WorldWideScience

Sample records for allocation growth defense

  1. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  2. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits......, such as growth or morphological defense. We develop a mathematical model for prey organisms that comprise time and resource allocation trade-offs for multiple defense traits. Fitness is determined by growth and survival during ontogeny. We determine optimal defense strategies for environments that differ...

  3. Carbon limitation reveals allocation priority to defense compounds in peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkelova, Lenka; Unsicker, Sybille; Forkel, Matthias; Huang, Jianbei; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Studies of carbon partitioning during insect or pathogen infestation reveal high carbon investment into induced chemical defenses to deter the biotic agent (Baldwin, 1998). However, little is known how carbon investment into chemical defenses changes under abiotic stress such as drought. Drought forces plants to close their stomata to prevent water loss through transpiration while decreasing the amount of assimilated carbon. Furthermore drought hampers carbohydrates translocation due to declining plant hydration and reduced phloem functioning (McDowell, 2011; Hartmann et al., 2013; Sevanto, 2014). Hence long lasting drought can force plants into carbon starvation. The aim of our study was to disentangle carbon allocation priorities between growth, maintenance metabolism, storage and production of defense compounds under carbon limiting conditions using peppermint as our model plant. Drought is not the only method how to manipulate plant carbon metabolism and photosynthetic yield. Exposing plants to reduced [CO2] air is a promising tool simulating drought induced carbon limitation without affecting phloem functioning and so carbohydrate translocation (Hartmann et al., 2015). We exposed peppermint plants to drought (50% of the control irrigation) and to low [CO2] (progressive decrease from 350 ppm to 20 ppm) to disentangle hydraulic failure from carbon starvation effects on carbon allocation. Drought was applied as a cross-treatment yielding four treatments: watered and high [CO2] (W+CO2), drought and high [CO2] (D+CO2), water and low [CO2] (W-CO2), drought and low [CO2] (D-CO2). We analyzed the most abundant terpenoid defense compounds (α-Pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, menthone, menthol and pulegone) and used continuous 13CO2 labelling to trace allocation pattern of new and old assimilated carbon in the four carbon sinks (structural biomass, water soluble sugars, starch and terpenoid defense compounds) in young expanding leaf tissue. This leaf tissue grew

  4. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  5. Plant allocation of carbon to defense as a function of herbivory, light and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ju, Shu; Liu, Rongsong; Bryant, John P.; Gourley, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    We use modeling to determine the optimal relative plant carbon allocations between foliage, fine roots, anti-herbivore defense, and reproduction to maximize reproductive output. The model treats these plant components and the herbivore compartment as variables. Herbivory is assumed to be purely folivory. Key external factors include nutrient availability, degree of shading, and intensity of herbivory. Three alternative functional responses are used for herbivory, two of which are variations on donor-dependent herbivore (models 1a and 1b) and one of which is a Lotka–Volterra type of interaction (model 2). All three were modified to include the negative effect of chemical defenses on the herbivore. Analysis showed that, for all three models, two stable equilibria could occur, which differs from most common functional responses when no plant defense component is included. Optimal strategies of carbon allocation were defined as the maximum biomass of reproductive propagules produced per unit time, and found to vary with changes in external factors. Increased intensity of herbivory always led to an increase in the fractional allocation of carbon to defense. Decreases in available limiting nutrient generally led to increasing importance of defense. Decreases in available light had little effect on defense but led to increased allocation to foliage. Decreases in limiting nutrient and available light led to decreases in allocation to reproduction in models 1a and 1b but not model 2. Increases in allocation to plant defense were usually accompanied by shifts in carbon allocation away from fine roots, possibly because higher plant defense reduced the loss of nutrients to herbivory.

  6. Quantifying Adversary Capabilities to Inform Defensive Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Bier, Vicki M

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Bayesian Stackelberg game capable of analyzing the joint effects of both attacker intent and capabilities on optimal defensive strategies. The novel feature of our model is the use of contest success functions from economics to capture the extent to which the success of an attack is attributable to the adversary's capability (as well as the level of defensive investment), rather than pure luck. Results of a two-target example suggest that precise assessment of attacker intent may not be necessary if we have poor estimates of attacker capability. PMID:25929274

  7. Optimal resource allocation for defense of targets based on differing measures of attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Vicki M; Haphuriwat, Naraphorn; Menoyo, Jaime; Zimmerman, Rae; Culpen, Alison M

    2008-06-01

    This article describes the results of applying a rigorous computational model to the problem of the optimal defensive resource allocation among potential terrorist targets. In particular, our study explores how the optimal budget allocation depends on the cost effectiveness of security investments, the defender's valuations of the various targets, and the extent of the defender's uncertainty about the attacker's target valuations. We use expected property damage, expected fatalities, and two metrics of critical infrastructure (airports and bridges) as our measures of target attractiveness. Our results show that the cost effectiveness of security investment has a large impact on the optimal budget allocation. Also, different measures of target attractiveness yield different optimal budget allocations, emphasizing the importance of developing more realistic terrorist objective functions for use in budget allocation decisions for homeland security. PMID:18643831

  8. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  9. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  10. On the Growth-Maximizing Allocation of Public Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelis Kalaitzidakis; Vangelis Tzouvelekas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an endogenous growth model to analyze the growth maximizing allocation of public investment among N different types of public capital. Using this general model of public capital formation, we analyze the stability of the long-run equilibrium and we derive the growth-maximizing values of the shares of public investment allocated to the different types of public capital, as well as the growth-maximizing tax rate (amount of total public investment as a share of GDP). The...

  11. Heterozygosity, gender, and the growth-defense trade-off in quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher T; Stevens, Michael T; Anderson, Jon E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Although plant growth is generally recognized to be influenced by allocation to defense, genetic background (e.g., inbreeding), and gender, rarely have those factors been addressed collectively. In quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) constitute up to 30 % of leaf dry weight. To quantify the allocation cost of this chemical defense, we measured growth, defense chemistry, and individual heterozygosity (H obs at 16 microsatellite loci) for male and female trees in both controlled and natural environments. The controlled environment consisted of 12 juvenile genets grown for 3 years in a common garden, with replication. The natural environment consisted of 51 mature genets in wild populations, from which we sampled multiple ramets (trees) per genet. Concentrations of PGs and CTs were negatively correlated. PGs were uncorrelated with growth, but CT production represented a major cost. Across the range of CT levels found in wild-grown trees, growth rates varied by 2.6-fold, such that a 10 % increase in CT concentration occurred with a 38.5 % decrease in growth. H obs had a marked effect on aspen growth: for wild trees, a 10 % increase in H obs corresponded to a 12.5 % increase in growth. In wild trees, this CT effect was significant only in females, in which reproduction seems to exacerbate the cost of defense, while the H obs effect was significant only in males. Despite the lower growth rate of low-H obs trees, their higher CT levels may improve survival, which could account for the deficit of heterozygotes repeatedly found in natural aspen populations. PMID:26886130

  12. Heterozygosity, gender, and the growth-defense trade-off in quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher T; Stevens, Michael T; Anderson, Jon E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Although plant growth is generally recognized to be influenced by allocation to defense, genetic background (e.g., inbreeding), and gender, rarely have those factors been addressed collectively. In quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) constitute up to 30 % of leaf dry weight. To quantify the allocation cost of this chemical defense, we measured growth, defense chemistry, and individual heterozygosity (H obs at 16 microsatellite loci) for male and female trees in both controlled and natural environments. The controlled environment consisted of 12 juvenile genets grown for 3 years in a common garden, with replication. The natural environment consisted of 51 mature genets in wild populations, from which we sampled multiple ramets (trees) per genet. Concentrations of PGs and CTs were negatively correlated. PGs were uncorrelated with growth, but CT production represented a major cost. Across the range of CT levels found in wild-grown trees, growth rates varied by 2.6-fold, such that a 10 % increase in CT concentration occurred with a 38.5 % decrease in growth. H obs had a marked effect on aspen growth: for wild trees, a 10 % increase in H obs corresponded to a 12.5 % increase in growth. In wild trees, this CT effect was significant only in females, in which reproduction seems to exacerbate the cost of defense, while the H obs effect was significant only in males. Despite the lower growth rate of low-H obs trees, their higher CT levels may improve survival, which could account for the deficit of heterozygotes repeatedly found in natural aspen populations.

  13. Whole-plant allocation to storage and defense in juveniles of related evergreen and deciduous shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, T P; Karolewski, P; Żytkowiak, R; Chmielarz, P; Oleksyn, J

    2016-05-01

    In evergreen plants, old leaves may contribute photosynthate to initiation of shoot growth in the spring. They might also function as storage sites for carbohydrates and nitrogen (N). We hence hypothesized that whole-plant allocation of carbohydrates and N to storage in stems and roots may be lower in evergreen than in deciduous species. We selected three species pairs consisting of an evergreen and a related deciduous species: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. and Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Prunus laurocerasus L. and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae), and Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. and Viburnum lantana L. (Adoxaceae). Seedlings were grown outdoors in pots and harvested on two dates during the growing season for the determination of biomass, carbohydrate and N allocation ratios. Plant size-adjusted pools of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems and roots were lower in the evergreen species of Berberidaceae and Adoxaceae, and the slope of the carbohydrate pool vs plant biomass relationship was lower in the evergreen species of Rosaceae compared with the respective deciduous species, consistent with the leading hypothesis. Pools of N in stems and roots, however, did not vary with leaf habit. In all species, foliage contained more than half of the plant's nonstructural carbohydrate pool and, in late summer, also more than half of the plant's N pool, suggesting that in juvenile individuals of evergreen species, leaves may be a major storage site. Additionally, we hypothesized that concentration of defensive phenolic compounds in leaves should be higher in evergreen than in deciduous species, because the lower carbohydrate pool in stems and roots of the former restricts their capacity for regrowth following herbivory and also because of the need to protect their longer-living foliage. Our results did not support this hypothesis, suggesting that evergreen plants may rely predominantly on structural defenses. In summary, our study indicates that leaf habit has

  14. Different shades of JAZ during plant growth and defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pierik, R.; Van Wees, S.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ever since their discovery as key regulators of the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway, repressor proteins of the JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) family are rising stars in research on hormonal regulation of plant growth and defense. In plant cells, JAZ repressor proteins interact with an E3 ubiquitin liga

  15. Crustal Growth: In Defense of the Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Guitreau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Plate tectonics was not even in its teens when Armstrong suggested that mantle and crust have interacted at steady-state over Earth's history. With the help of new geochemical tools and large-scale compilations, the concept of steady-state crust (as opposed to continuous crustal growth) is being revived with the implications that the equivalent of several volumes of present-day crust (PDCV) may have been subducted through geological times. Here we argue --or recall-- that four different lines of evidence invalidate this model. (i) The subduction filter must be particularly efficient for argon, even more so than for LILE and most other volatile elements. Atmosphere collects 40Ar degassed from both the extant crust and the crust dragged down at subduction zones over geological time. Regardless of the residence time of the crust at the surface, the amount of atmospheric 40Ar limits subduction of continental crust into the mantle to < 30% of the PDCV [1]. (ii) EM II, the only component that undoubtedly represents subducted continental crust in oceanic basalts, is extremely uncommon. (iii) Crustal age histograms are irrepressibly episodic. It has been argued that erosion selectively removes the crust with the elusive ages [2]. Ages of detrital zircons, which in the selective erosion conjecture should fill the voids, do not support this view [3]. Episodicity is difficult to reconcile with a continental protolith isolated by the common geological processes working either at mid-ocean ridges or subduction zones. A role may be recognized for Wilson cycles, if they can be shown to have prevailed for the entire history of the Earth. Geochemistry demonstrates that superplume material makes up the crustal protolith of all the major juvenile provinces. (iv) The residence time in the mantle of the elements distinctive of the crust is similar to the age of the Earth or even longer [4]. Continental crust finds its source in the instabilities of the lower mantle and the irreversible

  16. THE IMPACT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION AND STATE ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY ON REGIONAL GROWTH IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    DARIUS TIRTOSUHARTO

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a new empirical analysis on the effects of fiscal decentralization on economic growth with the inclusion of a state allocative efficiency factor in the growth model. Using Indonesia as a case study, this study aims to reveal whether the state allocative efficiency will impact growth through better allocation of public goods. Following a two-stage empirical method, the expenditure efficiency of Indonesia's 26 state governments over a 10-year period (1996–2005) is constructe...

  17. 75 FR 32122 - Revisions to Defense Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ..., emergency preparedness, and recovery from natural disasters. BIS has extensive experience using its... (Emergency Preparedness) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C..., Transportation, Health and Human Services, Defense, and Agriculture, will comprise the Federal Priorities...

  18. How to be sweet? Extra floral nectar allocation by Gossypium hirsutum fits optimal defense theory predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Bonifay, C.

    2004-01-01

    Plants employ nectar for two distinct functions. Floral nectar has traditionally been viewed in the context of pollination. Extrafloral nectar on the other hand, can act as an indirect defense, allowing the plant to recruit predators and parasitoids. Whereas this makes for a clear-cut categorization

  19. How to be sweet? Extra floral nectar allocation by Gossypium hirsutum fits optimal defense theory predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Wäckers, F.L.; Bonifay, C.

    2004-01-01

    Plants employ nectar for two distinct functions. Floral nectar has traditionally been viewed in the context of pollination. Extrafloral nectar on the other hand, can act as an indirect defense, allowing the plant to recruit predators and parasitoids. Whereas this makes for a clear-cut categorization, in reality the functions may not be so discrete. Extrafloral nectar may serve a role in pollination, while floral nectar can be utilized by predators and parasitoids and thus can contribute to pl...

  20. Nutrient allocations and metabolism in two Collembola with contrasting reproduction and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Damgaard, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction and meta......1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction...... in tissue, growth and reproduction for 28 days. In addition, we measured the composition of C, N and phosphorus (P) to gain complementary information on the stoichiometry underlying life-history traits and nutrient allocation. 3.  For P. minuta, the smallest and most fecund of the two species, the tissue...... budgets and life-history traits in small invertebrates such as Collembola....

  1. Defense industry and its impacts on economic growth in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong Hak

    1992-01-01

    This thesis reviews the connection between the Korean defense industry and Korean economic progress. The defense industry has both costs and benefits. Some argue that the benefits outweigh the costs; others argue the reverse. Because of the apparent diffusion of tension between South and North Korea, the domestic pressures to reduce the national defense budget are growing stronger. Consequently, some have questioned whether the Korean defense industry should be maintained. In fact, the K...

  2. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes. PMID:26802804

  3. On intersectoral allocations, factors substitutability and multiple long-run growth paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Drugeon, Jean-Pierre; Venditti, Alain

    2003-01-01

    This article considers a two-sector model of economic growth with "labour-augmenting" intersectoral external effects stemming from the aggregate capital stock. It is shown that equilibrium balanced growth paths with a non-trivial labour allocation scheme become available. A set of sufficient cond...

  4. Climate Change, Green Growth and Aid Allocation to Poor Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon

    2014-01-01

    With serious impacts of climate change looming in a few decades, but current poverty still high in the developing world, we ask how to spend development aid earmarked for the poor. Poverty reduction tends to be strongly linked to economic growth, but growth impacts the environment and increases CO2 emissions. So can greener growth that is more climate-resilient and less environmentally damaging deliver large scale poverty reduction? Can aid be used for effective poverty reduction now without ...

  5. Influences of elevated CO2 and pest damage on the allocation of plant defense compounds in Bt-transgenic cotton and enzymatic activity of cotton aphid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Neng-Wen Xiao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Plant allocation to defensive compounds by elevated CO2-grown nontransgenic and transgenic Bt cotton in response to infestation by cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii (Glover) in open-top chambers under elevated CO2 were studied.The results showed that significantly lower foliar nitrogen concentration and Bt toxin protein occurred in transgenic Bt cotton with and without cotton aphid infestation under elevated CO2.However,significantly higher carbon/nitrogen ratio,condensed tannin and gossypol were observed in transgenic Bt cotton "GK-12" and non-transgenic Bt cotton ‘Simian-3' under elevated CO2.The CO2 level and cotton variety significantly influenced the foliar nitrogen,condensed tannin and gossypol concentrations in the plant leaves after feeding by A.gossypii.The interaction between CO2 level × infestation time (24 h,48 h and 72 h)showed a significant increase in cotton condensed tannin concentrations,while the interaction between CO2 level × cotton variety significantly decreased the true choline esterase (TChE) concentration in the body ofA.gossypi.This study exemplified the complexities of predicting how transgenic and non-transgenic plants will allocate defensive compounds in response to herbivorous insects under differing climatic conditions.Plant defensive compound allocation patterns and aphid enzyme changes observed in this study appear to be broadly applicable across a range of plant and herbivorous insect interactions as CO2 atmosphere rises.

  6. Explaining development aid allocation by growth: A meta study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

      an interesting factor for two reasons: (1) It is relatively easy to interpret the results, and (2) it  is an important piece in the picture which suggests aid ineffectiveness. The paper is a meta-analysis of the 211 growth-aid estimates found in the 30 empirical studies. Additionally, we present new evidence...... using a panel data for 147 countries for the period 1967-2004. The result from both the meta-analysis and the primary data analysis is that growth does generate aid, so the dominating sign is positive. This result is driven partly by the large development banks....

  7. Productivity of public spending, sectoral allocation choices, and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John; Shah, Anwar

    1993-01-01

    The authors examine the composition of public spending and its implications for economic growth. They use a translog production function by treating gross domestic product as the output and labor, private capital, and several types of public sector capital stocks as the inputs, using time series data for 25 countries for 1965-84. The production functions of all but four countries exhibited increasing returns to scale. The highest output elasticity was for human resource development capital, f...

  8. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defence-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eDeslauriers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L. Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage and defence. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation, moderately (M-trees, 41 to 60% and heavily (H-trees, 61 to 80% defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem, carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch and defence components in needles (terpenoids compound from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defence. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defence components and to non-structural (NCS and structural (growth carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilisation for survival and growth following an outbreak.

  9. Biomass allocation and long-term growth patterns of temperate lianas in comparison with trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Ryuji; Tateno, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The host-dependent support habit of lianas is generally interpreted as a strategy designed to reduce resource investment in mechanical tissues; this allows preferential allocation to leaf and stem extension, thereby enhancing productivity and competitive abilities. However, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. We examined the aboveground allometries regarding biomass allocation (leaf mass and current-year stem mass (approximated as biomass allocated to extension growth) vs total aboveground mass) and long-term apparent growth patterns (height and aboveground mass vs age, i.e. numbers of growth rings) for nine deciduous liana species in Japan. Lianas had, on average, three- and five-fold greater leaf and current-year stem mass, respectively, than trees for a given aboveground mass, whereas the time course to reach the forest canopy was comparable and biomass accumulation during that period was only one-tenth that of co-occurring canopy trees. The balance between the lengths of yearly stem extension and existing older stems indicated that lianas lost c. 75% of stem length during growth to the canopy, which is probably a consequence of the host-dependent growth. Our observations suggest that, although lianas rely on hosts mechanically, allowing for short-term vigorous growth, this habit requires a large cost and could limit plant growth over protracted periods.

  10. Allocation changes buffer CO2 effect on tree growth since the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Harrison, S. P.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Gerhart, L. M.; Ward, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic measurements on junipers growing in southern California during the last glacial, when the ambient atmospheric [CO2] (ca) was ~180 ppm, show the leaf- internal [CO2] (ci) was close to the modern CO2 compensation point for C3 plants. Despite this, stem growth rates were similar to today. Using a coupled light-use efficiency and tree growth model, we show that the ci/ca ratio was stable because both vapor pressure deficit and temperature were decreased with compensating effects. Reduced photorespiration at lower temperatures partly mitigated the effect of low ci on gross primary production, but maintenance of present-day radial growth also required changes in carbon allocation, including a ~25% reduction in below-ground carbon allocation and a ~7% in allocation to leaves. Such a shift was possible due to reduced drought stress. Our findings are consistent with the observed increase in below-ground allocation in FACE experiments and the apparent homoeostasis of measured radial growth as ca increases today; results which our model can also reproduce.

  11. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  12. Watching sexy displays improves hatching success and offspring growth through maternal allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-11-22

    Male attractiveness can have tremendous effects on the fitness of his offspring via good genes, but also via enhanced maternal allocation of resources. Yet the proximate mechanisms influencing differential maternal allocation in relation to male sexiness are poorly known. Here, we studied the importance of visual stimulation for maternal allocation in the Houbara bustard, a vulnerable bird species bred in captivity to support wild populations. Artificial insemination allowed controlling for potential confounding factors, such as a male's territory quality, social interactions or sperm quality/quantity, probably linked to mate attractiveness. We show that artificially inseminated females stimulated by highly displaying males increased their hatching success, owing to increased fertilization success. The females also increased the allocation of maternal androgens in their eggs, leading to an increase of circulating testosterone and growth rate in chicks. Hence, visual stimulation of the females can promote differential maternal allocation and favour offspring fitness. Our results further suggest that using artificial insemination for species conservation without appropriate stimulation of the breeding females probably has negative impacts on their breeding performance and therefore on population viability. PMID:20538650

  13. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  14. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction. PMID:26105046

  15. Genotypic Tannin Levels in Populus tremula Impact the Way Nitrogen Enrichment Affects Growth and Allocation Responses for Some Traits and Not for Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandau, Franziska; Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo; Gundale, Michael J.; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2015-01-01

    Plant intraspecific variability has been proposed as a key mechanism by which plants adapt to environmental change. In boreal forests where nitrogen availability is strongly limited, nitrogen addition happens indirectly through atmospheric N deposition and directly through industrial forest fertilization. These anthropogenic inputs of N have numerous environmental consequences, including shifts in plant species composition and reductions in plant species diversity. However, we know less about how genetic differences within plant populations determine how species respond to eutrophication in boreal forests. According to plant defense theories, nitrogen addition will cause plants to shift carbon allocation more towards growth and less to chemical defense, potentially enhancing vulnerability to antagonists. Aspens are keystone species in boreal forests that produce condensed tannins to serve as chemical defense. We conducted an experiment using ten Populus tremula genotypes from the Swedish Aspen Collection that express extreme levels of baseline investment into foliar condensed tannins. We investigated whether investment into growth and phenolic defense compounds in young plants varied in response to two nitrogen addition levels, corresponding to atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. Nitrogen addition generally caused growth to increase, and tannin levels to decrease; however, individualistic responses among genotypes were found for height growth, biomass of specific tissues, root:shoot ratios, and tissue lignin and N concentrations. A genotype’s baseline ability to produce and store condensed tannins also influenced plant responses to N, although this effect was relatively minor. High-tannin genotypes tended to grow less biomass under low nitrogen levels and more at the highest fertilization level. Thus, the ability in aspen to produce foliar tannins is likely associated with a steeper reaction norm of growth responses, which suggests a

  16. Dynamical Allocation of Cellular Resources as an Optimal Control Problem: Novel Insights into Microbial Growth Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nils; Mairet, Francis; Gouzé, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment. PMID:26958858

  17. Dynamical Allocation of Cellular Resources as an Optimal Control Problem: Novel Insights into Microbial Growth Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Giordano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment.

  18. Is growth reduction in defoliated trees a consequence of prioritized carbon allocation to reserves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Guenter; Schmid, Sandra; Palacio, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Tissue concentrations of carbon reserve compounds are frequently used as proxies for the carbon balance of trees, but the mechanisms regulating the formation of carbon reserves are still under debate. It is often assumed that carbon storage in trees is largely a consequence of surplus carbon supply (reserve accumulation). In contrast, carbon storage might also occur against prevailing carbon demand from other sink activities, like growth (reserve formation), in which case carbon reserve pools might increase even at carbon limitation, and thus, cannot be used as indicators for a tree's carbon supply status. Such a situation might be severe defoliation by herbivores. Especially in evergreen tree species, it has been shown that natural and experimental defoliation leads to a reduction of growth that is proportional to the lost leaf area. Compared to this strong effect on growth, carbon reserve pools (i.e. sugars, starch and storage lipids) of defoliated trees often exert only a temporary decrease immediately after defoliation, while tissue concentrations of carbon reserves return to those of undefoliated trees by the end of the growing season. Within a recent experiment, we investigated, if the growth decline in trees following early season defoliation is the consequence of prioritized carbon allocation to carbon reserves over growth. To test this hypothesis we grew seedlings of evergreen Quecus ilex and deciduous Quercus petraea trees under low (140 ppm), medium (280 ppm) and high (560 ppm) CO2 concentrations and completely defoliated half of the seedlings in each CO2 treatment at the beginning of the growing season. In undefoliated control trees, CO2 had a significant positive effect on the seasonal growth in both species. Defoliation had a strong negative impact on growth in the evergreen Q. illex, but less in the deciduous Q. petraea. In both species, the growth reduction after defoliation relative to undefoliated controls was very similar at all three CO2

  19. Geographical diversification of growth-defense strategies in an invasive plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yun PAN; Xin JIA; Dong-Jing FU; Bo LI

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between herbivore pressure and resource availability may result in growth-defense trade-offs in plants (resource availability hypothesis),which promote the potential for ecological diversification and have recently been proposed as a new mechanism of plant invasion (resource-enemy release hypothesis).In the present study,we tested this idea by comparing patterns of maximum growth rate and antiherbivore defense capacity against Agasicles hygrophila (a specialist phytophagous insect on Alternanthera philoxeroides) among six morphs of A.philoxeroides from both native (Argentina) and introduced (US and China) ranges.The results revealed that herbivore resistance consistently exhibited a significant trade-off against the growth rate of A.philoxeroides.Compared with native morphs in Argentina,introduced morphs generally exhibited a higher growth rate and lower defense.The results demonstrate that the combination of flea beetle pressure and resource availability facilitates geographical divergence of A.philoxeroides,and that release from natural specialists and increased resource availability may interact to contribute to its successful invasion.

  20. Research on Modeling of Allocation of Air Defense Troops Based on Programming Method%基于规划方法的防空兵兵力区分问题建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋里强; 王桂花; 王纯; 高建军

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of air defense troops is an important step of troops disposition,a correct scheme about combat grouping and combat formation disposition could be worked out only after the allocation of air defense troops has been done. This paper is devoted to study allocation problem of troops during the process of coordination operation between ground -to -air missile forces and antiaircraft artillery forces within combat zone of air defense troops. Taking the mathematic expectation of destroying enemy air raid weapons as objective function,a nonlinear programming model is built and the optimal scheme of troops allocation is found to help commander make a policy by use of Lingo software.%防空兵兵力区分是防空兵兵力部署的一个重要环节,在进行正确的兵力区分基础上,才能进行正确的战斗编组和战斗队型配置。研究了防空兵作战地幅内地空导弹兵与高射炮兵协同作战时的兵力区分问题,以消灭敌空兵器的数学期望为目标函数,用规划方法建立了该问题的数学模型,用Lingo软件求出了兵力区分的最佳方案。

  1. Distributed Generators Allocation in Radial Distribution Systems with Load Growth using Loss Sensitivity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Vijay Babu, P.; Murty, V. V. S. N.

