disposal limitations at the operating sites through transition, licensing, and construction periods and set out detailed short term reactor allocations to ensure compliance. The approach is complex because it assigns allocations according to reactor type and licensure date, allows allocation aggregation among commonly-owned units, permits the carrying forward of unused capacity from one period to the next, and provides for exchanges of allocations. Successful implementation of the congressional mandate will require careful monitoring of the division of capacity. This task can be accomplished with a sophisticated information management system. The Southern States Energy Board and the DOE Low-Level Waste Mangement Program, through this lead contract or EG and G Idaho, Inc., in cooperation with South Carolina and the Southeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact Commission, are developing a computer interface that will allow the exchange of information with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Information System. This computer network is being used as a regional prototype for monitoring low-level waste allocations

  13. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  14. Water Development, Allocation, and Institutions: A Role for Integrated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from inadequate water infrastructure, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Each of these three challenges compounds the burdens imposed by inadequacies associated with the other two. Weak water infrastructure makes it hard to allocate water efficiently and undermines tracking of water rights and use, which blocks effective functioning of water institutions. Inefficient water allocation makes it harder to secure resources to develop new water infrastructure. Poorly developed water institutions undermine the security of water rights, which damages incentives to develop water infrastructure or use water efficiently. This paper reports on the development of a prototype basin scale economic optimization, in which existing water supplies are allocated more efficiently in the short run to provide resources for more efficient long-run water infrastructure development. Preliminary results provide the basis for designing water administrative proposals, building effective water infrastructure, increasing farm income, and meeting transboundary delivery commitments. The application is to the Kabul River Basin in Afghanistan, where food security has been compromised by a history of drought, war, damaged irrigation infrastructure, lack of reservoir storage, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Results illustrate increases in economic efficiency achievable when development programs simultaneously address interdependencies in water allocation, development, and institutions.

  15. Genetic association between male attractiveness and female differential allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Hunt, John; Brooks, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Differential allocation of reproductive effort towards offspring of attractive mates is a form of post-copulatory mate choice. Although differential allocation has been demonstrated in many taxa, its evolutionary implications have received little attention. Theory predicts that mate choice will lead to a positive genetic correlation between female preference and male attractiveness. This prediction has been upheld for pre-copulatory mate choice, but whether such a relationship between male attractiveness and female differential allocation exists has never been tested. Here, we show that both female pre-copulatory mate choice and post-copulatory differential allocation are genetically associated with male attractiveness in house crickets, Acheta domesticus. Daughters of attractive males mated sooner and laid more eggs when paired with larger males. These forms of mate choice are strongest in large females, suggesting that costs decrease with increasing female size. The genetic association between attractiveness and differential allocation suggests potential for differential allocation to become exaggerated by coevolutionary runaway processes in an analogous manner to pre-copulatory choice. Sexual selection is thus likely to be stronger than predicted by pre-copulatory choice alone. PMID:17148398

  16. Optimized maritime emergency resource allocation under dynamic demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfen Zhang

    Full Text Available Emergency resource is important for people evacuation and property rescue when accident occurs. The relief efforts could be promoted by a reasonable emergency resource allocation schedule in advance. As the marine environment is complicated and changeful, the place, type, severity of maritime accident is uncertain and stochastic, bringing about dynamic demand of emergency resource. Considering dynamic demand, how to make a reasonable emergency resource allocation schedule is challenging. The key problem is to determine the optimal stock of emergency resource for supplier centers to improve relief efforts. This paper studies the dynamic demand, and which is defined as a set. Then a maritime emergency resource allocation model with uncertain data is presented. Afterwards, a robust approach is developed and used to make sure that the resource allocation schedule performs well with dynamic demand. Finally, a case study shows that the proposed methodology is feasible in maritime emergency resource allocation. The findings could help emergency manager to schedule the emergency resource allocation more flexibly in terms of dynamic demand.

  17. Theatre personnel's perception of operating room resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, A O; Adejumo, P O

    2009-06-01

    Operating rooms (OR) in hospitals represent big investments and must be utilized efficiently. Inaccurate scheduling of OR resources often results in delays of surgery or cancellations of procedures. These are costly to the patient, surgical team and hospital. Existing literatures in the OR management lack consensus on the method of evaluating management decisions from the perspectives of personnel or those affected by management decision-making processes. Eight key informant interviews were conducted. Also, 50 Operating Theatre Personnel (OTP), i.e., Surgeons, OR Nurses, Anaesthetists, and Executive Officers in the Nigeria's premier University Teaching Hospital were asked to complete a survey questionnaire concerning operating theatre resource allocation in the hospital. Five close-ended and 10 open-ended questions were used. (For example, how are the decisions to allocate OR resources in this hospital made?) Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were done. The theoretical framework, accountability for reasonableness was applied. Forty-eight percent of the participants were ignorant of the framework guiding OR resource allocation. 54% of the respondents admitted the current mechanism for publicizing management decisions on OR resource allocation is ineffective. Another 50% of the respondents knew little about the mode of appealing against unfavourable allocation decisions. Participants' open ended responses revealed that hospital executives and a few consultant surgeons control the allocation of OR resources, with little recourse to OR personnel's concerns. If operating theatre stake holders are excluded in the planning, allocation and evaluation of OR resources, the efficiency required in surgical services would never be realized irrespective of the dexterity of the surgical team.

  18. Allocation of Nutrients to Somatic Tissues in Young Ovariectomized Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Evan T.; Hatle, John D.; Drewry, Michelle D.; Wessels, Frank J.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma “relative” to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of 13C and 15N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  19. Global trends and challenges in deceased donor kidney allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Diana A; Watson, Christopher J; Bradley, J Andrew; Johnson, Rachel J; Forsythe, John L; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, the number of patients able to benefit from kidney transplantation is greatly restricted by the severe shortage of deceased donor organs. Allocation of this scarce resource is increasingly challenging and complex. Striking an acceptable balance between efficient use of (utility) and fair access to (equity) the limited supply of donated kidneys raises controversial but important debates at ethical, medical, and social levels. There is no international consensus on the recipient and donor factors that should be considered in the kidney allocation process. There is a general trend toward a reduction in the influence of human leukocyte antigen mismatch and an increase in the importance of other factors shown to affect posttransplant outcomes, such as cold ischemia, duration of dialysis, donor and recipient age, and comorbidity. Increased consideration of equity has led to improved access to transplantation for disadvantaged patient groups. There has been an overall improvement in the transparency and accountability of allocation policies. Novel and contentious approaches in kidney allocation include the use of survival prediction scores as a criterion for accessing the waiting list and at the point of organ offering with matching of predicted graft and recipient survival. This review compares the diverse international approaches to deceased donor kidney allocation and their evolution over the last decade. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of sample size allocation program using hypergeometric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Kwack, Eun Ho; Park, Wan Soo; Min, Kyung Soo; Park, Chan Sik

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is the development of sample allocation program using hypergeometric distribution with objected-oriented method. When IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) performs inspection, it simply applies a standard binomial distribution which describes sampling with replacement instead of a hypergeometric distribution which describes sampling without replacement in sample allocation to up to three verification methods. The objective of the IAEA inspection is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material, therefore game theory is applied to its sampling plan. It is necessary to use hypergeometric distribution directly or approximate distribution to secure statistical accuracy. Improved binomial approximation developed by Mr. J. L. Jaech and correctly applied binomial approximation are more closer to hypergeometric distribution in sample size calculation than the simply applied binomial approximation of the IAEA. Object-oriented programs of 1. sample approximate-allocation with correctly applied standard binomial approximation, 2. sample approximate-allocation with improved binomial approximation, and 3. sample approximate-allocation with hypergeometric distribution were developed with Visual C ++ and corresponding programs were developed with EXCEL(using Visual Basic for Application). 8 tabs., 15 refs. (Author)

  1. Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.P.; Hassan, M.Y.; Hussin, F.

    2008-01-01

    Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Optimal allocation of international atomic energy agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Each year the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to confirm that nuclear materials and facilities are employed for peaceful purposes. Because of limited inspection resources, however, the IAEA cannot fully attain its safeguards goals either quantitatively as measured by the inspection effort negotiated in the facility attachments or qualitatively as measured by the IAEA criteria for evaluating attainment of safeguards goals. Under current IAEA procedures the allocation of inspection resources assigns essentially equal inspection effort to facilities of the same type. An alternative approach would incorporate consideration of all material categories and facilities to be assigned inspection resources when allocating effort to a particular facility. One such method for allocating inspection resources is based on the IAEA criteria. The criteria provide a framework for allocating inspection effort that includes a ranking of material types according to their safeguards importance, an implicit definition of inspection activities for each material and facility type, and criteria for judging the attainment of safeguards goals in terms of the quality and frequency of these inspection activities. This framework is applicable to resource allocation for an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  3. Resource-dependent sex-allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizoso, D B; Schärer, L

    2007-05-01

    Most sex allocation theory is based on the relationship between the resource investment into male and female reproduction and the consequent fitness returns (often called fitness-gain curves). Here we investigate the effects of resource availability on the sex allocation of a simultaneously hermaphroditic animal, the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We kept the worms under different resource levels and determined the size of their testes and ovaries over a period of time. At higher resource levels, worms allocated relatively more into the female function, suggesting a saturating male fitness-gain curve for this species. A large part of the observed effect was due to a correlated increase in body size, showing size-dependent sex allocation in M. lignano. However, a significant part of the overall effect was independent of body size, and therefore likely due to the differences in resource availability. Moreover, in accordance with a saturating male fitness-gain curve, the worms developed the male gonads first. As the group size was kept constant, our results contrast with expectations from sex allocation models that deal with local mate competition alone, and with previous experiments that test these models.

  4. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  5. 26 CFR 1.755-1 - Rules for allocation of basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the $42,500 appreciation in capital gain property). T would also be allocated a $1,250 ordinary loss... appreciation). Any remaining increase must be allocated among the properties within the class in proportion to... allocated within a class, the increase must be allocated first to properties with unrealized appreciation in...

  6. A Generalization of the Aumann-Shapley Value for Risk Capital Allocation Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Norde, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes risk capital allocation problems. For risk capital allocation problems, the aim is to allocate the risk capital of a firm to its divisions. Risk capital allocation is of central importance in risk-based performance measurement. We consider a case in which the aggregate

  7. Prediction of Commuter’s Daily Time Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict the time allocation in commuters’ daily activity-travel pattern. The departure time and the arrival time are estimated with Ordered Probit model and Support Vector Regression is introduced for travel time and activity duration prediction. Applied in a real-world time allocation prediction experiment, the model system shows a satisfactory level of prediction accuracy. This study provides useful insights into commuters’ activity-travel time allocation decision by identifying the important influences, and the results are readily applied to a wide range of transportation practice, such as travel information system, by providing reliable forecast for variations in travel demand over time. By introducing the Support Vector Regression, it also makes a methodological contribution in enhancing prediction accuracy of travel time and activity duration prediction.

  8. A Theoretical Assessment on Optimal Asset Allocations in Insurance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the financial markets known a rapid development and become more and more complex. So, many regulatory requirements, focused on banks as well as insurance sector, have been developed. These regulatory are concentrated essentially on business risk control and required capital to cover risks. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. This section is interested by this issue. In first time it highlights some research works in this issue. Then we will investigate the relation between Solvency and optimal asset allocation. Finally we will explore the principal used methods in modeling asset and in choosing the optimal portfolio composition.

  9. A cooperative game theory analysis for transmission loss allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Delberis A.; Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Ilha Solteira, Av. Brasil 56, CEP 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Contreras, Javier [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents an analysis and discussion, based on cooperative game theory, for the allocation of the cost of losses to generators and demands in transmission systems. We construct a cooperative game theory model in which the players are represented by equivalent bilateral exchanges and we search for a unique loss allocation solution, the Core. Other solution concepts, such as the Shapley Value, the Bilateral Shapley Value and the Kernel are also explored. Our main objective is to illustrate why is not possible to find an optimal solution for allocating the cost of losses to the users of a network. Results and relevant conclusions are presented for a 4-bus system and a 14-bus system. (author)

  10. Matching Theory for Channel Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a cognitive radio network (CRN in which a set of secondary users (SUs competes for a limited number of channels (spectrum resources belonging to primary users (PUs, the channel allocation is a challenge and dominates the throughput and congestion of the network. In this paper, the channel allocation problem is first formulated as the 0-1 integer programming optimization, with considering the overall utility both of primary system and secondary system. Inspired by matching theory, a many-to-one matching game is used to remodel the channel allocation problem, and the corresponding PU proposing deferred acceptance (PPDA algorithm is also proposed to yield a stable matching. We compare the performance and computation complexity between these two solutions. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and obtain the communication overhead of the proposed scheme.

  11. Optimal allocation of EU emission allowances under imperfect competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschel, R. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Economic Theory and Operations Research

    2007-07-01

    In an effort to regulate greenhouse gas emissions the EU makes use of a hybrid approach, which differentiates between the industry sector, regulated by emissions trading, and the traffic and households sector, regulated by different policies. A common assumption in literature is that an optimal allocation of emissions in the European system must satisfy equal marginal emission abatement costs for emitters in all sectors. This paper shows that in case of at least on oligopolistic industry cost efficiency does not inevitably require equal marginal emission abatement costs across sectors. To achieve an optimal solution, marginal abatement costs of all emitters in the industry sector must be above or below marginal costs of other emitters, depending on commodity market's competition and emitters' asymmetry. This has a direct impact on the optimal National Allocation Plan; e.g. an allocation favoring emitters from the industry sector can be necessary to minimize overall costs.

  12. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M.; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions.

  13. Reliability allocation problem in a series-parallel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalaoui, Alice; Chu, Chengbin; Chatelet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve system reliability, designers may introduce in a system different technologies in parallel. When each technology is composed of components in series, the configuration belongs to the series-parallel systems. This type of system has not been studied as much as the parallel-series architecture. There exist no methods dedicated to the reliability allocation in series-parallel systems with different technologies. We propose in this paper theoretical and practical results for the allocation problem in a series-parallel system. Two resolution approaches are developed. Firstly, a one stage problem is studied and the results are exploited for the multi-stages problem. A theoretical condition for obtaining the optimal allocation is developed. Since this condition is too restrictive, we secondly propose an alternative approach based on an approximated function and the results of the one-stage study. This second approach is applied to numerical examples

  14. Human-Automation Allocations for Current Robotic Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Chang, Mai L.; Beard, Bettina L.; Kim, Yun Kyung; Karasinski, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the Human Research Program, one risk delineates the uncertainty surrounding crew working with automation and robotics in spaceflight. The Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is concerned with the detrimental effects on crew performance due to ineffective user interfaces, system designs and/or functional task allocation, potentially compromising mission success and safety. Risk arises because we have limited experience with complex automation and robotics. One key gap within HARI, is the gap related to functional allocation. The gap states: We need to evaluate, develop, and validate methods and guidelines for identifying human-automation/robot task information needs, function allocation, and team composition for future long duration, long distance space missions. Allocations determine the human-system performance as it identifies the functions and performance levels required by the automation/robotic system, and in turn, what work the crew is expected to perform and the necessary human performance requirements. Allocations must take into account each of the human, automation, and robotic systems capabilities and limitations. Some functions may be intuitively assigned to the human versus the robot, but to optimize efficiency and effectiveness, purposeful role assignments will be required. The role of automation and robotics will significantly change in future exploration missions, particularly as crew becomes more autonomous from ground controllers. Thus, we must understand the suitability of existing function allocation methods within NASA as well as the existing allocations established by the few robotic systems that are operational in spaceflight. In order to evaluate future methods of robotic allocations, we must first benchmark the allocations and allocation methods that have been used. We will present 1) documentation of human-automation-robotic allocations in existing, operational spaceflight systems; and 2) To

  15. Great Expectations: An Examination of Section 180c Funding Allocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) moves toward milestones in developing a plan to ship high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain, an increasingly difficult issue is the distribution of Federal emergency management funds to mitigate costs of preparing for the shipments. DOE staff and contractors, and state transportation planning groups, have high expectations that some allocation formula based on technical factors can be used to distribute funds effectively and equitably. This paper examines the empirical results of a funding allocation formula proposed by the Western Governors Association among the eleven affected states which are members of the Western Interstate Energy Board. The amount of Federal funds allocated to Western states is also compared to the amount of revenue that would be generated by state-imposed fees on DOE shipments. (authors)

  16. Properties and solution methods for large location-allocation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    Location-allocation with l$ _p$ distances is studied. It is shown that this structure can be expressed as a concave minimization programming problem. Since concave minimization algorithms are not yet well developed, five solution methods are developed which utilize the special properties of the l......Location-allocation with l$ _p$ distances is studied. It is shown that this structure can be expressed as a concave minimization programming problem. Since concave minimization algorithms are not yet well developed, five solution methods are developed which utilize the special properties...... of the location-allocation problem. Using the rectilinear distance measure, two of these algorithms achieved optimal solutions in all 102 test problems for which solutions were known. The algorithms can be applied to much larger problems than any existing exact methods....