    2016-07-01

    Rapidly increasing electricity demands and capacity shortage of transmission and distribution facilities are the main driving forces for the growth of distributed generation (DG) integration in power grids. One of the reasons for choosing a DG is its ability to support voltage in a distribution system. Selection of effective DG characteristics and DG parameters is a significant concern of distribution system planners to obtain maximum potential benefits from the DG unit. The objective of the paper is to reduce the power losses and improve the voltage profile of the radial distribution system with optimal allocation of the multiple DG in the system. The main contribution in this paper is (i) combined power loss sensitivity (CPLS) based method for multiple DG locations, (ii) determination of optimal sizes for multiple DG units at unity and lagging power factor, (iii) impact of DG installed at optimal, that is, combined load power factor on the system performance, (iv) impact of load growth on optimal DG planning, (v) Impact of DG integration in distribution systems on voltage stability index, (vi) Economic and technical Impact of DG integration in the distribution systems. The load growth factor has been considered in the study which is essential for planning and expansion of the existing systems. The technical and economic aspects are investigated in terms of improvement in voltage profile, reduction in total power losses, cost of energy loss, cost of power obtained from DG, cost of power intake from the substation, and savings in cost of energy loss. The results are obtained on IEEE 69-bus radial distribution systems and also compared with other existing methods.

  2. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  3. Carbon budget for Scots pine trees: effects of size, competition and site fertility on growth allocation and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanninen, Petteri; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2005-01-01

    Time series of carbon fluxes in individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were constructed based on biomass measurements and information about component-specific turnover and respiration rates. Foliage, branch, stem sapwood, heartwood and bark components of aboveground biomass were measured in 117 trees sampled from 17 stands varying in age, density and site fertility. A subsample of 32 trees was measured for belowground biomass excluding fine roots. Biomass of fine roots was estimated from the results of an earlier study. Statistical models were constructed to predict dry mass (DW) of components from tree height and basal area, and time derivatives of these models were used to estimate biomass increments from height growth and basal area growth. Biomass growth (G) was estimated by adding estimated biomass turnover rates to increments, and gross photosynthetic production (P) was estimated by adding estimated component respiration rates to growth. The method, which predicts the time course of G, P and biomass increment in individual trees as functions of height growth and basal area growth, was applied to eight example trees representing different dominance positions and site fertilities. Estimated G and P of the example trees varied with competition, site fertility and tree height, reaching maximum values of 22 and 43 kg(DW) year(-1), respectively. The site types did not show marked differences in productivity of trees of the same height, although height growth was greater on the fertile site. The G:P ratio decreased with tree height from 65 to 45%. Growth allocation to needles and branches increased with increasing dominance, whereas growth allocation to the stem decreased. Growth allocation to branches decreased and growth allocation to coarse roots increased with increasing tree size. Trees at the poor site allocated 49% more to fine roots than trees at the fertile site. The belowground parts accounted for 25 to 55% of annual G, increasing with tree size

  4. Relative importance of photosynthetic physiology and biomass allocation for tree seedling growth across a broad light gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rebecca

    2004-02-01

    Studies of tree seedling physiology and growth under field conditions provide information on the mechanisms underlying inter- and intraspecific differences in growth and survival at a critical period during forest regeneration. I compared photosynthetic physiology, growth and biomass allocation in seedlings of three shade-tolerant tree species, Virola koschynii Warb., Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Record & Mell and Brosimum alicastrum Swartz., growing across a light gradient created by a forest-pasture edge (0.5 to 67% diffuse transmittance (%T)). Most growth and physiological traits showed nonlinear responses to light availability, with the greatest changes occurring between 0.5 and 20 %T. Specific leaf area (SLA) and nitrogen per unit leaf mass (N mass) decreased, maximum assimilation per unit leaf area (A area) and area-based leaf N concentration (N area) increased, and maximum assimilation per unit leaf mass (A mass) did not change with increasing irradiance. Plastic responses in SLA were important determinants of leaf N and A area across the gradient. Species differed in magnitude and plasticity of growth; B. alicastrum had the lowest relative growth rates (RGR) and low plasticity. Its final biomass varied only 10-fold across the light gradient. In contrast, the final biomass of D. panamensis and V. koschynii varied by 100- and 50-fold, respectively, and both had higher RGR than B. alicastrum. As light availability increased, all species decreased biomass allocation to leaf tissue (mass and area) and showed a trade-off between allocation to leaf area at a given plant mass (LAR) and net gain in mass per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate, NAR). This trade-off largely reflected declines in SLA with increasing light. Finally, A area was correlated with NAR and both were major determinants of intraspecific variation in RGR. These data indicate the importance of plasticity in photosynthetic physiology and allocation for variation in tree seedling growth among

  5. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  6. Costs and benefits of experimentally induced changes in the allocation of growth versus immune function under differential exposure to ectoparasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pitala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological immunology has focused on the costs of investment in immunocompetence. However, understanding optimal resource allocation to immune defence requires also identification of its benefits, which are likely to occur only when parasites are abundant. METHODOLOGY: We manipulated the abundance of parasitic hen fleas in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus nests, and supplemented their hosts, the nestlings, with methionine (a sulphur amino acid enhancing cell-mediated immunity during day 3-6. We found a significant interaction between these two experimental factors on the development of immune defences and growth rates. Only in parasitized nests did methionine supplementation boost immune (PHA response, and did nestling with experimentally increased immunocompetence show a relatively faster growth rate than control nestlings between days 6-9. Hence, the allocation of resources into immune defence and its growth-benefits are apparent only in presence of parasites. The main cost of methionine-induced increased allocation to the immune system was an increase in mortality, independently of ectoparasites. Nestlings in all treatments compensated initial growth reduction and all reached equal body size at day 16 (just prior to fledging, indicating a lack of long-term benefits. In addition, methionine treatment tended (P = 0.09 to lower circulating plasma immunoglobulin levels, possibly indicating a trade-off between the cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: We found no strong benefits of an increased investment in immunocompetence in a parasite-rich environment. Any deviation from the growth trajectory (due to changes in allocation induced by methionine is largely detrimental for survival. Hence, while costs are apparent identifying the benefits of investment in immunocompetence during ontogeny is challenging.

  7. Stimulatory effects of chitinase on growth and immune defense of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Feng, Shaozhen; Chen, Jun; Qin, Chaobin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-05-01

    Chitinase, belonging to either family 18 or family 19 of the glycosylhydrolases, hydrolyze chitin into oligosaccharides. In the present study, the cDNA fragment encoding orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) chitinase1 was subcloned into pPIC3.5K vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The results showed that a band with the size of about 53 kDa could be detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The recombinant protein of grouper chitinase1 (rgChi1) was added into the fish diet containing shrimp shell chitin for feeding experiment lasting 8 weeks. The weight of orange-spotted grouper, fed with diets containing rgChi1 at 0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/g was calculated on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, and difference in growth rates was first observed in the 6th week of the feeding period and it kept until the end of the feeding experiment. At the end of 8 weeks feeding trial, the percent weight gain (PWG), growth rate (GR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed with 10 and 20 μg rgChi1/g feed were significantly higher compared to the control group. The neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), growth-hormone (GH), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Cu/Zn) and SOD (Mn) mRNA expression of fish fed with diet containing 10 μg/g or/and 20 μg/g rgChi1 were obviously higher than the control group. The lysozyme (LZM) and total SOD activity of fish fed with diet containing rgChi1 at 10 and 20 μg/g were significantly higher than that of the control. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT) activity in 20 μg/g group decreased compared to the control group. These results indicated that the grouper chitinase1 was successfully produced using the P. pastoris expression system and the recombinant protein had obvious effects on growth and immune defense. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of grouper chitinase1 and chitinase2 were significantly stimulated in

  8. Growth and Allocation of Dry Matter in Bean Seedlings Developed up to the Senescence of the Cotyledons

    OpenAIRE

    DÍAZ-RUIZ, Ramón; Josué KOHASHI-SHIBATA; YAÑEZ-JIMÉNEZ, Petra; ESCALANTE-ESTRADA, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The allocation of dry matter in seedling of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) depends on the nutrient content in the cotyledons on principle of germination. The importance of these structures for the growth of the seedling ranges from the time of germination to the emergence of the seedling and the time when the simple leaves can realize photosynthesis. The objective of this research was to study and quantify the distribution of dry matter from the stage of germination until senescence ...

  9. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-Min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Kai SHI; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4 +) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3 −)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4 +-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum phot...

  10. The allocation of entrepreneurial effort and its implications on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Pérez, Félix Fernando; Encinar del Pozo, María Isabel; Otamendi, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    The problem to allocate effort to innovation activities is defined and modelled for any single entrepreneur according to its propensity to innovate, which combines pure innovation and rent-seeking strategies. The allocation problem is solved both analytically and via simulation. The individual decisions measured in units of innovation are then aggregated to calculate the innovation quantity for a given population based on the distribution of heterogeneous entrepreneurs. The ent...

  11. Effects of vegetative growth, plant size and flowering order on sexual reproduction allocation of Tulipa sinkiangensis

    OpenAIRE

    Aysajan Abdusalam; Dunyan Tan; Omarxat Tahan

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between sexual reproduction and resource allocation plays an important role in plant life history and in the evolution of breeding systems. Tulipa sinkiangensis is an early spring perennial ephemeral species endemic to the desert zone of the northern piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China. This species produces offspring only by sexual reproduction, and produces 1–8 flowers per individual in natural populations. The relationships between sexual reproduction alloc...

  12. THE OPTIMAL ALLOCATION ABOUT CAPITAL AND LABOR IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH AN ENDOGENOUS TECHNICAL PROGRESS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金山; 李楚霖; 胡适耕

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the balanced economic growth path was considered in a new growth model with endogenous technical progress. It is not only obtained the optimal allocation about capital and labor between a goods-producing sector and a R&D Sector,but also the optimal value of saving rates. By discussing the effect of parameters, it are also got the following results: When the rate of time preference (discount factor) rising, the fractions of Capital and labor in the goods-producing sector will increase , the fractions in R&D sector and the saving rates will decrease; When the population grows rapidly, the result will be contrary.

  13. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  14. Rapidly induced chemical defenses in maize stems and their effects on short-term growth of Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Huffaker, Alisa; Vaughan, Martha M; Duehl, Adrian J; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-09-01

    Plants damaged by insect herbivory often respond by inducing a suite of defenses that can negatively affect an insect's growth and fecundity. Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer, ECB) is one of the most devastating insect pests of maize, and in the current study, we examined the early biochemical changes that occur in maize stems in response to ECB herbivory and how these rapidly induced defenses influence the growth of ECB. We measured the quantities of known maize defense compounds, benzoxazinoids and the kauralexin class of diterpenoid phytoalexins. ECB herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoid, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Total quantities of benzoxazinoids and kauralexins were increased as early as 24 h after the initiation of ECB feeding. The plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), and the transcripts encoding their key biosynthetic enzymes also accumulated in response to ECB herbivory, consistent with a role in defense regulation. The combined pharmacological application of JA and the ET precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to stem internode tissue likewise resulted in changes in benzoxazinoids similar to that observed with ECB damage. Despite the fact that maize actively mounts a defense response to ECB stem feeding, no differences in percent weight gain were observed between ECB larvae that fed upon non-wounded control tissues compared to tissues obtained from plants previously subjected to 24 h ECB stem herbivory. These rapid defense responses in maize stems do not appear to negatively impact ECB growth, thus suggesting that ECB have adapted to these induced biochemical changes. PMID:21833765

  15. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Espinoza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don.Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering.Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles, root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed.Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local landrace of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity.Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio.Key words: early testing; environmental interaction; ontogeny; plasticity index; water stress.

  16. Growth, photosynthesis, and defense mechanism of antimony (Sb)-contaminated Boehmeria nivea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Mubarak, Hussani; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Yong, Wang; Tang, Chong-Jian; Mirza, Nosheen

    2016-04-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is the oldest cash fiber crop in China and is widely grown in antimony (Sb) mining areas. To evaluate the extent of Sb resistance and tolerance, the growth, tolerance index (TI), Sb content in plant parts and in Hoagland solution, bioaccumulation factor (BF), photosynthesis, and physiological changes in Sb-contaminated B. nivea (20, 40, 80, and 200 mg L(-1) Sb) grown hydroponically were investigated. The Sb tolerance and resistance of ramie were clearly revealed by growth inhibition, a TI between 13 and 99 %, non-significant changes in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (photosystem II (PSII)) and single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) value, a significant increase in Sb in plant parts, BF >1, and an increase in catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg L(-1) Sb. Under increasing Sb stress, nearly the same non-significant decline in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (PSII), relative quantum yield of photosystem II (φPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP), except for F v /F m at 20 mg L(-1) Sb, were recorded. SPAD values for chlorophyll under Sb stress showed an increasing trend, except for a slight decrease, i.e., continuous increase in MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and CAT activities were suppressed under Sb addition up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and the addition of Sb enhanced enzyme production at 80 and 200 mg L(-1) Sb. A continuous decrease in SOD, POD, and CAT up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and enhancements at ≥80 mg L(-1), along with the continuous enhancement of MDA activity and inhibited biomass production, clearly reveal the roles of these enzymes in detoxifying Sb stress and the defense mechanism of ramie at 80 mg L(-1) Sb. Thus, B. nivea constitutes a promising candidate for Sb phytoremediation at mining sites. PMID:26711292

  17. Effect of growth factors on oocyte maturation and allocations of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells of cloned bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Sezen; Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Cevik, Mesut; Akkoc, Tolga; Cetinkaya, Gaye; Bagis, Haydar

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the additive effects of exogenous growth factors during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) and the sequential culture of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Oocyte maturation and culture of reconstructed embryos derived from bovine granulosa cells were performed in culture medium supplemented with either epidermal growth factor (EGF) alone or a combination of EGF with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The maturation rates of oocytes matured in the presence of EGF or the EGF + IGF-I combination were significantly higher than those of oocytes matured in the presence of only fetal calf serum (FCS) (P 0.05). IGF-I alone or in combination with EGF in sequential embryo culture medium significantly increased the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM) to total blastocyst cells (P media of cloned bovine embryos increased the ICM without changing the total cell number. These unknown and uncontrolled effects of growth factors can alter the allocation of ICM and trophectoderm cells (TE) in NT embryos. A decrease in TE cell numbers could be a reason for developmental abnormalities in embryos in the cloning system. PMID:26444069

  18. Bismerthiazol Inhibits Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Growth and Induces Differential Expression of Citrus Defense-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyue; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Zhou, Mingguo; Duan, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, is a serious disease that causes substantial economic losses to the citrus industry worldwide. The bactericide bismerthiazol has been used to control rice bacterial blight (X. oryzae pv. oryzae). In this paper, we demonstrate that bismerthiazol can effectively control citrus canker by both inhibiting the growth of X. citri ssp. citri and triggering the plant's host defense response through the expression of several pathogenesis-related genes (PR1, PR2, CHI, and RpRd1) and the nonexpresser of PR genes (NPR1, NPR2, and NPR3) in 'Duncan' grapefruit, especially at early treatment times. In addition, we found that bismerthiazol induced the expression of the marker genes CitCHS and CitCHI in the flavonoid pathway and the PAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) gene in the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis pathway at different time points. Moreover, bismerthiazol also induced the expression of the priming defense-associated gene AZI1. Taken together, these results indicate that the induction of the defense response in 'Duncan' grapefruit by bismerthiazol may involve the SA signaling pathway and the priming defense and that bismerthiazol may serve as an alternative to copper bactericides for the control of citrus canker. PMID:26882850

  19. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  20. C4 photosynthesis boosts growth by altering physiology, allocation and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rebecca R L; Mockford, Emily J; Bennett, Christopher; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Spriggs, Elizabeth L; Freckleton, Robert P; Thompson, Ken; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis is a complex set of leaf anatomical and biochemical adaptations that have evolved more than 60 times to boost carbon uptake compared with the ancestral C3 photosynthetic type(1-3). Although C4 photosynthesis has the potential to drive faster growth rates(4,5), experiments directly comparing C3 and C4 plants have not shown consistent effects(1,6,7). This is problematic because differential growth is a crucial element of ecological theory(8,9) explaining C4 savannah responses to global change(10,11), and research to increase C3 crop productivity by introducing C4 photosynthesis(12). Here, we resolve this long-standing issue by comparing growth across 382 grass species, accounting for ecological diversity and evolutionary history. C4 photosynthesis causes a 19-88% daily growth enhancement. Unexpectedly, during the critical seedling establishment stage, this enhancement is driven largely by a high ratio of leaf area to mass, rather than fast growth per unit leaf area. C4 leaves have less dense tissues, allowing more leaves to be produced for the same carbon cost. Consequently, C4 plants invest more in roots than C3 species. Our data demonstrate a general suite of functional trait divergences between C3 and C4 species, which simultaneously drive faster growth and greater investment in water and nutrient acquisition, with important ecological and agronomic implications. PMID:27243645

  1. 6-Benzylaminopurine inhibits growth of Monilinia fructicola and induces defense-related mechanism in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangyang; Zeng, Lizhen; Yang, Jiali; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2015-11-15

    This study demonstrated the inhibitory effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), the first generation synthetic cytokinin, on the invasion of Monilinia fructicola in peach fruit and the possible mechanism involved for the first time. Our results suggested that BAP treatment had a 63% lower disease incidence and approximately 10 times lower lesion diameter compared to the control throughout the incubation period. In vitro BAP showed a direct inhibitory effect on M. fructicola spore germination. BAP could prevent fruit texture deterioration and protect the cell membrane from oxidative stress, while no adverse effects were observed on fruit quality maintenance. Analysis of defense-related enzymes activities indicated that the use of BAP induced higher specific polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities which triggered stronger host defensive responses. Thus, our results verified the proposed mechanism of BAP in controlling M. fructicola by direct inhibitory effect, delay peach senescence and activation of defensive enzymes.

  2. Influence of dietary copper concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, T; Cui, H; Guo, J; Guo, Q; Gao, X; Yang, F

    2016-03-01

    A 75-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Cu concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes. Seventy-five male blue foxes (5.78 ± 0.09 kg BW) were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu; 7.78 mg Cu/kg), 2) 12.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu20), 3) 32.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu, 4) 72.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu80), and 5) 152.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu160). A dry feed that consisted of animal meals, soybean meal, extruded corn, and soybean oil was used as the basal diet and Cu was supplemented as reagent grade CuSO∙5HO. The results showed that Cu supplementation increased the ADG ( 0.10). Additionally, Cu supplementation linearly increased the concentration of fecal Cu, liver Cu, serum total protein, and albumin ( < 0.01). Foxes in the Cu160 group had higher serum Cu concentration than those in the control and Cu20 groups ( < 0.05). The concentration of serum cholesterol decreased with dietary Cu supplementation ( < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein, on the contrary, tended to increase with Cu supplementation ( = 0.09). Copper supplementation increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase ( < 0.05) and tended to increase the activity of serum ceruloplasmin ( = 0.07). For fur quality, skin length in the Cu80 group was greater than that in the control and Cu20 groups. In addition, hair color tended to deepen with the increasing of dietary Cu concentrations ( = 0.08). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu supplementation can promote growth and increase fat digestibility and fur length. Additionally, dietary Cu supplementation can enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce serum cholesterol in growing-furring blue foxes. PMID:27065271

  3. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The Defense... contemplated and the contract amount is expected to exceed the small purchase limitation. Allocation (DFSC...

  4. Effects of space allocation within a deep-bedded finishing system on pig growth performance, fatty acid composition and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, B S; Huff-Lonergan, E; Honeyman, M S; Kerr, B J; Lonergan, S M

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the degree to which space allocation in a deep-bedded system influences swine performance and pork quality. The deep-bedded method employed was hoop structures, which are large, tent-like shelters with cornstalks or straw for bedding. One hundred gilts ranging in weight from 59 to 71 kg were randomly assigned to treatments of low (0.70 m2 per pig, n = 50) or high (1.13 m2 per pig, n = 50) space allocation. During the 45-day experimental period, gilts were ad libitum fed a two-phase diet. Six gilts per treatment were used for carcass composition and pork quality evaluation for each replication. Five replications were conducted over a period of 4 months. Pigs finished with greater space allocation had smaller longissimus muscle area and produced pork that appeared to be darker. Variations in fatty acid composition and lipid percentage of subcutaneous adipose and longissimus dorsi muscle were observed when space allocation was changed within hoop structures. Less space resulted in greater proportion of lipid present as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Greater space allocation resulted in lower total lipid in subcutaneous pork adipose tissue. Space allocation did not affect fat firmness. Replications spanned the months of August to November, with temperatures ranging from 32°C to -2°C within the hoop structure. As environmental temperature declined, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased. Providing more space during finishing in these systems had only a small affect on pig growth and pork quality. Variations observed from replication to replication at fluctuating temperatures provide insight to seasonal differences in growth and adipose tissue composition and firmness. Therefore, finishing pigs in these systems may lead to seasonal variation in lipid composition.

  5. Growth and Allocation of Dry Matter in Bean Seedlings Developed up to the Senescence of the Cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón DÍaz-ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of dry matter in seedling of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. depends on the nutrient content in the cotyledons on principle of germination. The importance of these structures for the growth of the seedling ranges from the time of germination to the emergence of the seedling and the time when the simple leaves can realize photosynthesis. The objective of this research was to study and quantify the distribution of dry matter from the stage of germination until senescence of cotyledons during the seedling stage. Two experiments were conducted using the common bean variety Cacahuate-72, one in a greenhouse and another in growth chamber with a constant temperature of 25oC. To determine the dry weight of the structures sampling was carried out at different ages of the seedling. The stem accumulated more dry matter than the root, 56% and 44% respectively. The distribution of dry matter in the shoot structures was in the following order: simple leaves 60%, hypocotyl 25%, epicotyle 8%, petioles 5% and fi rst trifoliate leaf 2%. Root dry matter was distributed in the following order: secondary roots 46%, adventitious roots 42%, taproot 10% and tertiary roots 2%. The cotyledons exhausted its reserves of nutrients by the 18th day and they senesced at the same time. At the time of senescence of the cotyledons the hypocotyl structure was longer than the stem. Considering the root, secondary roots presented more length and were the most abundant in number. The input of fertilizer to the soil is necessary when cotyledons are beginning the process of senescence.

  6. Non-structural carbon dynamics and allocation relate to growth rate and leaf habit in California oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Czimczik, Claudia I; Sierra, Carlos A; Muhr, Jan; Xu, Xiaomei

    2015-11-01

    Trees contain non-structural carbon (NSC), but it is unclear for how long these reserves are stored and to what degree they are used to support plant activity. We used radiocarbon ((14)C) to show that the carbon (C) in stemwood NSC can achieve ages of several decades in California oaks. We separated NSC into two fractions: soluble (∼50% sugars) and insoluble (mostly starch) NSC. Soluble NSC contained more C than insoluble NSC, but we found no consistent trend in the amount of either pool with depth in the stem. There was no systematic difference in C age between the two fractions, although ages increased with stem depth. The C in both NSC fractions was consistently younger than the structural C from which they were extracted. Together, these results indicate considerable inward mixing of NSC within the stem and rapid exchange between soluble and insoluble pools, compared with the timescale of inward mixing. We observed similar patterns in sympatric evergreen and deciduous oaks and the largest differences among tree stems with different growth rates. The (14)C signature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from tree stems was higher than expected from very recent photoassimilates, indicating that the mean age of C in respiration substrates included a contribution from C fixed years previously. A simple model that tracks NSC produced each year, followed by loss (through conversion to CO2) in subsequent years, matches our observations of inward mixing of NSC in the stem and higher (14)C signature of stem CO2 efflux. Together, these data support the idea of continuous accumulation of NSC in stemwood and that 'vigor' (growth rate) and leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen) control NSC pool size and allocation.

  7. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pushp Sheel Shukla; Tudor eBorza; Critchley, Alan T; Balakrishnan ePrithiviraj

    2016-01-01

    Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta). Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs), as promoters of...

  8. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, U K

    2007-01-01

    An organism’s investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the Fitness benefit of the defense relative to the Fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insuffcient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive tra...

  9. Effects of Sand Burial on Survival, Growth, Gas Exchange and Biomass Allocation of Ulmus pumila Seedlings in the Hunshandak Sandland, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, J Z

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the last decade, the number of young plants of Ulmus pumila in the Hunshandak Sandland has decreased sharply because of severe sand burial, and their ecological protective function has been weakened. In order to develop an understanding of the tolerance of U. pumila to sand burial and to suggest reasonable measures to protect the sparse-elm–grassland ecosystem, the effects of burial on the survival, growth, photosynthesis and biomass allocation in U. pumila were studi...

  10. Cellular energy allocation and scope for growth in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea) following chlorpyrifos exposure: a method comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Verslycke, T.; Roast, S.D.; Widdows, J.; Jones, M B; Janssen, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    Mysids (Crustacea: Mysidacea) are used routinely in acute toxicity testing to evaluate the comparative toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms. The need for sublethal endpoints that provide comprehensive understanding of the potential impacts of toxicants to natural populations has resulted in examination of several physiological responses in mysid shrimp, including scope for growth (SFG) and cellular energy allocation (CEA). Both assays, based on the concept that energy in excess of that ...

  11. The Pseudomonas fluorescens Siderophore Pyoverdine Weakens Arabidopsis thaliana Defense in Favor of Growth in Iron-Deficient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, Pauline; Avoscan, Laure; Klinguer, Agnès; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Chervin, Christian; Mazurier, Sylvie; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wendehenne, David; Besson-Bard, Angélique

    2016-05-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores synthesized by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Under iron-limiting conditions, these high-affinity ferric iron chelators are excreted by bacteria in the soil to acquire iron. Pyoverdines produced by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. ameliorate plant growth. Here, we investigate the physiological incidence and mode of action of pyoverdine from Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12 on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions. Pyoverdine was provided to the medium in its iron-free structure (apo-pyoverdine), thus mimicking a situation in which it is produced by bacteria. Remarkably, apo-pyoverdine abolished the iron-deficiency phenotype and restored the growth of plants maintained in the iron-deprived medium. In contrast to a P. fluorescens C7R12 strain impaired in apo-pyoverdine production, the wild-type C7R12 reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in plants grown in iron-deficient conditions. Under this condition, apo-pyoverdine modulated the expression of around 2,000 genes. Notably, apo-pyoverdine positively regulated the expression of genes related to development and iron acquisition/redistribution while it repressed the expression of defense-related genes. Accordingly, the growth-promoting effect of apo-pyoverdine in plants grown under iron-deficient conditions was impaired in iron-regulated transporter1 and ferric chelate reductase2 knockout mutants and was prioritized over immunity, as highlighted by an increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea This process was accompanied by an overexpression of the transcription factor HBI1, a key node for the cross talk between growth and immunity. This study reveals an unprecedented mode of action of pyoverdine in Arabidopsis and demonstrates that its incidence on physiological traits depends on the plant iron status. PMID:26956666

  12. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage.

  13. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage. PMID:27119432

  14. Estimation of the relationship between growth, consumption, and energy allocation in juvenile pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) as a function of temperature and ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Ashwin; Heintz, Ron

    2016-10-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are generalist predators in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), and are an important predator on other commercially important species. Efficient management of this species can benefit by knowing how these fish adapt to changing environmental conditions, with a focus on how growth and condition are affected by changes in temperature and diet. We conducted a feeding study to understand the relationship between growth, ration, and temperature, and how these factors interact to affect energy allocation strategies. Since growth and condition of juveniles can determine recruitment into the population, this study focused on growth and consumption of age 1+Pacific cod held over 4 temperature treatments (4 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C, and 16 °C) and 3 ration levels (unlimited ration, medium ration, and low ration). We also compared cellular nucleic acid (RNA/DNA) ratios, an instantaneous growth index, total-body lipid, and proximate composition between fish. At 4 °C, 8 °C, and 12 °C, fish at medium and low rations had higher growth rates relative to fish at high rations. Higher food consumption appears to negatively affect digestive ability, assimilation efficiency, and nutrient utilization. RNA/DNA was clearly correlated with growth rates at 4 °C and 8 °C, but this relationship did not hold at higher temperatures. A secondary growth study was conducted to test the reliability of the growth/consumption models derived from the main growth study. Temperature influenced energy reserves (lipid) while tissue growth (protein) was influenced by ration level. Average lipid values were higher at 4 °C than at 8 °C or 12 °C, suggesting a predisposition to heightened lipid synthesis at colder temperatures. Longer durations of warmer water temperature in the GOA could consequently affect energy allocation strategies, with dietary changes in the field potentially amplifying this effect in cold and warm years. This energy allocation strategy could be detrimental

  15. Growth and chemical defense in three Asteraceae invasive weeds in lower subtropical China%三种菊科入侵植物的生长与化学防御的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪广艳; 朱丽薇; 牛俊峰; 赵秀华; 张振振; 赵培强

    2014-01-01

    A universal theory in ecology is that the allocations of limited resources to growth and defense are trade-off, while this theory appeared not to hold for invasive plants according to the previous studies. In this study, three invasive Asteraceae plant species in the Guangdong province i.e., Eupatorium odoratum, Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata, and their congeneric or co-occurring native plant species i.e., Eupatorium chinensis, Paederia scandens, Wedelia chinensis were used to detect if there is a trade-off between growth and chemical defenses on the basis of carbon allocation, and investigate the trade-off relations between them. All the three invasive Asteraceae had higher relative growth rate (RGR) as compared to their related native counterparts, and M. micrantha had higher specific leaf area (SLA) as well. Two invasive Asteraceae (i.e., M. micrantha and W. trilobata) had higher condensed tannin content, while the other invasive species E. odoratum had higher total phenolics content, as compared to their native species. Our results indicate that the invasive plants have similar carbon assimilation but different carbon allocations between the growth and chemical defense, thus implying that the special underlying carbon utilization mechanism may be a key for their successful invasions.%“生活史理论”认为,植物可利用的资源总量是有限的,在植物的不同功能之间存在着此消彼长的权衡关系。入侵植物的生长和化学防御一般优于本地植物,那么其生长与化学防御之间是否存在权衡及其权衡关系怎样,目前尚不清楚。以广东省3种菊科入侵植物[三裂叶蟛蜞菊(Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.)、飞机草(Eupatorium odoratum)和薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)]为研究对象,并分别以近缘或伴生的本地植物[蟛蜞菊(Wedelia chinenses)、华泽兰(Eupatorium chinense)和鸡矢藤(Paederia scandens)]为对照,研究入侵植物的生长特性

  16. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  17. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  18. Optimizing reproductive phenology in a two-resource world: a dynamic allocation model of plant growth predicts later reproduction in phosphorus-limited plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Eric A.; Shea, Katriona; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Timing of reproduction is a key life-history trait that is regulated by resource availability. Delayed reproduction in soils with low phosphorus availability is common among annuals, in contrast to the accelerated reproduction typical of other low-nutrient environments. It is hypothesized that this anomalous response arises from the high marginal value of additional allocation to root growth caused by the low mobility of phosphorus in soils. Methods To better understand the benefits and costs of such delayed reproduction, a two-resource dynamic allocation model of plant growth and reproduction is presented. The model incorporates growth, respiration, and carbon and phosphorus acquisition of both root and shoot tissue, and considers the reallocation of resources from senescent leaves. The model is parameterized with data from Arabidopsis and the optimal reproductive phenology is explored in a range of environments. Key Results The model predicts delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus environments. Reproductive timing in low-phosphorus environments is quite sensitive to phosphorus mobility, but is less sensitive to the temporal distribution of mortality risks. In low-phosphorus environments, the relative metabolic cost of roots was greater, and reproductive allocation reduced, compared with high-phosphorus conditions. The model suggests that delayed reproduction in response to low phosphorus availability may be reduced in plants adapted to environments where phosphorus mobility is greater. Conclusions Delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus soils can be a beneficial response allowing for increased acquisition and utilization of phosphorus. This finding has implications both for efforts to breed crops for low-phosphorus soils, and for efforts to understand how climate change may impact plant growth and productivity in low-phosphorus environments. PMID:21712299

  19. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly. PMID:26932369

  20. Inter- and intraspecific comparisons of antiherbivore defenses in three species of rainforest understory shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, R M; Dyer, L A; Dodson, C D; Richards, J L; Tobler, M A; Searcy, J; Mather, J E; Reid, A J; Rolig, J S; Pidcock, W

    2008-04-01

    Plants defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens with a suite of morphological, phenological, biochemical, and biotic defenses, each of which is presumably costly. The best studied are allocation costs that involve trade-offs in investment of resources to defense versus other plant functions. Decreases in growth or reproductive effort are the costs most often associated with antiherbivore defenses, but trade-offs among different defenses may also occur within a single plant species. We examined trade-offs among defenses in closely related tropical rain forest shrubs (Piper cenocladum, P. imperiale, and P. melanocladum) that possess different combinations of three types of defense: ant mutualists, secondary compounds, and leaf toughness. We also examined the effectiveness of different defenses and suites of defenses against the most abundant generalist and specialist Piper herbivores. For all species examined, leaf toughness was the most effective defense, with the toughest species, P. melanocladum, receiving the lowest incidence of total herbivory, and the least tough species, P. imperiale, receiving the highest incidence. Although variation in toughness within each species was substantial, there were no intraspecific relationships between toughness and herbivory. In other Piper studies, chemical and biotic defenses had strong intraspecific negative correlations with herbivory. A wide variety of defensive mechanisms was quantified in the three Piper species studied, ranging from low concentrations of chemical defenses in P. imperiale to a complex suite of defenses in P. cenocladum that includes ant mutualists, secondary metabolites, and moderate toughness. Ecological costs were evident for the array of defensive mechanisms within these Piper species, and the differences in defensive strategies among species may represent evolutionary trade-offs between costly defenses. PMID:18317843

  1. Resistance to the Beneficial Metabolic Effects and Hepatic Antioxidant Defense Actions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Treatment in Growth Hormone-Overexpressing Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet K. Boparai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism, adaptive starvation response, and energy homeostasis, but with limited mechanistic insight. FGF21 treatment has been shown to inhibit hepatic growth hormone (GH intracellular signaling. To evaluate GH axis involvement in FGF21 actions, transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH were used. Expectedly, in response to FGF21 treatment control littermates showed metabolic improvements whereas GH transgenic mice resisted most of the beneficial effects of FGF21, except an attenuation of the innate hyperinsulinemia. Since FGF21 is believed to exert its effects mostly at the transcriptional level, we analyzed and observed significant upregulation in expression of various genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and antioxidant defense in FGF21-treated controls, but not in GH transgenics. The resistance of GH transgenic mice to FGF21-induced changes underlines the necessity of normal GH signaling for the beneficial effects of FGF21.

  2. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Methods Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0·5, 1·0, 3·0, 6·0 and 24·0 g N m−2 year−1. Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Key Results Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. Conclusions These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric. PMID:24287812

  3. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  4. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan E. Havko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA, which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  5. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havko, Nathan E.; Major, Ian T.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  6. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    . In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated......An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential...... investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models...

  7. Variations in Growth, Photosynthesis and Defense System Among Four Weed Species Under Increased UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Liusheng Duan; Anthony Egrinya Eneji; Zhaohu Li

    2007-01-01

    Weed tolerance of UV-B radiation varies with species, and the radiation could affect weed ecology and management.Variations in growth, photosynthesis and defense system among four important agronomic weeds, Abutilon theophrasti Medik, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Digitaria sangulnalis (L.) Scop and Chloris virgata Swartz, under increased UV-B radiation (ambient and increased radiation at 2.7, 5.4 and 10.8 kJ·m-2·d-1) were studied in the greenhouse experiment. After 2 weeks of radiation, the shoots' dry mass decreased with increasing UV-B radiation except for D. sanguinalis. The reduction in biomass was the result of changes in morphology and physiology.Higher levels of UV-B treatment decreased the leaf area, plant height, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents, while it increased the contents of wax and UV-B absorbing compound in all species, except for A. retroflexus,which did not increase significantly. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and the content of ascorbic acid changed differently among the weed species as UV-B radiation increased. D. sanguinalis was the most tolerant and A. retroflexus the most sensitive to increased UV-B radiation. The results also show that the two grass species (D. sanguinalis and C. virgata) were more tolerant to UV-B radiation than the two broadleafed species (A. theophrasti and A. retroflexus). The UV-B absorbing compound and leaf wax played important roles against UV-B damages in the two grass weeds. The overall results suggest that weed community, competition and management will be altered by continuous ozone depletion.

  8. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under three different plant interference conditions: (i) allelopathy simulated by application of aqueous needle extracts of Pinus, (ii) resource competition created by the physical presence of a neighboring species (Pinus or Quercus), and (iii) a combination of both allelopathy and competition. After 24 months of experimentation in simulated field conditions, Quercus was more affected by plant interference treatments than was Pinus, and a hierarchical response to biotic interference (allelopathy < competition < allelopathy + competition) was observed in terms of relative impact on growth and plant defense. Both species modulated their respective metabolic profiles according to plant interference treatment and thus their inherent chemical defense status, resulting in a physiological trade-off between plant growth and production of defense metabolites. For Quercus, an increase in secondary metabolite production and a decrease in plant growth were observed in all treatments. In contrast, this trade-off in Pinus was only observed in competition and allelopathy + competition treatments. Although Pinus and Quercus expressed differential responses when subjected to a single interference condition, either allelopathy or competition, species responses were similar or positively correlated when strong interference conditions (allelopathy + competition) were imposed. PMID:27200062

  9. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under three different plant interference conditions: (i) allelopathy simulated by application of aqueous needle extracts of Pinus, (ii) resource competition created by the physical presence of a neighboring species (Pinus or Quercus), and (iii) a combination of both allelopathy and competition. After 24 months of experimentation in simulated field conditions, Quercus was more affected by plant interference treatments than was Pinus, and a hierarchical response to biotic interference (allelopathy competition competition) was observed in terms of relative impact on growth and plant defense. Both species modulated their respective metabolic profiles according to plant interference treatment and thus their inherent chemical defense status, resulting in a physiological trade-off between plant growth and production of defense metabolites. For Quercus, an increase in secondary metabolite production and a decrease in plant growth were observed in all treatments. In contrast, this trade-off in Pinus was only observed in competition and allelopathy + competition treatments. Although Pinus and Quercus expressed differential responses when subjected to a single interference condition, either allelopathy or competition, species responses were similar or positively correlated when strong interference conditions (allelopathy + competition) were imposed.

  10. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A.; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under three different plant interference conditions: (i) allelopathy simulated by application of aqueous needle extracts of Pinus, (ii) resource competition created by the physical presence of a neighboring species (Pinus or Quercus), and (iii) a combination of both allelopathy and competition. After 24 months of experimentation in simulated field conditions, Quercus was more affected by plant interference treatments than was Pinus, and a hierarchical response to biotic interference (allelopathy < competition < allelopathy + competition) was observed in terms of relative impact on growth and plant defense. Both species modulated their respective metabolic profiles according to plant interference treatment and thus their inherent chemical defense status, resulting in a physiological trade-off between plant growth and production of defense metabolites. For Quercus, an increase in secondary metabolite production and a decrease in plant growth were observed in all treatments. In contrast, this trade-off in Pinus was only observed in competition and allelopathy + competition treatments. Although Pinus and Quercus expressed differential responses when subjected to a single interference condition, either allelopathy or competition, species responses were similar or positively correlated when strong interference conditions (allelopathy + competition) were imposed. PMID:27200062

  11. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under th...

  12. The impact of competition and allelopathy on the trade-off between plant defense and growth in two contrasting tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine eFERNANDEZ; Yogan eMONNIER; Mathieu eSANTONJA; Christiane eGALLET; Weston, Leslie A; Bernard ePREVOSTO; Amelie eSAUNIER; Virginie eBALDY; Anne eBOUSQUET-MELOU

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e. allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under thr...

  13. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    in such systems. We studied the effects of inorganic nitrogen form (NH4 +, NH4NO3 or NO3 -) on growth, morphology, N uptake, water content and mineral allocation in this species under hydroponic conditions at equimolar concentrations (500μmolNL-1). Generally, the N-form significantly affected growth, biomass...

  14. Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum

    OpenAIRE

    Zebelo, Simon; Piorkowski, Jill; Disi, Joseph; Fadamiro, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant induced defense against herbivory are generally associated with metabolic costs that result in the allocation of photosynthates from growth and reproduction to the synthesis of defense compounds. Therefore, it is essential that plants are capable of sensing and differentiating mechanical injury from herbivore injury. Studies have shown that oral secretions (OS) from caterpillars contain elicitors of induced plant responses. However, studies that shows whether these elicitors ...

  15. SuMoToRI, an ecophysiological model to predict growth and sulfur allocation and partitioning in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. until the onset of pod formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBrunel-Muguet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur (S nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, predicting plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant’s compartments and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non mobile-S fractions until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Towards Rapeseed Improvement, was developed up to the onset of pod formation. The key features rely on (i the determination of the S requirements used for growth (structural and metabolic functions through critical S dilution curves and (ii the estimation of a mobile pool of S that is regenerated by daily S uptake and remobilization from senescing leaves. This study describes the functioning of the model and presents the model’s calibration and evaluation. SuMoToRI was calibrated and evaluated with independent datasets from greenhouse experiments under contrasting S supply conditions. It is run with a small number of parameters with generic values, except in the case of the Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE, which was shown to be modulated by S supply. The model gave satisfying predictions of the dynamics of growth, S allocation between compartments and S partitioning, such as the mobile-S fraction in the leaves, which is an indicator of the remobilization potential towards growing sinks. The mechanistic features of SuMoToRI provide a process-based framework that has enabled the description of the S remobilizing process in a species characterized by senescence during the vegetative phase. We believe that this model structure could be useful for modelling S dynamics in other arable crops that have similar senescence-related characteristics.

  16. Application of an allocation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, R.; de Oliveira, L.F.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrated performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Water deficits are more important in delaying growth than in changing patterns of carbon allocation in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, J.; Osório, M. L.; Chaves, M. M.; Pereira, J. S.

    1998-06-01

    Potted cuttings of three Eucalyptus globulus Labill. clones (AR3, CN44, MP11) were either well watered or subjected to one of two soil water deficit regimes for six months in a greenhouse. Reductions in lateral branching, leaf production and leaf expansion were the leading contributors to the large differences observed in biomass production between well-watered and water-stressed plants. Although no significant differences among clones were observed in dry matter accumulation or in the magnitude of the response to soil water deficits, sensitivity of lateral branching, leaf initiation and whole-plant foliage to water stress was significantly lower in CN44 than in AR3 and MP11. When the confounding effect of differences in plant size resulting from the different watering regimes was removed, allometric analysis indicated that the genotypes differed in biomass allocation patterns. In addition to a drought-induced reduction in leaf number, water deficits also resulted in smaller leaves because leaf expansion was inhibited during dehydration events. Resumption of leaf expansion following stress relief occurred in all of the clones, but was particularly evident in severely stressed plants of Clone AR3, possibly as a result of the osmotic adjustment observed in this genotype.

  18. Auxins in defense strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Čarná, M. (Mária); Repka, V.; Skůpa, P. (Petr); Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant hormones operate in a very complex network where they regulate and control different vital mechanisms. They coordinate growth, development and defense via signaling involving different interactions of molecules. Activation of molecules responsible for regulation of plant immunity is mainly provided by salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling pathways. Similar to the signaling of these defense-associated plant hormones, auxin can also affect resistance to different pathogen groups and disea...

  19. Effect of a switch from elevated to ambient CO2 on growth and carbohydrate allocation of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, F; Stulen, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Transfer of plants of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma (L.) Pilger to elevated CO2 (700 mul l(-1)) showed a transient stimulation of the relative growth rate (RGR). Thereafter the RGR of the plants grown at elevated CO2 was the same as for plants grown at ambient CO2 (350 mul l(-1)). At that time sta

  20. Reserves accumulated in non-photosynthetic organs during the previous growing season drive plant defenses and growth in aspen in the subsequent growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Ahmed; Landhäusser, Simon M; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    Plants store non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), nitrogen (N), as well as other macro and micronutrients, in their stems and roots; the role of these stored reserves in plant growth and defense under herbivory pressure is poorly understood, particularly in trees. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings with different NSC and N reserves accumulated during the previous growing season were generated in the greenhouse. Based on NSC and N contents, seedlings were assigned to one of three reserve statuses: Low N-Low NSC, High N-Medium NSC, or High N-High NSC. In the subsequent growing season, half of the seedlings in each reserve status was subjected to defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) while the other half was left untreated. Following defoliation, the effect of reserves was measured on foliar chemistry (N, NSC) and caterpillar performance (larval development). Due to their importance in herbivore feeding, we also quantified concentrations of phenolic glycoside compounds in foliage. Seedlings in Low N-Low NSC reserve status contained higher amounts of induced phenolic glycosides, grew little, and supported fewer caterpillars. In contrast, aspen seedlings in High N-Medium or High NSC reserve statuses contained lower amounts of induced phenolic glycosides, grew faster, and some of the caterpillars which fed on these seedlings developed up to their fourth instar. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis indicated that foliar phenolic glycoside concentration was related to reserve chemistry (NSC, N). Overall, these results demonstrate that reserves accumulated during the previous growing season can influence tree defense and growth in the subsequent growing season. Additionally, our study concluded that the NSC/N ratio of reserves in the previous growing season represents a better measure of resources available for use in defense and growth than the foliar NSC/N ratios.

  1. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  2. Effects of nitrogen form on growth,CO2 assimilation,chlorophyll fluorescence,and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hong ZHOU; Yi-li ZHANG; Xue-min WANG; Jin-xia CUI; Xiao-jian XIA; Kai SHI; Jing-quan YU

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium(NH4+)sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen(N)sources on gas exchange,chlorophyll(ChI)fluorescence quenching,and photosynthetic electron allocation.Compared to nitrate(NO3-)-grown plants,cucumber plants grown under NH4+-nutdtion showed decreased plant growth,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular carbon dioxide(CO2)level,transpiration rate,maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ,and O2-independent alternative electron flux,and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux.However,the N source had little effect on gas exchange,ChI a fluorescence parameters,and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants,except that NH4+-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3--grown plants.NO3-reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4+-grown cucumber plants,but was high in NH4+-grown rice plants.These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3-assimilation,an effect more significant in NO3--grown plants than in NH4+-grown plants.Meanwhile,NH4+-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH)for NO3-reduction,regardless of the N form supplied,while NH4+-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4+was supplied as the sole N source.

  3. Plant defenses and predation risk differentially shape patterns of consumption, growth, and digestive efficiency in a guild of leaf-chewing insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kaplan

    Full Text Available Herbivores are squeezed between the two omnipresent threats of variable food quality and natural enemy attack, but these two factors are not independent of one another. The mechanisms by which organisms navigate the dual challenges of foraging while avoiding predation are poorly understood. We tested the effects of plant defense and predation risk on herbivory in an assemblage of leaf-chewing insects on Solanum lycopersicum (tomato that included two Solanaceae specialists (Manduca sexta and Leptinotarsa decemlineata and one generalist (Trichoplusia ni. Defenses were altered using genetic manipulations of the jasmonate phytohormonal cascade, whereas predation risk was assessed by exposing herbivores to cues from the predaceous stink bug, Podisus maculiventris. Predation risk reduced herbivore food intake by an average of 29% relative to predator-free controls. Interestingly, this predator-mediated impact on foraging behavior largely attenuated when quantified in terms of individual growth rate. Only one of the three species experienced lower body weight under predation risk and the magnitude of this effect was small (17% reduction compared with effects on foraging behavior. Manduca sexta larvae, compensated for their predator-induced reduction in food intake by more effectively converting leaf tissue to body mass. They also had higher whole-body lipid content when exposed to predators, suggesting that individuals convert energy to storage forms to draw upon when risk subsides. In accordance with expectations based on insect diet breadth, plant defenses tended to have a stronger impact on consumption and growth in the generalist than the two specialists. These data both confirm the ecological significance of predators in the foraging behavior of herbivorous prey and demonstrate how sophisticated compensatory mechanisms allow foragers to partially offset the detrimental effects of reduced food intake. The fact that these mechanisms operated across

  4. Divergence in plant and microbial allocation strategies explains continental patterns in microbial allocation and biogeochemical fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin

    2014-10-01

    Allocation trade-offs shape ecological and biogeochemical phenomena at local to global scale. Plant allocation strategies drive major changes in ecosystem carbon cycling. Microbial allocation to enzymes that decompose carbon vs. organic nutrients may similarly affect ecosystem carbon cycling. Current solutions to this allocation problem prioritise stoichiometric tradeoffs implemented in plant ecology. These solutions may not maximise microbial growth and fitness under all conditions, because organic nutrients are also a significant carbon resource for microbes. I created multiple allocation frameworks and simulated microbial growth using a microbial explicit biogeochemical model. I demonstrate that prioritising stoichiometric trade-offs does not optimise microbial allocation, while exploiting organic nutrients as carbon resources does. Analysis of continental-scale enzyme data supports the allocation patterns predicted by this framework, and modelling suggests large deviations in soil C loss based on which strategy is implemented. Therefore, understanding microbial allocation strategies will likely improve our understanding of carbon cycling and climate.

  5. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  6. Application of Plant-Growth-Promoting Fungi Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 Enhances Tolerance of Wheat to Salt Stress through Improvement of Antioxidative Defense System and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwu; Gan, Yantai; Xu, Bingliang

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious problem worldwide that reduces agricultural productivity. Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 (T6) has been shown to promote wheat growth and induce plant resistance to parasitic nematodes, but whether the plant-growth-promoting fungi T6 can enhance plant tolerance to salt stress is unknown. Here, we determined the effect of plant-growth-promoting fungi T6 on wheat seedlings’ growth and development under salt stress, and investigated the role of T6 in inducing the resistance to NaCl stress at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with the strain of T6 and then compared with non-inoculated controls. Shoot height, root length, and shoot and root weights were measured on 15 days old wheat seedlings grown either under 150 mM NaCl or in a controlled setting without any NaCl. A number of colonies were re-isolated from the roots of wheat seedlings under salt stress. The relative water content in the leaves and roots, chlorophyll content, and root activity were significantly increased, and the accumulation of proline content in leaves was markedly accelerated with the plant growth parameters, but the content of leaf malondialdehyde under saline condition was significantly decreased. The antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in wheat seedlings were increased by 29, 39, and 19%, respectively, with the application of the strain of T6 under salt stress; the relative expression of SOD, POD, and CAT genes in these wheat seedlings were significantly up-regulated. Our results indicated that the strain of T6 ameliorated the adverse effects significantly, protecting the seedlings from salt stress during their growth period. The possible mechanisms by which T6 suppresses the negative effect of NaCl stress on wheat seedling growth may be due to the improvement of the antioxidative defense system and gene expression in the stressed wheat plants. PMID:27695475

  7. Functioning of Plantago major and Urtica dioica exposed to elevated CO{sub 2}. Analysis of growth pattern in relation to C and N allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hertog, J.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of this thesis deals with the growth response of P. major and U. dioica to a doubling of the ambient CO2 concentration grown with free access to nutrients (chapters 2 and 3). The questions, how relative growth rate (RGR) and other growth variables of wild plants are affected by elevated CO2 and what time course CO2 effects on the various growth variables have, are dealt with in chapter 2 for P. major. This analysis is extended to the relationship between the C and N metabolism in P. major and U. dioica, as affected by the CO2 concentration, in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the response of P. major to a combination of elevated CO2 and a growth-limiting dose of N. The analysis includes all factors needed to calculate a carbon balance, as well as data on nonstructural carbohydrates and total nitrogen concentrations. The use of fixed exponential addition rates for the supply of nitrate allows to establish relationships between growth variables and total plant nitrogen concentration (N), without interference of differences in plant size, such as often occurs in studies on growth under nutrient-limited conditions. The data from chapter 4 are used in a model study to evaluate the impact of the mode of nutrient limitation, as used in many studies, on the effect of elevated CO2, in combination with nutrient limitation, on plant growth. This chapter elucidates pitfalls in the experimental setup that are often overlooked and indicates possible causes for discrepancies between various studies concerned with the allocation of dry matter in relation to the CO2 treatment. The effect of an increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration on the rate of respiration has caused controversy over the last ten years. Data on root respiration are presented in chapter 6. The data are related to possible effects of elevated CO, on the degree of stimulation of the RGR and on the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. A possible role for CO2 effects on cytochrome and

  8. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  9. Water allocation mechanisms : principles and examples

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar, Ariel; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    From the earliest times, water resources have been allocated on the basis of social criteria -maintaining the community by ensuring that water is available for human consumption, for sanitation, and for food production. Societies have invested capital in infrastructure to maintain this allocation. Yet social change, including changes in (and more understanding of) how goods are distributed, has produced new issues in water allocation. Population growth has made water scarcity a major problem ...

  10. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  11. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy eDieryckx

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873.

  12. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the pr...