  17. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions

  18. Cost-allocation principles for pipeline capacity and usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salant, D.J.; Watkins, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of cost sharing among multiple users of transmission facilities, such as pipelines, was discussed. The various ways in which a fair and reasonable pipeline cost-allocation scheme can be implemented were examined. It was suggested that no method exists for allocating costs that will achieve all major policy goals. The advantages and disadvantages of a system of uniform rates, such as postage stamp tolls, was discussed in the context of a natural gas pipeline system. A postage stamp system is one in which all users pay the same amount per unit of capacity, regardless of transport distances. This rate structure, while sometimes appropriate, is inefficient if total costs are distance-sensitive or if there is a significant variation in the sources of demand. Two commonly accepted minimal principles that a cost allocation should satisfy include: (1) the stand-alone cost test, and (2) the incremental cost test. This means that no one should pay costs in excess of their stand-alone costs and no one should pay less than their incremental costs. Postage stamp tolls were found to fail the minimal set of commonly applied principles. More optimal ways in which to allocate pipeline network costs among users were presented. The nucleolus is a unique cost allocation that is consistent, symmetric and homogeneous. The nucleolus is calculated by splitting the costs equally among users of a common facility. Another effective cost allocation system is the Shapley value which can be derived from a set of axioms which differ slightly from those that identify the nucleolus. 2 refs., 1 tab

  19. How emission certificate allocations distort fossil investments: The German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahle, Michael; Fan Lin; Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite political activities to foster a low-carbon energy transition, Germany currently sees a considerable number of new coal power plants being added to its power mix. There are several possible drivers for this 'dash for coal', but it is widely accepted that windfall profits gained through free allocation of ETS certificates play an important role. Yet the quantification of allocation-related investment distortions has been limited to back-of-the envelope calculations and stylized models so far. We close this gap with a numerical model integrating both Germany's particular allocation rules and its specific power generation structure. We find that technology specific new entrant provisions have substantially increased incentives to invest in hard coal plants red to natural gas at the time of the ETS onset. More precisely, disproportionate windfall profits compared more than half the total capital costs of a hard coal plant. Moreover, shorter periods of free allocations would not have turned investors' favours towards the cleaner natural gas technology because of pre-existing economic advantages for coal. In contrast, full auctioning of permits or a single best available technology benchmark would have made natural gas the predominant technology of choice. - Research highlights: → We study how early emission certificate allocations in Germany distort fossil investments. → We examine the role of windfall profits in the overall profitabilities of a new hard coal compared to a natural gas plant. → We find that technology specific grandfathering over any period does not induce a change in preferences away from hard coal. → Natural gas would have been preferred under auctioning or a technology neutral allocation though.

  20. Resource allocation decisions in low-income rural households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, D L; Harrell, M W

    1985-05-01

    This paper is based on the theory that a society's nutritional well-being is both a cause and a consequence of the developmental process within that society. An approach to the choices made by poor rural households regarding food acquisition and nurturing behavior is emerging from recent research based on the new economic theory of household production. The central thesis of this approach is that household decisions related to the fulfillment of basic needs are strongly determined by decisions on the allocation of time to household production activities. Summarized are the results of the estimation of a model of household production and consumption behavior with data from a cross-sectional survey of 30 rural communities in Veraguas Province, Panama. The struture of the model consists of allocation of resources to nurturing activities and to production activities. The resources to be allocated are time and market goods, and in theory, these are allocated according to relative prices. The empirical results of this study are generally consistent with the predictions of the neoclassical economic model of household resource allocation. The major conclusions that time allocations and market price conditions matter in the determination of well-being in low-income rural households and, importantly, that nurturing decisions significantly affect the product and factor market behavior of these households form the basis for a discussion on implucations for agricultural and rural development. Programs and policies that seek nutritional improvement should be determined with explicit recognition of the value of time and the importance of timing in the decisions of the poor.

  1. Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2002-01-01

    allocation issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme is proposed as an approximated solution of the formulated problem that satisfies quality...... of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...

  2. An efficient approach to enhance capacity allocation over Bluetooth network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2002-01-01

    issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme HDICA is proposed as an approximated solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies...... quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in the Bluetooth network, such as node and link capacity limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation...... shows that the performance of Bluetooth network could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative capacity allocation scheme....

  3. Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    allocation issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme is proposed as an approximated solution of the formulated problem that satisfies quality...... of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...

  4. Private Memory Allocation Analysis for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Andreas E.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    allowed from objects allocated in scopes with a shorter lifetime to objects allocated in scopes with a longer lifetime. To ensure memory safety, programmers are required to either manually annotate the application with complex annotations, rely on a runtime test of each reference assignment, or statically......Safety-critical Java (SCJ) avoids garbage collection and uses a scope based memory model. This memory model is based on a restricted version of RTSJ [2] style scopes. The scopes form a clear hierarchy with different lifetimes. Therefore, references between objects in different scopes are only...

  5. Modelling C allocation in response to nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation in ecosystems is a key variable of the global terrestrial C cycle. While photosynthesis governs the amount of C that enters ecosystems, its subsequent allocation to compartments with different life times determines its over-all residence time and variations in allocation patterns drive changes in ecosystem C balance and its response to environmental change. A better understanding of the controls on allocation is thus key to improving global vegetation models that commonly rely on using fixed partitioning factors. Observational data suggests variations of ecosystem structure and functioning along large-scale gradients of resource availability. Below-ground C allocation, inferred as gross primary production minus above-ground biomass production increases along gradients of decreasing nutrient availability. This is not only due to more root growth, but also due to enhanced production of exudates and stimulation of root symbionts and has been interpreted to reflect optimal plant allocation decisions under a varying soil fertility status. Here, we propose a model that accounts for trade-offs between (i) growth in above-ground and (ii) below-ground plant compartments, (iii) exudation to the rhizosphere and root symbionts and (iv) temporary storage in non-structural pools. By postulating the maximization of long-term growth under a given (seasonal regime) of soil nitrogen (N) availability, we attempt to reproduce observed large-scale gradients. The model is formulated based on a C cost for different N uptake decisions, where the cost is a function of N availability, root mass, and soil temperature (for biological N fixation). On a daily time scale, ecosystem N uptake may be realized by C exudation to the rhizosphere and/or symbiotic fixation of atmospheric N2. On an annual time scale, allocation to roots versus leaves is adjusted to soil inorganic N availability and modeled to yield maximum total growth. Exudation versus temporary storage of C is

  6. Allocation Fairness for MIMO Precoded UTRA-LTE TDD System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    . To increase the cell coverage while ensuring the Quality of Service (QoS) for all UEs across the cell area, fairness should be maximized as much as possible. This paper presents a novel way to help improving fairness performance in the physical layer, via fair power allocation together with resource...... allocation, in MU-MIMO precoding scenarios where the common approach of guaranteeing fairness at MAC layer is not feasible. The results presented in this paper show that the proposed algorithm is able to reduce the system outage event to a large extent, thus increases fairness....

  7. Patentometrics As Performance Indicators for Allocating Research Funding to Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    This paper is part of a preliminary investigation of potential indicators on the performance of universities and other public research institutions to be used for allocating general and other research funding. The paper will describe and discuss potential patentometrics and how they can be used...... in different types of analyses and evaluations in general and relating to universities and other public research institutions. Further, the relevance and possibility of including some patentometrics in the allocation of research funding is discussed. Also, other metrics regarding academic linkages...

  8. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...

  9. Solving the optimal attention allocation problem in manual control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Within the context of the optimal control model of human response, analytic expressions for the gradients of closed-loop performance metrics with respect to human operator attention allocation are derived. These derivatives serve as the basis for a gradient algorithm that determines the optimal attention that a human should allocate among several display indicators in a steady-state manual control task. Application of the human modeling techniques are made to study the hover control task for a CH-46 VTOL flight tested by NASA.

  10. Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-07-01

    The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.

  11. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool in asset allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol Abidin, Siti Nazifah; Mohd Jaffar, Maheran

    2013-04-01

    Allocation capital investment into different assets is the best way to balance the risk and reward. This can prevent from losing big amount of money. Thus, the aim of this paper is to help investors in making wise investment decision in asset allocation. This paper proposes modifying and adapting Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model. The AHP model is widely used in various fields of study that are related in decision making. The results of the case studies show that the proposed model can categorize stocks and determine the portion of capital investment. Hence, it can assist investors in decision making process and reduce the risk of loss in stock market investment.

  12. A Review of Function Allocation and En Route Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy A.; Aweiss, Arwa S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Daiker, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Today's air traffic control system has reached a limit to the number of aircraft that can be safely managed at the same time. This air traffic capacity bottleneck is a critical problem along the path to modernization for air transportation. The design of the next separation assurance system to address this problem is a cornerstone of air traffic management research today. This report reviews recent work by NASA and others in the areas of function allocation and en route separation assurance. This includes: separation assurance algorithms and technology prototypes; concepts of operations and designs for advanced separation assurance systems; and specific investigations into air-ground and human-automation function allocation.

  13. Automated fenestration allocation as complying with LEED rating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Mohamed Talaat El Daly

    2014-12-01

    The allocation of windows, through the help of certain well known heuristic algorithms and simulation programs, could be reached automatically to compromise with the LEED rating system by achieving the required daylight amounts with a minimum solar radiation inside a particular building. This research shows a design method based on simulation techniques with the help of heuristic algorithms through a parametric design that automatically allocate windows to comply with LEED. At the end of the research, a small project is discussed for evaluating the design process.

  14. Intra-regional Diffusion of Spectrum License Allocation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai; Maitland, Carleen F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to develop a greater understanding of international telecommunications policy diffusion through preliminary, qualitative analysis of an expected utility model. The model is tested through analyses of diffusion of spectrum license allocation policies within and between......-depth qualitative analyses to compare effects of various diffusion mechanisms; diffusion of spectrum license allocation policies at the regional level was more strongly driven by a policy’s likely effectiveness, as compared to potential payoffs for policymakers; and conversely, at the national level diffusion...

  15. Report from a forum on US heart allocation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashigawa, J A; Johnson, M; Rogers, J; Vega, J D; Colvin-Adams, M; Edwards, L; Meyer, D; Luu, M; Reinsmoen, N; Dipchand, A I; Feldman, D; Kormos, R; Mancini, D; Webber, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the latest revision in US heart allocation policy (2006), the landscape and volume of transplant waitlists have changed considerably. Advances in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) prolong survival, but Status 1A mortality remains high. Several patient subgroups may be disadvantaged by current listing criteria and geographical disparity remains in waitlist time. This forum on US heart allocation policy was organized to discuss these issues and highlight concepts for consideration in the policy development process. A 25-question survey on heart allocation policy was conducted. Among attendees/respondents were 84 participants with clinical/published experience in heart transplant representing 51 US transplant centers, and OPTN/UNOS and SRTR representatives. The survey results and forum discussions demonstrated very strong interest in change to a further-tiered system, accounting for disadvantaged subgroups and lowering use of exceptions. However, a heart allocation score is not yet viable due to the long-term viability of variables (used in the score) in an ever-developing field. There is strong interest in more refined prioritization of patients with MCS complications, highly sensitized patients and those with severe arrhythmias or restrictive physiology. There is also strong interest in distribution by geographic boundaries modified according to population. Differences of opinion exist between small and large centers.

  16. 34 CFR 300.807 - Allocations to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocations to States. 300.807 Section 300.807 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF...

  17. Delegated Portfolio Management and Optimal Allocation of Portfolio Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Vangsgaard Christensen, Michael; Gamskjaer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether the application of the mean-variance framework on portfolio manager allocation offers any out-of-sample benefits compared to a naïve strategy of equal weighting. Based on an exclusive data-set of high-net-worth (HNW) investors, we utilize a wide variety...

  18. Allocation of advertising space by a web service provider using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    in the literature addressing the winner-determination problem in the context of advertising over the internet. In the current work, we address the problem faced by the web-page service provider on “how to optimally allocate the advertising space available on her web-page so as to maximize the overall revenue of the system.

  19. Heterogenous allocation of chips promotes fairness in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wu, Naiqi; Wang, Long

    2015-03-01

    In an economic Ultimatum Game, two players interact to decide how to split a certain amount of money. The proposer formulates an allocation scheme to divide the sum, and the responder's decision is, either adoption, in which case both players are rewarded in accordance with the scheme, or rejection, in which case neither player is benefited. The economic theory and game theory predict that a rational proposer will offer his opponent a minimal but nonzero share and the responder will admit this scheme. However, this prediction is impractical in real situations and abundant experiments and theories are presented to resolve the discrepancy. Here, we concentrate on investigating the impact of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness in the framework of the evolutionary game theory. The proposer has the privilege to offer the amount of the chips and make the allocation resolution to the responder. Interestingly, it is found that fairness prevails when the proposer is courageous enough to offer more chips to unsuccessful opponents. Moreover, we find that an amplifying group interaction enlarges the effects of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness.

  20. Nigerian agricultural sector and budgetary allocation, 1990-2008 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The government budget is a financial statement of the government's proposed expenditure and expected revenue during a particular period (usually a year). By manipulating the size and structure of the government expenditure (allocation) and revenue, government can solve a number of macro-economic problems such as ...

  1. The time allocation to children by parents in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; DeGusti, B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines cross-national differences in the time parents allocate to their children using aggregate data from 15 countries collected as part of the Harmonized European Time Use Survey (HETUS). The analysis is restricted to married or cohabiting parents with at least one child under the

  2. Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  3. Cross-Layer Optimal Rate Allocation for Heterogeneous Wireless Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous multicast is an efficient communication scheme especially for multimedia applications running over multihop networks. The term heterogeneous refers to the phenomenon when multicast receivers in the same session require service at different rates commensurate with their capabilities. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions over multihop wireless networks. We propose an iterative algorithm that achieves the optimal rates for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions such that the aggregate utility for all sessions is maximized. We present the formulation of the multicast resource allocation problem as a nonlinear optimization model and highlight the cross-layer framework that can solve this problem in a distributed ad hoc network environment with asynchronous computations. Our simulations show that the algorithm achieves optimal resource utilization, guarantees fairness among multicast sessions, provides flexibility in allocating rates over different parts of the multicast sessions, and adapts to changing conditions such as dynamic channel capacity and node mobility. Our results show that the proposed algorithm not only provides flexibility in allocating resources across multicast sessions, but also increases the aggregate system utility and improves the overall system throughput by almost 30% compared to homogeneous multicast.

  4. Financial development and the allocation of external finance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, J.; Ondko, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-25 ISSN 0927-5398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : financial development * external finance * allocative efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.934, year: 2012

  5. The need for equity in resource allocation in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the need for equity in resource allocation in the Nigerian educational system and its implication for technology education. It observes that the secondary education level is a very important stage in the educational system and as such resources required to make the system functional should be put in ...

  6. Stochastic Collapsed Variational Bayesian Inference for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulds, J.; Boyles, L.; DuBois, C.; Smyth, P.; Welling, M.; Dhillon, I.S.; Koren, Y.; Ghani, R.; Senator, T.E.; Bradley, P.; Parekh, R.; He, J.; Grossman, R.L.; Uthurusamy, R.

    2013-01-01

    There has been an explosion in the amount of digital text information available in recent years, leading to challenges of scale for traditional inference algorithms for topic models. Recent advances in stochastic variational inference algorithms for latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) have made it

  7. An Improved Dynamic Joint Resource Allocation Algorithm Based on SFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-cell interference (ICI is the main factor affecting system capacity and spectral efficiency. Effective spectrum resource management is an important and challenging issue for the design of wireless communication systems. The soft frequency reuse (SFR is regarded as an interesting approach to significantly eliminate ICI. However, the allocation of resource is fixed prior to system deployment in static SFR. To overcome this drawback, this paper adopts a distributed method and proposes an improved dynamic joint resource allocation algorithm (DJRA. The improved scheme adaptively adjusts resource allocation based on the real-time user distribution. DJRA first detects the edge-user distribution vector to determine the optimal scheme, which guarantees that all the users have available resources and the number of iterations is reduced. Then, the DJRA maximizes the throughput for each cell via optimizing resource and power allocation. Due to further eliminate interference, the sector partition method is used in the center region and in view of fairness among users, the novel approach adds the proportional fair algorithm at the end of DJRA. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous approaches for improving the system capacity and cell edge user performance.

  8. 47 CFR 64.901 - Allocation of costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... investment costs between regulated and nonregulated activities shall be based upon the relative regulated and... be directly assigned to either regulated or nonregulated activities whenever possible. (3) Costs... proper allocation of costs between a carrier's regulated and nonregulated activities. Each cost category...