  13. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    The latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) predicts that plants near the equator will be more heavily defended against herbivores than are plants at higher latitudes. Although this idea is widely found in the literature, recent studies have called this biogeographic pattern into question. We sought to evaluate the LHDH in a high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem where fire and mammalian herbivores may contribute to selection for higher levels of defensive chemistry. To address this objective, we collected seeds of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) from nine locations along two north-south transects between 55 degrees N and 62 degrees N latitudes in western, interior Canada. The birch seeds were planted in pots in a common garden in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. From the resulting seedlings, we determined levels of chemical defense by assessing the density of resin glands, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with browsing. To assess plant architectural traits such as height, mean individual leaf area, and root-to-shoot ratio, we harvested a subset of the birch seedlings. Further, we used these traits to examine growth-defense trade-offs. Contrary to the LHDH, we found a positive correlation between chemical defense and latitude. Investigating relationships with fire, we found a strong positive correlation between resin gland density and percentage of area annually burned (PAAB) around each collection location and also between PAAB and latitude. Additionally, birch seedlings originating from higher latitudes were shorter, smaller-leaved, and rootier than their lower-latitude counterparts. Growth-defense trade-offs were observed in negative correlations between resin gland density and height and leaf size. Seedlings with higher resin gland densities also allocated less biomass to shoots and more to roots. These results further call into question the LHDH and provide specific information about latitudinal trends in plant defense at high, northern

  14. Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig

  15. Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium-induced inhibition of growth and photosynthesis through upregulating antioxidant defense system in two melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongping; Xu, Shuang; Yang, Shaojun; Chen, Youyuan

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread toxic heavy metal that usually causes deleterious effects on plant growth and development. Salicylic acid (SA), a naturally existing phenolic compound, is involved in specific responses to various environmental stresses. To explore the role of SA in the tolerance of melon (Cucumis melo L.) to Cd stress, the influence of SA application on the growth and physiological processes was compared in the two melon cultivars Hamilv (Cd-tolerant) and Xiulv (Cd-sensitive) under Cd stress. Under 400-μM Cd treatment, Hamilv showed a higher biomass accumulation, more chlorophyll (Chl), greater photosynthesis, and less oxidative damage compared to Xiulv. Foliar spraying of 0.1 mM SA dramatically alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition in the two melon genotypes. Simultaneously, SA pretreatment attenuated the decrease in Chl content, photosynthetic capacity, and PSII photochemistry efficiency in Cd-stressed plants. Furthermore, exogenous SA significantly reduced superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation, followed by increase in the activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and content of soluble protein and free proline in both the genotypes under Cd stress. The effect of SA was more conspicuous in Xiulv than Hamilv, reflected in the biomass, photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that exogenous spray of SA can alleviate the adverse effects of Cd on the growth and photosynthesis of both the melon cultivars, mostly through promoting antioxidant defense capacity. It also indicates that SA-included protection against Cd damage is to a greater extent more pronounced in Cd-sensitive genotype than Cd-tolerant genotype.

  16. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the seedling growth of grafted watermelon and the defensive enzyme activities in the seedling roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Sun, Ji-Qing; Liu, Run-Jin; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme on the seedling growth and root membrane permeability, malondiadehyde (MDA) content, and defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon growing on the continuously cropped soil. Inoculation with G. versiforme increased the seedling biomass and root activity significantly, and decreased the root membrane permeability and MDA content. The seedling shoot fresh mass, shoot dry mass, and root activity of non-grafted watermelon increased by 57.6%, 60.0% and 142.1%, and those of grafted watermelon increased by 26.7%, 28.0% and 11.0%, respectively, compared with no G. versiforme inoculation. The root membrane permeability of non-grafted seedlings (C), grafted seedlings (G), non-grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (C+M), and grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (G+M) was in the order of C >G>C+M>G+M, and the root MDA content was in the sequence of C>G>G+M>C+M. G. versiforme inoculation increased the root phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities of grafted and non-grafted seedlings significantly, and the peaks of the POD, PAL and beta-1,3-glucanase activities in the mycorrhizal roots appeared about two weeks earlier than those in the non-inoculated roots. These results indicated that inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus G. versiforme could activate the defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon seedlings, enable the seedling roots to produce rapid response to adversity, and thus, improve the capability of watermelon seedling against continuous cropping obstacle. PMID:23718001

  17. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1 infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to

  18. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.pflugmacher@tu-berlin.de

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of

  19. The Psychology of Death:External Defense or Internal Growth?%死亡心理:外部防御还是内在成长?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦庆旺; 周雪梅; 俞国良

    2015-01-01

    The psychology of death discussed by Western psychologist is reviewed. There are several kinds of psychological researches about death, which drive from different research traditions, focus on different subjects and use different methods. The authors attempt to reconcile diverging paths in the study of death and disclose that the core of the psychology of death involve both external defense and internal growth. The abstract death cognition tends to cause death anxiety, which creates the external defensive psychological responses including fear of death, self-protection, and external value orientation. The concrete death cognition tends to cause death reflection, which creates the internal growth psychological responses including death acceptance, prosocial motivation (or behavior), and internal value orientation. Based on the core of the psychology of death, the authors review the related research evidences published in recent 5 years. Finally, the limitations and future directions in death research are analyzed.%对西方主要的死亡心理研究进行了回顾和比较分析,不同的死亡心理研究在研究传统、研究对象和研究方法方面存在差异。但是根据研究的侧重点,可以总结出死亡心理的核心内涵:外部防御和内在成长。对死亡的抽象认知产生死亡焦虑,死亡焦虑产生死亡恐惧、自我保护、外在价值导向等外部防御反应;对死亡的具体认知产生死亡反省,死亡反省产生死亡接受、亲社会动机和行为、内在价值导向等内在成长反应。作者以死亡心理的两类反应为框架,综述了近5年来新的研究证据,并对该领域当前研究的局限和未来研究方向进行了分析。

  20. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  1. Efficient and fair allocation of aid.

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Guillaumont; Phu Nguyen-Van; Thi Kim Cuong Pham; Laurent Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of aid allocating which aims to equalize the opportunity between recipient countries to reduce the poverty, in particular the millennium development goal of reducing the poverty by half. The model also takes into account the natural deficit which is defined by the gap between the growth rate required to reach this millennium goal and the actual growth rate observed in the recipient country. The resulting optimal aid allocation is computed using the estimation of th...

  2. 土壤盐分及水分含量对落羽杉幼苗生长的影响%Effects of soil salt and water contents on growth and biomass allocation of Taxodium distichum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪贵斌; 曹福亮

    2004-01-01

    One year old Taxodium distichum seedlings were grown in pots with varied soil water and salt (NaC1) levels (alone and in combination) under greenhouse conditions to determine their effects on the growth and biomass allocation of the seedlings. The results showed that there were significant effects of soft salt and water contents on the relative height growth, relative stem diameter growth, biaomass increment and allocation, shoot/root ratio, seedling survival, ratio of branch to stem area, ratio of leaf mass to stem area, and ratio of leaf mass to branch area. According to the biomass increment, relative height growth and relative stem diameter growth, 20 treatments were classified into 3 groups by means of systematic cluster analysis. The first one was the treatments waterlogging, flooding, waterlogging + 0.15% NaC1, flooding + 0.15% NaC1, and waterlogging + 0.3% NaC1, which had a high growth, the second one was the treatments flooding + 0.45% NaC1, flooding + 0.3% NaCl, 75% of field capacity, and 75% of field capacity + 0.15% NaCl, which had a medium growth, and the last onewas the treatments 50% of field capacity, 50% of field capacity + 0.15% Nat1, waterlogging + 0.45% Nat1,25% of field capacity, 25% of field capacity + 0.15% NaC1, 75% of field capacity + 0.3% NaC1, 75% of field capacity + 0.45% NaC1, 25% of field capacity + 0.3% NaC1, 50% of field capacity + 0.3% NaC1, 50% of field capacity + 0.45% NaC1, and 25% of field capacity + 0.45% NaC1, which had a poor growth.

  3. Changes in the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system in Brassica juncea cotyledons during seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S K; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2002-02-01

    Optimal defense theory (ODT) predicts that plant defenses will be allocated to plant organs and tissues in proportion to their relative fitness values and susceptibilities to attack. This study was designed to test ODT predictions on the myrosinase-glucosinolate defense system in Brassica juncea by examining the relationships between the fitness value of B. juncea cotyledons and the levels and effectiveness of cotyledon defenses. Specifically, we estimated fitness value of cotyledons during plant development by measuring plant growth and seed production after cotyledon damage or removal at successive seedling ages. Cotyledon removal within five days of emergence had a significant impact on growth and seed production, but cotyledon removal at later stages did not. Consistent with ODT, glucosinolate and myrosinase levels in cotyledons also declined with seedling age, as did relative defenses against a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera eridania, as estimated by bioassay. Declines in glucosinolates were as predicted by a passive, allometric dilution model based on cotyledon expansion. Declines in myrosinase activity were significantly more gradual than predicted by allometric dilution, suggesting active retention of myrosinase activity as young cotyledons expand. PMID:11925065

  4. An optimal defense strategy for phenolic glycoside production in Populus trichocarpa--isotope labeling demonstrates secondary metabolite production in growing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Tara Joy; Trumbore, Susan E; Ganbat, Gantsetseg; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Boeckler, Andreas; Gleixner, Gerd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Ruehlow, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    Large amounts of carbon are required for plant growth, but young, growing tissues often also have high concentrations of defensive secondary metabolites. Plants' capacity to allocate resources to growth and defense is addressed by the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis and the optimal defense hypothesis, which make contrasting predictions. Isotope labeling can demonstrate whether defense compounds are synthesized from stored or newly fixed carbon, allowing a detailed examination of these hypotheses. Populus trichocarpa saplings were pulse-labeled with 13CO2 at the beginning and end of a growing season, and the 13C signatures of phenolic glycosides (salicinoids), sugars, bulk tissue, and respired CO2 were traced over time. Half of the saplings were also subjected to mechanical damage. Populus trichocarpa followed an optimal defense strategy, investing 13C in salicinoids in expanding leaves directly after labeling. Salicinoids turned over quickly, and their production continued throughout the season. Salicin was induced by early-season damage, further demonstrating optimal defense. Salicinoids appear to be of great value to P. trichocarpa, as they command new C both early and late in the growing season, but their fitness benefits require further study. Export of salicinoids between tissues and biochemical pathways enabling induction also needs research. Nonetheless, the investigation of defense production afforded by isotope labeling lends new insights into plants' ability to grow and defend simultaneously. PMID:24739022

  5. Phragmites australis: How do genotypes of different phylogeographic origins differ from their invasive genotypes in growth, nitrogen allocation and gas exchange?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Truong Tho

    2016-01-01

    -) and transpiration rates increased in introduced versus native groups, whereas differences in SLA, leaf pigment concentrations and assimilation rates were due to phylogeographic origins. Despite intrinsic differences in the allocation of C and N in leaves, shoots and rhizome due to phylogeographic origin...

  6. Plant and microbial uptake and allocation of organic and inorganic nitrogen related to plant growth forms and soil conditions at two subarctic tundra sites in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    In order to follow the uptake and allocation of N in different plant functional types and microbes in two tundra ecosystems differing in nutrient availability, we performed a 15Nlabeling experiment with three N forms and followed the partitioning of 15N label among plants, microorganisms and soil...

  7. Sapwood allocation in tropical trees: a test of hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Vlam, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Sterck, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon allocation to sapwood in tropical canopy trees is a key process determining forest carbon sequestration, and is at the heart of tree growth and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM). Several allocation hypotheses exist including those applying assumptions on fixed allocation, pipe model, an

  8. Knockdown of LjALD1, AGD2-like defense response protein 1, influences plant growth and nodulation in Lotus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chen; Xueliu Li; Lu Tian; Pingzhi Wu; Meiru Li; Huawu Jiang; Yaping Chen; and Guojiang Wu

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the enzyme L,L‐diaminopimelate aminotransferase (LL‐DAP‐AT, EC 2.6.1.83) uncovered a unique step in the L‐lysine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LL‐DAP‐AT has been shown to play a key role in plant‐pathogen interactions by regulation of the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. Here, a ful‐length cDNA of LL‐DAP‐AT named as LjALD1 from Lotus japonicus (Regel) Larsen was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 67%identity with the Arabidopsis aminotransferase AGD2‐LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (AtALD1) and is predicted to contain the same key elements:a conserved aminotransferase domain and a pyridoxal‐5’‐phosphate cofactor binding site. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis showed that LjALD1 was expressed in al L. japonicus tissues tested, being strongest in nodules. Expression was induced in roots that had been infected with the symbiotic rhizobium Mesorhizobium loti or treated with SA agonist benzo‐(1, 2, 3)‐thiadiazole‐7‐carbothioic acid. LjALD1 Knockdown exhibited a lower SA content, an increased number of infection threads and nodules, and a slight reduction in nodule size. In addition, compared with wild‐type, root growth was increased and shoot growth was suppressed in LjALD1 RNAi plant lines. These results indicate that LjALD1 may play important roles in plant development and nodulation via SA signaling in L. japonicus.

  9. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  10. Integration of defense waste into the Civilian Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the fee calculation method proposed by Waste Management would result in an accurate and fair allocation of costs to both civilian and defense owners of nuclear waste. We reviewed Waste Management's proposed cost allocation plans to be used in calculating fees for defense waste disposal. We also evaluated Waste Management's actions toward developing a defense waste fee payment schedule. Our examination was made in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards which included tests of internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations to the extent necessary to satisfy the scope of the audit

  11. Resource allocation among sexual, clonal reproduction and vegetative growth of two Potamogeton species and their hybrid:Adaptability of the hybrid in relation to its parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan LIU; Xiao-Lin ZHANG; Qing-Feng WANG; Hui LIU; Guang-Xi WANG; Wei LI

    2013-01-01

    Resource allocation,as well as the tradeoffs among different reproductive components,plays an important role in the adaptability of plants to different environments.The hybrid may exhibit a higher adaptability in life history in heterogeneous environments because of the genetic variation derived from its parents.In this study,we exploited three levels of water depths and two types of sediments to investigate the resource allocation pattern of the first generation of the natural hybrid Potamogeton × intortifolius compared to its parents P.wrightii and P.perfoliatus.We also measured the ramet survivorship and the seed set of the hybrid P.× intortifolius.Our results showed that P.×intortifolius had higher ramet survival than its parents at 1.5-m water depth on clay sediment.The possible tradeoffs showed that in P.×intortifolius the tradeoff pattern between sexual and clonal reproduction was more pronounced in limiting environments.The individuals allocated more resources to sexual reproduction when the environment was limiting,which might confer a higher ability to utilize resources,to produce offspring and to found new populations.Although the seed set of P.×intortifolius was lower than its parents,it had a higher ability to increase its seed set when the environment was limiting (sandy sediment) than its parents,which might benefit its future survival.These results indicated that the F1 hybrid P.×intortifolius was more able to adapt to limiting environments than one or both of its two parental taxa.

  12. Dynamic channel allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) offers the possibility of capturing unused channel capacity by allocating unused resources between competing network nodes. This can reduce or possibly eliminate channels sitting idle while information awaits transmission. This holds potential for increasing throughput on bandwidth constrained networks. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the techniques used to allocate channels on demand and acc...

  13. Influence of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on serum marker enzymes and erythrocyte and tissue antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin; Isik, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), antioxidant defense systems (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)), and lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. 50 and 100 ppm of PGRs as drinking water were administered orally to rats (Sprague-Dawley albino) ad libitum for 25 days continuously. The PGRs treatment caused different effects on the serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems, and the MDA content in experimented rats compared to controls. Results showed that TIBA caused a significant decrease in serum AST activity with both the dosage whereas serum CPK was significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of TIBA. Meanwhile, serum AST, CPK, and LDH activities were significantly increased with both dosage of NAA and 2,4-D. The lipid peroxidation end-product MDA significantly increased in the all tissues treated with both dosages of PGRs without any change in the brain and erythrocyte of rats treated with both the dosages of 2,4-D. The GSH depletion in the kidney and brain tissues of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs was found to be significant. Furthermore, the GSH depletion in the erythrocyte of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs except 50 ppm dosage of 2,4-D was significant too. Also, the GSH level in the liver was significantly depleted with 50 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA, whereas the GSH depletion in the same tissue did not significantly change with the treatment. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was also seriously affected by PGRs; SOD significantly decreased in the liver, heart, kidney, and brain of rats treated with

  14. Molecular strategies of plant defense and insect counter-defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEYANZHU-SALZMAN; JIAN-LONGBI; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    The prediction of human population growth worldwide indicates there will be a need to substantially increase food production in order to meet the demand on food supply.This can be achieved in part by the effective management of insect pests. Since plants have co-evolved with herbivorous insects for millions of years, they have developed an array of defense genes to protect themselves against a wide variety of chewing and sucking insects.Using these naturally-occurring genes via genetic engineering represents an environmentally friendly insect pest-control measure. Insects, however, have been actively evolving adaptive mechanisms to evade natural plant defenses. Such evolved adaptability undoubtedly has helped insects during the last century to rapidly overcome a great many humanimposed management practices and agents, including chemical insecticides and genetically engineered plants. Thus, better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of plant defense and insect counter-defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the recent advance and understanding of molecular strategies of attack-counterattack and defense-counter-defense between plants and their herbivores.

  15. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...

  16. Interspecific Competition and Trade-offs in Resource Allocation are the Key to Successful Growth of Seedlings of White Spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) at Subarctic Treelines in Warming Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, K.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine treelines in Alaska have advanced for the past 50 years in response to the recent climate warming. However, further increases in temperatures may cause treeline species drought stress and increase susceptibility to insect outbreaks and fire. Complex factors such as soil conditions and plant species composition also impact the growth of seedlings, which are essential to sustain boreal forests. Our goals were to assess 1) the current optimal elevation for the treeline species Picea glauca (white spruce) seedlings and how it is altered by climate change, and 2) their growth/survival strategies at each environmental site. We studied the growth response of spruce seedlings along an altitudinal gradient at 6 sites, consisting of tundra, forest, or transitional ecotone in Denali National Park and one forest site in Fairbanks, AK. In May 2012, four-month old seedlings were planted with or without naturally occurring plants to compare the presence or absence of the interspecific interaction. Summer temperatures were increased by one small greenhouse per site. Over 2 growing seasons, growth was measured non-destructively, and then the seedlings were harvested. Relative growth rate (RGR) in height was increased significantly as the altitude was increased. Elevated temperature increased height only in seedlings at a high-altitude forest. Seedlings with neighboring plants had a higher RGR in height than seedlings that had neighbors removed, while significantly wider diameters were measured from the seedlings without neighbors. A weak trend of declining diameter width with increasing altitudes was seen. Seedlings that grew taller did not grow their stems wider, indicating trade-offs in resource allocation. None of the altitudinal sites had a clear advantage for the growth of the seedlings. Habitat microclimate and the interaction with other species could be more important than the altitude or temperatures and hence, key to the survival and growth of spruce seedlings in

  17. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

  18. Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology, nitrogen uptake capacity and nutrient allocation of four tropical aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia cucullata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus involucratus and Vetiveria zizanioides)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-01-01

    plant species and seemed to be correlated to growth rate. All species had a high NO3− uptake rate when supplied with only NO3−. It seems that the NO3− transporters in the plasma membrane of the root cells and nitrate reductase activity were induced by external NO3−. Tissue mineral contents varied...... with species and tissue, but differences between treatments were generally small. We conclude, that the free-floating S. cucullata and I. aquatica are good candidate species for use in constructed wetland systems to remove N from polluted water. The rooted emergent plants can be used in subsurface flow...... and Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) and two emergent species (Cyperus involucratus Rottb. and Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small) were grown with these N treatments at equimolar concentrations (500 M). Overall, the plants responded well to NH4+. Growth as RGR was highest in S. cucullata (0.12±0.003 d−1...

  19. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 1. Pullet growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F E; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A

    2007-10-01

    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design was carried out to determine the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on pullet growth and development. A total of 560 pullets from each strain (Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708) were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk of age as follows: standard (mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). During the prephotostimulation phase (2 to 18 wk of age), 4 birds were killed for each of the 12 interactions at 14-d intervals to characterize changes in carcass traits. After 18 wk (wk 20, 22, and 24), 4 birds from each of the 24 interactions were killed and dissected (n = 768). Growth rate restricted frame size (e.g., 18-wk shank length: low = 101.8; standard = 105.6; moderate = 109.5; and high = 112.3 mm). At 24 wk of age, the 22WK birds had similar amounts of breast muscle compared with 18WK birds, whereas the later photostimulated hens had heavier abdominal fat pads. Early photo-stimulation resulted in increased 24-wk liver weights in all strains, but the difference was greatest in Ross 708 birds. The 22-wk ovary weight was influenced by age at photostimulation in high (18WK = 17.3; 22WK = 1.6 g) and moderate (18WK = 14.1; 22WK = 1.1 g) birds. The more extensive feed restriction of LOW birds before 12 wk of age appeared to limit breast muscle and fat pad growth and slow reproductive tract development following photostimulation. Pullets on heavier BW profiles respond to early PS by developing the reproductive system at the expense of breast muscle and fat pad growth. Genetic strain modulates some of the effect of very different target BW profiles.

  20. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur. PMID:26583439

  1. Carbon allocation, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant capacity and growth in cotton under long-term soil drought during flowering and boll-forming period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Gao, Min; Ji, Shu; Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    Responses of plant to drought largely depend on the intensity, duration and developmental stage at which water stress occurs. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamic of cotton physiology response to different levels sustained soil water deficit during reproductive growth stage at leaf basis. Three levels of steady-state water regimes [soil relative water content (SRWC) maintained at (75 ± 5)%, (60 ± 5)% and (45 ± 5)%] were imposed when the white flowers had opened on the first fruiting position of the 6-7th fruiting branches (FB6-7), which was the first day post anthesis (i.e. 1 DPA) and lasted to 50 DPA. Results showed decreasing SRWC slowed cotton growth on the base of biomass and leaf area. However, carbon metabolites levels were globally increased under drought despite of notably inhibited photosynthesis throughout the treatment period. Clear diurnal pattern of sucrose and starch concentrations was obtained and sucrose levels were evaluated while starch concentration was reduced with decreasing soil water content during a 24-h cycle. Osmotic adjustment (OA) was observed at most of the sampling dates throughout the drought period. K(+) was the main contributor to osmotic adjustment (OA) at 10 and 24 DPA then turned out to be amino acid at 38 and 50 DPA. The stressed cotton gradually failed to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) with increasing days post anthesis, primarily due to the permanent decrease in SOD activity. Elevated carbohydrates levels suggest cotton growth was more inhibited by other factors than carbon assimilation. OA and antioxidant could be important protective mechanisms against soil water deficit in this species, and transition of these mechanisms was observed with drought intensity and duration increased. PMID:27288990

  2. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  3. Gentisic Acid, a Compound Associated with Plant Defense and a Metabolite of Aspirin, Heads a New Class of in Vivo Fibroblast Growth Factor Inhibitors*

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Israel S.; Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; López-Navajas, Pilar; Canales-Mayordomo, Ángeles; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Lozano, Rosa M.; Valverde, Serafín; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors are key proteins in many intercellular signaling networks. They normally remain attached to the extracellular matrix, which confers on them a considerable stability. The unrestrained accumulation of fibroblast growth factors in the extracellular milieu, either due to uncontrolled synthesis or enzymatic release, contributes to the pathology of many diseases. Consequently, the neutralization of improperly mobilized fibroblast growth factors is of clear therapeutic inte...

  4. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of Rolandra fruticosa (asteraceae in response to shade Crescimento, alocação de biomassa e fotossíntese de Rolandra fruticosa (asteraceae em resposta ao sombreamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr B. Dias-Filho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of shade on growth, biomass allocation patterns and photosynthetic response was examined for Rolandra fruticosa (L. Kuntze, a common perennial weed shrub in cultivated pastures and agricultural areas of Brazilian Amazonia, for plants grown in full sunlight and those shaded to 30 % of full sunlight over a 34-d period. Specific leaf area and leaf area ratio were higher for shade plants during all the experimental period. Shade plants allocated significantly less biomass to root tissue than sun plants and relative growth rate was higher in sun plants. Sun leaves had significantly higher dark respiration and light saturated rates of photosynthesis than shade leaves. The apparent quantum efficiency was higher for shade leaves, while light compensation point was higher for sun leaves. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Estudou-se o efeito do sombreamento nocrescimento, alocação de carbono e respostas fotossintéticas de Rolandra fruticosa (L. Kuntze, uma planta daninha de porte arbustivo, comum em áreas de pastagem e agrícolas da Amazônia Brasileira, submetida a condições de pleno sol e a 70 % de interceptação da luz solar, durante 34 dias. A área foliar específica e a razão de área foliar foram maiores nas plantas sombreadas durante todo o período experimental. Plantas sombreadas alocaram menor quantidade de biomassa para as raízes, quando comparadas às plantas de sol e a taxa de crescimento relativo foi maior para as plantas de sol. A respiração no escuro e a taxa de fotossíntese máxima foram maiores para as folhas de plantas não sombreadas. A eficiência quântica aparente foi maior para as folhas de plantas sombreadas, enquanto que o ponto de compensação de luz foi maior para folhas a pleno sol. Esses resultados são discutidos com relação as suas importâncias ecológica e de manejo.

  5. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This allo

  6. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...

  7. Organizing principles underlying microorganism's growth-robustness trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Alessandro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Growth Robustness Reciprocity (GRR) is an intriguing microbial manifestation: the impairment of microorganism's growth enhances their ability to resist acute stresses, and vice-versa. This is caused by regulatory interactions that determine higher expression of protection mechanisms in response to low growth rates. But because such regulatory mechanisms are species-specific, GRR must result from convergent evolution. Why does natural selection favor such an outcome? We used mathematical models of optimal cellular resource allocation to identify the general principles underlying GRR. Non-linear optimization allowed to predict allocation patterns of biosynthetic resources (ribosomes devoted to the synthesis of each cell component) that maximize growth. These models predict the down-regulation of stress defenses under high substrate availabilities and low stress levels. Under these conditions, stress tolerance ensues from growth-related damage dilution: the higher the substrate availability, the fastest the dilution of damaged proteins by newly synthesized proteins, the lower the accumulation of damaged components into the cell. In turn, under low substrate availability growth is too slow for effective damage dilution, and the expression of the defenses up to some optimal level then increases growth. As a consequence, slow-growing cells are pre-adapted to withstand acute stresses. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between growth and stress tolerance can be explained as a consequence of optimal resource allocation for maximal growth. We acknowledge fellowship SFRH/BPD/90065/2012 and grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia" (project PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010).

  8. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  9. Takeover Defenses and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Martijn Cremers; Vinay Nair; Urs Peyer

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction between takeover defenses and product market competition. We find that firms in more competitive industries have more takeover defenses. This is the opposite result from what one would expect if takeover defenses always constitute an inefficient outcome that increases agency costs and managerial entrenchment. A novel explantion is provided by considering the nature of the relationship between the firm and the product (or labor) market. For firms in industrie...

  10. Norwegian cyber defense

    OpenAIRE

    Stensboel, Karl Birger

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis postulates the need for a more proactive approach to cyber defense in Norway and offers recommendations about how Norway can be better prepared to counter cyber threats. It finds that Norways strategic infrastructure is vulnerable to cyber attacks and that Norway has no coherent strategy for meeting this challenge. The thesis argues that an effective cyber defense requires a wide range of offensive and defensive measures a...

  11. Interactive effects of supplemental UV-B and temperature in European aspen seedlings: Implications for growth, leaf traits, phenolic defense and associated organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamanana, Tendry R; Lavola, Anu; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2015-08-01

    Past studies reveal opposite effects of elevated UV-B and temperature on plant growth and concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds, yet few studies have dealt with the combined and interactive effects of these two climate change factors on woody dioecious plants. We investigated the interactive effects of UV-B and temperature treatments on growth, leaf traits and phenolic concentrations in Populus tremula L. (European aspen) seedlings. We also considered the consequences of these effects on their associated organisms: herbivorous insects, rust pathogens, the presence of endophytic fungi and whether or not the responses differ between genders and genotypes. Supplemental temperature and UV-B were modulated to +2 °C and +30.77% above ambient conditions, respectively. Warming increased growth, photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen concentration but reduced leaf thickness and phenolic concentrations. On the other hand, supplemental UV-B increased total phenolic glycosides, mainly flavonols and phenolic acids, and partially counteracted the positive effects of warming on growth. Fast growing genotypes were less susceptible to the growth-reducing effect of combined UVB + T, less infected with rust disease and less prone to insect damage probably due to their higher salicylate and lower nitrogen concentrations. Under ambient temperature, the males of European aspen were taller and had bigger leaves than the females, while under elevated temperature, females grew bigger and, under UV-B, had more tremulacin than males. The multiple interactive effects of UV-B and temperature on growth, leaf traits and phenolic compounds, highlight the importance of multifactor experiments as a realistic predictor of plant responses to climate change.

  12. Aid allocation and fragile states

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises research on aid allocation and effectiveness, highlighting the current findings of recent research on aid allocation to fragile states. Fragile states are defined by the donor community as those with either critically poor policies or poorly performing institutions, or both. The paper examines the research findings in the broader context of research and analysis on how aid should and is being allocated across all developing countries. Various aid allocation models and th...

  13. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  14. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  15. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....

  16. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions. PMID:27375588

  17. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  18. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  19. The effect of plant defense elicitors on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. growth and yield in absence or presence of spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common bean plants "Phaseolus vulgaris L." is frequently attacked by the two spotted spider mite (TSSM Tetranychus urticae, causing a substantial decrease in bean plant growth and yield as well as leaflet structure. Therefore, for commercial bean cultivation in the field controlling TSSM infection is necessary. ResultsFoliar application of salicylic acid (SA or methyl jasmonate (MeJA on common bean plants before or after two spotted spider mite infestation proved to be effective in reducing infestations. In most concentrations these elicitors significantly improved common bean plant growth i.e. had a positive effect on plant height, number of branches, shoot dry weight and leaf area per plant and bean yield. SA at 100 mg/l had the strongest positive effect. Moreover, application of elicitors significantly altered leaflet anatomical characters i.e. increased thickness of leaflet blade, thickness of palisade and spongy parenchyma as well as thickness of midrib region of the leaflet and changed the dimension of vascular bundles. Alternatively, TSSM infestation had the opposite effect on these leaflet anatomical characters.ConclusionWe conclude that SA or MeJA could be used for controlling TSSM infestation, to improve plant growth and to improve bean yield in the field.

  20. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  1. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops.

  2. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  3. Aid allocation, selectivity, and the quality of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad In’airat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of good governance in the economic growth and development agenda in the last two decades, along with the failure of aid conditionality to produce positive growth results, motivated expost selectivity instead of the ex-ante conditionality as a new approach to aid allocation. This paper aims to explore whether aid selectivity on the basis of the quality of governance is employed as a criterion in foreign aid allocation. The paper uses different instrumental variables as estimators to analyze the determinants of aid allocation over the period 2001-2010. The results produced strong evidence that countries with good governance are given preferential treatment by donors. Among the six governance indicators, it seems that voice and accountability and control of corruption are critical in the aid allocation decision.

  4. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...... of political, military, organizational, and technological challenges and possibilities are related to the development of green solutions for defense. Based on this conclusion the report argues that it is essential to comprehensively describe how a green solution is linked to a security challenge to develop...

  5. How to make an EEG allocation. The EEG allocation is not decided by solar growth rates but by politicians; Wir basteln uns eine EEG-Umlage. Wie hoch die EEG-Umlage wird, haengt weniger am Solarzubau, sondern ist eine politische Entscheidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, Philippe

    2012-09-15

    In political discussions, the EEG allocation is still viewed as a reference point for the cost of financial incentives for renewable energy sources. However, there are many contributing factors of which the cost of renewables is only one. The most important aspects are privileges for industrial consumers, liquidity reserves, and stock exchange electricity prices. The contribution goes into detail.

  6. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that by ninth or tenth grade, males begin to externalize conflict while females tend to deal with conflict internally. This differentiation of defense choice by sex is clearly established by the last two years of high school. (JMB)

  7. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (⁹⁰Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a ⁹⁰Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L⁻¹ resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h⁻¹. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h⁻¹. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h⁻¹ was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h⁻¹ for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  8. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-β mediated fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Chris J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis. Methods and results The effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts. Conclusion We postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  9. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  10. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Van Hoeck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor.

  11. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  12. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  13. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  14. Defense in depth and resource optimization for safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The resource allocation problem for safeguards is solved by using dynamic programming. The existing program RAOPS (Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards) is extended to include both divergent and convergent configurations of activities. The new algorithm is applicable to any configuration that can be described in terms of a tree data structure. To treat the problem of defense in depth, a stochastic optimization -- in which the optimization applies to expected values -- is utilized. Numerical examples illustrating the general theory are given. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 集聚效应、配置效率与区域经济增长--主体功能区建设的理论探索%On the Agglomeration Effect, Allocation Efficiency and Regional Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝大江; 黎映宸

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of economic space essential attribute, elements mobility will be flowed into the increasing returns to scale and incomplete competitive research framework, the regional and non-regional division of factor endowment can effectively reveal the problem of regional economic development. The space flow of non-regional elements formed the agglomeration process of economic activities, and the matching of regional factors and non-regional elements in the production process determines the nature, characteristics and internal economic ties of economic agglomeration and its external effects. Using fixed effect panel data as well as the system generalized moment estimation method, the author conducted empirical test on dynamic relationship between the allocation efficiency, economic agglomeration and regional economic growth in our country, the result also shows that the three further contact each other, restrict each other, and provide the new way of thinking on the space planning layout for main functional area construction in our country.%基于经济空间本质属性的分析,并将要素流动纳入规模报酬递增和非完全竞争研究框架,要素禀赋的区域性和非区域性划分可以有效揭示区域经济发展的集聚问题。非区域性要素的空间流动形成了经济活动的集聚过程,而区域性要素与非区域性要素在生产过程的相互匹配则决定了经济集聚及其外部效应的性质、特征及其内在经济联系。借助固定效应面板数据以及系统广义矩估计方法对我国配置效率、经济集聚与区域经济增长之间动态关系进行的经验检验,其结果也进一步表明了三者之间相互联系、彼此制约,为我国主体功能区建设提供了空间规划布局的新思路。

  16. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våge, Selina; Storesund, Julia E; Giske, Jarl; Thingstad, T Frede

    2014-01-01

    Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating) and top-down (biomass regulating) factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP) and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW), predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  17. Dynamic carbon allocation significantly changed land carbon sink and carbon pool sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Yuan, W.

    2015-12-01

    The allocation of photosynthate among the plant components (e.g., leaves, stems, and roots) plays an important role in regulating plant growth, competition, and terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the carbon allocation process is still a weak part in the earth system models (ESMs). In this study, the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) model coupled with a dynamic carbon allocation model (IBISAL) is used to explore the impact of carbon allocation on the terrestrial carbon cycle. This dynamic carbon allocation model suggests that plants should allocate the largest part of carbon to the plant components which need to capture the most limiting resources, such as light, water and nitrogen. In comparison to the results of original IBIS model using fixed allocation ratios, the net ecosystem productivity, global biomass and soil organic carbon simulated by IBISAL model decreased by13.4% , 9.9% and 20.8%, respectively . The dynamic allocation scheme tends to benefit roots allocation. Because roots had short turnover times, high roots allocation led to the decreases of global carbon sink and carbon pool sizes. The observations showed that the carbon allocation ratios changed with temperature and precipitation. The dynamic carbon allocation model could reproduce this phenomenon correctly. The results show that the dynamic carbon allocation ratios of boreal evergreen forests and C3 grasses are consistent well with the observations. However, the IBISAL, and another three ESMs (i.e., CESM1-BGC, IPSL-CM5A-MR and NorESM1-ME models) adopting dynamic allocation scheme overestimated the stems allocation of tropical forests. This study shows the substantial influences of carbon allocation on the carbon sink and carbon pool sizes. Therefore, improving estimations of carbon allocation by ESMs are an important and effective path to reduce uncertainties in the global carbon cycle simulation and climate change prediction.

  18. The External Effects and Scale Effect of Defense Spending on Economic Growth%国防支出对经济增长的外部性效应及规模效应的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟斌斌; 周建设

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the extemal effects and scale effects of Chinese defense spending on economic growth by using the extemal mode of two departments, made empirical analysis by time series data from 1978 to 2008, and compared with the academic findings from 1960 to 2000.The empirical results from 1978 to 2008 showed that the scale effect was negative, and the external effects was positive.%本文采用两部门外部性模型,研究中国国防开支对经济增长的外部性效应及规模效应,利用1978-2008年时间序列数据进行了实证分析,并且与学术界1960-2000年的研究结果做了对比.1978-2008期间的实证研究结果表明:规模效应为负,外部性效应为正.

  19. Allocating outsourced warranty service contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Opp; I. Adan; V.G. Kulkarni; J.M. Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by our interactions with a leading manufacturer of computers, in this paper we consider static allocation as applied to the problem of minimizing the costs of outsourcing warranty services to repair vendors. Under static allocation, a manufacturer assigns each item to one of several contra

  20. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  1. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...

  2. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  3. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  4. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  5. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  6. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  7. Resource Allocation using Virtual Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stillwell, Mark; Vivien, Frédéric; Casanova, Henri

    2010-01-01

    In this report we demonstrate the potential utility of resource allocation management systems that use virtual machine technology for sharing parallel computing resources among competing jobs. We formalize the resource allocation problem with a number of underlying assumptions, determine its complexity, propose several heuristic algorithms to find near-optimal solutions, and evaluate these algorithms in simulation. We find that among our algorithms one is very efficient and also leads to the best resource allocations. We then describe how our approach can be made more general by removing several of the underlying assumptions.

  8. Physiological responses of two tropical weeds to shade: I. Growth and biomass allocation Respostas fisiológicas de duas plantas invasoras tropicais ao sombreamento: I. Crescimento e alocação de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, two weeds found in pastures and crop areas in Brazilian Amazonia, were grown in controlled environment cabinets under high (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ and low (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ light regimes during a 40-day period. For both species leaf dry mass and leaf area per total plant dry mass, and leaf area per leaf dry mass were higher for low-light plants, whereas root mass per total plant dry mass was higher for high-light plants. High-light S. cayennensis allocated significantly more biomass to reproductive tissue than low-light plants, suggesting a probably lower ability of this species to maintain itself under shaded conditions. Relative growth rate (RGR in I. asarifolia was initially higher for high-light grown plants and after 20 days started decreasing, becoming similar to low-light plants at the last two harvests (at 30 and 40 days. In S. cayennensis, RGR was also higher for high-light plants; however, this trend was not significant at the first and last harvest dates (10 and 40 days. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, duas plantas invasoras encontradas em pastagens e áreas agrícolas da Amazônia brasileira, foram cultivadas durante 40 dias, em câmaras de crescimento sob alto (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹, "sol" e baixo (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹, "sombra" regime de luz. Em ambas as espécies a razão de massa e de área foliar por unidade de massa total da planta, e a área foliar por unidade de massa foliar foram maiores na sombra, enquanto a proporção de biomassa alocada para as raízes foi maior nas plantas ao sol. Em S. cayennensis a alocação de biomassa para tecido reprodutivo foi maior nas plantas ao sol, sugerindo uma provável menor habilidade dessa

  9. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization. PMID:17875603

  10. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  11. Virulent but not Avirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Can Evade the Growth Inhibitory Action of a T Helper 1–dependent, Nitric Oxide Synthase 2–independent Defense in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu-Jin; LaCourse, Ronald; Ryan, Lynn; North, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Control of infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in mice is dependent on the generation of T helper (Th)1-mediated immunity that serves, via secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and other cytokines, to upregulate the antimycobacterial function of macrophages of which the synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS)2 is an essential event. As a means to understanding the basis of Mtb virulence, the ability of gene-deleted mice incapable of making NOS2 (NOS2−/−), gp91Phox subunit of the respiratory burst NADPH-oxidase complex (Phox−/−), or either enzyme (NOS2/Phox−/−), to control airborne infection with the avirulent R1Rv and H37Ra strains of Mtb was compared with their ability control infection with the virulent H37Rv strain. NOS2−/−, Phox−/−, and NOS2/Phox−/− mice showed no deficiency in ability to control infection with either strain of avirulent Mtb. By contrast, NOS2−/− mice, but not Phox−/− mice, were incapable of controlling H37Rv infection and died early from neutrophil-dominated lung pathology. Control of infection with avirulent, as well as virulent Mtb, depended on the synthesis of IFN-γ, and was associated with a substantial increase in the synthesis in the lungs of mRNA for IFN-γ and NOS2, and with production of NOS2 by macrophages at sites of infection. The results indicate that virulent, but not avirulent, Mtb can overcome the growth inhibitory action of a Th1–dependent, NOS2-independent mechanism of defense. PMID:12370260

  12. FY12 CPD Formula Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...

  13. Collective credit allocation in science

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Hua-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, since the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability...

  14. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  15. Advertising Budget Allocation under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan M. Holthausen, Jr.; Gert Assmus

    1982-01-01

    This article presents a model for the allocation of an advertising budget to geographic market segments, or territories, when the sales response to advertising in each segment is characterized by a probability distribution. It is shown that allocation decisions that are based on the expected sales response may be associated with a relatively large degree of risk and, therefore, non-optimal to a risk-averse manager. The model derives an "efficient frontier" in terms of the expected profit and ...

  16. Loss Allocation in Securitization Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Franke; Markus Herrmann; Thomas Weber

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the loss allocation to First, Second and Third Loss Positions in European collateralized debt obligation transactions. The quality of the underlying asset pool plays a predominant role for the loss allocation. A lower asset pool quality induces the originator to take a higher First Loss Position, but, in a synthetic transaction, a smaller Third Loss Position. The share of expected default losses, borne by the First Loss Position, is largely independent of asset pool qualit...

  17. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  18. Atmospheric phenanthrene pollution modulates carbon allocation in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desalme, Dorine, E-mail: dorine.desalme@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Binet, Philippe [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Epron, Daniel [Nancy Universite, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Faculte des Sciences, BP 70239, F- 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); INRA, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F- 54280 Champenoux (France); Bernard, Nadine; Gilbert, Daniel; Toussaint, Marie-Laure [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Plain, Caroline [Nancy Universite, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Faculte des Sciences, BP 70239, F- 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); INRA, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F- 54280 Champenoux (France); Chiapusio, Genevieve, E-mail: genevieve.chiapusio@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The influence of atmospheric phenanthrene (PHE) exposure (160 {mu}g m{sup -3}) during one month on carbon allocation in clover was investigated by integrative (plant growth analysis) and instantaneous {sup 13}CO{sub 2} pulse-labelling approaches. PHE exposure diminished plant growth parameters (relative growth rate and net assimilation rate) and disturbed photosynthesis (carbon assimilation rate and chlorophyll content), leading to a 25% decrease in clover biomass. The root-shoot ratio was significantly enhanced (from 0.32 to 0.44). Photosynthates were identically allocated to leaves while less allocated to stems and roots. PHE exposure had a significant overall effect on the {sup 13}C partitioning among clover organs as more carbon was retained in leaves at the expense of roots and stems. The findings indicate that PHE decreases root exudation or transfer to symbionts and in leaves, retains carbon in a non-structural form diverting photosynthates away from growth and respiration (emergence of an additional C loss process). - Highlights: > Atmospheric PHE decreased growth, biomass partitioning and C allocation in clover. > C allocation was modified in favor of leaves but at the expense of roots and stems. > In roots, a decreased carbon exudation or allocation to symbionts was proposed. > In leaves, carbon was retained in a non-structural form as secondary metabolites. > BVOC emission was suggested as another loss process than respiration and exudation. - Exposure of clover to atmospheric PHE affected not only its growth, but also biomass partitioning and C allocation among its organs.

  19. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Allocations. (a) General. An allocation is the apportionment of a harvest privilege for a specific purpose, to... fisheries (MS, C/P, and IFQ combined). The distribution of the whiting trawl allocation of POP to each... distribution of the whiting trawl allocation of widow to each sector (MS, C/P, and IFQ) will be done pro...

  20. 15 CFR 335.4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 335.4 Section 335.4... § 335.4 Allocation. (a) For HTS 9902.51.11 and HTS 9902.51.15 each Tariff Rate Quota will be allocated separately. Allocation will be based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Suit production, on a weighted...

  1. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  2. Quantifying and understanding reproductive allocation schedules in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Elizabeth Hedi; Falster, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A plant's reproductive allocation (RA) schedule describes the fraction of surplus energy allocated to reproduction as it increases in size. While theorists use RA schedules as the connection between life history and energy allocation, little is known about RA schedules in real vegetation. Here we review what is known about RA schedules for perennial plants using studies either directly quantifying RA or that collected data from which the shape of an RA schedule can be inferred. We also briefly review theoretical models describing factors by which variation in RA may arise. We identified 34 studies from which aspects of an RA schedule could be inferred. Within those, RA schedules varied considerably across species: some species abruptly shift all resources from growth to reproduction; most others gradually shift resources into reproduction, but under a variety of graded schedules. Available data indicate the maximum fraction of energy allocated to production ranges from 0.1 to 1 and that shorter lived species tend to have higher initial RA and increase their RA more quickly than do longer-lived species. Overall, our findings indicate, little data exist about RA schedules in perennial plants. Available data suggest a wide range of schedules across species. Collection of more data on RA schedules would enable a tighter integration between observation and a variety of models predicting optimal energy allocation, plant growth rates, and biogeochemical cycles.

  3. The Israeli Defense Forces: an organizational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Matthew John

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The author traces the organizational growth and change within the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) over its 40-year history. A model is offered which depicts a military organization as an open system embedded within a changing environment. Selected inputs to this organizational system are shown to affect organizational structure and, in turn, the combat capabilities of the force. The author uses the five major Arab-Israeli wars as critical...

  4. Oral Immune Defense against Chronic Hyperplastic Candidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Musrati, Ahmed S Ali

    2008-01-01

    Candida yeast species are widespread opportunistic microbes, which are usually innocent opportunists unless the systemic or local defense system of the host becomes compromised. When they adhere on a fertile substrate such as moist and warm, protein-rich human mucosal membrane or biomaterial surface, they become activated and start to grow pseudo and real hyphae. Their growth is intricately guided by their ability to detect surface defects (providing secure hiding , thigmotropism) and nutrie...

  5. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  6. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  7. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  8. Modelling C allocation in response to nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation in ecosystems is a key variable of the global terrestrial C cycle. While photosynthesis governs the amount of C that enters ecosystems, its subsequent allocation to compartments with different life times determines its over-all residence time and variations in allocation patterns drive changes in ecosystem C balance and its response to environmental change. A better understanding of the controls on allocation is thus key to improving global vegetation models that commonly rely on using fixed partitioning factors. Observational data suggests variations of ecosystem structure and functioning along large-scale gradients of resource availability. Below-ground C allocation, inferred as gross primary production minus above-ground biomass production increases along gradients of decreasing nutrient availability. This is not only due to more root growth, but also due to enhanced production of exudates and stimulation of root symbionts and has been interpreted to reflect optimal plant allocation decisions under a varying soil fertility status. Here, we propose a model that accounts for trade-offs between (i) growth in above-ground and (ii) below-ground plant compartments, (iii) exudation to the rhizosphere and root symbionts and (iv) temporary storage in non-structural pools. By postulating the maximization of long-term growth under a given (seasonal regime) of soil nitrogen (N) availability, we attempt to reproduce observed large-scale gradients. The model is formulated based on a C cost for different N uptake decisions, where the cost is a function of N availability, root mass, and soil temperature (for biological N fixation). On a daily time scale, ecosystem N uptake may be realized by C exudation to the rhizosphere and/or symbiotic fixation of atmospheric N2. On an annual time scale, allocation to roots versus leaves is adjusted to soil inorganic N availability and modeled to yield maximum total growth. Exudation versus temporary storage of C is

  9. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  10. Three Essays on Time Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Chapela, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This thesis studies from the theoretical and empirical points of view the allocation of time by part of rational individuals motivated by technological changes in the economy. Drawing upon the labor market viewpoint of Lucas and Rapping (1969), the first two chapters are respectively concerned with the life-cycle allocation of labor effort by part of prime-age males and females, and they seek to ask for the attention over a topic of research that seemed closed from the mid 1980's: the importa...

  11. Optimal allocation of inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards is considered as the problem of designing a complex system that is composed of individual inspection activities and that has the objective of detecting material loss. Optimization theory is applied in selecting those inspection activities that maximize a system performance measure within resource constraints. The method is applicable to a global allocation problem in which inspection resources are distributed throughout a hierarchy consisting of multiple countries, multiple facilities within each country, and multiple activities within each facility. 9 references

  12. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  13. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  14. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...... problems involved it becomes clear that the allocation rules, technically speaking, allocate the non-zero value of the dual variable for a convexity constraint on to the output vector. Hence, the allocation rules can also be used to allocate inefficiencies in non-parametric efficiency measurement models...

  15. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  16. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Våge

    Full Text Available Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating and top-down (biomass regulating factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW, predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  17. Quantitative prediction of genome-wide resource allocation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelzer, Anne; Muntel, Jan; Chubukov, Victor; Jules, Matthieu; Prestel, Eric; Nölker, Rolf; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Aymerich, Stéphane; Hecker, Michael; Noirot, Philippe; Becher, Dörte; Fromion, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Predicting resource allocation between cell processes is the primary step towards decoding the evolutionary constraints governing bacterial growth under various conditions. Quantitative prediction at genome-scale remains a computational challenge as current methods are limited by the tractability of the problem or by simplifying hypotheses. Here, we show that the constraint-based modeling method Resource Balance Analysis (RBA), calibrated using genome-wide absolute protein quantification data, accurately predicts resource allocation in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis for a wide range of growth conditions. The regulation of most cellular processes is consistent with the objective of growth rate maximization except for a few suboptimal processes which likely integrate more complex objectives such as coping with stressful conditions and survival. As a proof of principle by using simulations, we illustrated how calibrated RBA could aid rational design of strains for maximizing protein production, offering new opportunities to investigate design principles in prokaryotes and to exploit them for biotechnological applications. PMID:26498510

  18. Optimal allocation in balanced sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Tillé, Yves; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The development of new sampling methods allows the selection of large balanced samples. In this paper we propose a method for computing optimal inclusion probabilities for balanced samples. Next, we show that the optimal Neyman allocation is a particular case of this method.

  19. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  20. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    with fractional players to allocate the common cost in an entity to the finite number of outputs. The paper is concerned with the computation of Aumann-Shapley prices when the cost function is estimated as a convex hull of a set of observed data points. It is discussed how to overcome certain problems related...

  1. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  2. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  3. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make co

  4. Commentary—Defensive Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Hauser; Steven M. Shugan

    2008-01-01

    For every new product and service entrant, there are usually many incumbents who must defend their positions in the market. Hence, defensive strategy is as least as critical as new-product strategy. Our 1983 article argued that defensive strategy critically depends on the distribution of buyer preferences and the position of the new entrant relative to the position of the incumbent in a multidimensional attribute space. Since the appearance of our 1983 article in , research in defensive strat...

  5. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Bak; Joel Fürstenberg-Hägg; Mika Zagrobelny

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged...

  6. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  7. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Fang eXie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth versus for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g. light, nutrients and water using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome. Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  8. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants. PMID:27200071

  9. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  10. Comparing developing countries under potential carbon allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stabilise atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, all countries will eventually need to be included in the effort to limit climate change. This article explores what potential future greenhouse gas allocation schemes might mean for key developing countries. The need for development is widely acknowledged, but growth in non-Annex I country emissions means that such development may need to take a different path to business as usual. The national interests of developing countries in negotiating potential future commitments are shaped by basic characteristics, notably emissions (both annual and historical cumulative), economic growth and population. These factors in turn shape the acceptability of allocations based on ability to pay, emissions intensity, or emissions per capita. Results for six major developing countries (China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Argentina and Nigeria) show that the implications for developing countries differ widely. For example, ability to pay does not favour Argentina; a reduction based on emissions intensity is not appropriate for Brazil; and per capita allocations would be problematic for South Africa. It is difficult to conceive of a single allocation scheme that would be appropriate for all developing countries. This points to the need for differentiation between developing countries in terms of any potential future commitments

  11. Nitrogen availability and defense of tomato against two-spotted spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffland, E.; Dicke, M.; Tintelen, van W.; Dijkman, H.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study how nitrogen availability affects within-plant allocation to growth and secondary metabolites and how this allocation affects host selection by herbivores. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown at six levels of nitrogen availability. When nitrogen avail

  12. Genomics Mechanisms of Carbon Allocation and Partitioning in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias; Peter, Gary; Martin, Timothy

    2009-07-30

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration. It is also unclear how environmental cues such as nitrogen availability impact the genes that regulate growth, and biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. To address these questions we phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above and below ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Fifty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for twenty traits analyzed. The majority of QTL are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and QTL co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Gene expression analysis of all poplar genes was also characterized in differentiating xylem, whole-roots and developing leaves of 192 of the segregating population. By integrating the QTL and gene expression information we identified genes that regulate carbon partitioning and several biomass growth related properties. The work developed in this project resulted in the publication of three book chapters, four scientific articles (three others currently in preparation), 17 presentations in international conferences and two provisional patent applications.

  13. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  14. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  15. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 304.15 Section 304.15 Public... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  16. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC....2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine the... may advise the Secretary to make adjustments to the allocation at any time. (c) The majority of...

  17. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  18. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  19. 25 CFR 39.902 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 39.902 Section 39.902 Indians BUREAU OF... Maintenance and Minor Repair Fund § 39.902 Allocation. (a) Interim Maintenance and Minor Repair funds shall be... determining school allocations shall be taken from the facilities inventory maintained by the Division...

  20. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  1. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  2. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 205.150 Section 205.150 Public... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on...