  9. Capital Allocation for Insurance Companies: Issues and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Perch; Poulsen, Rolf; Mumford, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We address some key issues related to risk and capital allocation in insurance companies. We argue that the Froot-Stein approach to risk is relevant to a number of important problems in the daily management of an insurance portfolio and that – taken to its consequence – this approach will lead...

  10. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners.

  11. Financial development and the allocation of external finance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, J.; Ondko, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-25 ISSN 0927-5398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial development * external finance * allocative efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.934, year: 2012

  12. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  13. Success in Investing: Integrating Spending Policy into Asset Allocation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful college and university investments hinge on an asset allocation strategy capable of meeting the institution's needs for income and growth in principal at the lowest possible risk. Periodic adjustments must be made when there is a shift in the institution's risk tolerance, modification in need for income distribution, and changes in…

  14. Dynamic asset allocation and downside-risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers dynamic asset allocation in a mean versus downside-risk framework. We derive closed-form solutions for the optimal portfolio weights when returns are lognormally distributed. Moreover, we study the impact of skewed and fat-tailed return distributions. We find that

  15. Alternatives Reality: What to Expect from Future Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2014-01-01

    For well more than a decade, the "endowment model" of investing has been synonymous with increasing allocations to alternative investment strategies, defined largely as hedge funds, private real estate, private equity and venture capital and other, generally less liquid or illiquid strategies compared to public markets. This trend…

  16. Momentum and mean-reversion in strategic asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Sbuelz, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study a dynamic asset allocation problem in which stock returns exhibit short-run momentum and long-run mean reversion. We develop a tractable continuous-time model that captures these two predictability features and derive the optimal investment strategy in closed form. The model predicts

  17. An assessment of Nigerias budgetary allocation to the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to a decay in the educational sector of the country. The study also discovered that the allocated funds were not fully implemented by the concemed agencies. For this to be corrected, the study recommended among others that, the country should implement at least the 26 percent target in its yearly budgets, more ...

  18. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., expressed as a percentage, gives a relative value to the importance of each of the criteria. (3) Basic... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... current year's basic formula allocation is within the transition range (plus or minus 20 percentage points...

  19. Earning points for moral behavior: organ allocation based on reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelingien, An; Krom, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Anticipating the reevaluation of the Dutch organ procurement system, in late 2003 the Rathenau Institute published a study entitled 'Gift or Contribution?' In this study, the author, Govert den Hartogh, carries out a thorough moral analysis of the problem of organ shortage and fair allocation of organs. He suggests there should be a change in mentality whereby organ donation is no longer viewed in terms of charity and the volunteer spirit, but rather in terms of duty and reciprocity. The procurement and allocation of donor organs should be seen as a system of mutually assured help. Fair allocation would imply to give priority to those who recognize and comply with their duty: the registered donors. The idea of viewing organ donation as an undertaking involving mutual benefit rather than as a matter of charity, however, is not new. Notwithstanding the fact that reference to charity and altruism is not required in order for the organ donation to be of moral significance, we will argue against the reciprocity-based scenario. Steering organ allocation towards those who are themselves willing to donate organs is both an ineffective and morally questionable means of attempting to counter organ shortage.

  20. Faculty Time Allocation: A Study of Change over Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.; Dey, Eric L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in amounts of time faculty spent in teaching, advising, and research activities over the past 20 years. Found institutions are becoming more similar in their patterns of faculty time allocation, particularly regarding time spend on research. However, time spent advising and interacting informally with students appears to be…

  1. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI...

  2. Rectifying Social Inequalities in a Resource Allocation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenbaas, Laura; Rizzo, Michael T.; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether children rectify social inequalities in a resource allocation task, participants (N = 185 African-American and European-American 5–6 year-olds and 10–11 year-olds) witnessed an inequality of school supplies between peers of different racial backgrounds. Assessments were conducted on how children judged the wrongfulness of the inequality, allocated new resources to racial ingroup and outgroup recipients, evaluated alternative allocation strategies, and reasoned about their decisions. Younger children showed ingroup favorability; their responses differed depending on whether they had witnessed their ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. With age, children increasingly reasoned about the importance of equal access to school supplies and correcting past disparities. Older children judged the resource inequality negatively, allocated more resources to the disadvantaged group, and positively evaluated the actions of others who did the same, regardless of whether they had seen their racial ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. Thus, balancing moral and social group concerns enabled individuals to rectify inequalities and ensure fair access to important resources regardless of racial group membership. PMID:27423813

  3. A Model for Resource Allocation Using Operational Knowledge Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Andreas N.; Bontis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to develop a business model that shows the impact of operational knowledge assets on intellectual capital (IC) components and business performance and use the model to show how knowledge assets can be prioritized in driving resource allocation decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected from 84…

  4. Funding the Plan: Integration of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    California Community Colleges are facing increased accountability while at the same time experiencing reduced and uncertain state funding. When resources are not properly allocated there is waste, public criticism, and ultimately increased oversight. A review of the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) sanction letters…

  5. Modeling efficient resource allocation patterns for arable crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimum plans. This should be complemented with strong financial support, farm advisory services and adequate supply of modern inputs at fairly competitive prices would enhance the prospects of the small holder farmers. Keywords: efficient, resource allocation, optimization, linear programming, gross margin ...

  6. Life-cycle asset allocation with focus on retirement savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina

    We consider optimal asset allocation of a pension saver with uncertain lifetime. The objective is to maximize the expected utility of the retirement savings. The model accounts for characteristics of a pension saver given by her mortality risk, risk attitude, type of retirement contract, trading...

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Downlink Subcarrier Allocation Schemes in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The efficient utilization of the air interface in the LTE standard is achieved through a combination of subcarrier allocation schemes, adaptive modulation and coding, and transmission power allotment. The scheduler in the base station has a major role in achieving the required QoS and the overall...

  8. Allocation of financial resource to enhance educational productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the allocation of financial resource to the education industry and how it enhances productivity and students' outcomes of the secondary schools' students in the Unity Colleges in Ogun state. It adopted ex-post factor research design and purposeful sample and sampling technique for the study. Scholars' ...

  9. On approximately fair cost allocation in Euclidean TSP games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Hochstättler, Winfried; Kern, Walter

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of allocating the cost of an optimal traveling salesman tour in a fair way among the nodes visited; in particular, we focus on the case where the distance matrix of the underlying TSP problem satisfies the triangle inequality. We thereby use the model of TSP games in the

  10. Discussion document on the ethical aspects of the allocation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This document has been approved by the Council of the World Medical Association (WMA) for publication and distribution to the national member associations_ The document is not an expression of WMA policy, but is simply intended to stimulate reflection and discussion about the issues associated with allocation of health ...

  11. Challenges of Managing Library Material Budget Allocations Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine challenges of managing library material budget allocations among selected Federal Polytechnic Libraries in Nigeria. A structural questionnaire was used to survey the opinions of 55 Federal Polytechnic Librarians. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics.

  12. Waste management: how reducing partiality can promote efficient resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Shaw, Alex; Caruso, Eugene M

    2015-08-01

    Two central principles that guide resource-allocation decisions are equity (providing equal pay for equal work) and efficiency (not wasting resources). When these two principles conflict with one another, people will often waste resources to avoid inequity. We suggest that people wish to avoid inequity not because they find it inherently unfair, but because they want to avoid the appearance of partiality associated with it. We explore one way to reduce waste by reducing the perceived partiality of inequitable allocations. Specifically, we hypothesize that people will be more likely to favor an efficient (albeit inequitable) allocation if it puts them in a disadvantaged position than if it puts others in a disadvantaged position. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to choose between giving some extra resource to one person (thereby creating inequity between this person and equally deserving others) and not giving the resource to anyone (thereby wasting the resource). Six studies, using realistic scenarios and behavioral paradigms, provide robust evidence for a self-disadvantaging effect: Allocators were consistently more likely to create inequity to avoid wasting resources when the resulting inequity would put them at a relative disadvantage than when it would put others at a relative disadvantage. We further find that this self-disadvantaging effect is a direct result of people's concern about appearing partial. Our findings suggest the importance of impartiality even in distributive justice, thereby bridging a gap between the distributive and procedural justice literatures. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  14. Jurisdiction Impact of Revenue Allocation on States and Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is descriptive in nature and it tries to ascertain the variousformulas used by federal government of Nigeria to allocate Revenue from federation account and their socio-economic impact on the states and local government councils. Primary and secondary data were adequately made use of in the study. Analysis ...

  15. Commercial Banks' Sectoral Credit Allocation and Growth of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to analyse the impact of commercial banks sectoral credit allocation on the growth index of Nigeria economy. Data for the study were obtained from secondary sources and analysed using econometric methods namely: ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test; vector error correction model and ...

  16. Strategy for allocating the MSD magnets and vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gyr, M; Jeanneret, Jean Bernard; Ramberger, S

    2006-01-01

    An analogous strategy as applied for the MSI septum magnets allows an optimisation of the installation of the MSD septa regarding magnet and chamber allocation. Even if the gain in aperture is small, of the order of half a millimetre, it is not negligible and- being essentially for free - should nevertheless be implemented.

  17. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Dimitris K.; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  18. Optimal Resource Allocation In Swine Production For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated optimal resource allocation in swine production and its implication for rural development in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of interview form 50 randomly selected respondents. The study revealed that pig production in Umuahia, Abia State is mainly carried out by young ...

  19. Simple mathematical models for housing allocation to a homeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present simple mathematical models for modelling a homeless population and housing allocation. We look at a situation whereby the local authority makes temporary accommodation available for some of the homeless for a while and we examine how this affects the number of families homeless at any given time.

  20. Unfair allocation of gains under equal price in cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo; Calvi, R.; Merminod, N.

    2005-01-01

    Cooperative purchasing is becoming more and more common practice. However, many cooperative initiatives end prematurely or do not flourish. Important reasons indi-cated for these problems are directly or indirectly related to the unfair allocation of gains. The purpose of this paper is to analyse

  1. Cellular energy allocation of pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator compound) on cellular energy allocation of a heterometabolous insect, Brachynema germari Kol. The fifth instar of this insect was treated with 0, 20, 60, 100, 200 and 500 mg l-1 formulation of pyriproxyfen (Admiral 10EC) and the ...

  2. Implementing Propensity to Stay into Scholarship Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    spent a great deal of their time educating me on (fie AFROT’C scholarship allocation system. Finally. I am Indebted to Brig Gen John J. Salvadore , B...ollcers witIh any of the following precommissionlng characteristics: * allended a moderate-cost college (as opposed to a high-cost college) * had mi|itary

  3. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-03-20

    Due to the massive data traffic in wireless networks, energy consumption has become a crucial concern, especially with the limited power supply of the mobile terminals and the increasing CO2 emission of the cellular industry. In this context, we study the energy efficiency (EE) of MIMO spectrum sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems under power and interference constraints. We present an energy-efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel resulting from the singular value decomposition (SVD) eigenmode transmission. We also present a sub-optimal low-complexity power allocation scheme based on the water-filling power allocation. In the numerical results, we show that the sub-optimal power allocation achieves at least 95% of the optimal performance. In addition, we show that adopting more antennas is more energy efficient for a given power budget. Finally, we show that the interference threshold has a significant effect on both the EE and the spectral efficiency at high-power regime.

  4. modeling the effect of bandwidth allocation on network performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling The Effect Of Bandwidth Allocation On Network Performance. MODELING THE EFFECT OF BANDWIDTH ... ABSTRACT. In this paper, a new channel capacity model for interference- limited systems was obtained .... congestion admission control, with the intent of minimizing energy consumption at each terminal.

  5. Reframing Language Allocation Policy in Dual Language Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Teresa; García, Ofelia; Solorza, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses language allocation policies in what is increasingly called "Dual Language Education" (DLE) in the U.S., offering a challenge to the strict language separation policies in those programs and a proposal for flexibility that transforms them into "Dual Language Bilingual Education" (DLBE). The article offers…

  6. Portfolio Allocation under the Vendor Managed Inventory: A Markov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    also studied. The main objective of the study is to apply Markov decision process to portfolio allocation problem under vendor managed inventory environment in order to obtain the expected reward for each decision and the optimal policy that maps an action to a given state. Inventory management is very important in most.

  7. Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J; Price, Charles A; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C; Franks, Peter J; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2016-06-01

    A long-standing research focus in phytology has been to understand how plants allocate leaf epidermal space to stomata in order to achieve an economic balance between the plant's carbon needs and water use. Here, we present a quantitative theoretical framework to predict allometric relationships between morphological stomatal traits in relation to leaf gas exchange and the required allocation of epidermal area to stomata. Our theoretical framework was derived from first principles of diffusion and geometry based on the hypothesis that selection for higher anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax ) involves a trade-off to minimize the fraction of the epidermis that is allocated to stomata. Predicted allometric relationships between stomatal traits were tested with a comprehensive compilation of published and unpublished data on 1057 species from all major clades. In support of our theoretical framework, stomatal traits of this phylogenetically diverse sample reflect spatially optimal allometry that minimizes investment in the allocation of epidermal area when plants evolve towards higher gsmax . Our results specifically highlight that the stomatal morphology of angiosperms evolved along spatially optimal allometric relationships. We propose that the resulting wide range of viable stomatal trait combinations equips angiosperms with developmental and evolutionary flexibility in leaf gas exchange unrivalled by gymnosperms and pteridophytes. © 2016 The Authors New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Dynamic Task Allocation for Human-Robot Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, T.R.A.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial agents, such as robots, are increasingly deployed for teamwork in dynamic, high-demand environments. This paper presents a framework, which applies context information to establish task (re)allocations that improve human-robot team’s performance. Based on the framework, a model for

  9. Optimal allocation of resources for suppressing epidemic spreading on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanshuang; Li, Guofeng; Zhang, Haifeng; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2017-07-01

    Efficient allocation of limited medical resources is crucial for controlling epidemic spreading on networks. Based on the susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we solve the optimization problem of how best to allocate the limited resources so as to minimize prevalence, providing that the curing rate of each node is positively correlated to its medical resource. By quenched mean-field theory and heterogeneous mean-field (HMF) theory, we prove that an epidemic outbreak will be suppressed to the greatest extent if the curing rate of each node is directly proportional to its degree, under which the effective infection rate λ has a maximal threshold λcopt=1 / , where is the average degree of the underlying network. For a weak infection region (λ ≳λcopt ), we combine perturbation theory with the Lagrange multiplier method (LMM) to derive the analytical expression of optimal allocation of the curing rates and the corresponding minimized prevalence. For a general infection region (λ >λcopt ), the high-dimensional optimization problem is converted into numerically solving low-dimensional nonlinear equations by the HMF theory and LMM. Counterintuitively, in the strong infection region the low-degree nodes should be allocated more medical resources than the high-degree nodes to minimize prevalence. Finally, we use simulated annealing to validate the theoretical results.

  10. A Graphical Method to Solve a Family of Allocation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the classical resource allocation problem. By very elementary arguments on Lagrangian duality it is shown that this problem can be reduced to a single one-dimensional maximization of a differentiable concave function. Moreover, a simple graphical method is developed and appli...

  11. A generic optimization algorithm for the allocation of DP actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, E.F.G.; Cozijn, J.L.; Loussouarn, C.; Hemker, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a generic optimization algorithm for the allocation of dynamic positioning actuators, such as azimuthing thrusters and fixed thrusters. The algorithm is based on the well-known Lagrange multipliers method. In the present approach the Lagrangian functional represents not only

  12. Characterizing implementable allocation rules in multi-dimensional environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, A.; Müller, R.J.; Naeemi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    We study characterizations of implementable allocation rules when types are multi-dimensional, monetary transfers are allowed, and agents have quasi-linear preferences over outcomes and transfers. Every outcome is associated with a continuous valuation function that maps an agent's type to his value

  13. Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.

  14. an examination of risk allocation preferences in public-private

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chikara Onda

    structure is how public and private partners can price and optimally allocate risks between themselves.3 In other words, the ... A party must be willing to accept a risk based on risk pricing and subsequent negotiations on risk ...... J.F.Y. and Chan, J.H.L.. (2011) Risk Ranking and Analysis in Target Cost Contracts: Empirical.

  15. 18 CFR 801.3 - Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as to create a water shortage or impair or conflict with the comprehensive plan. (7) When areas in... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations, diversions, withdrawals and release. 801.3 Section 801.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...

  16. 7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Nondiscretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall allocate the following: (1) To each... programs. (b) Discretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall provide the following additional... chapter. (3) Amounts derived by application of the following four-part formula to each State agency which...

  17. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... to furnish definite quantities of commodities or specific services upon receipt of an order from the...