  3. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each... competitive products enterprise using a method of allocation based on appropriate revenue or cost...

  4. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  5. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 923.92 Section 923.92....92 Allocation. (a) Subsections 303(4), 306(d)(3)(B) and 306(d)(10) of the Act foster..., areawide agencies, regional agencies and interstate agencies. Such allocations provide for...

  6. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes apredi

  7. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The Administrator will calculate the annual allowance allocation for a combustion source based on the data... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section...

  8. Game theory and cost allocation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost all

  9. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    uptake, and the dynamics of nutrient use were all seen to be influenced by the interplay between previous N supply, previous C supply, and the concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The data suggest that in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere ponderosa pine seedlings will have higher root biomass and be likely to capture more N compared to seedlings today. Further, the combined growth and allocation responses of Ponderosa pine at elevated CO{sub 2} resulted in higher growth per unit N (nitrogen productivity) and lower N per gram of tissue (all tissues not just leaves) when nitrogen was not in abundant supply.

  10. Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met......Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...

  11. Intrahousehold allocation and gender relations

    OpenAIRE

    Quisumbing, Agnes R; Maluccio, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theory and empirical evidence testing unitary versus collective models of the household. In contrast to the unitary model, the collective model posits that individuals within households have different preferences and do not pool their income. Moreover, the collective model predicts that intrahousehold allocations reflect differences in preferences and "bargaining power" of individuals within the household. Using new household data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethi...

  12. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are “primed” and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault. PMID:21270535

  13. Phylogenetic escalation and decline of plant defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Fishbein, Mark

    2008-07-22

    As the basal resource in most food webs, plants have evolved myriad strategies to battle consumption by herbivores. Over the past 50 years, plant defense theories have been formulated to explain the remarkable variation in abundance, distribution, and diversity of secondary chemistry and other defensive traits. For example, classic theories of enemy-driven evolutionary dynamics have hypothesized that defensive traits escalate through the diversification process. Despite the fact that macroevolutionary patterns are an explicit part of defense theories, phylogenetic analyses have not been previously attempted to disentangle specific predictions concerning (i) investment in resistance traits, (ii) recovery after damage, and (iii) plant growth rate. We constructed a molecular phylogeny of 38 species of milkweed and tested four major predictions of defense theory using maximum-likelihood methods. We did not find support for the growth-rate hypothesis. Our key finding was a pattern of phyletic decline in the three most potent resistance traits (cardenolides, latex, and trichomes) and an escalation of regrowth ability. Our neontological approach complements more common paleontological approaches to discover directional trends in the evolution of life and points to the importance of natural enemies in the macroevolution of species. The finding of macroevolutionary escalating regowth ability and declining resistance provides a window into the ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between plants and herbivores and suggests a revision of classic plant defense theory. Where plants are primarily consumed by specialist herbivores, regrowth (or tolerance) may be favored over resistance traits during the diversification process.

  14. Defense suppression benefits herbivores that have a monopoly on their feeding site but can backfire within natural communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glas; J.M. Alba; S. Simoni; C.A. Villarroel; M. Stoops; B. Schimmel; R.C. Schuurink; M.W. Sabelis; M.R. Kant

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plants have inducible defenses to combat attacking organisms. Hence, some herbivores have adapted to suppress these defenses. Suppression of plant defenses has been shown to benefit herbivores by boosting their growth and reproductive performance. Results: We observed in field-grown toma

  15. Game Theory and Cost Allocation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost allocation methods based on the nucleolus and the Shapley value, and introduce also a new one, the so-called cost gap allocation method which is based on the \\tau -value. It is shown that for some lar...

  16. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Chad Steel

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States ...

  17. On the Ramified Optimal Allocation Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal allocation problem with ramified transport technology in a spatial economy. Ramified transportation is used to model the transport economy of scale in group transportation observed widely in both nature and efficiently designed transport systems of branching structures. The ramified allocation problem aims at finding an optimal allocation plan as well as an associated optimal allocation path to minimize overall cost of transporting commodity from factories to households. This problem differentiates itself from existing ramified transportation literature in that the distribution of production among factories is not fixed but endogenously determined as observed in many allocation practices. It's shown that due to the transport economy of scale in ramified transportation, each optimal allocation plan corresponds equivalently to an optimal assignment map from households to factories. This optimal assignment map provides a natural partition of both households and allocation paths. We...

  18. An experimental investigation of the impact of conflicting project goals on staff resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Swett, Clinton L.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Defense Information Technology budget stands at nine billion dollars and is under severe scrutiny while the backlog of required software continues to grow. It is thereby necessary to improve the efficiency of managing the software process. This thesis uses the Systems Dynamic Model of Software Project Management to investigate the effects of stated goals on project manager behavior. Specifically, the experiment focuses on how software project managers allocate resources in b...

  19. Carbon allocation changes: an adaptive response to variations in atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sandy; Li, Guangqi; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2016-04-01

    Given the ubiquity of nutrient constraints on primary production, an optimal carbon allocation strategy is expected to increase total below-ground allocation (fine root production and turnover, allocation to mycorrhizae and carbon exudation to the rhizophere) as atmospheric CO2 concentration increases. Conversely, below-ground allocation should be reduced when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were low, as occurred during glacial times. Using a coupled generic primary production and tree-growth model, we quantify the changes in carbon allocation that are required to explain the apparent homoeostasis of tree radial growth during recent decades and between glacial and interglacial conditions. These results suggest a resolution of the apparent paradox of continuing terrestrial CO2 uptake (a consequence of CO2 fertilization) and the widespread lack of observed enhancement of stem growth in trees. Adaptive shifts in carbon allocation are thus a key feature that should to be accounted for in models to predict tree growth and future timber harvests, as well as in large-scale ecosystem and carbon cycle models.

  20. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and PGPR Combination Agents on Growth and Defense Enzyme Activity of Cucumber under Low Temperature Stress%AM真菌和PGPR菌剂组合对低温胁迫下黄瓜生长及防御酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亚楠; 刘润进; 李敏

    2014-01-01

    为了筛选适于黄瓜耐低温的最佳丛枝菌根(AM)真菌和PGPR组合菌剂,研究了不同AM真菌、PGPR组合菌剂对低温胁迫下黄瓜生长及防御性的影响。结果表明低温胁迫下,单接种AM真菌或是单接种PGPR的处理,其黄瓜生长量及SOD、POD和CAT 性均高于不接种对照,而MDA含量则显著低于不接种对照。AM真菌接种处理中以接种地表球囊霉(Glomus versiforme)处理的黄瓜生长量较大、防御性较高、细胞膜受伤害较;PGPR接种处理中以接种多粘类芽孢杆菌(Paenibacillus polymyxa)的处理黄瓜生长量较大、防御性较高、细胞膜伤害较。AM真菌和PGPR双接种处理中,以地表球囊霉+多粘类芽孢杆菌处理生长量最大、防御性最高、细胞膜伤害最轻。可以考虑在今后温室黄瓜种植中添加该组合菌剂促进黄瓜生长,提高植株耐冷性。%In order to select the best combination of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR)for cucumber(Cucumis sativus)to resist low-temperature damages,we studied the effects of different combinations on growth and defense enzymes in greenhouse under low temperature stress conditions. The results showed that the growth of cucumber and SOD,POD,CAT activities were higher than that of the non-vaccinated control,while MDA content was significantly lower than that of the controls, when inoculation with AM fungi or PGPR under low temperature treatments. Between the AM fungi inoculation treatments,Glomus versiforme had better positive effect on growth,defensive enzyme activities,and decreased the cell membrane damage. Between the PGPR inoculation treatments,Paenibacillus polymyxa had better growth and higher defensive enzyme activities,with less cell membrane damage. Among the inoculation treatments with AM fungi and PGPR ,inoculation treatment with both Glomus versiforme and Paenibacillas polymyxa had the best growth,highest defensive

  1. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  2. 创业精神配置研究述评%Reviews of Allocation of Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜文

    2011-01-01

    简单介绍创业精神配置的含义及其与经济增长的关系,对影响创业精神配置的有关理论与经验研究成果进行综述,简要评述创业精神配置理论的贡献,提出未来进一步研究的方向.%The contribution of entrepreneurship to economic growth depends not only on its level, but also on the allocation between productive and unproductive entrepreneurship. This paper introduces the meaning of allocation of entrepreneurship and the relation between allocation of entrepreneurship and economic growth, summarizes the factors on the allocation of en trepreneurship , reviews the contribution of that theory, and proposes the possible directions for further research.

  3. On the allocation of credit and aggregate fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature on financial development and growth has highlighted the possibility of endogenous business cycles arising for particular levels of a given credit multiplier. These studies concentrate on loans directed to the productive activity and neglect the role of credit to consumption. In this paper, we consider an endogenous growth model, where a representative agent must choose how to allocate credit; basically, the agent considers a simple rule where the share of credit to consumption reacts to deviations of the consumption - wealth ratio relatively to the corresponding steady state level. The setup generates nonlinear dynamics, which are analyzed both locally and globally.

  4. ROMANIAN DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNDER CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian N. BUJOREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense resources management is a harder field to deal with in economic and social crisis conditions. It is not under war but peace conditions and one has to understand it as if it were under war conditions. The paper introduces the reader to the possible type of approach and factors to be considered when developing strategies and implementing directives in time of peace with a consideration of resources as if it war in time of war. Risk analysis is of outmost importance in dealing with resource allocation in time of crisis, and directions to it are proposed here. Also, a different view of the chain of command in the hierarchy and its role in crisis time, responsibilities and attributes one should fulfill in the decision-making process for the reason of efficiency and effectiveness in the military field. Finally, a round-up conclusion brings us to the question if anything can be done without the political factor involved and which type of involvement it should be.

  5. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  6. Distribution services and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Jin; Zhixiong Zeng

    2006-01-01

    We analyze how the presence of distribution services affects an economy's long-run growth. We show that in an endogenous growth model, increases in the unit distribution requirement lower the economy''s balanced growth rate by reducing the proportion of aggregate employment allocated to the manufacturing sector. This contrasts with the neutrality result in the exogenous growth case.

  7. Decentralization and Spatial Allocation Policy of Public Investment in Indonesia and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhiko Kataoka; Kodrat Wibowo

    2014-01-01

    Public investment is a fundamental response of government to the existing imbalances between subnational regions. Especially, the question concerning the allocation policy of public investment more receives a great deal of public attentions along with the decentralization process, because economic growth is inevitably uneven in its subnational impacts and decentralization has effects on the change in the allocations across the subnational governments and regions. This study explores the publi...

  8. Allocation trade-off under climate warming in experimental amphibian populations

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xu; Jin, Changnan; Camargo, Arley; Li, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Climate change could either directly or indirectly cause population declines via altered temperature, rainfall regimes, food availability or phenological responses. However few studies have focused on allocation trade-offs between growth and reproduction under marginal resources, such as food scarce that may be caused by climate warming. Such critical changes may have an unpredicted impact on amphibian life-history parameters and even population dynamics. Here, we report an allocation strateg...

  9. The allocation of attention: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gabaix, Xavier; Laibson, David Isaac; Moloche, Guillermo; Stephen, Weinberg

    2003-01-01

    A host of recent studies show that attention allocation has important economic consequences. This paper reports the first empirical test of a cost-benefit model of the endogenous allocation of attention. The model assumes that economic agents have finite mental processing speeds and cannot analyze all of the elements in complex problems. The model makes tractable predictions about attention allocation, despite the high level of complexity in our environment. The model successfully predicts th...

  10. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  11. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  12. Optimization of resource allocation in computational grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashreet Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The resource allocation in Grid computing system needs to be scalable, reliable and smart. It should also be adaptable to change its allocation mechanism depending upon the environment and user’s requirements. Therefore, a scalable and optimized approach for resource allocation where the system can adapt itself to the changing environment and the fluctuating resources is essentially needed. In this paper, a Teaching Learning based optimization approach for resource allocation in Computational Grids is proposed. The proposed algorithm is found to outperform the existing ones in terms of execution time and cost. The algorithm is simulated using GRIDSIM and the simulation results are presented.

  13. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. I. Large-scale changes in the accumulation of growth- and defense-related plant mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsmeier, D; Schittko, U; Baldwin, I T

    2001-02-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack with a dramatic functional reorganization that involves the activation of direct and indirect defenses and tolerance, which in turn make large demands on primary metabolism. Here we provide the first characterization of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs after insect attack in a model plant-herbivore system: Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats.-Manduca sexta. We used mRNA differential display to characterize one-twentieth of the insect-responsive transcriptome of N. attenuata and verified differential expression for 27 cDNAs. Northern analyses were used to study the effects of folivory and exposure to airborne methyl jasmonate and for kinetic analyses throughout a 16-h- light/8-h-dark cycle. Sequence similarity searches allowed putative functions to be assigned to 15 transcripts. Genes were related to photosynthesis, electron transport, cytoskeleton, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, signaling, and a group responding to stress, wounding, or invasion of pathogens. Overall, transcripts involved in photosynthesis were strongly down-regulated, whereas those responding to stress, wounding, and pathogens and involved in shifting carbon and nitrogen to defense were strongly up-regulated. The majority of transcripts responded similarly to airborne methyl jasmonate and folivory, and had tissue- and diurnal-specific patterns of expression. Transcripts encoding Thr deaminase (TD) and a putative retrotransposon were absent in control plants, but were strongly induced after herbivory. Full-length sequences were obtained for TD and the pathogen-inducible alpha-dioxygenase, PIOX. Effects of abiotic and biotic stimuli were investigated for transcripts encoding TD, importin alpha, PIOX, and a GAL83-like kinase cofactor. PMID:11161026

  14. In Defense of Stuxnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Lewis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Revelations about Stuxnet and Flame have provoked a chorus of dire warnings on the dangers of cyber warfare and the need for action. Yet the most troubling question to emerge from these revelations is why, if cyber warfare is such a critical issue, are so many people so badly informed about it? Suggestions that Stuxnet or Flame have increased risk are based on a faulty understanding of how much risk already exists in cyberspace, the already high frequency of state-sponsored malicious cyber action, and the rapid growth in many countries’ military capabilities. It is, rather, more accurate to see Stuxnet and Flame as episodes in the ongoing contests between the US, Iran, and Russia.

  15. Consumer-resource dynamics: quantity, quality, and allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne M Getz

    well-known paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate.

  16. Statistical Mechanics of Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We provide a mathematical model to investigate the resource allocation problem for agents, say, university graduates who are looking for their positions in labor markets. The basic model is described by the so-called Potts spin glass which is well-known in the research field of statistical physics. In the model, each Potts spin (a tiny magnet in atomic scale length) represents the action of each student, and it takes a discrete variable corresponding to the company he/she applies for. We construct the energy to include three distinct effects on the students' behavior, namely, collective effect, market history and international ranking of companies. In this model system, the correlations (the adjacent matrix) between students are taken into account through the pairwise spin-spin interactions. We carry out computer simulations to examine the efficiency of the model. We also show that some chiral representation of the Potts spin enables us to obtain some analytical insights into our labor markets.

  17. Resource Allocation Using Metaheuristic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports a set of experiments which evaluate the performance of three algorithms, namely simulat ed annealing, tabu search and genetic algorithms. The experimental results indicate thata ll of themetaheuristics search techniques can be used to solve problems in resource allocation an d scheduling within a software project. Finally, a comparative analysis suggests that overa ll the genetic algorithm had performed better than simulated annealing and tabu search.

  18. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. - Highlights: • SRC willows are a source of biomass and act as carbon (C) sinks. • Biomass allocation was measured in 4 willow genotypes grown in two UK field sites. • The greatest yielding genotype had the greatest below ground biomass at both sites. • Below ground biomass allocation differed by up to 10% between genotypes and 94% between sites. • Environment e.g. wind

  19. Analysis on Business Model choice and Emerging Capital Allocation f rom the Viewpoint of Enterprise Growth%商业模式选择与新兴资本配置研究--基于企业成长视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀梅

    2015-01-01

    Under new economic environment ,technology ,information and knowledge replace traditional factors such as hu‐man ,property and material and become the fundamental driving force to enterprise growth .The business model is the bridge and tie to connect the emerging capital and enterprise grow th .According to different core strategy capital ,the busi‐ness model can be divided into three types such as technology dominance ,information dominance and know ledge domi‐nance .Based on different grow th stage of enterprise ,the paper analyzes business model choices and emerging capital allo‐cation problems .%在新经济环境下,技术、信息与知识已开始取代传统人、财、物要素,成为企业成长的根本动力。商业模式是连接新兴资本与企业成长的桥梁和纽带。按照所选择的核心战略资本,商业模式可分为技术主导、信息主导与知识主导3种类型。基于企业不同成长阶段,分析了商业模式选择与新兴资本的配置问题。

  20. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  1. 15 CFR 336.4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 336.4 Section 336.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL... § 336.4 Allocation. (a) The Tariff Rate Quota licenses will be issued to eligible manufacturers on...

  2. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  3. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information,...

  4. Optimal Allocation in Stratified Randomized Response Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Shabbir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A Warner (1965 randomized response model based on stratification is used to determine the allocation of samples. Both linear and log-linear cost functions are discussed under uni and double stratification. It observed that by using a log-linear cost function, one can get better allocations.

  5. Cost allocation in shortest path games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.; Grahn, S.

    2001-01-01

    A class of cooperative games arising from shortest path problems is dened These shortest path games are shown to be totally balanced and allow a population monotonic allocation scheme Possible methods for obtaining core elements are indicated rst by relating to the allocation rules in taxation and b

  6. Unit 58 - Location-Allocation on Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 54, CC in GIS; National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

    1990-01-01

    This unit introduces a selection of network problems through an example concerning waste disposal for the Petrolia, Ontario oil field. The example is framed as a location-allocation problem and the GIS implementation using a location-allocation module is outlined.

  7. Effective Proactive and Reactive Defense Strategies against Malicious Attacks in a Virtualized Honeynet

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Yeong-Sung Lin; Yu-Shun Wang; Ming-Yang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Virtualization plays an important role in the recent trend of cloud computing. It allows the administrator to manage and allocate hardware resources flexibly. However, it also causes some security issues. This is a critical problem for service providers, who simultaneously strive to defend against malicious attackers while providing legitimate users with high quality service. In this paper, the attack-defense scenario is formulated as a mathematical model where the defender applies both proac...

  8. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the revised Defense Logistics... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense....

  9. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  10. Adaptive computational resource allocation for sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-hong; FEI E; YAN Yu-jie

    2008-01-01

    To efficiently utilize the limited computational resource in real-time sensor networks, this paper focu-ses on the challenge of computational resource allocation in sensor networks and provides a solution with the method of economies. It designs a mieroeconomic system in which the applications distribute their computational resource consumption across sensor networks by virtue of mobile agent. Further, it proposes the market-based computational resource allocation policy named MCRA which satisfies the uniform consumption of computational energy in network and the optimal division of the single computational capacity for multiple tasks. The simula-tion in the scenario of target tracing demonstrates that MCRA realizes an efficient allocation of computational re-sources according to the priority of tasks, achieves the superior allocation performance and equilibrium perform-ance compared to traditional allocation policies, and ultimately prolongs the system lifetime.

  11. Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi; Hamid Reza Davoodi

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses some channels through which corruption affects growth such as the impact of corruption on enterprises, on the allocation of talent, and on investment. It also discusses the impact of corruption on some aspects of public finance.

  12. Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale

    OpenAIRE

    de la Pena, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

    2014-01-01

    Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The ...

  13. Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Juan M; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Glas, Joris J; Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Villarroel, Carlos A; Schuurink, Robert C; Sabelis, Maurice W; Kant, Merijn R

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory by mounting a defense. Some plant-eating spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) have adapted to plant defenses to maintain a high reproductive performance. From natural populations we selected three spider mite strains from two species, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi, that can suppress plant defenses, using a fourth defense-inducing strain as a benchmark, to assess to which extent these strains suppress defenses differently. We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors. The nonsuppressor strain induced a mixture of jasmonate- (JA) and salicylate (SA)-dependent defenses. Induced defense genes separated into three groups: 'early' (expression peak at 1 d postinfestation (dpi)); 'intermediate' (4 dpi); and 'late', whose expression increased until the leaf died. The T. evansi strains suppressed genes from all three groups, but the T. urticae strain only suppressed the late ones. Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA-SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%. Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor.

  14. A Lines-of-Defense Model for Managing Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As older individuals face challenges of progressive disease, increasing disability and approach the end of their lives, their capacity for controlling their environment and own health and functioning declines. The Lines-of-Defense Model is based on the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development and proposes that individuals can adjust their control striving to the progressive physical decline in distinctly organized cycles of goal engagement and goal disengagement that reflect sequentially organized lines of defense. This organized process allows individuals to hold onto and defend still feasible levels of physical health and functioning in activities of daily living, while adjusting to increasing impairments. As physical constraints become more severe towards the end of life, avoiding psychological suffering becomes the focus of individuals' strivings for control. The lines of defense model can also be applied to the inverse process of growth in functioning during recovery and rehabilitation. PMID:23816691

  15. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  16. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou

    2005-01-01

    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  17. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  18. Shift-invariant target in allocation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saumen; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-07-10

    We provide a template for finding target allocation proportions in optimal allocation designs where the target will be invariant for both shifts in location and scale of the response distributions. One possible application of such target allocation proportions is to carry out a response-adaptive allocation. While most of the existing designs are invariant for any change in scale of the underlying distributions, they are not location invariant in most of the cases. First, we indicate this serious flaw in the existing literature and illustrate how this lack of location invariance makes the performance of the designs very poor in terms of allocation for any drastic change in location, such as the changes from degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit. We illustrate that unless a target allocation is location invariant, it might lead to a completely irrelevant and useless target for allocation. Then we discuss how such location invariance can be achieved for general continuous responses. We illustrate the proposed method using some real clinical trial data. We also indicate the possible extension of the procedure for more than two treatments at hand and in the presence of covariates.

  19. Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Verena S.; Schaerer, Lukas; Michiels, Nico K.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites have typically focused either on evolutionary or one-time, ontogenetic optimization of sex allocation, ignoring variation within an individual's lifetime. Here, we study whether hermaphrodites also possess facultative sex allocation,

  20. Discussion of Optimal Allocation of Resources Theory for Communication Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiao-lin; YU Hua; SU Hua-ying

    2004-01-01

    The theory on the resource optimal allocation is discussed in this article. On the base of the discussion, for the main problems existing in the resource allocation of communication enterprises, the reasonable allocating measures are put forward.

  1. Regional allocation of CO2 emissions allowance over provinces in China by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitigation efforts of China are increasingly important for meeting global climate target since the rapid economic growth of China has led to an increasing share in the world's total CO2 emissions. This paper sets out to explore the approach for realizing China's national mitigation targets submitted to the UNFCCC as part of the Copenhagen Accord; that is, to reduce the intensity of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020, as well as reducing the energy intensity and increasing the share of non-fossil fuel consumption, through regional allocation of emission allowance over China's provinces. Since the realization of China's mitigation target essentially represents a total amount emission allowance allocation problem, an improved zero sum gains data envelopment analysis optimization model, which could deal with the constant total amount resources allocation, is proposed in this study. By utilizing this model and based on several scenarios of China's economic growth, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption, a new efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level for China by 2020 is proposed. The allocation results indicate that different provinces have to shoulder different mitigation burdens in terms of emission intensity reduction, energy intensity reduction, and share of non-fossil fuels increase. - Highlights: ► We explore the approach to realize national CO2 emissions reduction target of China by 2020. ► The CO2 emissions allowance is allocated over China's 30 administrative regions. ► Several scenarios of China's regional economy, emission, energy consumption are given. ► The zero sum gains data envelopment analysis model is applied in emission allowance allocation. ► An efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level is proposed

  2. PUBLIC GOODS, CORRUPTION AND GROWTH???

    OpenAIRE

    Ratbek Dzhumashev

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.

  3. Dynamic cache resources allocation for energy efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-ming; ZOU Xue-cheng; LEI Jian-ming; LIU Zheng-lin

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a mechanism of low overhead and less runtime, termed dynamic cache resources allocation (DCRA), which allocates each application with required cache resources. The mechanism collects cache hit-miss information at runtime and then analyzes the information and decides how many cache resources should be allocated to the current executing application. The amount of cache resources varies dynamically to reduce the total number of misses and energy consumption. The study of several applications from SPEC2000 shows that significant energy saving is achieved for the application based on the DCRA with an average of 39% savings.

  4. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine...... the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...

  5. Growth and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Howitt, Peter

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run effects of growth on unemployment. It assumes that growth arises explicitly from the introduction of new technologies, which require labour re-allocation for their implementation. Using a variant of the search theory developed by Pissarides, the paper shows how unemployment is affected by growth both directly, through the job-destruction rate, and indirectly through its effects on the incentive for firms to create job openings. Our results can be summarized as...

  6. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  7. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  8. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  9. Game of Power Allocation on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a distributed resource allocation game to study countries' pursuit of targets such as self-survival in the networked international environment. The paper has two general contributions: firstly, it contributes the basic idea that countries' behavior, which is power allocation, is a basic human behavior of resource allocation and the development of this game is the first time countries' behavior has ever been rigorously studied from a resource allocation perspective; secondly, the game itself has an intrinsically interesting and novel mathematical structure --- it actually presents a new technical problem with a surprising amount of informative predictions which arise from the rich parameter space that defines all kinds of possibilities for the networked international environments. The predictions both motivate major theoretical results (e.g., Nash equilibrium existence) and shed light on real world politics.

  10. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  11. Memory Allocation in Distributed Storage Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, Mohsen; Fekri, Faramarz; Soljanin, Emina

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributing a file in a network of storage nodes whose storage budget is limited but at least equals to the size file. We first generate $T$ encoded symbols (from the file) which are then distributed among the nodes. We investigate the optimal allocation of $T$ encoded packets to the storage nodes such that the probability of reconstructing the file by using any $r$ out of $n$ nodes is maximized. Since the optimal allocation of encoded packets is difficult to find in general, we find another objective function which well approximates the original problem and yet is easier to optimize. We find the optimal symmetric allocation for all coding redundancy constraints using the equivalent approximate problem. We also investigate the optimal allocation in random graphs. Finally, we provide simulations to verify the theoretical results.

  12. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  13. Liability valuation and optimal asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Inkmann, Joachim; Blake, David

    2004-01-01

    Current approaches to asset-liability management employ a sequence of distinct procedures to value liabilities and determine the asset allocation. First, a discount rate that is usually dic-tated by accounting standards is used to value liabilities. Second, the asset allocation is determined by maximizing some objective function in the surplus of assets over liabilities, taken as given the valuation of liabilities. We introduce a model that allows for the joint valuation of liabilities and th...

  14. Allocative Efficiency of Technically Inefficient Production Units

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetoft, Peter; Fare, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    We discuss how to measure allocative efficiency without presuming technical efficiency. This is relevant when it is easier to introduce reallocations than improvements of technical efficiency. We compare the approach to the traditional one of assuming technical efficiency before measuring allocative efficiency. In particular, we develop necessary and sufficient conditions on the technology to ensure consistent measures and we give dual organizational interpretations of the approaches.

  15. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini; K. Khalili Damghani

    2009-01-01

    Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between ber...

  16. Frequency allocations accommodate new commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Frequency Conference whose principal responsibility is to review and update the International Radio Regulations, including the International Table of Frequency Allocations and the procedures for utilizing the allocations. Consideration is given to the earth exploration-satellite service, the space research space operation, general-satellite service, and wind profiler radar. Attention is given to shortwave or HF broadcasting, mobile and mobile-satellite services and future public land mobile telecommunications systems.

  17. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the arti...

  18. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  19. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D. Kombade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF. CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is difficult to detect and hence it is present in most of the existing web applications. CSRF attack occurs when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. It is listed in OWASP’s top ten Web Application attacks list. In this survey paper we will study CSRF attack, CSRF vulnerabilities and its defensive measures. We have compared various defense mechanisms to analyse the best defense mechanism. This study will help us to build strong and robust CSRF protection mechanism.

  20. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  1. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9...

  2. 75 FR 32416 - Defense Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Science Board AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Defense Science Board Task Force on the Survivability of DoD... Science Board Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (TRAC) Task Force findings, recommendations and...

  3. Financial Development, Capital Allocation Efficiency and Export Performance An Empirical Study based on Cross-Provincial Industrial Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    With China's cross-provincial panel data of 27 industries from 2003 to 2009 as sample, this paper uses Wurgler (2002) model to estimate that the average capital allocation efficiency of China's 30 regions is 0.517. It also finds out that capital allocation efficiency of the coastal areas is higher than that of the inland, and capital allocation efficiency of the eastern areas is obviously higher than that of the central and western areas. Using the System GMM method, we finds out that financial development and capital allocation efficiency are positively related to the export and export growth, and verified that financial development has positive effects on export performance through the channel of capital allocation efficiency.

  4. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... (DLA) published a Notice of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION:...

  5. Immune response from a resource allocation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Mercedes Rauw

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is a life history trait that can be expected to trade off against other life history traits. Whether or not a trait is considered to be a life history trait has consequences for the expectation on how it responds to natural selection and evolution; in addition, it may have consequences for the outcome of artificial selection when included in the breeding objective. The immune system involved in pathogen resistance comprises multiple mechanisms that define a host’s defensive capacity. Immune resistance involves employing mechanisms that either prevent pathogens from invading or eliminate the pathogens when they do invade. On the other hand, tolerance involves limiting the damage that is caused by the infection. Both tolerance and resistance traits require (reallocation of resources and carry physiological costs. Examples of trade-offs between immune function and growth, reproduction and stress response are provided in this review, in addition to consequences of selection for increased production on immune function and vice versa. Reaction norms are used to deal with questions of immune resistance versus tolerance to pathogens that relate host health to infection intensity. In essence, selection for immune tolerance in livestock is a particular case of selection for animal robustness. Since breeding goals that include robustness traits are required in the implementation of more sustainable agricultural production systems, it is of interest to investigate whether immune tolerance is a robustness trait that is positively correlated with overall animal robustness. Considerably more research is needed to estimate the shapes of the cost functions of different immune strategies, and investigate trade-offs and cross-over benefits of selection for disease resistance and/or disease tolerance in livestock production.

  6. What is so important about completing lives? A critique of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlund, Espen

    2016-04-01

    Ruth Tallman has recently offered a defense of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource allocation [1]. According to Tallman, this principle calls for prioritizing adolescents and young adults between 15-40 years of age. In this article, I argue that Tallman's defense of the modified youngest first principle is vulnerable to important objections, and that it is thus unsuitable as a basis for allocating resources. Moreover, Tallman makes claims about the badness of death for individuals at different ages, but she lacks an account of the loss involved in dying to support her claims. To fill this gap in Tallman's account, I propose a view on the badness of death that I call 'Deprivationism'. I argue that this view explains why death is bad for those who die, and that it has some advantages over Tallman's complete lives view in the context of scarce resource allocation. Finally, I consider some objections to the relevance of Deprivationism to resource allocation, and offer my responses. PMID:27059376

  7. The Financial Resource Allocation Process at Compton Community College: A Redirection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton Community Coll. Federation of Teachers, CA.

    This paper presents a historical portrait of the process of financial resource allocation at Compton Community College (CCC). Introductory material provides information on the college, its organization, and its budgeting and accounting procedures. Next, changes in finances occurring between 1974-75 and 1977-78 are outlined, including the growth of…

  8. Resource allocations, knowledge network characteristics and entrepreneurial orientation of multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Williams; S.H. Lee

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in multinational corporations (MNCs) and develops a new typology of MNC EO based on combining R&D and asset growth investment intensities as orthogonal resource allocations. A cluster analysis of US MNCs on these two dimensions reveals three types

  9. Factors associated with the allocation of carbohydrates to bunch dry matter production in oil palm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports on the factors relevant to the allocation of assimilates to oil palm bunch dry matter (DM) production, based on an extensive set of growth and yield records from experiments in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia.Basically, assimilates from gross assimilation of the canopy are first us

  10. Contribution to the improvement of management in defense logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Ljubojević

    2013-12-01

    improving management in the defense, especially in its logistics, through greater synergy in action, with the least consumption of resources while maintaining or even expanding the system capability („Smart defense” concept, „Pool and share” concept, organizational changes in the field of logistics - the set up Joint Logistic Support Groups, etc.. Understanding and implementing these reforms require a special attitude towards the environment and circumstances in which management decisions are made. Logistical and „nonlogistical” management in the defense needs a broader approach to problems, which will provide them consideration of all the consequences that their decisions can have, not only in the defense, but to all stakeholders, especially end-users of services of the defense system - a society or citizens (civilians and citizens in uniform. Management in the defense system often focuses only on one aspect of the final desired state while ignoring its other aspects or impacts on the wider system, the social environment or the state. In fact, it often tends to minimize the costs of defense, regardless of the implications that arise in the field of defense capabilities and levels of security, particularly „in the long run”. Some of the basic principles of good governance in the defense logistics would be: legality, transparency, responsibility, discipline, cooperation and partnership, continuous improvement and others. As a part of planned and organized work to improve management in defense logistics (analogy applies to the defense system as a whole, special attention should be focused on creating a concept that promotes proper selection, choice, education, training, motivation and development of managers among the most competent, the most educated and the most experienced personnel.   Conclusion   Changes in governance in the public sector, more or less, affect all its segments. Given that the budget allocation for defense is rather high and the defense

  11. The dynamics of resource allocation and costs of reproduction in a sexually dimorphic, wind-pollinated dioecious plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, Z; Pickup, M; Field, D L; Barrett, S C H

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in resource allocation is expected to change during the life cycle of dioecious plants because of temporal differences between the sexes in reproductive investment. Given the potential for sex-specific differences in reproductive costs, resource availability may contribute to variation in reproductive allocation in females and males. Here, we used Rumex hastatulus, a dioecious, wind-pollinated annual plant, to investigate whether sexual dimorphism varies with life-history stage and nutrient availability, and determine whether allocation patterns differ depending on reproductive commitment. To examine if the costs of reproduction varied between the sexes, reproduction was either allowed or prevented through bud removal, and biomass allocation was measured at maturity. In a second experiment to assess variation in sexual dimorphism across the life cycle, and whether this varied with resource availability, plants were grown in high and low nutrients and allocation to roots, aboveground vegetative growth and reproduction were measured at three developmental stages. Males prevented from reproducing compensated with increased above- and belowground allocation to a much larger degree than females, suggesting that male reproductive costs reduce vegetative growth. The proportional allocation to roots, reproductive structures and aboveground vegetative growth varied between the sexes and among life-cycle stages, but not with nutrient treatment. Females allocated proportionally more resources to roots than males at peak flowering, but this pattern was reversed at reproductive maturity under low-nutrient conditions. Our study illustrates the importance of temporal dynamics in sex-specific resource allocation and provides support for high male reproductive costs in wind-pollinated plants.

  12. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  13. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be... allocation. Both direct and allocated indirect costs on projects must be assigned among those companies...

  14. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...

  15. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1... Allocation rules. Where only a portion of property is debt-financed property, proper allocation of the basis...)(iii) of § 1.514(b)-1 for illustrations of proper allocation....

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  17. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  18. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  19. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  20. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... published by the CDFI Fund on how an entity may apply to become certified as a CDE (66 FR 65806, December 20... CDFI Fund reserves the right to allocate tax credit authority to any, all, or none of the entities that... Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round of the New Markets Tax Credit Program Announcement Type:...

  1. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  2. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  3. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  4. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  5. Multi-robot task allocation for exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ping-an; CAI Zi-xing

    2006-01-01

    The problem of allocating a number of exploration tasks to a team of mobile robots in dynamic environments was studied. The team mission is to visit several distributed targets. The path cost of target is proportional to the distance that a robot has to move to visit the target. The team objective is to minimize the average path cost of target over all targets. Finding an optimal allocation is strongly NP-hard. The proposed algorithm can produce a near-optimal solution to it. The allocation can be cast in terms of a multi-round single-item auction by which robots bid on targets. In each auction round, one target is assigned to a robot that produces the lowest path cost of the target. The allocated targets form a forest where each tree corresponds a robot's exploring targets set. Each robot constructs an exploring path through depth-first search in its target tree. The time complexity of the proposed algorithm is polynomial. Simulation experiments show that the allocating method is valid.

  6. A Model of Optimal Allocations of Physical Capital and Human Capital in Three Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shaobo; XUE Minggao

    2007-01-01

    The paper develops an endogenous economic growth model about allcation of physical and human capital in three sectors. Optimal allocation of physical capital and human capital in three sectors is derived, the fraction of physical and human capital in each sector is positively related. The balanced values and the growth rates at steady state are given under certain conditions.Finally relations between the fractions of human capital and parameters are analyzed elaborately.

  7. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  8. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Georgiev, Alexander V; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  9. Effective Proactive and Reactive Defense Strategies against Malicious Attacks in a Virtualized Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Yeong-Sung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization plays an important role in the recent trend of cloud computing. It allows the administrator to manage and allocate hardware resources flexibly. However, it also causes some security issues. This is a critical problem for service providers, who simultaneously strive to defend against malicious attackers while providing legitimate users with high quality service. In this paper, the attack-defense scenario is formulated as a mathematical model where the defender applies both proactive and reactive defense mechanisms against attackers with different attack strategies. In order to simulate real-world conditions, the attackers are assumed to have incomplete information and imperfect knowledge of the target network. This raises the difficulty of solving the model greatly, by turning the problem nondeterministic. After examining the experiment results, effective proactive and reactive defense strategies are proposed. This paper finds that a proactive defense strategy is suitable for dealing with aggressive attackers under “winner takes all” circumstances, while a reactive defense strategy works better in defending against less aggressive attackers under “fight to win or die” circumstances.

  10. Comparisons of Growth and Quantitative Defense Compounds between Plants from Invasive and Native Populations of Chromolaena odorata%飞机草入侵种群和原产地种群生长和数量型化学防御物质含量差异的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茹; 廖志勇; 李扬苹; 冯玉龙

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis predicts that invasive plants may reallocate the resources formerly used for defenses to grow and reproduce in responses to enemy release in introduced ranges , contributing to increased competitive abilities and therefore to invasiveness. To explore the roles of evolution in invasion success of noxious Chromolaena odorata, eight invasive and eight native populations were compared at two nutrient levels in a common garden in terms of growth and quantitative defense compounds such as tannin, total phenolics, hemicellulose and cellulose. The results indicated that plants from invasive populations showed lower hemicelllulose concentrations in leaf and stem than plants from native populations at both nutrient levels. Plants from invasive populations exhibited lower leaf cellulose concentration at high nutrient level but higher leaf and stem phonolics concentrations at lower nutrient level. Plants from invasive and native populations were not significantly different in total biomass at both nutrient levels. Thus, we concluded that C. Odorata may not evolve to increase growth in introduced ranges, while showing genetically based changes in quantitative defense compounds. The decreased hemicellulose and cellulose concentrations in plants from invasive populations of C. Odorata are likely to be associated with the evolutionary responses to the lack of specialist enemies in introduced ranges, while the increased total phenolics concentration may help C. Odorata defend generalist enemies in introduced ranges.%增强竞争能力的进化假说认为,在入侵地外来植物逃离了原产地天敌的控制,把原来用于防御的资源分配到生长、生殖等,从而提高竞争力.为探讨进化在恶性外来入侵植物飞机草(Chromolaena odorata)入侵中的作用,在同质种植园中的两个养分条件下比较研究了飞机草原产地和入侵地各8个种群叶片单宁含量,茎和叶片总酚、

  11. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  12. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLACKÝ Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  13. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  14. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  15. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  16. Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff

    2010-01-01

    We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...

  17. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in

  1. Power flow tracing based method for allocation of transmission service cost to transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 刘娆; 魏立明

    2004-01-01

    Based on the concepts of objective fact and subjeetive desire proposed in this paper, the problens that exist in the nodal injections-based and transaction-based transmission service allocation scheme are pointed out. To get around the problems above, a novel transmission service allocation scheme is proposed which considers the power flow distribution and the transaetion impact on the system simultaneously so that the issues of "Cross-subsidies" and "Counter flow" can be avoided. The principle of the scheme is illustrated using two simple networks with 7 cases. The results show that the proposed scheme can satisfy the properties necessary for the development and growth of the electricity market.

  2. Adaptive dynamic resource allocation in annual eusocial insects: environmental variation will not necessarily promote graded control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strohm Erhard

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the classical model of Macevicz and Oster, annual eusocial insects should show a clear dichotomous "bang-bang" strategy of resource allocation; colony fitness is maximised when a period of pure colony growth (exclusive production of workers is followed by a single reproductive period characterised by the exclusive production of sexuals. However, in several species graded investment strategies with a simultaneous production of workers and sexuals have been observed. Such deviations from the "bang-bang" strategy are usually interpreted as an adaptive (bet-hedging response to environmental fluctuations such as variation in season length or food availability. To generate predictions about the optimal investment pattern of insect colonies in fluctuating environments, we slightly modified Macevicz and Oster's classical model of annual colony dynamics and used a dynamic programming approach nested into a recurrence procedure for the solution of the stochastic optimal control problem. Results 1 The optimal switching time between pure colony growth and the exclusive production of sexuals decreases with increasing environmental variance. 2 Yet, for reasonable levels of environmental fluctuations no deviation from the typical bang-bang strategy is predicted. 3 Model calculations for the halictid bee Lasioglossum malachurum reveal that bet-hedging is not likely to be the reason for the graded allocation into sexuals versus workers observed in this species. 4 When environmental variance reaches a critical level our model predicts an abrupt change from dichotomous behaviour to graded allocation strategies, but the transition between colony growth and production of sexuals is not necessarily monotonic. Both, the critical level of environmental variance as well as the characteristic pattern of resource allocation strongly depend on the type of function used to describe environmental fluctuations. Conclusion Up to now bet

  3. Agent-based simulation and analysis of a defensive UAV swarm against an enemy UAV swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Mauricio F.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned systems, including unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs), are increasingly important in military operations. Given the growth of unmanned systems technology worldwide, these systems may increasingly pose a real threat to U.S. and Allied forces in the near future. This thesis proposes a future concept of employing a defensive UCAV swarm, launched from a friendly sea-based platform. To simulate this defensive swarm system, an agent-based simulation model was developed, and approp...

  4. Redundancy-Allocation in Pharmaceutical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Garg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In present paper three heuristics algorithms to optimize the problem of constrained redundancy allocation in complex system are described and used to allocate redundancy in a manufacturing system namely pharmaceutical plant. Computational procedures of proposed algorithms are outlined. These algorithms are applied to find the best redundancy strategy, combination of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under cost constraints .Results of these algorithms are compared to get best possible solution for the proposed problem.

  5. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking a......The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye......-tracking and key-logging data collected from translation experiments....

  6. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  7. Thrust allocation for DP in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Henrik Emil

    2013-01-01

    The commercial industry has initiated work on how to make it feasible to enter the Arctic seas. Ice loads affects most aspects of the Arctic operation, and the marine crafts must be able to handle them all. The DP control system, and thus the thrust allocation, is not designed to handle ice loads and will not work properly \\cite{Moran}. The main purpose of this master thesis is to enhance the thrust allocation for handling ice loads. This is done by including thruster dynamics and adding thru...

  8. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biere, Arjen; Marak, Hamida B; van Damme, Jos M M

    2004-08-01

    Plants are often attacked by multiple enemies, including pathogens and herbivores. While many plant secondary metabolites show specific effects toward either pathogens or herbivores, some can affect the performance of both these groups of natural enemies and are considered to be "generalized defense compounds". We tested whether aucubin and catalpol, two iridoid glycosides present in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), confer in vivo resistance to both the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca using plants from P. lanceolata lines that had been selected for high- and low-leaf iridoid glycoside concentrations for four generations. The lines differed approximately three-fold in the levels of these compounds. Plants from the high-selection line showed enhanced resistance to both S. exigua and D. adunca, as evidenced by a smaller lesion size and a lower fungal growth rate and spore production, and a lower larval growth rate and herbivory under both choice and no-choice conditions. Gravimetric analysis revealed that the iridoid glycosides acted as feeding deterrents to S. exigua, thereby reducing its food intake rate, rather than having post-ingestive toxic effects as predicted from in vitro effects of hydrolysis products. We suggest that the bitter taste of iridoid glycosides deters feeding by S. exigua, whereas the hydrolysis products formed after tissue damage following fungal infection mediate pathogen resistance. We conclude that iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata can serve as broad-spectrum defenses and that selection for pathogen resistance could potentially result in increased resistance to generalist insect herbivores and vice versa, resulting in diffuse rather than pairwise coevolution. PMID:15146326

  9. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  10. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Pais Mara Patrícia; Varanda Elenice Mouro

    2003-01-01

    Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechani...

  11. Department of Defense, Deployment Health Clinical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Health Policy Library Search psychological health and deployment-related policies and directives, including service-specific policies, published by the Defense Department, Congress ...

  12. SELF-DEFENSE IN KARABAKH CONFLICT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law which has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. But applying self-defense requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. Immediacy defined as the time span between armed attacks and reaction to it, is the main discourse. This condition requires self defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a rational time span since its occurance.In this respect, the emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. After Armenia’s armed attacks, Azerbaijan has acted within the scope of legitimate self-defense. But in accordance with UN Security Council cease-fire resolution Azerbaijan has suspended its self-defense actions. However, today, still twenty percent of Azerbaijani territory is still under Armenian occupation. Accordingly, after a long time the validity of Azerbaijan’s right to legitimate self-defense is still subject to arguments.In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation approaches on the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and armed attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  13. Optimal allocation of testing effort during testing and debugging phases: a control theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, P. K.; Pham, Hoang; Chanda, Udayan; Kumar, Vijay

    2013-09-01

    Allocation of efforts to a software development project during the testing phase is a multifaceted task for software managers. The challenges become stiffer when the nature of the development process is considered in the dynamic environment. Many software reliability growth models have been proposed in last decade to minimise the total testing-effort expenditures, but mostly under static assumption. The main purpose of this article is to investigate an optimal resource allocation plan to minimise the cost of software during the testing and operational phase under dynamic condition. An elaborate optimisation policy based on the optimal control theory is proposed and numerical examples are illustrated. This article also studies the optimal resource allocation problems for various conditions by examining the behaviour of the model parameters and also suggests policy for the optimal release time of the software. The experimental results greatly help us to identify the contribution of each selected parameter and its weight.

  14. Takedown Defenses of Russian Systema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Secours

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuing popularity of mixed martial arts (MMA events has motivated many martial artists to cross train in grappling disciplines. While largely beneficial for the arts as a whole, many practitioners have nevertheless integrated grappling strategies without considering whether or not their applications are simply sportive or appropriate for self-defense tactics. In this article, I will examine some historical perspectives on the role of grappling on the battlefield from published literature and consider the evidence left to us through historical texts and artwork. Based on over 20 years experience in the grappling arts, I will attempt to show that ground fighting and grappling are necessary components of a complete tactical arsenal, while carefully illustrating the difference in street tactics. I will place specific emphasis on the role of defending the takedown in a modern survival scenario, giving particular attention to the approach employed by the Russian art of Systema.

  15. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, walk-away safe design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (O and M) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  16. Strategies for Allocation of the US Federal Budget: Military and Innovative Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhova Darya A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define the conceptual framework and features of priority directions in redistribution of the US federal funds. This subject is very relevant because it discloses a system of financing and allocations of the most powerful state in the world in many aspects. The article describes the structure of government funding of the national military sector and directions of the modernization of the US military-industrial complex. It has been determined that in the global expansion of military actions the USA in no case remain aloof from the given events. Manufacturing the US military products plays a key role in the defense industry not only of the country itself but also the international community as a whole. For Ukraine, with the complications in its military-political situation, the cooperation with the United States and inclusion of the financial assistance to our country in its federal budget are very important. The mentioned directions for allocating the received funds in the amount of $ 300 mln by the Ukrainian government confirm the support by the American state of our military equipment and modernization of the national defense industry

  17. Cost Allocation as a Coordination Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that cost allocation can endogenously arise as a coordination mechanism in a decentralized firm.This result is derived in a setting with multiple (internally supplied) resources shared by multiple users, which constitutes a departure from previous literature.While standard cost allo

  18. Dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozimkiewiez, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    Two Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation algorithms used for coordination of the available bandwidth between end users in a GPON network have been simulated using OPNET to determine and compare the performance, scalability and efficiency of status reporting and non status reporting dynamic bandwidth...

  19. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate market

  20. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  1. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care. PMID:23607154

  2. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...

  3. 20 CFR 631.82 - Substate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substate allocation. 631.82 Section 631.82 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.82 Substate...

  4. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  5. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. Vermeulen; S.M. Bohte; S.G. Elkhuizen; H. Lameris; P.J.M. Bakker; H. La Poutre

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in

  6. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  7. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural ...

  8. Resource Allocation Problems with Concave Reward Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In a resource allocation problem there is a common-pool resource, which has to be divided among agents. Each agent is characterized by a claim on this pool and an individual concave reward function on assigned resources. An assignment of resources is optimal if the total joint reward is ma

  9. Ethics and resource allocation: an economist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper debates some of the issues involved in attempting to apply economic analysis to the health care sector when medical ethics plays such an important part in determining the allocation of resources in that sector. Two distinct ethical positions are highlighted as being fundamental to the understanding of resource allocation in this sector -- deontological and utilitarian theories of ethics. It is argued that medical ethics are often narrowly conceived in that there is a tendency for the individual, rather than society at large, to form the focal point of the production of the service "health care'. Thus medical ethics have been dominated by individualistic ethical coded which do not fully consider questions relating to resource allocation at a social level. It is further argued that the structure of the health care sector augments these "individualistic' ethics. It is also suggested that different actors in the health care sector address questions of resource allocation with respect to different time periods, and that this serves to further enhance the influence of "individualistic' ethical codes in this sector.

  10. An Empirical Investigation of Defense Interpretation Depth, Defensive Functioning, and Alliance Strength in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Bhatia, Maneet; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between depth of defense interpretations by therapists, and patient defensive functioning, on the therapeutic alliance in a sample of 36 patients undergoing short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Defense interpretation depth was defined as the degree to which therapist interpretations contained information regarding the motivation for patient defenses and historical origins of the defensive processes (Greensen, 1967). Mean depth of interpretation was compared between sessions that were identified beforehand as either high-alliance or low-alliance sessions using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II: Luborsky et al., 1996). Results indicated that defensive functioning was correlated to defense interpretation depth in low-alliance sessions. Moreover, mean depth of interpretation was also higher in low-alliance sessions, pointing to the possible "destabilizing" effects that these interpretations may have on both defensive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. These results are discussed within the context of previous studies of therapeutic technique in dynamic psychotherapy.

  11. NaC1胁迫对4种豆科树种幼苗生长和K+、Na+含量的影响%Effects of NaC1 stress on the seedling growth and K+- and Na+-allocation of four leguminous tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫海波; 殷云龙; 芦治国; 魏秀君; 徐建华

    2011-01-01

    Taking the pot-cultured seedlings of four leguminous tree species (Albizia julibrissin, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, and Gleditsia sinensis ) as test materials, this paper studied their growth indices, critical salt concentration ( C50 ) , and K+ and Na+ allocation under different levels of NaCl stress, aimed to understand the difference of test tree species in salt tolerance. NaCl stress inhibited the seedling growth of the tree species. Under NaCl stress, the dry matter accumulation decreased, while the root/shoot ratio increased, especially for A. julibrissin and G. sinensis. Quadratic regression analysis showed that the C50 of A. julibrissin, R. pseudoacacia, S. japonica, and G. sinensis was 3. 0‰, 5. 0‰, 4. 5‰, and 3. 9‰, respectively, i. e. , the salt tolerance of the four tree species was in the order of R. pseudoacacia > S. japonica > G. sinensis > A. julibrissin. In the root, stem, and leaf of the four tree species seedlings, the Na+ content increased with the increase of NaCl stress, while the K+ content ( except in the root of A. julibrissin) decreased after an initial increase, resulting in a larger difference in the K+/Na+ ratio in the organs. Under the same NaCl stress, the allocation of Na+ in different organs of the four tree species seedlings decreased in the order of root>stem>leaf, while that of K+ differed with tree species and NaCl stress, and leaf was the main storage organ for K+. The K+/Na+ ratio in different organs decreased in the sequence of leaf>stem>root. R. pseudoacacia under NaCl stress accumulated more K+ and less Na+ in stem and leaf, and had higher K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and higher dry mass, being assessed to be more salt-tolerant. In contrast, A. julibrissin under high NaCl stress accumulated more Na+ in stem and leaf, and had a lower K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and lower dry mass, being evaluated to be lesser salt-tolerant. The K+ accumulation in seedling stem and leaf and the Na+ retention in

  12. Plant reproductive allocation predicts herbivore dynamics across spatial and temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tyre, Andrew J; Louda, Svata M

    2006-11-01

    Life-history theory suggests that iteroparous plants should be flexible in their allocation of resources toward growth and reproduction. Such plasticity could have consequences for herbivores that prefer or specialize on vegetative versus reproductive structures. To test this prediction, we studied the response of the cactus bug (Narnia pallidicornis) to meristem allocation by tree cholla cactus (Opuntia imbricata). We evaluated the explanatory power of demographic models that incorporated variation in cactus relative reproductive effort (RRE; the proportion of meristems allocated toward reproduction). Field data provided strong support for a single model that defined herbivore fecundity as a time-varying, increasing function of host RRE. High-RRE plants were predicted to support larger insect populations, and this effect was strongest late in the season. Independent field data provided strong support for these qualitative predictions and suggested that plant allocation effects extend across temporal and spatial scales. Specifically, late-season insect abundance was positively associated with interannual changes in cactus RRE over 3 years. Spatial variation in insect abundance was correlated with variation in RRE among five cactus populations across New Mexico. We conclude that plant allocation can be a critical component of resource quality for insect herbivores and, thus, an important mechanism underlying variation in herbivore abundance across time and space.