  18. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of allocations. 402.31 Section 402.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT...

  19. 45 CFR 402.34 - Allocation of unexpended funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of unexpended funds. 402.34 Section 402.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT...

  20. Stochastic Resource Allocation for Energy-Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs DanielGrobe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery-powered wireless systems running media applications have tight constraints on energy, CPU, and network capacity, and therefore require the careful allocation of these limited resources to maximize the system's performance while avoiding resource overruns. Usually, resource-allocation problems are solved using standard knapsack-solving techniques. However, when allocating conservable resources like energy (which unlike CPU and network remain available for later use if they are not used immediately knapsack solutions suffer from excessive computational complexity, leading to the use of suboptimal heuristics. We show that use of Lagrangian optimization provides a fast, elegant, and, for convex problems, optimal solution to the allocation of energy across applications as they enter and leave the system, even if the exact sequence and timing of their entrances and exits is not known. This permits significant increases in achieved utility compared to heuristics in common use. As our framework requires only a stochastic description of future workloads, and not a full schedule, we also significantly expand the scope of systems that can be optimized.

  1. Resource Control and The Politics of Revenue Allocation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the federation should be restructured in a way that would ensure that an equitable formula is adopted in sharing revenue and also the minorities should be fully carried along in terms of governance of the country. Key Words: Federalism, Resource Control, Revenue Allocation, Derivation, Political Economy, Agitation, ...

  2. 77 FR 54482 - Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... that direct costs for producers are direct material costs and direct labor costs. Section 1.263A-1(e)(2... capitalize the direct costs and indirect costs that are properly allocable to: (1) Real or tangible personal.... Section 1.263A-1(e)(3)(i) defines indirect costs as all costs other than direct material costs and direct...

  3. 48 CFR 1631.203-70 - Allocation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall consistently apply the methods and techniques established to classify direct and indirect costs... the benefiting cost objectives. Measures of input ordinarily may be expressed in terms such as labor hours or square footage. This means costs may be allocated by use of a rate, such as a rate per labor...

  4. MCDM Framework for fishing rights allocation in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, T.; Joubert, A.; Janssen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The work discussed in this paper relates to the allocation of fishing rights within the Western Cape province of South Africa. Many of these fisheries are under threat through over-exploitation, and yet are a traditional source of livelihood in many communities. We describe a sequence of

  5. Cost allocation protocols for supply contract design in network situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, S.; Tijs, S.H.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The class of Construct and Charge (CC-) rules for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst) situations is considered. CC-rules are defined starting from the notion of charge systems, which specify particular allocation protocols rooted on the Kruskal algorithm for computing an mcst. These protocols can be

  6. 15 CFR 335.3 - Applications to receive allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications to receive allocation. 335.3 Section 335.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF...

  7. Allocation of scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Waxman, Daniel A; Pillemer, Francesca; Carey, Christine; Moore, Melinda; Karir, Veena; Johnson, Tiffani J; Iyer, Neema; Hu, Jianhui; Shanman, Roberta; Larkin, Jody Wozar; Timmer, Martha; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja R; Newberry, Sydne; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-06-01

    This systematic review sought to identify the best available evidence regarding strategies for allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events (MCEs). Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (1) What strategies are available to policymakers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (2) What strategies are available to providers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (3) What are the public's key perceptions and concerns regarding the implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? (4) What methods are available to engage providers in discussions regarding the development and implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? We searched Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Global Health, Web of Science®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 through 2011. To identify relevant non-peer-reviewed reports, we searched the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report. We also reviewed relevant State and Federal plans, peer-reviewed reports and papers by nongovernmental organizations, and consensus statements published by professional societies. We included both English- and foreign-language studies. Our review included studies that evaluated tested strategies in real-world MCEs as well as strategies tested in drills, exercises, or computer simulations, all of which included a comparison group. We reviewed separately studies that lacked a comparison group but nonetheless evaluated promising strategies. We also identified consensus recommendations developed by professional societies or government panels. We reviewed existing State plans to examine the current state of planning for scarce resource allocation during MCEs. Two investigators independently reviewed each article, abstracted data, and assessed study quality. We considered 5,716 reports for this comparative effectiveness

  8. [Management of allocation of positions for specialist medical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M I

    2003-01-01

    Currently there is a large imbalance between supply and demand for medical specialists in the Spanish Health System. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possible effects of current policies of allocating vacancies for interns and residents as well as to describe several measures and alternative policies. Using the methodology of System Dynamics, we designed a simulation model of the allocation process. Based on the validated model, possible changes in the system through time in response to diverse allocation policies were simulated. Specifically, changes in the accumulated number of graduates who over the years have remained without specialty, the number of unemployed specialists, and the imbalance between supply and demand in the period under consideration were observed. The results obtained from the simulation indicate that allocation policies such as the current one tends to reduce the accumulated number of graduates without specialty, due to the philosophy characterizing this policy, but that it considerably increases the number of unemployed specialists and aggravates the supply-demand imbalance. In the simulation, this tendency remained over time even though more restrictive measures in numerus clausus and retirement age were adopted. Equally, a policy based on social needs and aware of delays in training would substantially contribute to eliminating unemployment among specialists and supply-demand imbalance over time. If such a policy were combined with the above-mentioned measures the results would be even better, more rapidly eliminating graduates without specialty, unemployed specialists, and supply-demand imbalances. If the Health Administration continues with the current system of allocation of places, the present imbalance in supply and demand will become even worse. Therefore, new and far-sighted measures and policies are required, as well as greater coordination between undergraduate and postgraduate training.

  9. The role of physical formidability in human social status allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Simmons, Zachary L; Anderson, Cameron; Roney, James R

    2016-03-01

    Why are physically formidable men willingly allocated higher social status by others in cooperative groups? Ancestrally, physically formidable males would have been differentially equipped to generate benefits for groups by providing leadership services of within-group enforcement (e.g., implementing punishment of free riders) and between-group representation (e.g., negotiating with other coalitions). Therefore, we hypothesize that adaptations for social status allocation are designed to interpret men's physical formidability as a cue to these leadership abilities, and to allocate greater status to formidable men on this basis. These hypotheses were supported in 4 empirical studies wherein young adults rated standardized photos of subjects (targets) who were described as being part of a white-collar business consultancy. In Studies 1 and 2, male targets' physical strength positively predicted ratings of their projected status within the organization, and this effect was mediated by perceptions that stronger men possessed greater leadership abilities of within-group enforcement and between-group representation. Moreover, (a) these same patterns held whether status was conceptualized as overall ascendancy, prestige-based status, or dominance-based status, and (b) strong men who were perceived as aggressively self-interested were not allocated greater status. Finally, 2 experiments established the causality of physical formidability's effects on status-related perceptions by manipulating targets' relative strength (Study 3) and height (Study 4). In interpreting our findings, we argue that adaptations for formidability-based status allocation may have facilitated the evolution of group cooperation in humans and other primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Land use allocation model considering climate change impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. K.; Yoon, E. J.; Song, Y. I.

    2017-12-01

    In Korea, climate change adaptation plans are being developed for each administrative district based on impact assessments constructed in various fields. This climate change impact assessments are superimposed on the actual space, which causes problems in land use allocation because the spatial distribution of individual impacts may be different each other. This implies that trade-offs between climate change impacts can occur depending on the composition of land use. Moreover, the actual space is complexly intertwined with various factors such as required area, legal regulations, and socioeconomic values, so land use allocation in consideration of climate change can be very difficult problem to solve (Liu et al. 2012; Porta et al. 2013).Optimization techniques can generate a sufficiently good alternatives for land use allocation at the strategic level if only the fitness function of relationship between impact and land use composition are derived. It has also been noted that land use optimization model is more effective than the scenario-based prediction model in achieving the objectives for problem solving (Zhang et al. 2014). Therefore in this study, we developed a quantitative tool, MOGA (Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm), which can generate a comprehensive land use allocations considering various climate change impacts, and apply it to the Gangwon-do in Korea. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are the most popular optimization technique to address multi-objective in land use allocation. Also, it allows for immediate feedback to stake holders because it can run a number of experiments with different parameter values. And it is expected that land use decision makers and planners can formulate a detailed spatial plan or perform additional analysis based on the result of optimization model. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program (Project number: 2014001310006)"

  11. Generalization of Wei’s urn design to unequal allocations in sequential clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Wei’s urn design was proposed in 1987 for subject randomization in trials comparing m ≥ 2 treatments with equal allocation. In this manuscript, two modified versions of Wei’s urn design are presented to accommodate unequal allocations. First one uses a provisional allocation of r12:r22 to achieve the target allocation r1 : r2, and the second one uses equal allocation for r1 + r2 arms to achieve an unequal allocation r1 : r2 based on the concept Kaiser presented in his recent paper. The properties of these two designs are evaluated based on treatment imbalance and allocation predictability under different sample sizes and unequal allocation ratios. Simulations are performed to compare the two designs to other designs used for unequal allocations, include the complete randomization, permuted block randomization, block urn design, maximal procedure, and the mass weighted urn design. PMID:26878069

  12. Towards an understanding of the molecular regulation of carbon allocation in diatoms: the interaction of energy and carbon allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Fanesi, Andrea; Wilhelm, Christian

    2017-09-05

    In microalgae, the photosynthesis-driven CO 2 assimilation delivers cell building blocks that are used in different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known about how the cell regulates the subsequent carbon allocation to, for example, cell growth or for storage. However, knowledge about these regulatory mechanisms is of high biotechnological and ecological importance. In diatoms, the situation becomes even more complex because, as a consequence of their secondary endosymbiotic origin, the compartmentation of the pathways for the primary metabolic routes is different from green algae. Therefore, the mechanisms to manipulate the carbon allocation pattern cannot be adopted from the green lineage. This review describes the general pathways of cellular energy distribution from light absorption towards the final allocation of carbon into macromolecules and summarizes the current knowledge of diatom-specific allocation patterns. We further describe the (limited) knowledge of regulatory mechanisms of carbon partitioning between lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in diatoms. We present solutions to overcome the problems that hinder the identification of regulatory elements of carbon metabolism.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, J; Galer, R; Quick, C; Rea, J

    1999-01-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Investment Company Institute (ICI) have been collaborating for the past two years to collect data on participants in 401(k) plans. This effort, known as the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, has obtained data for 401(k) plan participants from certain of EBRI and ICI sponsors and members serving as plan recordkeepers and administrators. The report includes 1996 information on 6.6 million active participants in 27,762 plans holding nearly $246 billion in assets. The data include demographic information, annual contributions, plan balances, asset allocation, and loans, and are currently the most comprehensive source of information on individual plan participants. In 1996, the first year for which data are ready for analysis, the EBRI/ICI database appears to be broadly representative of the universe of 401(k) plans. Key findings include: for all participants, 44.0 percent of the total plan balance is invested in equity funds, 19.1 percent in employer stock, 15.1 percent in guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), 7.8 percent in balanced funds, 6.8 percent in bond funds, 5.4 percent in money funds, 0.8 percent in other stable value funds, and 1.0 percent in other or unidentified investments. This allocation implies that over two-thirds of plan balances are invested directly or indirectly in equity securities. Asset allocation varies with age. For instance, on average, individuals in their twenties invested 76.8 percent of assets in equities and only 22.1 percent in fixed-income investments. By comparison, individuals in their sixties invested 53.2 percent of their assets in equities and 45.9 percent of assets in fixed-income investments. Investment options offered by 401(k) plans appear to influence asset allocation. For example, the addition of company stock substantially reduces the allocation to equity funds and the addition of GICs lowers allocations to bond and money funds

  14. Brick tunnel randomization for unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2011-04-15

    Studies with unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups often require a large block size for permuted block allocation. This could present a problem in small studies, multi-center studies, or adaptive design dose-finding studies. In this paper, an allocation procedure, which generalizes the maximal procedure by Berger, Ivanova, and Knoll to the case of K≥2 treatment groups and any allocation ratio, is offered. Brick tunnel (BT) randomization requires the allocation path drawn in the k-dimensional space to stay close to the allocation ray that corresponds to the targeted allocation ratio. Specifically, it requires the allocation path to be confined to the set of the k-dimensional unitary cubes that are pierced by the allocation ray (the 'brick tunnel'). The important property of the BT randomization is that the transition probabilities at each node within the tunnel are defined in such a way that the unconditional allocation ratio is the same for every allocation step. This property is not necessarily met by other allocation procedures that implement unequal allocation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cooperative Task Allocation Method of MCAV/UCAV Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV cooperative task allocation under Manned Combat Aerial Vehicle’s (MCAV limited control is one of the important problems in UCAV research field. Hereto, we analyze the key technical and tactical indices influence task allocation problem and build an appropriate model to maximize the objective function values as well as reflecting various constraints. A novel improved multigroup ant colony algorithm (IMGACA is proposed to solve the model; the algorithm mainly includes random sequence-based UCAV selection strategy, constraint-based candidate task generation strategy, objective function value-based state transition strategy, and crossover operator-based local search strategy. Simulation results show that the built model is reasonable and the proposed algorithm performs well in feasibility, timeliness, and stability.

  16. Capacity flexibility allocation in an outsourced supply chain with reservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulaksil, Youssef; Grunow, Martin; Fransoo, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a contract manufacturer that serves a limited number of outsourcers (customers) on a single capacitated production line. the outsourcers have different levels of demand uncertainty and the contract manufacturer faces the question how to allocate the contractual capacity flexibility...... in an optimal way. The contractual capacity flexibility is a contract parameter that sets the amount of demand the contract manufacturer is obliged to accept from the outsourcers. We develop a hierachical model that consists of two decision levels. At the tactical level, the contract manufacturer allocates...... parameters to the lower decision level, where the operational planning decisions are made and actual demands are observed. We perform a numerical study by solving the two-level hierachical planning problem iteratively. We first solve the higher level problem, which has been formulated as an integer program...

  17. Time-allocation matching between punishing situations1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, Marvin Z.; Church, Russell M.

    1978-01-01

    In the presence and absence of white noise, response-independent aversive events were delivered to rats according to several variable-time electric-shock schedules. The animals could switch from the noise component to the no-noise component and vice versa by making a single lever-press response. If the schedule in one component was not in operation when the animal was in the other component, the proportion of time allocated to one component equalled or matched the proportion of obtained punishers in the other component. If both schedules were always in operation, minimizing tended to occur: the animals allocated almost all of their time to the component having the lower shock rate. An analysis of these results, in terms of the expected time until an aversive event, is presented. PMID:16812047

  18. Curation and Allocation of the New Antarctic Nakhlite, MIL03346

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, K. M.; Righter, K.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Schwarz, C.; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, the ANSMET reconnaissance field team (Fig. 1) working in the Miller Range of the Transantarctic Mountains discovered a 715 g achondrite that was instantly recognized as unique. Named MIL03346, initial processing (NASA Johnson Space Center or JSC) and classification (Smithsonian Institution or SI) revealed this achondrite to be a nakhlite (Fig. 2). MIL03346 is the seventh nakhlite recognized in world collections [2], the third nakhlite returned from Antartica, and the first nakhlite in the US Antarctic collection (Table 1). The following is a summary of the steps taken in the processing and allocating of MIL 03346 and some comparisons to some other lunar and martian meteorites processed and allocated at JSC.

  19. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...... to the classic interpretation of financial information. The quantitative environmental information included in the experiment seems to mitigate rather than extend the directional effect of more environmental information. The evidence also seems to indicate that decision makers are not always aware which...

  20. Un algorithme d'allocation de bande passante satellitaire

    OpenAIRE

    Alouf, Sara; Altman, Eitan; Galtier, Jérôme; Lalande, Jean-François; Touati, Corinne

    2004-01-01

    Ce rapport présente un algorithme d'allocation de ressources pour les réseaux satellitaires. Il s'agit de prévoir un plan d'allocation en temps/fréquence pour un ensemble de terminaux ayant une configuration géométrique définie et soumis à des contraintes d'interférence. On cherche à minimiser la taille du plan de fréquences tout en garantissant que toutes les demandes des terminaux, en termes de bande passante et pour différents types, sont satisfaites. L'algorithme proposé repose sur deux t...

  1. Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Peng-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.

  2. Optimal allocation of nuclear detector time for radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljohani, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Accuracy in measuring radioactivity of a sample is directly proportional to the time allocated for that sample. With scarcity of time, laboratories are faced with huge number of samples to be analyzed in a limited span of time. Such a situation was encountered duping Chernobyl accident when many nuclear laboratories were flooded by foodstuffs and other samples for radioactivity analysis. This paper offers a methodology that arrives at the optimal allocation of nuclear detector time for a given number of samples, under time constraints. The methodology is based on minimizing the sum of associated standard deviations of the net counting rate of samples. This is done with the assumption that the background radiation is the same for all samples. For validation, an analytical solution was devised with the background radiation assumed negligible. Results found using this methodology were compared to those found analytically, both produced identical results. (Author)

  3. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  4. Stochastic Allocation of Transmit Power for Realistic Wireless Channel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tarhuni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of transmitted power is crucial for the successful operation of multi-user wireless channels communications. There are practical situations in which the transmitted power cannot be adjusted by feedback information; hence, only forward transmit power allocation can be applied, especially in situations where a feedback channel is not available in a wireless network or when wireless nodes are only transmit types. Conventionally, transmitted power can be fixed. Higher gain may be observed if the sensors’ transmitted power is randomized. In this work, random power allocation for a Nakagami-m distributed wireless channel model was investigated, and a number of random distributions were evaluated theoretically and tested by simulations. The outage probability was evaluated theoretically and validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. ALLOCATING VENDOR RISKS IN THE HANFORD WASTE CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, Jeff M.; Buehring, William A.; McLaughlin, Peter D.; Robershotte, Mark A.; Whitfield, Ronald G.

    2004-01-01

    Organizations may view outsourcing as a way to eliminate risk. This application uses a decision analytic approach to determine which risks can be shared or shifted to vendors and which ones should be borne by the buyer. In this case, we found that allocating risks incorrectly could increase costs dramatically. This approach was used to develop the Request for Proposals (RFP) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization initiative for the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). We describe this application and/SUMmarize technical and organizational lessons learned in the years following. The model used an assessment protocol to predict how vendors would react to proposed risk allocations in terms of their actions and their pricing

  6. Adaptive multi-tiered resource allocation policy for microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Christidis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider a cluster of buildings within proximity that share a large-capacity battery for peak-shaving purposes, and draw power from the grid at a premium once they reach a certain threshold. Our goal is to identify a resource allocation policy that minimizes the amount of energy the cluster draws at a premium, while also ensuring fair access to all of its members. We introduce an adaptive policy that allows for maximum energy savings when the network load is low, and ensures fairness when the aggregate power level is high. We compare this adaptive policy with two standard resource allocation strategies with complementary advantages, and demonstrate through an extensive performance evaluation, that it combines the benefits of both. It is therefore suitable for a microgrid operator where equal weight is given to both cluster-wide cost minimization and fairness among all customers.

  7. Location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, in order for the secondary users to opportunistically share the spectrum without interfering the primary users, an accurate spectrum measurement and a precise estimation of the interference at the primary users are necessary but are challenging tasks. Since it is impractical in cognitive radio systems to assume that the channel state information of the interference link is available at the cognitive transmitter, the interference at the primary users is hard to be estimated accurately. This paper introduces a resource allocation algorithm for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems, which utilizes location information of the primary and secondary users instead of the channel state information of the interference link. Simulation results show that it is indeed effective to incorporate location information into resource allocation so that a near-optimal capacity is achieved.

  8. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  9. Transmission service charges: cost allocation and rate design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poray, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    The application of the Ontario Hydro Networks Company (OHNC) to the Ontario Energy Board to seek approval for cost allocation and rate design methodology to recover revenue requirements for the provision of transmission services in Ontario are summarized. Insights that led to the arguments made in support of the application are also described. The paper contains an overview of plans for the operation of the transmission system, the agreement between Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC) and the Independent Market Operator (IMO), the stakeholder consultation process by OHNC to develop the transmission cost allocation and rate design methodology, a discussion of the major rate design issues, a summary of stakeholder opinions and a summary of OHNC's final proposal for transmission pricing. Public hearings on the OHNC application were held between February 16 and March 20, 2000. Final decision by the OEB is expected sometime in May 2000

  10. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  11. On Capacity Allocation Strategies for DoD Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    use, mathe - matical models can be constructed that provide quantitative meas- ures for judging the equity of allocations of satcom capacity e meet...intractable within the currently available mathe - matical formulations. Thus, it is reasonable to look to a simulation approach to these problems...contained in the set 2, defined as the collection of state vectors, j, which satisfy the inequality Clil + c2 J2 + ... CKJK * Go* The set Q is itself an A

  12. Addiction as a BAD, a Behavioral Allocation Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, R J; Ginsburg, Brett C

    2018-01-01

    Addiction is continued drug use despite its harm. As one always has alternatives, addiction can be construed as a decision to allocate behavior to drug use. While decision making is commonly discussed and studied as if it resulted from deliberative, evaluative processes, such processes are actually only rarely involved in behavior allocation. These deliberative processes are too slow, effortful and inefficient to guide behavior other than when necessary. Rather, most actions are guided by faster, more automatic processes, often labeled habits. Habits are mostly adaptive, and result from repeated reinforcement leading to over-learned behavior. Habitual behavior occurs rapidly in response to particular contexts, and the behavior occurring first is that which occurs, i.e., the behavior that is decided upon. Thus, as drug use becomes habitual, drug use is likely to be chosen over other available activities in that particular context. However, while drug use becoming habitual is necessary for addiction to develop, it is not sufficient. Typically, constraints limit even habitual drug use to safer levels. These constraints might include limiting occasions for use; and, almost always, constraints on amount consumed. However, in a minority of individuals, drug use is not sufficiently constrained and addiction develops. This review discusses the nature of these constraints, and how they might fail. These failures do not result from abnormal learning processes, but rather unfortunate interactions between a person and their environment over time. These accumulate in the maladaptive allocation of behavior to drug use. This Behavior Allocation Disorder (BAD) can be reversed; occasionally easily when the environment significantly changes, but more often by the arduous application of deliberative processes generally absent from decision making. These deliberative processes must continue until new more adaptive habits become the most probable behavior in the contexts encountered

  13. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B.G.; Vieira Filho, X. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H.J.; Alvarenga Filho, S. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Detecting gender discrimination among children in the intra-household allocation of goods from household surveys has often proven to be difficult. This paper uses some of the commonly used techniques in this field to analyze education expenditures in India. Contrary to most previous research, I find evidence of discrimination against girls. Results at the all-India level are robust to the statistical method and the education expenditure measure, while they are more sensitive to changes in the...

  15. Payments for Ecosystem Services for watershed water resource allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Zang, Wenbin; Guo, Wenxian; Qian, Zhan; Liu, Laisheng; Zhao, Jinyong; Feng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Watershed water resource allocation focuses on concrete aspects of the sustainable management of Ecosystem Services (ES) that are related to water and examines the possibility of implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for water ES. PES can be executed to satisfy both economic and environmental objectives and demands. Considering the importance of calculating PES schemes at the social equity and cooperative game (CG) levels, to quantitatively solve multi-objective problems, a water resources allocation model and multi-objective optimization are provided. The model consists of three modules that address the following processes: ① social equity mechanisms used to study water consumer associations, ② an optimal decision-making process based on variable intervals and CG theory, and ③ the use of Shapley values of CGs for profit maximization. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology for realizing sustainable development was examined. First, an optimization model with water allocation objective was developed based on sustainable water resources allocation framework that maximizes the net benefit of water use. Then, to meet water quality requirements, PES cost was estimated using trade-off curves among different pollution emission concentration permissions. Finally, to achieve equity and supply sufficient incentives for water resources protection, CG theory approaches were utilized to reallocate PES benefits. The potential of the developed model was examined by its application to a case study in the Yongding River watershed of China. Approximately 128 Mm3 of water flowed from the upper reach (Shanxi and Hebei Provinces) sections of the Yongding River to the lower reach (Beijing) in 2013. According to the calculated results, Beijing should pay USD6.31 M (¥39.03 M) for water-related ES to Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. The results reveal that the proposed methodology is an available tool that can be used for sustainable development with resolving PES

  16. Risk identification and allocation of the utility tunnel PPP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yihua; Zhang, Yaoyao

    2017-05-01

    Based on the literature study of utility tunnel, 60 project risk factors are identified through expert interviews and classified into macro level risks, meso level risks and micro level risks according to the risk level. At the same time, we study the risk-sharing mechanism, then adopt the control force principle, the cognition principle and the profit principle to allocate risk, and put forward the pertinent risk countermeasure in order to provide the reference for the future practice and theory research.

  17. Household behaviour and intrahousehold resource allocation: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyses intrahousehold resource allocation issues related to nutrition and food distribution, nutrient demand, and child health and nutrition outcomes in rural Bangladesh using relevant microeconometric methods and their application to household surveys. Using a measure of bargaining power — spouses’ assets at marriage — that is culturally relevant and (weakly) exogenous to household decision making process, I find strong evidence of intrahousehold bargaining on nu...

  18. Gender Discrimination in the Allocation of Migrant Household Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between international migration and gender discrimination through the lens of decision-making power over intrahousehold resource allocation. The endogeneity of migration is addressed with a difference-in-differences style identification strategy and a model with household fixed effects. The results suggest that while a migrant household head is away, a greater share of resources is spent on girls relative to boys and his spouse commands greater decision-m...

  19. Validation Effectiveness of Develop Maintainability Allocation on Aircraft Mechanical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Husain W.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintainability Allocation is a process to identify the allowable maximum task time for each individual component. Consequently, this provides clear pictures to the designers to design and identify potential design improvement within allowable maintenance allocation time limits. During the design process elements such as missteps or misapplications most commonly occur. Here, the authors propose having the maximum target for each individual maintainability component. The main objective of this paper is to present the validation process of developed Maintainability Allocation to potentially eliminate previous problems. The process of validation begins with analysed all the data collected from Service Difficulty Reports (SDR for selected aircraft. This is to understand the problems from existing aircraft before a new design is proposed through the process of Maintainability Allocation prediction. The validation processes have discovered the importance of utilising historical information such as feedback information. The second area is looking at the element of quantifying the data collected from aircraft feedback information which contains various types of information that could be used for future improvement. Validation process shows that feedback information has helped to identify the critical and sensitive components that need more attention for further improvement. The study shows that the aircraft maintenance related feedback information systems analyses were very useful for deciding maintainability effectiveness; these include planning, organising maintenance and design improvement. There is no doubt that feedback information has the ability to contribute an important role in design activities. The results also show that maintainability is an important measure that can be used as a guideline for managing efforts made for the improvement of aircraft components.

  20. National plan project of quotas allocation. Reference period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document described the national plan project of greenhouse gases quotas allocation, in application of the directive 2003/87/CE. It is a preliminary document providing hypothesis, data and results which could well be modified. It presents in seven chapters the determination of the final quotas quantity, the determination of the final quotas quantity per each activity sectors and per installation, the technical aspects, the community policy and legislation, the public consultation and other criteria analysis. (A.L.B.)

  1. Synchronous Condenser Allocation for Improving System Short Circuit Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2018-01-01

    With converter-based renewable energy sources increasingly integrated into power systems and conventional power plants gradually phased out, future power systems will experience reduced short circuit strength. The deployment of synchronous condensers can serve as a potential solution. This paper...... presents an optimal synchronous condenser allocation method for improving system short circuit ratio at converter point of common coupling using a modified short circuit analysis approach. The total cost of installing new synchronous condensers is minimized while the system short circuit ratios...

  2. Market-based Risk Allocation for Multi-agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Masahiro; Williams, Brian Charles

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes Market-based Iterative Risk Allocation (MIRA), a new market-based distributed planning algorithm for multi-agent systems under uncertainty. In large coordination problems, from power grid management to multi-vehicle missions, multiple agents act collectively in order to optimize the performance of the system, while satisfying mission constraints. These optimal plans are particularly susceptible to risk when uncertainty is introduced. We present a di...

  3. Better bounds for incremental frequency allocation in bipartite graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrobak, M.; Jeż, Łukasz; Sgall, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 514, 25 November (2013), s. 75-83 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online algorithms * frequency allocation * graph algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.516, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512004781

  4. A model of optimal protein allocation during phototrophic growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faizi, M.; Zavřel, Tomáš; Loureiro, C.; Červený, Jan; Steuer, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 166, apr (2018), s. 26-36 ISSN 0303-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17367S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Cellular protein economy * Cyanobacteria * Microbial growth laws * Photosynthesis * Resource allocation * Systems biology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Environmental biotechnology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  5. Optimization Algorithms and Equilibrium Analysis for Dynamic Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    throughput by choosing jointly the sensing duration, the detection thresholds, and the vector power allocation over a multichannel link. The formulation...user (player) aims to maximize his own opportunistic throughput by choosing jointly the sensing duration, the detection thresholds, and the vector power...problems. Award: EURASIP 2011 Best Paper Award for the joint paper with Zhi-Quan Luo: Analysis of iterative waterfilling algorithm for multiuser power

  6. A woman's place: household labour allocation in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, M

    1994-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on household labor allocation. The review reveals that development policies impacting on the labor market favor men over women. Male favoritism also occurs in household decision-making. Data from the 1988 Rural Labor Force Survey were used to examine rural household labor allocation in 1988 and the extent of female and male participation in home and market production and the degree of labor market discrimination against women. It is argued that the standard neoclassical model of economics does not recognize the unequal bargaining power of each member of the household in arriving at a solution to the joint welfare maximization problem. Women's position is expected to worsen during economic development. Women will have less than full participation in the labor market. Women's distinct role in household welfare provision is often disregarded. Development policy mainly focuses on market activities where women hold few positions. Labor allocation in the empirical analysis pertains to the mean hours per week in farm activities, household activities, schooling, and paid or unpaid non-farm work. Findings indicate that average earnings were lower for females than males and that returns to education and training were higher for males than females. Wage discrimination accounted for 30-66% of the earnings gap between rural men and women. Women faced discrimination on their returns to human capital and occupational choices. The concentration of women in low-paying jobs accounted for 21% of the wage gap. Women's lower education accounted for over 10%. Findings suggest that Kenyan households respond to market incentives. Women worked longer hours than men and contributed more to household welfare. Policy should focus on models of household provisioning and not on a joint utility function. Policy should encourage households to revise labor allocation strategies.

  7. Inflation, Index-Linked Bonds, and Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The recent introduction of CPI-linked bonds by several financial institutions is a milestone in the history of the U.S. financial system. It has potentially far-reaching effects on individual and institutional asset allocation decisions because these securities represent the only true long-run hedge against inflation risk. CPI-linked bonds make possible the creation of additional financial innovations that would use them as the asset base. One such innovation that seems likely is inflation-pr...

  8. Genomics Mechanisms of Carbon Allocation and Partitioning in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias; Peter, Gary; Martin, Timothy

    2009-07-30

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration. It is also unclear how environmental cues such as nitrogen availability impact the genes that regulate growth, and biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. To address these questions we phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above and below ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Fifty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for twenty traits analyzed. The majority of QTL are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and QTL co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Gene expression analysis of all poplar genes was also characterized in differentiating xylem, whole-roots and developing leaves of 192 of the segregating population. By integrating the QTL and gene expression information we identified genes that regulate carbon partitioning and several biomass growth related properties. The work developed in this project resulted in the publication of three book chapters, four scientific articles (three others currently in preparation), 17 presentations in international conferences and two provisional patent applications.

  9. Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Ermolova

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.

  10. EPA allocates emission allowances for phase II plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) last month issued a final rule allocating acid rain emission allowances for use after 2000 by most United States power plants. The rule sets the stage for significant pollution reduction through the emission trading system established by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The rule complements EPA's comprehensive, final acid rain rule for SO 2 , which was published in the January 11, 1993, Federal Register. Under this rule, SO 2 reductions will occur in two phases: Phase I begins in 1995 and sets allowances for 110 of the nation's largest plants, mostly coal-fired generators in eastern and midwestern states. Phase II begins in 2000 and further reduces emissions for Phase I plants, while it sets additional restrictions for about 800 smaller plants. The March 5 rules list allowance allocations for Phase II, enabling Phase II utilities to choose the most effective compliance strategy. In a related matter, the Chicago Board of Trade was expected to hold EPA's first annual auction of acid rain allowances on March 29. The auction allowed new utilities - those not automatically allocated allowances under the Clean Air Act - to purchase allowances. The direct sale of allowances will begin no later than June 1, at a price of $1,500 an allowance (to be adjusted yearly for inflation), and will continue on a first-come, first-served basis until none are left

  11. Aspects of manager, portfolio allocation, and fund performance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Olímpia Neves Mamede Maestri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper intends to contribute to the literature on investment funds in emerging markets by looking at the performance of multimarket funds in Brazil from a manager perspective. The aim of the paper was to analyze whether some characteristics of investment fund managers, as well as their portfolio holdings, can affect fund performance. In emerging countries both portfolio asset allocation and manager characteristics can help explain differences in the fund performance, which increases the relevance of this study. Therefore, the impact of this research lies in its revealing a significant relationship between risk-adjusted return and the portion of portfolios allocated to fixed or variable income, which seems that have not been explored in the context of emerging economies yet. A total of 6,002 multimarket funds were analyzed, covering the period between September 2009 and December 2015, using panel data with robust standard errors clustered by funds. We also employed robust statistics in order to assess some potential biases due to outliers, by analyzing the breakdown point in the estimated models. It should be noted that portfolio composition (allocation of portfolios into variable income and fixed income was the most important factor in explaining a potential change in the performance of Brazilian multimarket funds. Also important were the effectiveness of the management of these funds, that is, the best risk-adjusted returns were delivered by less experienced managers, funds investing more in fixed income, managers with more funds under management, and larger funds.

  12. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  13. TASK ALLOCATION IN GEO-DISTRIBUTATED CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Rachel; Smidts, Carol

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies the task allocation algorithm for a distributed test facility (DTF), which aims to assemble geo-distributed cyber (software) and physical (hardware in the loop components into a prototype cyber-physical system (CPS). This allows low cost testing on an early conceptual prototype (ECP) of the ultimate CPS (UCPS) to be developed. The DTF provides an instrumentation interface for carrying out reliability experiments remotely such as fault propagation analysis and in-situ testing of hardware and software components in a simulated environment. Unfortunately, the geo-distribution introduces an overhead that is not inherent to the UCPS, i.e. a significant time delay in communication that threatens the stability of the ECP and is not an appropriate representation of the behavior of the UCPS. This can be mitigated by implementing a task allocation algorithm to find a suitable configuration and assign the software components to appropriate computational locations, dynamically. This would allow the ECP to operate more efficiently with less probability of being unstable due to the delays introduced by geo-distribution. The task allocation algorithm proposed in this work uses a Monte Carlo approach along with Dynamic Programming to identify the optimal network configuration to keep the time delays to a minimum.

  14. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  15. Load allocation of power plant using multi echelon economic dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuda, Santosa, Budi; Rusdiansyah, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the allocation of power plant load which is usually done with a single echelon as in the load flow calculation, is expanded into a multi echelon. A plant load allocation model based on the integration of economic dispatch and multi-echelon problem is proposed. The resulting model is called as Single Objective Multi Echelon Economic Dispatch (SOME ED). This model allows the distribution of electrical power in more detail in the transmission and distribution substations along the existing network. Considering the interconnection system where the distance between the plant and the load center is usually far away, therefore the loss in this model is seen as a function of distance. The advantages of this model is its capability of allocating electrical loads properly, as well as economic dispatch information with the flexibility of electric power system as a result of using multi-echelon. In this model, the flexibility can be viewed from two sides, namely the supply and demand sides, so that the security of the power system is maintained. The model was tested on a small artificial data. The results demonstrated a good performance. It is still very open to further develop the model considering the integration with renewable energy, multi-objective with environmental issues and applied to the case with a larger scale.

  16. Multidemand Multisource Order Quantity Allocation with Multiple Transportation Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a multidemand multisource order quantity allocation problem with multiple transportation alternatives. To solve this problem, a bilevel multiobjective programming model under a mixed uncertain environment is proposed. Two levels of decision makers are considered in the model. On the upper level, the purchaser aims to allocate order quantity to multiple suppliers for each demand node with the consideration of three objectives: total purchase cost minimization, total delay risk minimization, and total defect risk minimization. On the lower level, each supplier attempts to optimize the transportation alternatives with total transportation and penalty costs minimization as the objective. In contrast to prior studies, considering the information asymmetry in the bilevel decision, random and fuzzy random variables are used to model uncertain parameters of the construction company and the suppliers. To solve the bilevel model, a solution method based on Kuhn-Tucker conditions, sectional genetic algorithm, and fuzzy random simulation is proposed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a practical case from a large scale construction project. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are efficient in dealing with practical order quantity allocation problems.

  17. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  18. Radio Resource Allocation on Complex 4G Wireless Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psannis, Kostas E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  19. Waste Load Allocation for Conservative Substances to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  20. Short-term storage allocation in a filmless hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Nicola H.; Deshaies, Marc J.; Reynolds, R. Anthony; Turner, Jonathan E.; Allison, David J.

    1997-05-01

    Optimizing limited short term storage (STS) resources requires gradual, systematic changes, monitored and modified within an operational PACS environment. Optimization of the centralized storage requires a balance of exam numbers and types in STS to minimize lengthy retrievals from long term archive. Changes to STS parameters and work procedures were made while monitoring the effects on resource allocation by analyzing disk space temporally. Proportions of disk space allocated to each patient category on STS were measured to approach the desired proportions in a controlled manner. Key factors for STS management were: (1) sophisticated exam prefetching algorithms: HIS/RIS-triggered, body part-related and historically-selected, and (2) a 'storage onion' design allocating various exam categories to layers with differential deletion protection. Hospitals planning for STS space should consider the needs of radiology, wards, outpatient clinics and clinicoradiological conferences for new and historical exams; desired on-line time; and potential increase in image throughput and changing resources, such as an increase in short term storage disk space.

  1. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for MIMO-SVD Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2017-05-24

    In this paper, we address the problem of energyefficient power allocation in MIMO systems. In fact, the widely adopted water-filling power allocation does not ensure the maximization of the energy efficiency (EE). Since the EE maximization is a non-convex problem, numerical methods based on fractional programming were introduced to find the optimal power solutions. In this paper, we present a novel and simple power allocation scheme based on the explicit expressions of the optimal power. We also present a low-complexity algorithm that complements the proposed scheme for low circuit-power regime. Furthermore, we analyze power-constrained and rate-constrained systems and present the corresponding optimal power control. In the numerical results, we show that the presented analytical expressions are accurate and that the algorithm converges within two iterations. We also show that as the number of antenna increases, the system becomes more energy-efficient. Also, a saturation of the EE is observed at high power budget and low minimal rate regimes.

  2. Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolova NY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.

  3. Real time target allocation in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudleppanavar, Ganesh

    The prolific development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) in recent years has the potential to provide tremendous advantages in military, commercial and law enforcement applications. While safety and performance take precedence in the development lifecycle, autonomous operations and, in particular, cooperative missions have the ability to significantly enhance the usability of these vehicles. The success of cooperative missions relies on the optimal allocation of targets while taking into consideration the resource limitation of each vehicle. The task allocation process can be centralized or decentralized. This effort presents the development of a real time target allocation algorithm that considers available stored energy in each vehicle while minimizing the communication between each UAV. The algorithm utilizes a nearest neighbor search algorithm to locate new targets with respect to existing targets. Simulations show that this novel algorithm compares favorably to the mixed integer linear programming method, which is computationally more expensive. The implementation of this algorithm on Arduino and Xbee wireless modules shows the capability of the algorithm to execute efficiently on hardware with minimum computation complexity.

  4. Pattern and control of biomass allocation across global forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongtao; Wang, Limei

    2017-07-01

    The underground part of a tree is an important carbon sink in forest ecosystems. Understanding biomass allocation between the below- and aboveground parts ( root:shoot ratios ) is necessary for estimation of the underground biomass and carbon pool. Nevertheless, large-scale biomass allocation patterns and their control mechanisms are not well identified. In this study, a large database of global forests at the community level was compiled to investigate the root:shoot ratios and their responses to environmental factors. The results indicated that both the aboveground biomass ( AGB ) and belowground biomass ( BGB ) of the forests in China (medians 73.0 Mg/ha and 17.0 Mg/ha, respectively) were lower than those worldwide (medians 120.3 Mg/ha and 27.7 Mg/ha, respectively). The root:shoot ratios of the forests in China (median = 0.23), however, were not significantly different from other forests worldwide (median = 0.24). In general, the allocation of biomass between the belowground and aboveground parts was determined mainly by the inherent allometry of the plant but also by environmental factors. In this study, most correlations between root:shoot ratios and environmental factors (development parameter, climate, altitude, and soil) were weak but significant ( p  BGB based on AGB across the entire database.

  5. Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-02-07

    Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. HIV/AIDS and time allocation in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bignami-Van Assche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AIDS morbidity and mortality are expected to have a large impact on households' labor supply in rural Malawi since they reduce the time that adults can spend on production for subsistence and on income generating activities. However, the data demands for estimating this impact are high, limiting the amount of empirical evidence. In this paper, we utilize a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative data, including biomarkers for HIV, collected by the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project, to analyze the impact of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality on time allocation decisions for rural Malawians. We evaluate both the direct effect of HIV/AIDS on the time allocation of affected individuals as well as its indirect effect on the time allocation of surviving household members. We find that the latter is the most important effect of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, especially on women's time. Specifically, AIDS induces diversification of income sources, with women reallocating their time from work-intensive (typically farming and heavy chores to cash-generating tasks (such as casual labor.

  7. Functional Requirement Analysis and Function Allocation for APR 1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Florah, Kamanja; Noloyiso, Mtoko and others

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to fulfill the FRA and FA of the HFE as required in Chapter 4 of NUREG-0711 rev. 3 for APR1400 to satisfy both plant safety and power generation objectives. This paper aims to evaluate the FRA and FA for APR1400. The allocation of function is done at the system level for all processes for both the power generation and safety goals, following the NUREG/CR-3331 guideline. As a conclusion, this paper has successfully implemented the requirements and methodology specified in NUREG-0711 for APR 1400. The Functional Requirement Analysis (FRA) and Function Allocation (FA) are required by the regulation in the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program. The FRA defines the functions, processes, and system for plant safety and power generation. The FA allocates the functions to human operator, automation, or a combination of two. The FRA and FA for APR1400 have been performed in the very early stage of development but only for the plant safety. However, the analysis did not include the goal of power generation and also did not fully satisfy the latest revision of NUREG-0711

  8. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Hybrid Access Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercell interference is one of the most challenging issues in femtocell deployment under the coverage of existing macrocell. Allocation of resources between femtocell and macrocell is essential to counter the effects of interference in dense femtocell networks. Advances in resource management strategies have improved the control mechanism for interference reduction at lower node density, but most of them are ineffective at higher node density. In this paper, a dynamic resource allocation management algorithm (DRAMA for spectrum shared hybrid access OFDMA femtocell network is proposed. To reduce the macro-femto-tier interference and to improve the quality of service, the proposed algorithm features a dynamic resource allocation scheme by controlling them both centrally and locally. The proposed scheme focuses on Femtocell Access Point (FAP owners’ satisfaction and allows maximum utilization of available resources based on congestion in the network. A simulation environment is developed to study the quantitative performance of DRAMA in hybrid access-control femtocell network and compare it to closed and open access mechanisms. The performance analysis shows that higher number of random users gets connected to the FAP without compromising FAP owners’ satisfaction allowing the macrocell to offload a large number of users in a dense heterogeneous network.

  9. Atypical resource allocation may contribute to many aspects of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Goldknopf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the literature and on reports by people with autism, this paper suggests that atypical resource allocation is a factor that contributes to many aspects of autism spectrum conditions, including difficulties with language and social cognition, atypical sensory and attentional experiences, executive and motor challenges, and perceptual and conceptual strengths and weaknesses. Drawing upon resource theoretical approaches that suggest that perception, cognition, and action draw upon multiple pools of resources, the approach states that compared with resources in typical cognition, resources in autism are narrowed or reduced, especially in people with strong sensory symptoms. In narrowed attention, resources are restricted to smaller areas and to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition; resources may be more intense than in typical cognition. In reduced attentional capacity, overall resources are reduced; resources may be restricted to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition, or the amount of resources allocated to each area or process may be reduced. Possible neural bases of the hypothesized atypical resource allocation, relations to other approaches, limitations, and tests of the hypotheses are discussed.

  10. Development Of A New Method For Aircraft Maintainability Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut YILMAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important topics in aircraft design is to define aircraft maintainability allocation which is a process to identify the allowable maximum task time for each aircraft component or system. Traditional methods are mostly experimental and out of design office’s control. In this study, an improved method has been developed to create an alternative method for experimental ones. For this purpose, as a first step an existing methodology developed for maintenance allocation has been improved by using a different technic. Improved method shows that newly established correlation between aircraft systems and task times has very high coefficient of determination compare to the existing method. At the second phase of the study several quantitative analysis have been performed by examining more than 1000 maintenance tasks which are accepted as standard maintenance actions by aviation industry, coming from Maintenance Steering Group methodology and six weight factors have been established for the new method. By using feed forward artificial neural networks for newly identified weight factors, maintenance task allocations has been established. Results shows that newly proposed method can be applicable for any maintenance process during early design stage

  11. Analysis of standard and innovative methods for allocating upstream and refinery GHG emissions to oil products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, Christian; Moro, Alberto; Edwards, Robert A; Rocco, Matteo Vincenzo; Colombo, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fuel policies need accurate and transparent methods to find the embedded carbon intensity of individual refinery products. This study investigates different ways of allocating greenhouse gases emissions deriving from refining and upstream crude oil supply. Allocation methods based on

  12. Experimental Demonstration of Mixed Formats and Bit Rates Signal Allocation for Spectrum-flexible Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Karinou, Fotini; Angelou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    We report on an extensive experimental study for adaptive allocation of 16-QAM and QPSK signals inside spectrum flexible heterogeneous superchannel. Physical-layer performance parameters are extracted for use in resource allocation mechanisms of future flexible networks....

  13. Understanding Potential Changes to the Veterans Equitable Resource Allocation (VERA) System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wasserman, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    ... disabilities, low incomes, and special health care needs. In contrast to earlier VHA allocation systems, which were based largely on historical costs, VERA bases its allocation of finds primarily on the number of veterans served (work- load...

  14. 76 FR 78703 - American Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc., et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ...] American Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application December 13, 2011. AGENCY... Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc. (``ACSAA''), American Century Investment Management, Inc. (``ACIM'') and American Century Investment Services, Inc. (``ACIS''). DATES: Filing Dates: The application...

  15. Resource allocation on computational grids using a utility model and the knapsack problem

    CERN Document Server

    Van der ster, Daniel C; Parra-Hernandez, Rafael; Sobie, Randall J

    2009-01-01

    This work introduces a utility model (UM) for resource allocation on computational grids and formulates the allocation problem as a variant of the 0–1 multichoice multidimensional knapsack problem. The notion of task-option utility is introduced, and it is used to effect allocation policies. We present a variety of allocation policies, which are expressed as functions of metrics that are both intrinsic and external to the task and resources. An external user-defined credit-value metric is shown to allow users to intervene in the allocation of urgent or low priority tasks. The strategies are evaluated in simulation against random workloads as well as those drawn from real systems. We measure the sensitivity of the UM-derived schedules to variations in the allocation policies and their corresponding utility functions. The UM allocation strategy is shown to optimally allocate resources congruent with the chosen policies.

  16. Perception-based Co-evolutionary Reinforcement Learning for UAV Sensor Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berenji, Hamid

    2003-01-01

    .... A Perception-based reasoning approach based on co-evolutionary reinforcement learning was developed for jointly addressing sensor allocation on each individual UAV and allocation of a team of UAVs...

  17. Rethinking Environmental Water Allocations: Demand Management of Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, V.; Lankford, B.; Gowing, J.

    England is commonly perceived as a wet country, but annual internal renewable water resources per capita across all regions are less than the equivalent figures for France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Water scarcity is an issue and there is a need for water re- source managers to address growing concerns for parity across all water use sectors in terms of their water rights, responsibilities and performance objectives. In this paper we examine, in particular, tradeoffs between environmental allocations and agricul- tural demands in the Anglian Region. Farmers understand and generally accept the need for water allocations to satisfy en- vironmental protection objectives, however they detect unfairness in the way that re- sources are managed during drought periods. This has resulted in many incidents when their water rights have been temporarily suspended, often with little or no prior warn- ing. The effect has been to create tension amongst water users and to foster perceptions of uncertainty about access to water for irrigation. In a recent initiative the UK Environment Agency has implemented a more transpar- ent system for managing water resources at a catchment level. Associated with this initiative, there has been an effort to establish more consistent and scientifically rigor- ous methods for determining environmental allocations. Yet despite this transparency, during droughts environmental water needs will be determined using a precautionary principle and prior to determining needs of other sectors. The question however re- mains should the environment receive fixed and preferential water rights and does this contribute to Swise and efficientS use of available water resources? ´ 1 The adoption of principles underlying the EU Water Framework Directive should im- prove allocation of available resources during periods of water scarcity. We will exam- ine the problems that arise in representative catchments within the Anglian Region if the environment receives a

  18. A review of organizations influencing radio frequency allocations to deep space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The charters and functions of various national and international scientific organizations were examined to identify those which have a direct or indirect influence on the allocation of radio frequencies for use in deep space research. Those organizations identified as having the ability to influence frequency allocations are described. A brief description of each organization is provided, and the members who are influential specifically in frequency allocations are listed. The interrelations between the organizations and how they influence allocations are explained.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in

  20. Modelling information exchange in worker-queen conflict over sex allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Taylor, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the conflict between queen and worker over sex allocation, specifically the allocation of the queen's eggs between workers and reproductives and the allocation of the reproductive eggs between male and female. In contrast to previous models, we allow workers to observe and use

  1. 34 CFR 200.75 - Special procedures for allocating concentration grant funds in small States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for allocating concentration grant... Allocations to Leas § 200.75 Special procedures for allocating concentration grant funds in small States. (a... concentration grants among eligible LEAs in the State in accordance with §§ 200.72 through 200.74, as applicable...

  2. 76 FR 40448 - 2010 Tax Information for Use in the Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board 2010 Tax Information for Use in the Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method... Allocation Method (RSAM). DATES: Comments are due by August 8, 2011. If any comment opposing AAR's... Shortfall Allocation Method, EP 646 (Sub-No. 2) (STB served Nov. 21, 2008). RSAM is intended to measure the...

  3. 78 FR 34427 - 2012 Tax Information for Use In The Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board 2012 Tax Information for Use In The Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method... Shortfall Allocation Method (RSAM). DATES: Comments are due by July 9, 2013. If any comment opposing AAR's... Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method, EP 646 (Sub-No. 2) (STB served Nov. 21, 2008). RSAM is intended to...

  4. 40 CFR 97.88 - NOX allowance allocations to opt-in units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations to opt-in... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.88 NOX allowance allocations to opt-in units. (a) NO X allotment allocation. (1) By...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.306 - Allocation of marketing allotments to processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of marketing allotments to processors... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.306 Allocation of marketing allotments to processors. (a) Each sugar beet processor's allocation, other than a new entrant's, of the beet allotment will be...

  6. 20 CFR 669.650 - How are MSFW youth funds allocated to section 167 youth grantees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are MSFW youth funds allocated to section 167 youth grantees? 669.650 Section 669.650 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Youth Program § 669.650 How are MSFW youth funds allocated to section 167 youth grantees? The allocation...

  7. The berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem using a CP approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampelli, Stéphane; Vergados, Yannis; Van Schaeren, Rowan; Dullaert, Wout; Raa, Birger

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the combination of berth and crane allocation problems in container terminals. We propose a novel approach based on constraint programming which is able to model many realistic operational constraints. The costs for berth allocation, crane allocation, time windows, breaks and

  8. An integrated model for part-operation allocation and investments in CNC technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Suresh, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of investment appraisal of new technology, specifically computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools in conjunction with optimal allocation of parts and operations on CNC machines as the investments take place. Part-operation allocation is the allocation of parts and

  9. Children's Evaluations of Resource Allocation in the Context of Group Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated children's evaluations of peer group members who deviated from group norms about equal and unequal allocation of resources. Children, ages 3.5 to 4 years and 5 to 6 years (N = 73), were asked to evaluate a peer group member who deviated from 1 of 2 group allocation norms: (a) equal allocation of resources, or (b) unequal…

  10. 11 CFR 106.3 - Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel. 106.3 Section 106.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL ALLOCATIONS OF CANDIDATE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES § 106.3 Allocation of expenses between campaign and non...

  11. The implement of Talmud property allocation algorithm based on graphic point-segment way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Haifeng

    2017-04-01

    Under the guidance of the Talmud allocation scheme's theory, the paper analyzes the algorithm implemented process via the perspective of graphic point-segment way, and designs the point-segment way's Talmud property allocation algorithm. Then it uses Java language to implement the core of allocation algorithm, by using Android programming to build a visual interface.

  12. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools. 200.78 Section 200.78 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE... for the Within-District Allocation of Lea Program Funds § 200.78 Allocation of funds to school...

  13. 26 CFR 1.42-6 - Buildings qualifying for carryover allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Buildings qualifying for carryover allocations. 1... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-6 Buildings qualifying for carryover allocations. (a) Carryover... carryover allocation may only be made with respect to a qualified building. A qualified building is any...

  14. Research on air and missile defense task allocation based on extended contract net protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Based on the background of air and missile defense distributed element corporative engagement, the interception task allocation problem of multiple weapon units with multiple targets under network condition is analyzed. Firstly, a mathematical model of task allocation is established by combat task decomposition. Secondly, the initialization assignment based on auction contract and the adjustment allocation scheme based on swap contract were introduced to the task allocation. Finally, through the simulation calculation of typical situation, the model can be used to solve the task allocation problem in complex combat environment.

  15. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    for a number of species, while male differential allocation based on female secondary sexual traits has received less attention. Yet females of many species, among birds in particular, are ornamented. We performed a test of male differential allocation based on a female ornament in the rock sparrow (Petronia......Secondary sexual characters may provide information about individual quality to a partner, which may use it during parental care to strategically allocate resources to the current breeding attempt (Differential Allocation Hypothesis). Differential allocation by females has been demonstrated...

  16. Understanding the allocation of attention when faced with varying perceptual load in partial report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Sy, Jocelyn L; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The allocation of visual processing capacity is a key topic in studies and theories of visual attention. The load theory of Lavie (1995) proposes that allocation happens in two steps where processing resources are first allocated to task-relevant stimuli and secondly remaining capacity 'spills over......' to task-irrelevant distractors. In contrast, the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) proposed by Bundesen (1990) assumes that allocation happens in a single step where processing capacity is allocated to all stimuli, both task-relevant and task-irrelevant, in proportion to their relative attentional weight...... theory of visual attention by Bundesen et al. (2005)....

  17. Hardware Resource Allocation for Hardware/Software Partitioning in the LYCOS System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    as a designer's/design tool's aid to generate good hardware allocations for use in hardware/software partitioning. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool under the LYCOS system. The results show that the allocations produced by the algorithm come close to the best allocations obtained by exhaustive search.......This paper presents a novel hardware resource allocation technique for hardware/software partitioning. It allocates hardware resources to the hardware data-path using information such as data-dependencies between operations in the application, and profiling information. The algorithm is useful...

  18. Hardware Resource Allocation for Hardware/Software Partitioning in the LYCOS System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Madsen, Jan; Knudsen, Peter Voigt

    1998-01-01

    as a designer's/design tool's aid to generate good hardware allocations for use in hardware/software partitioning. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool under the LYCOS system. The results show that the allocations produced by the algorithm come close to the best allocations obtained by exhaustive search......This paper presents a novel hardware resource allocation technique for hardware/software partitioning. It allocates hardware resources to the hardware data-path using information such as data-dependencies between operations in the application, and profiling information. The algorithm is useful...

  19. Subpopulation triage: how to allocate conservation effort among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2008-06-01

    Threatened species often exist in a small number of isolated subpopulations. Given limitations on conservation spending, managers must choose from strategies that range from managing just one subpopulation and risking all other subpopulations to managing all subpopulations equally and poorly, thereby risking the loss of all subpopulations. We took an economic approach to this problem in an effort to discover a simple rule of thumb for optimally allocating conservation effort among subpopulations. This rule was derived by maximizing the expected number of extant subpopulations remaining given n subpopulations are actually managed. We also derived a spatiotemporally optimized strategy through stochastic dynamic programming. The rule of thumb suggested that more subpopulations should be managed if the budget increases or if the cost of reducing local extinction probabilities decreases. The rule performed well against the exact optimal strategy that was the result of the stochastic dynamic program and much better than other simple strategies (e.g., always manage one extant subpopulation or half of the remaining subpopulation). We applied our approach to the allocation of funds in 2 contrasting case studies: reduction of poaching of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and habitat acquisition for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). For our estimated annual budget for Sumatran tiger management, the mean time to extinction was about 32 years. For our estimated annual management budget for kit foxes in the San Joaquin Valley, the mean time to extinction was approximately 24 years. Our framework allows managers to deal with the important question of how to allocate scarce conservation resources among subpopulations of any threatened species.

  20. Target allocation yields for massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys with fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Will [Australian Astron. Observ.; Smedley, Scott [Australian Astron. Observ.; Gillingham, Peter [Australian Astron. Observ.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E. [Andes U., Bogota; Jouvel, Stephanie [ICE, Bellaterra; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-08-05

    We present Simulated Annealing fiber-to-target allocation simulations for the proposed DESI and 4MOST massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys, and for both Poisson and realistically clustered mock target samples. We simulate both Echidna and theta-phi actuator designs, including the restrictions caused by the physical actuator characteristics during repositioning. For DESI, with theta-phi actuators, used in 5 passes over the sky for a mock ELG/LRG/QSO sample, with matched fiber and target densities, a total target allocation yield of 89.3% was achieved, but only 83.7% for the high-priority Ly-alpha QSOs. If Echidna actuators are used with the same pitch and number of passes, the yield increases by 5.7% and 16% respectively. Echidna also allows a factor-of-two increase in the number of close Ly-alpha QSO pairs that can be observed. Echidna spine tilt causes a variable loss of throughput, with average loss being the same as the loss at the rms tilt. With a natural tilt minimization scheme, we find an rms tilt always close to 0.58 x maximum. There is an additional but much smaller defocus loss, equivalent to an average defocus of 30microns. These tilt losses offset the gains in yield for Echidna, but because the survey strategy is driven by the higher priority targets, a clear survey speed advantage remains. For 4MOST, high and low latitude sample mock catalogs were supplied by the 4MOST team, and allocations were carried out with the proposed Echidna-based positioner geometry. At high latitudes, the resulting target completeness was 85.3% for LR targets and 78.9% for HR targets. At low latitude, the target completeness was 93.9% for LR targets and 71.2% for HR targets.

  1. Optimum design for pipe-support allocation against seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio; Iwasaki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimum design methodology of a piping system subjected to a seismic design loading to reduce its dynamic response by selecting the location of pipe supports and whereby reducing the number of pipe supports to be used. The author employs the Genetic Algorithm for obtaining a reasonably optimum solution of the pipe support location, support capacity and number of supports. The design condition specified by the support location, support capacity and the number of supports to be used is encored by an integer number string for each of the support allocation candidates and they prepare many strings for expressing various kinds of pipe-support allocation state. Corresponding to each string, the authors evaluate the seismic response of the piping system to the design seismic excitation and apply the Genetic Algorithm to select the next generation candidates of support allocation to improve the seismic design performance specified by a weighted linear combination of seismic response magnitude, support capacity and the number of supports needed. Continuing this selection process, they find a reasonably optimum solution to the seismic design problem. They examine the feasibility of this optimum design method by investigating the optimum solution for 5, 7 and 10 degree-of-freedom models of piping system, and find that this method can offer one a theoretically feasible solution to the problem. They will be, thus, liberated from the severe uncertainty of damping value when the pipe support guaranties the design capacity of damping. Finally, they discuss the usefulness of the Genetic Algorithm for the seismic design problem of piping systems and some sensitive points when it will be applied to actual design problems

  2. Dynamic Asset Allocation with Stochastic Income and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Sørensen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    We solve for optimal portfolios when interest rates and labor income are stochastic with the expected income growth being affine in the short-term interest rate in order to encompass business cycle variations in wages. Our calibration based on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data supports...... this relation with substantial variation across individuals in the slope of this affine function. The slope is crucial for the valuation and riskiness of human capital and for the optimal stock/bond/cash allocation both in an unconstrained complete market and in an incomplete market with liquidity and short...

  3. Transmission embedded cost allocation methodology with consideration of system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, D.; Park, J.-K.; Yoo, C.-I.; Kim, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a vertically integrated utility industry, the cost of reliability, as a separate service, has not received much rigorous analysis. However, as a cornerstone of restructuring the industry, the transmission service pricing must change to be consistent with, and supportive of, competitive wholesale electricity markets. This paper focuses on the equitable allocation of transmission network embedded costs including the transmission reliability cost based on the contributions of each generator to branch flows under normal conditions as well as the line outage impact factor under a variety of load levels. A numerical example on a six-bus system is given to illustrate the applications of the proposed methodology. (author)

  4. Spence Revisited: Signaling and the Allocation of Individuals to Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Perri

    2011-01-01

    Spence (1974a) considered a variant of his signaling model in which there are two types of jobs, and in which signaling can increase wealth by improving the allocation of individuals to jobs. Using results in signaling games since Spence’s work---the Riley outcome (Riley, 1979), the intuitive criterion (Cho and Kreps, 1987), and undefeated equilibrium (Mailath et al., 1993)---it is possible to be more precise than Spence was in determining when signaling would occur and what the effect of sig...

  5. The Voucher System as an Alternative for Allocating Sports Grants

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pavlik; Michiel S. de Vries

    2014-01-01

    Sport funding at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement in sport is usually an important aspect of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyse sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of young people and their parents in sport policy at the local level.Vouchers typically transfer purcha...

  6. The dynamics of female time allocation upon a first birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belzil, Christian

    1997-01-01

    I estimate a non-stationary dynamic programming model of time allocation decisions between full-time work, child care and search activities upon a first birth using recursive methods. The model incorporates the following sequence of decisions; whether to stop working or not (for those who work...... both home an labor market productivities. Overall, the model is able to explain the relatively large fraction of women who do not experience career interruptions, the rapidly declining re-employment hazards and the weak effect of education on the duration of non-employment (hometime) spells....

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  8. Loss Allocation in a Distribution System with Distributed Generation Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, a large part of the electricity is produced by wind turbines and combined heat and power plants (CHPs). Most of them are connected to the network through distribution systems. This paper presents a new algorithm for allocation of the losses in a distribution system with distributed...... generation. The algorithm is based on a reduced impedance matrix of the network and current injections from loads and production units. With the algorithm, the effect of the covariance between production and consumption can be evaluated. To verify the theoretical results, a model of the distribution system...

  9. Gender Discrimination in the Allocation of Migrant Household Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M

    2015-07-01

    This paper considers the relationship between international migration and gender discrimination through the lens of decision-making power over intrahousehold resource allocation. The endogeneity of migration is addressed with a difference-in-differences style identification strategy and a model with household fixed effects. The results suggest that while a migrant household head is away, a greater share of resources is spent on girls relative to boys and his spouse commands greater decision-making power. Once the head returns home, however, a greater share of resources goes to boys and there is suggestive evidence of greater authority for the head of household.

  10. Gender Discrimination in the Allocation of Migrant Household Resources*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between international migration and gender discrimination through the lens of decision-making power over intrahousehold resource allocation. The endogeneity of migration is addressed with a difference-in-differences style identification strategy and a model with household fixed effects. The results suggest that while a migrant household head is away, a greater share of resources is spent on girls relative to boys and his spouse commands greater decision-making power. Once the head returns home, however, a greater share of resources goes to boys and there is suggestive evidence of greater authority for the head of household. PMID:27546986

  11. Mobile devices and computing cloud resources allocation for interactive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile devices such as smartphones or iPads for various interactive applications is currently very common. In the case of complex applications, e.g. chess games, the capabilities of these devices are insufficient to run the application in real time. One of the solutions is to use cloud computing. However, there is an optimization problem of mobile device and cloud resources allocation. An iterative heuristic algorithm for application distribution is proposed. The algorithm minimizes the energy cost of application execution with constrained execution time.

  12. Adaptive dynamic capacity allocation scheme for voice and data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yonglin; Wang, Gang; Lei, Daocheng; Ma, Runnian

    2011-12-01

    Based on the theory of adaptive modulation, the compressed format is introduced in voice and data transmission, and a novel adaptive dynamic capability allocation algorithm is presented. In the given transmission system model, according to the channel state information (CSI) provided by channel estimating, the transmitter can adaptively select the modulation model, and shrink the voice symbol duration to improve the data throughput of data transmission. Simulation results shows that the novel algorithm can effectively evaluate the percentage occupation of data bit in one fame, and improve the data throughput.

  13. Congestion cost allocation method in a pool model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.S.; Hur, D.; Park, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The congestion cost caused by transmission capacities and voltage limit is an important issue in a competitive electricity market. To allocate the congestion cost equitably, the active constraints in a constrained dispatch and the sequence of these constraints should be considered. A multi-stage method is proposed which reflects the effects of both the active constraints and the sequence. In a multi-stage method, the types of congestion are analysed in order to consider the sequence, and the relationship between congestion and the active constraints is derived in a mathematical way. The case study shows that the proposed method can give more accurate and equitable signals to customers. (Author)

  14. Ground data system resource allocation planning to support mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.; Springer, Joe B.; Taylor, Thomas M.

    1990-10-01

    Mission planning and manangement optimization using unique planning methodologies is described. The ground data system resource allocation process provides mission planners and managers with both short and long range visibility of resource loading. Launch dates, mission designs, and spacecraft sequencing can be planned to optimize science return despite limited resources. Periods of resource contention are identified for managers of flying missions in time for them to plan and implement alternatives rather than be forced to react hastily to unforeseen conflicts. Conflict resolution is by consensus, and a simple route of appeal is provided.

  15. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in state-owned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-state-owned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  16. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  17. Focus on regional consequences by allocation of gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1994-08-01

    The Ministry of Industry and Energy evaluates which of the natural gas fields to be selected for covering the gas supply based on contract obligations. The evaluation aims at giving a total valuation of possible development solutions on the Norwegian continental shelf. Actual solutions are based on fields located in the Haltenbanken area or in the North Sea. The present report relates to a study analysing the consequences on how the employment and regional conditions are influencing the socio-economic and real economic factors by alternative solutions of contract allocations. 38 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Energy Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-01-06

    Two major issues are facing today s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produces 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, an energy efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel is presented.

  19. New accounting rules: asset allocation and portfolio management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, B K

    1997-01-01

    New accounting rules went into effect at the end of 1995 that are now starting to affect how medical practices must report income from equity and fixed income investments. This article explores the new accounting rules and considers the other factors that help practices determine investment strategies, including desired investment return, comfort with level of risk, appropriate time horizons, liquidity needs and legal restrictions. The author also presents an example that examines the different considerations that may affect an asset allocation decision, including endowments and operating reserve funds.

  20. Resource allocation for relay assisted cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this paper, we present two optimal resource allocation schemes that maximize throughput and symbol correct rate (SCR). The throughput and SCR are derived. The derived throughput and SCR are optimized with respect to the sensing time, the source transmission power and the relay transmission power. Numerical results show that the optimal sensing time is dependent on the primary user\\'s signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that SCR increases with increase in the number of relays. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a

  2. A Scratchpad Memory Allocation Scheme for Dataflow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-25

    perform via static analysis of C/C++. We use the heterochronous dataflow (HDF) model of computation [16, 39] in Ptolemy II [11] as a means to specify the...buffer data) as the key memory requirements [9]. 4.1 Structure of an HDF Model We use Ptolemy II’s graphical interface and the HDF domain to specify...algorithm. The allocation algorithm was implemented in Ptolemy II [11], a Java-based framework for studying modeling, simulation and design of concurrent

  3. On the allocation of credit and aggregate fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature on financial development and growth has highlighted the possibility of endogenous business cycles arising for particular levels of a given credit multiplier. These studies concentrate on loans directed to the productive activity and neglect the role of credit to consumption. In this paper, we consider an endogenous growth model, where a representative agent must choose how to allocate credit; basically, the agent considers a simple rule where the share of credit to consumption reacts to deviations of the consumption - wealth ratio relatively to the corresponding steady state level. The setup generates nonlinear dynamics, which are analyzed both locally and globally.

  4. Antenna allocation in MIMO radar with widely separated antennas for multi-target detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-10-27

    In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes.

  5. Sharing the wealth: factors influencing resource allocation in the sharing game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Edmund; Kennelly, Arthur

    2009-05-01

    Students chose between two allocation options, one that gave the allocator more and another participant still more (the "optimal" choice) and one which gave the allocator less and the other participant still less (the "competitive" choice). In a within-subjects design, students' behavior patterns were significantly correlated across the two rounds of decision-making; however, students allocated more optimally when the allocation involved real rather than hypothetical money, suggesting that both motivational context and individuals' personality and/or experience influence preference patterns. The nature of the putative other participant did not affect the allocation: students allocated in a comparable fashion whether the other participant was said to be male, female, or a computer.

  6. Principles and Reality of Proton Therapy Treatment Allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekelman, Justin E.; Asch, David A.; Tochner, Zelig; Friedberg, Joseph; Vaughn, David J.; Rash, Ellen; Raksowski, Kevin; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present the principles and rationale of the Proton Priority System (PROPS), a priority points framework that assigns higher scores to patients thought to more likely benefit from proton therapy, and the distribution of PROPS scores by patient characteristics Methods and Materials: We performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between PROPS scores and receipt of proton therapy, adjusted for insurance status, gender, race, geography, and the domains that inform the PROPS score. Results: Among 1529 adult patients considered for proton therapy prioritization during our Center's ramp-up phase of treatment availability, PROPS scores varied by age, diagnosis, site, and other PROPS domains. In adjusted analyses, receipt of proton therapy was lower for patients with non-Medicare relative to Medicare health insurance (commercial vs Medicare: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.64; managed care vs Medicare: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28-0.56; Medicaid vs Medicare: OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13-0.44). Proton Priority System score and age were not significantly associated with receipt of proton therapy. Conclusions: The Proton Priority System is a rationally designed and transparent system for allocation of proton therapy slots based on the best available evidence and expert opinion. Because the actual allocation of treatment slots depends mostly on insurance status, payers may consider incorporating PROPS, or its underlying principles, into proton therapy coverage policies

  7. Long-term allocation of power from the Snettisham Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0839) evaluating the Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project that establishes long-term allocation and sales of power. The proposed long-term sales contract will replace a 20-year sales agreement that expires at the end of December, 1993. The EA evaluates the proposed alternative and the no action alternative. The proposed alternative replaces the expiring contract with a new 20-year contract with the same terms, conditions and allocation as the previous long-term contract. No other alternatives were developed, as there is only one utility in the Juneau area. The divestiture of this Federal project is expected to be approved by Congress; the present contractor would then assume the ownership and operation of the Snettisham Project. The EA identified no actions associated with the proposal that will cause significant environmental or socioeconomic impacts. The Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project deals with the replacement of an expiring contract. The Final Marketing Plan does not include the addition of any major new resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters. No changes in rates are proposed in the Final Marketing Plan

  8. Traffic Behavior Recognition Using the Pachinko Allocation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-The, Thien; Banos, Oresti; Le, Ba-Vui; Bui, Dinh-Mao; Yoon, Yongik; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-07-03

    CCTV-based behavior recognition systems have gained considerable attention in recent years in the transportation surveillance domain for identifying unusual patterns, such as traffic jams, accidents, dangerous driving and other abnormal behaviors. In this paper, a novel approach for traffic behavior modeling is presented for video-based road surveillance. The proposed system combines the pachinko allocation model (PAM) and support vector machine (SVM) for a hierarchical representation and identification of traffic behavior. A background subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and an object tracking mechanism based on Kalman filters are utilized to firstly construct the object trajectories. Then, the sparse features comprising the locations and directions of the moving objects are modeled by PAMinto traffic topics, namely activities and behaviors. As a key innovation, PAM captures not only the correlation among the activities, but also among the behaviors based on the arbitrary directed acyclic graph (DAG). The SVM classifier is then utilized on top to train and recognize the traffic activity and behavior. The proposed model shows more flexibility and greater expressive power than the commonly-used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) approach, leading to a higher recognition accuracy in the behavior classification.

  9. Traffic Behavior Recognition Using the Pachinko Allocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Huynh-The

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CCTV-based behavior recognition systems have gained considerable attention in recent years in the transportation surveillance domain for identifying unusual patterns, such as traffic jams, accidents, dangerous driving and other abnormal behaviors. In this paper, a novel approach for traffic behavior modeling is presented for video-based road surveillance. The proposed system combines the pachinko allocation model (PAM and support vector machine (SVM for a hierarchical representation and identification of traffic behavior. A background subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs and an object tracking mechanism based on Kalman filters are utilized to firstly construct the object trajectories. Then, the sparse features comprising the locations and directions of the moving objects are modeled by PAMinto traffic topics, namely activities and behaviors. As a key innovation, PAM captures not only the correlation among the activities, but also among the behaviors based on the arbitrary directed acyclic graph (DAG. The SVM classifier is then utilized on top to train and recognize the traffic activity and behavior. The proposed model shows more flexibility and greater expressive power than the commonly-used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA approach, leading to a higher recognition accuracy in the behavior classification.

  10. Integrated Cost Allocation of Transmission Usage under Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermagasantos Zein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost allocation of transmission usage on the power networks is an important issue especially in the modern electricity market mechanism. In this context, all costs that have been embedded in the transmission, embedded cost, should be covered by the transmission users. This paper follows general methods, where generators are fullyresponsible to cover the embedded cost. It proposes a method to determine the cost allocation of transmission usage based on decomposition through the superposition techinique to determine power flow contributions from an integrated base case of the results of the power flow calculations of all transactions, bilateral and nonbilateral contracts. Mathematically, the applied formulations are illustrated clearly in this paper. The proposed method has been tested with 5-bus system and the results are much different compared to a few of the published methods. This is shown by the test results on the 5 bus system. The published methods produce total power flow contributions in each line is greater than the actual. And they earn total revenues approximately 11.6% greater than the embedded cost. While on the proposed method, the power flow contribu tions are equal to the actual and the revenues are equal to the embedded cost. It shows also that the proposed method gives results as expected.

  11. Hospital competition, resource allocation and quality of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwanziger Jack

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of approaches have been used to contain escalating hospital costs. One approach is intensifying price competition. The increase in price based competition, which changes the incentives hospitals face, coupled with the fact that consumers can more easily evaluate the quality of hotel services compared with the quality of clinical care, may lead hospitals to allocate more resources into hotel rather than clinical services. Methods To test this hypothesis we studied hospitals in California in 1982 and 1989, comparing resource allocations prior to and following selective contracting, a period during which the focus of competition changed from quality to price. We estimated the relationship between clinical outcomes, measured as risk-adjusted-mortality rates, and resources. Results In 1989, higher competition was associated with lower clinical expenditures levels compared with 1982. The trend was stronger for non-profit hospitals. Lower clinical resource use was associated with worse risk adjusted mortality outcomes. Conclusions This study raises concerns that cost reductions may be associated with increased mortality.

  12. The Voucher System as an Alternative for Allocating Sports Grants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pavlik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport funding at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement in sport is usually an important aspect of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyse sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of young people and their parents in sport policy at the local level.Vouchers typically transfer purchasing power directly to the target group. Using sport vouchers as a tool for allocating public resources is still quite rare. Some attempts with sport vouchers were made in Australia and the UK, and there are examples of sport vouchers in the Czech Republic.The aim of this paper is to discuss the advantages of vouchers as an alternative method of sport funding at the municipal level. We also formulate recommendations for implementing a voucher system.

  13. Gender Systematics in Telescope Time Allocation at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat, F.

    2016-09-01

    The results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of gender systematics in the time allocation process at ESO are presented. The sample on which the study is based includes more than 13 000 Normal and Short proposals, submitted by about 3000 principal investigators (PI) over eight years. The genders of PIs, and of the panel members of the Observing Programmes Committee (OPC), were used, together with their career level, to analyse the grade distributions and the proposal success rates. Proposals submitted by female PIs show a significantly lower probability of being allocated time. The proposal success rates (defined as number of top ranked runs over requested runs) are 16.0 ± 0.6% and 22.0 ± 0.4% for females and males, respectively. To a significant extent the disparity is related to different input distributions in terms of career level. The seniority of male PIs is significantly higher than that of female PIs, with only 34% of the female PIs being professionally employed astronomers (compared to 53% for male PIs). A small, but statistically significant, gender-dependent behaviour is measured for the OPC referees: both genders show the same systematics, but they are larger for males than females. The PI female/male fraction is very close to 30/70; although far from parity, the fraction is higher than that observed, for instance, among IAU membership.

  14. Effective Bandwidth Allocation for WiMAX Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chin Jang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reduce the media access delay in a WiMAX mesh network. We observe that as the number of subscriber stations (SS in a neighborhood increases, the processes of transmission opportunity (TO competition and 3- way handshake are easy to fail. This may degrade transmission efficiency and increase packet transmission delay. Besides, the minislot allocation defined in the WiMAX mesh mode may cause many lower priority services reserve earlier minislots than that of higher priority services like rtPS. This may cause great negative impact on delay-sensitive traffic. In this paper, we design a QoS classifier to enqueue packets according to different QoS service classes, present a dynamic holdoff exponent mechanism to reduce control subframe delay, and propose a Neighborhood-Based Minislot Allocation (NBMA mechanism to reduce data subframe delay. Simulations show that the proposed methodology outperforms that of IEEE 802.16 and Baye's DynExp in delay, jitter and throughput.

  15. Autonomous Reconfigurable Control Allocation (ARCA) for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. S.; Callahan, Ronnie; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The role of control allocation (CA) in modern aerospace vehicles is to compute a command vector delta(sub c) is a member of IR(sup n(sub a)) that corresponding to commanded or desired body-frame torques (moments) tou(sub c) = [L M N](sup T) to the vehicle, compensating for and/or responding to inaccuracies in off-line nominal control allocation calculations, actuator failures and/or degradations (reduced effectiveness), or actuator limitations (rate/position saturation). The command vector delta(sub c) may govern the behavior of, e.g., acrosurfaces, reaction thrusters, engine gimbals and/or thrust vectoring. Typically, the individual moments generated in response to each of the n(sub a) commands does not lie strictly in the roll, pitch, or yaw axes, and so a common practice is to group or gang actuators so that a one-to-one mapping from torque commands tau(sub c) actuator commands delta(sub c) may be achieved in an off-line computed CA function.

  16. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  17. Optimal Rate Allocation in Cluster-Tree WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Lopez Vicario

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of guaranteed time slot allocation in cluster-tree WSNs. Our design uses the so-called Network Utility Maximization (NUM approach as far as we aim to provide a fair distribution of the available resources. From the point of view of implementation, we extend here the authors’ proposed Coupled-Decompositions Method (CDM in order to compute the NUM problem inside the cluster tree topology and we prove the optimality of this new extended version of the method. As a result, we obtain a distributed solution that reduces the total amount of signalling information in the network up to a factor of 500 with respect to the classical techniques, that is, primal and dual decomposition. This is possible because the CDM finds the optimal solution with a small number of iterations. Furthermore, when we compare our solution to the standard-proposed First Come First Serve (FCFS policy, we realize that FCFS becomes pretty unfair as the traffic load in the network increases and thus, a fair allocation of resources can be considered whenever the price to pay in terms of signalling and computational complexity is controlled.

  18. APPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF CONTINGENCY USING RISK ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Andi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cost overruns in the world of construction are attributable to either unforeseen events or foreseen events for which uncertainty was not appropriately accommodated. It is argued that a significant improvement to project management performance may result from greater attention to the process of analyzing project risks. The objective of this paper is to propose a risk analysis methodology for appropriate allocation of contingency in project cost estimation. In the first step, project risks will be identified. Influence diagramming technique is employed to identify and to show how the risks affect the project cost elements and also the relationships among the risks themselves. The second step is to assess the project costs with regards to the risks under consideration. Using a linguistic approach, the degree of uncertainty of identified project risks is assessed and quantified. The problem of dependency between risks is taken into consideration during this analysis. For the final step, as the main purpose of this paper, a method for allocating appropriate contingency is presented. Two types of contingencies, i.e. project contingency and management reserve are proposed to accommodate the risks. An illustrative example is presented at the end to show the application of the methodology.

  19. Decision support system for health care resources allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaa, Abderrazak; Nouicer, Amina; Tari, AbdelKamel; Tarik, Ramtani; Abdellah, Ouhab

    2017-06-01

    A study about healthcare resources can improve decisions regarding the allotment and mobilization of medical resources and to better guide future investment in the health sector. The aim of this work was to design and implement a decision support system to improve medical resources allocation of Bejaia region. To achieve the retrospective cohort study, we integrated existing clinical databases from different Bejaia department health sector institutions (an Algerian department) to collect information about patients from January 2015 through December 2015. Data integration was performed in a data warehouse using the multi-dimensional model and OLAP cube. During implementation, we used Microsoft SQL server 2012 and Microsoft Excel 2010. A medical decision support platform was introduced, and was implemented during the planning stages allowing the management of different medical orientations, it provides better apportionment and allotment of medical resources, and ensures that the allocation of health care resources has optimal effects on improving health. In this study, we designed and implemented a decision support system which would improve health care in Bejaia department to especially assist in the selection of the optimum location of health center and hospital, the specialty of the health center, the medical equipment and the medical staff.

  20. Duality between resource reservation and proportional share resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ion; Abdel-Wahab, Hussein; Jeffay, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    We describe anew framework for resource allocation that unifies the well-known proportional share and resource reservation policies. Each client is characterized by two parameters: a weight that represents the rate at which the client 'pays' for the resource, and a share that represents the fraction of the resource that the client should receive. A fixed rate corresponds to a proportional share allocation, while a fixed share corresponds to a reservation. Furthermore, rates and shares are duals of each other. Once one parameters is fixed the other becomes fixed as well. If a client asks for a fixed share then the level of competition for the resource determines the rate at which it has to pay, while if the rate is fixed, level of competition determines the service time the clients should receive. To implement this framework we use a new proportional share algorithm, called earliest eligible virtual deadline first, that achieves optical accuracy in the rates at which process execute. This makes it possible to provide support for highly predictable, real-time services. As a proof of concept we have implemented a prototype of a CPU scheduler under the FreeBSD operating system. The experimental results show that our scheduler achieves the goal of providing integrated support for batch and real-time applications.