  13. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  14. 75 FR 3210 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... sector corporations or entities and a wealth of top-level, global business experience in the areas of... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Business Board... gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Business Board (hereafter referred to...

  15. 75 FR 15695 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors National Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Board of Visitors National Defense University (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee... of the Secretary Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of...

  16. 75 FR 13093 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Acquisition University Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... University Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.50(c), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board)....

  17. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream? Headline Series No. 275.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Grier, Peter

    This pamphlet presents a discussion of the various components of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) including the problem of pulling together various new technologies into an effective defensive system and the politics of the so-called "star wars" system. An important part of the defense initiative is the "layered" defense…

  18. 76 FR 11361 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Preservation of Tooling for Major Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... contractor to ``have a system to manage (control, use, preserve, protect, repair, and maintain) Government... internal DoD procedural matters. Specifically, this implementation of section 815 of the National Defense... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 207 RIN 0750-AG45 Defense Federal...

  19. Photoreceptor effects on plant biomass, resource allocation, and metabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deyue; Seaton, Daniel D; Krahmer, Johanna; Halliday, Karen J

    2016-07-01

    Plants sense the light environment through an ensemble of photoreceptors. Members of the phytochrome class of light receptors are known to play a critical role in seedling establishment, and are among the best-characterized plant signaling components. Phytochromes also regulate adult plant growth; however, our knowledge of this process is rather fragmented. This study demonstrates that phytochrome controls carbon allocation and biomass production in the developing plant. Phytochrome mutants have a reduced CO2 uptake, yet overaccumulate daytime sucrose and starch. This finding suggests that even though carbon fixation is impeded, the available carbon resources are not fully used for growth during the day. Supporting this notion, phytochrome depletion alters the proportion of day:night growth. In addition, phytochrome loss leads to sizeable reductions in overall growth, dry weight, total protein levels, and the expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes. Because cellulose and protein are major constituents of plant biomass, our data point to an important role for phytochrome in regulating these fundamental components of plant productivity. We show that phytochrome loss impacts core metabolism, leading to elevated levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, sugar derivatives, and notably the stress metabolites proline and raffinose. Furthermore, the already growth-retarded phytochrome mutants are less responsive to growth-inhibiting abiotic stresses and have elevated expression of stress marker genes. This coordinated response appears to divert resources from energetically costly biomass production to improve resilience. In nature, this strategy may be activated in phytochrome-disabling, vegetation-dense habitats to enhance survival in potentially resource-limiting conditions. PMID:27330114

  20. The drivers to product allocation management: A managerial perspective to allocation decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Lyytinen Otayza, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the study The research objective of this study is to determine what are the drivers of product allocation decision making among Multinational Corporations' (MNC) headquarters. Academic background and methodology The topic of product allocation management has multiple facets in extant academic literature, with the most directly related being supply chain management under order fulfillment and push & pull- based Available-To-Promise (ATP) methods. Due to the increasingl...

  1. Dynamic capacity allocation for low-cost multicarrier multimode PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, R.O.; Bochove, van A.C.; Boer, de P.T.; Sikkes, B.

    2007-01-01

    A stable-matching-based multiuser multicarrier capacity allocation algorithm is proposed. It responds to ONU backlogs and dynamic subchannel gains. Benchmarked against Binary Linear Programming, it results in just 5% less allocated capacity, at much lower complexity.

  2. An Improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for Ethernet PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm for EPON, which combines static and traditional dynamic allocation schemes. Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm may effectively improve the performance of packet delay.

  3. Balanced Contributions for Multi-Issue Allocation Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Freire, S.; Alonso-Meijide, J.M.; Casas-Mendez, B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a property of balanced contributions in the context of multi-issue allocation situations.Using this property, we characterise the run-to-thebank rule for multi-issue allocation situations.

  4. Optimal Joint Multiple Resource Allocation Method for Cloud Computing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Kuribayashi, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. To provide cloud computing services economically, it is important to optimize resource allocation under the assumption that the required resource can be taken from a shared resource pool. In addition, to be able to provide processing ability and storage capacity, it is necessary to allocate bandwidth to access them at the same time. This paper proposes an optimal resource allocation method for cloud computing environments. First, this paper develops a resource allocation model of cloud computing environments, assuming both processing ability and bandwidth are allocated simultaneously to each service request and rented out on an hourly basis. The allocated resources are dedicated to each service request. Next, this paper proposes an optimal joint multiple resource allocation method, based on the above resource allocation model. It is demonstrated by simulation evaluation that the p...

  5. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  6. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process. PMID:7429737

  7. Allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning: Meta-analytical perspectives in phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress

  8. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize: a two-way street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthe, Dawn S; Gill, Torrence; Zhu, Lixue; Lopéz, Lorena; Pechanova, Olga; Shivaji, Renuka; Ankala, Arunkanth; Williams, W Paul

    2011-01-01

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multipronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on "constant alert" due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plant to activate its defenses. The higher jasmonic acid levels trigger the expression of defense genes prior to herbivore attack so the plants are "primed" and respond with a faster and stronger defense. The second defense is the rapid accumulation of a toxic cysteine protease called Mir1-CP in the maize whorl in response to caterpillar feeding. When caterpillars ingest Mir1-CP, it damages the insect's midgut and retards their growth. In this article, we discuss a third possible defense strategy employed by Mp708. We have shown that foliar caterpillar feeding causes Mir1-CP and defense gene transcripts to accumulate in its roots. We propose that caterpillar feeding aboveground sends a signal belowground via the phloem that results in Mir1-CP accumulation in the roots. We also postulate that the roots serve as a reservoir of Mir1-CP that can be mobilized to the whorl in response to caterpillar assault.

  9. Finding core allocations for fixed cost games in electricity networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Stamtsis, Georgios C.; Erlich, István

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the cost allocation problem faced by a network operator, where the fixed (residual) cost of the network has to be allocated among its users. Usage-based methods, such as the postage stamp rate method and the MW-mile method, are easy to understand and compute, but may yield cost allocations for which some transactions are subsidizing others. Formally, this is equivalent to allocations outside of the core of the corresponding cooperative cost game. Our main contribution is to present...

  10. Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Kenneth A

    1996-01-01

    Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...

  11. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  12. DISPOSITION DIAGNOSTIC MEANS OF DEFENSIVE AND COPING BEHAVIOR IN THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational environment today is one of the most effective mediums for self-development and acquisition of new competencies. But due to its structural complexity this environment is highly stressful. However, up to now there are no procedures that would diagnose complex formations (eg, disposition of the defensive and coping behavior in the educational environment. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to close this gap.Methods. After analyzing the existing problems of the theoretical aspects of psychological defense mechanisms of defensive and coping behavior, and taking as a basis the theory of protective dispositions and coping behavior different ways were allocated to show these dispositions in the educational environment.Scientific novelty. The personality questionnaire «Dispositions of defensive and coping behavior in the educational environment» is designed. This questionnaire has sufficient level of validity and reliability. A total of 402 people took part herein the study including different stages.Practical significance. The ready-made questionnaire can be applied by teachers who want to improve the quality of educational process. It will also be useful for students seeking to understand and eliminate the possible cause of own difficulties encountered while studying.

  13. Evolutionary increases in defense during a biological invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Yu-Long; Lei, Yan-Bao; Feng, Yu-Long

    2014-04-01

    Invasive plants generally escape from specialist herbivores of their native ranges but may experience serious damage from generalists. As a result, invasive plants may evolve increased resistance to generalists and tolerance to damage. To test these hypotheses, we carried out a common garden experiment comparing 15 invasive populations with 13 native populations of Chromolaena odorata, including putative source populations identified with molecular methods and binary choice feeding experiments using three generalist herbivores. Plants from invasive populations of C. odorata had both higher resistance to three generalists and higher tolerance to simulated herbivory (shoot removal) than plants from native populations. The higher resistance of plants from invasive populations was associated with higher leaf C content and densities of leaf trichomes and glandular scales, and lower leaf N and water contents. Growth costs were detected for tolerance but not for resistance, and plants from invasive populations of C. odorata showed lower growth costs of tolerance. Our results suggest that invasive plants may evolve to increase both resistance to generalists and tolerance to damage in introduced ranges, especially when the defense traits have low or no fitness costs. Greater defenses in invasive populations may facilitate invasion by C. odorata by reducing generalist impacts and increasing compensatory growth after damage has occurred. PMID:24326694

  14. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of GST exemption. 26.2632-1 Section...-1 Allocation of GST exemption. (a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an individual or the individual's executor may allocate the individual's $1 million GST exemption at any...

  15. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  16. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  17. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604... allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI funds to participating jurisdictions in amounts determined by the formula described in this section. (b) Allocation to states that are...

  18. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  19. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  20. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and... applicable and currently effective methods of allocation filed with the Commission. Both direct and...

  1. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a... method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed....

  2. 48 CFR 1631.203-70 - Allocation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Allocation techniques. 1631... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203-70 Allocation techniques. (a... preferred allocation technique is one that shows the consumption of resources in performance of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.455-3 - Method of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.455-3 Section 1.455-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.455-3 Method of allocation. (a... reasonable manner, provided the method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed....

  4. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use welfare data as an additional factor in the allocation of targeted assistance funds if it so... population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the total... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of funds. 400.319 Section...

  5. MULTICARRIER DS-CDMA WITH ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND POWER ALLOCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yahong; Zhang Zhongpei; Wu Weiling

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive modulation and power allocation is introduced into the multicarrier DS-CDMA system to improve the system performance and bandwidth efficiency. First, the systemdesign appropriate for adaptive modulation and power allocation is given, then the algorithmof adaptive modulation and power allocation is applied. Simulation results demonstrate greatperformance improvement compared with the fixed modulated one.

  6. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  7. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks. The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth. An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity). Three network structures (scale-free, small-world, and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy. Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  8. On Allocation Policies for Power and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachuk, Dmytro; 10.1109/GRID.2010.5697986

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of Internet-based services and applications, power efficiency is becoming a major concern for data center operators, as high electricity consumption not only increases greenhouse gas emissions, but also increases the cost of running the server farm itself. In this paper we address the problem of maximizing the revenue of a service provider by means of dynamic allocation policies that run the minimum amount of servers necessary to meet user's requirements in terms of performance. The results of several experiments executed using Wikipedia traces are described, showing that the proposed schemes work well, even if the workload is non-stationary. Since any resource allocation policy requires the use of forecasting mechanisms, various schemes allowing compensating errors in the load forecasts are presented and evaluated.

  9. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  10. Response-Adaptive Allocation for Circular Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Atanu; Dutta, Somak; Laha, Arnab Kumar; Bakshi, Partho K

    2015-01-01

    Response-adaptive designs are used in phase III clinical trials to allocate a larger proportion of patients to the better treatment. Circular data is a natural outcome in many clinical trial setup, e.g., some measurements in opthalmologic studies, degrees of rotation of hand or waist, etc. There is no available work on response-adaptive designs for circular data. With reference to a dataset on cataract surgery we provide some response-adaptive designs where the responses are of circular nature and propose some test statistics for treatment comparison under adaptive data allocation procedure. Detailed simulation study and the analysis of the dataset, including redesigning the cataract surgery data, are carried out.

  11. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    An aircraft turn-round refers to the set of processes taking place from when an aircraft parks at its arrival stand until the time it departs from its departure stand. When handling a turn-round, the different processes involved (arrival, disembarkation of passengers, cleaning, etc.) require...... different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources...... to handle a given set of aircraft turn-rounds. We develop a set packing-based model formulation of the problem which is both flexible in the sense that it can encapsulate any type of resource required during the handling of a turn-round and strong in the sense that conflicts that occur when two or more turn...

  12. Irreplaceability of Neuronal Ensembles after Memory Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Matsuo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesion studies suggest that an alternative system can compensate for damage to the primary region employed when animals acquire a memory. However, it is unclear whether functional compensation occurs at the cellular ensemble level. Here, we inhibited the activities of a specific subset of neurons activated during initial learning by utilizing a transgenic mouse that expresses tetanus toxin (TeNT under the control of the c-fos promoter. Notably, suppression interfered with relearning while sparing the ability to acquire and express fear memory for a distinct context. These results suggest that the activity of the initial ensemble is preferentially dedicated to the same learning and that it is not replaceable once it is allocated. Our results provide substantial insights into the machinery underlying how the brain allocates individual memories to discrete neuronal ensembles and how it ensures that repetitive learning strengthens memory by reactivating the same neuronal ensembles.

  13. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  14. Inventory Allocation for Online Graphical Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jian; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Tomlin, John; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Anastasakos, Tasos; Kennedy, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a multi-objective/goal programming model for the allocation of inventory of graphical advertisements. The model considers two types of campaigns: guaranteed delivery (GD), which are sold months in advance, and non-guaranteed delivery (NGD), which are sold using real-time auctions. We investigate various advertiser and publisher objectives such as (a) revenue from the sale of impressions, clicks and conversions, (b) future revenue from the sale of NGD inventory, and (c) "fairness" of allocation. While the first two objectives are monetary, the third is not. This combination of demand types and objectives leads to potentially many variations of our model, which we delineate and evaluate. Our experimental results, which are based on optimization runs using real data sets, demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed model.

  15. Energy savings potential in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of factor price distortion and allocative inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001–2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001–2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. - Highlights: • We measure energy savings potential resulted from allocative inefficiency in China's industrial sector. • Allocative inefficiency is explained based on the theoretical and empirical models. • Factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted because of government regulations. • Energy pricing reform is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency

  16. Flexible resources allocation techniques: characteristics and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, El-Awady; Edi, Kouassi Hilaire; Duquenne, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience At the interface between engineering, economics, social sciences and humanities, industrial engineering aims to provide answers to various sectors of business problems. One of these problems is the adjustment between the workload needed by the work to be realised and the availability of the company resources. The objective of this work is to help to find a methodology for the allocation of flexible human resources in industrial activities planning and scheduling. Thi...

  17. Developing a Weighted Collection Development Allocation Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jeff; Creibaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this session the presenters demonstrated and discussed how to create a spreadsheet‐based library collection development allocation formula to help acquisitions personnel better manage their library’s limited collection development resources. The presenters demonstrated and led participants through Arkansas State University’s process of creating an Excel‐based formula that utilizes criteria relevant to their specific library and institution. Key to the success of this formula is the use of ...

  18. Taxation and the Allocation of Talent

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Weyl; Charles Nathanson; Ben Lockwood

    2013-01-01

    Taxation affects the allocation of talented individuals across industries by blunting material incentives and thus relatively magnifying the non-pecuniary benefits of pursuing a "calling". If higher-paying industries (e.g. finance and management) generate less positive net externalities than lower-paying professions (e.g. public service and education) this may enhance efficiency. We develop a theory of income taxation as implicit Pigouvian taxation of these externalities and calibrate it usin...

  19. Education and the allocation of talent

    OpenAIRE

    Hans K. Hvide

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers a two-sector education model with two novel features. First, contracts have an independent role in sorting workers into different sectors of the economy. Second, education improves workers’ awareness of their abilities, and hence can improve the allocation of talent by making workers’ choice of sector better informed. The implication is that the most able skip education, which stands in contrast to results from established theories of education. In the extension, we consi...

  20. Axioms for health care resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines principles of health care resource allocation based on axioms for individual preferences and distributive justice. We establish axioms for representing individual preferences by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as axioms for existence of a social welfare function...... social welfare function with certain weights. Further, we give axioms for a social welfare function being a weighted sum of power transformations of individual QALYs...

  1. The Optimal Allocation of Prizes in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovanu, Benny; Sela, Aner

    2001-01-01

    We study a contest with multiple (not necessarily equal) prizes. Contestants have private information about an ability parameter that affects their costs of bidding. The contestant with the highest bid wins the first prize, the contestant with the second-highest bid wins the second prize, and so on until all the prizes are allocated. All contestants incur their respective costs of bidding. The contest's designer maximizes the expected sum of bids. Our main results are: 1) We display bidding e...

  2. Road Capacity and the Allocation of Time

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Seshasai Kanchi

    2002-01-01

    Additional highway capacity, by increasing travel speed, affects the individual share of time within a 24-hour budget allocated to various activities (time spent at and traveling to home, shop, work and other). Some activities will be undertaken more, others less. This paper extends previous research that identified and quantified induced demand in terms of vehicle miles traveled, by considering what type of demand is induced and which activities are consequently reduced, using the 1990 and 1...

  3. Register allocation for programs in SSA Form

    OpenAIRE

    Hack, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    This book investigates register allocation for programs in static single-assignment form. Its main result is that the interference graphs of SSA-form programs are chordal. This gives the compiler precise knowledge over the register demand and allows for separating spilling, assignment and coalescing. For each of these phases, we present methods specially tailored to the SSA setting and provide a first evaluation.

  4. Stability and resource allocation in project planning

    OpenAIRE

    Leus, Roel; Herroelen, Willy

    2002-01-01

    The majority of resource-constrained project scheduling efforts assumes perfect information about the scheduling problem to be solved and a static deterministic environment within which the pre-computed baseline schedule is executed. In reality, project activities are subject to considerable uncertainty, which generally leads to numerous schedule disruptions. In this paper, we present a resource allocation model that protects a given baseline schedule against activity duration variability. A ...

  5. Modeling Word Relatedness in Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Standard LDA model suffers the problem that the topic assignment of each word is independent and word correlation hence is neglected. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a model called Word Related Latent Dirichlet Allocation (WR-LDA) by incorporating word correlation into LDA topic models. This leads to new capabilities that standard LDA model does not have such as estimating infrequently occurring words or multi-language topic modeling. Experimental results demonstrate the ef...

  6. Fault and the allocation of spare organs.

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, B.(SUPA - School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    This paper argues that rectificatory justice should supplement distributive justice in allocating priority of access to scarce medical resources. Where a patient is at fault for the scarcity of healthy organs a principle of restitution requires that she should give priority to the faultless. Such restitution is non-punitive, and is akin to reparation in civil law, not criminal law. However, it is doubtful whether such a principle can be fairly applied within the present culture of governmenta...

  7. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  8. Procedural Justice in Public Healthcare Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Tsuchiya; Luis Silva Miguel; Richard Edlin; Allan Wailoo; Paul Dolan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The legal studies literature on procedural justice identifies six key characteristics of procedural justice: accuracy, consistency, impartiality, reversibility, transparency and voice. However, the relative importance of these in the context of public healthcare resource allocation is unclear, as is whether they are valuable instrumentally (because it contributes to better outcomes) or inherently (for its own sake). Methods: A survey of 80-odd members of the UK public determined...

  9. A VIEW OF THE BERTH ALLOCATION PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Vanina Macowski Durski Silva; Antônio Sérgio Coelho

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to verify the available scientific research in one of the prevalent problems associated with port services. Most of the studies about ports focus on strategic and tactical problems, thus, there exists a large volume of papers with operational research applications about container operations. Since the majority of the berths are managed and operated by private shipping companies, few studies have been conducted on berth allocation. Therefore, the m...

  10. IQ, Social Mobility and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; José V. Rodríguez Mora

    1998-01-01

    Intelligent agents may contribute to higher technological growth, if assigned appropriate positions in the economy. These positive effects on growth are unlikely to be internalized on a competitive labor market. The allocation of talent depends on the relative award the market assigns to intelligence versus other individual merits, which will also influence intergenerational social mobility. To illustrate this, we present an endogenous growth model where each agent can choose to be a worker o...

  11. Antimicrobial defense systems in saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van 't Hof; E.C.I. Veerman; A.V. Nieuw Amerongen; A.J.M. Ligtenberg

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is one of the most heavily colonized parts of our body. The warm, nutrient-rich and moist environment promotes the growth of a diverse microflora. One of the factors responsible for the ecological equilibrium in the mouth is saliva, which in several ways affects the colonization and

  12. Register Allocation By Model Transformer Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Register allocation has long been formulated as a graph coloring problem, coloring the conflict graph with physical registers. Such a formulation does not fully capture the goal of the allocation, which is to minimize the traffic between registers and memory. Linear scan has been proposed as an alternative to graph coloring, but in essence, it can be viewed as a greedy algorithm for graph coloring: coloring the vertices not in the order of their degrees, but in the order of their occurence in the program. Thus it suffers from almost the same constraints as graph coloring. In this article, I propose a new method of register allocation based on the ideas of model transformer semantics (MTS) and static cache replacement (SCR). Model transformer semantics captures the semantics of registers and the stack. Static cache replacement relaxes the assumptions made by graph coloring and linear scan, aiming directly at reducing register-memory traffic. The method explores a much larger solution space than that of graph c...

  13. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem.

  14. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996

  15. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  16. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  17. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giacomelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  18. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  19. Defensive effects of extrafloral nectaries in quaking aspen differ with scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brent; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    The effects of plant defenses on herbivory can differ among spatial scales. This may be particularly common with indirect defenses, such as extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), that attract predatory arthropods and are dependent on predator distribution, abundance, and behavior. We tested the defensive effects of EFNs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) against damage by a specialist herbivore, the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.), at the scale of individual leaves and entire ramets (i.e., stems). Experiments excluding crawling arthropods revealed that the effects of aspen EFNs differed at the leaf and ramet scales. Crawling predators caused similar reductions in the percent leaf area mined on individual leaves with and without EFNs. However, the extent to which crawling predators increased leaf miner mortality and, consequently, reduced mining damage increased with EFN expression at the ramet scale. Thus, aspen EFNs provided a diffuse defense, reducing damage to leaves across a ramet regardless of leaf-scale EFN expression. We detected lower leaf miner damage and survival unassociated with crawling predators on EFN-bearing leaves, suggesting that direct defenses (e.g., chemical defenses) were stronger on leaves with than without EFNs. Greater direct defenses on EFN-bearing leaves may reduce the probability of losing these leaves and thus weakening ramet-scale EFN defense. Aspen growth was not related to EFN expression or the presence of crawling predators over the course of a single season. Different effects of aspen EFNs at the leaf and ramet scales suggest that future studies may benefit from examining indirect defenses simultaneously at multiple scales.

  20. Pricing in combinatorial double auction-based grid allocation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; LIU Yuan-an; LIU Kai-ming; MA Xiao-lei; YANG Ming

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a novel grid resource allocation model, in which the users and the grid service providers participate in the combinatorial double auction for the resource allocation. To obtain the detailed resource allocation status and the price information, a novel pricing algorithm is designed for the allocation model. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm completes the resource allocation and pricing efficiently, and exhibits incentive compatible characteristic. Moreover,users with the higher average price and providers with the lower average price get compensation during the pricing process.

  1. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  2. A Method of Reliability Allocation of a Complicated Large System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-sheng; QIN Yuan-yuan; WANG Dao-bo

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of reliability allocation for a complicated large system, a new thought is brought up. Reliability allocation should be a kind of decision-making behavior; therefore the more information is used when apportioning a reliability index, the more reasonable an allocation is obtained. Reliability allocation for a complicated large system consists of two processes, the first one is a reliability information reporting process fromt bottom to top, and the other one is a reliability index apportioning process from top to bottom. By a typical example, we illustrate the concrete process of reliability allocation algorithms.

  3. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie; Zeng, Chang-Chang

    2010-11-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  4. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  5. Adaptive Power and Bit Allocation in Multicarrier Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Yong-qing; PENG Qi-cong; SHAO Huai-zong

    2007-01-01

    We present two adaptive power and bit allocation algorithms for multicarrier systems in a frequency selective fading environment. One algorithm allocates bit based on maximizing the channel capacity, another allocates bit based on minimizing the bit-error-rate(BER). Two algorithms allocate power based on minimizing the BER. Results show that the proposed algorithms are more effective than Fischer's algorithm at low average signal-to-noise ration (SNR). This indicates that our algorithms can achieve high spectral efficiency and high communication reliability during bad channel state. Results also denote the bit and power allocation of each algorithm and effects of the number of subcarriers on the BER performance.

  6. Environmental Development Plan: Defense Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) encompasses the programmatic and environmental, health and safety considerations associated with the handling of DOE wastes generated primarily as a byproduct of the DOE national defense programs. The Defense Waste Management Program and the Commercial Waste Manageent (CWM) Program deal with similar technologies pertaining to waste processing, immobilization, packaging, burial, and disposal. However, commercial waste activities are addressed in a separate EDP and are considered in this EDP to the extent that such activities are common to the Defense Waste Management Program. This plan does not address mining and milling tails, transportation of wastes, decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) programs or safeguards, security, and profliferation aspects

  7. Activation of Hepatic STAT3 Maintains Pulmonary Defense during Endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristie L; Allen, Eri; Traber, Katrina E; Kim, Yuri; Wasserman, Gregory A; Jones, Matthew R; Mizgerd, Joseph P; Quinton, Lee J

    2015-10-01

    Pneumonia and infection-induced sepsis are worldwide public health concerns. Both pathologies elicit systemic inflammation and induce a robust acute-phase response (APR). Although APR activation is well regarded as a hallmark of infection, the direct contributions of liver activation to pulmonary defense during sepsis remain unclear. By targeting STAT3-dependent acute-phase changes in the liver, we evaluated the role of liver STAT3 activity in promoting host defense in the context of sepsis and pneumonia. We employed a two-hit endotoxemia/pneumonia model, whereby administration of 18 h of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg of body weight) was followed by intratracheal Escherichia coli (10(6) CFU) in wild-type mice or those lacking hepatocyte STAT3 (hepSTAT3(-/-)). Pneumonia alone (without endotoxemia) was effectively controlled in the absence of liver STAT3. Following endotoxemia and pneumonia, however, hepSTAT3(-/-) mice, with significantly reduced levels of circulating and airspace acute-phase proteins, exhibited significantly elevated lung and blood bacterial burdens and mortality. These data suggested that STAT3-dependent liver responses are necessary to promote host defense. While neither recruited airspace neutrophils nor lung injury was altered in endotoxemic hepSTAT3(-/-) mice, alveolar macrophage reactive oxygen species generation was significantly decreased. Additionally, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from this group of hepSTAT3(-/-) mice allowed greater bacterial growth ex vivo. These results suggest that hepatic STAT3 activation promotes both cellular and humoral lung defenses. Taken together, induction of liver STAT3-dependent gene expression programs is essential to countering the deleterious consequences of sepsis on pneumonia susceptibility. PMID:26216424

  8. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n

  9. DEFENSE MECHANISMS FOR COMPUTER-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Alshammari; Christian Bach

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, corporations and a government agencies relay on computer-based information system to manage their information, this information may be classified, so it will be dangerous if it is disclosed by unauthorized persons. Therefore, there is urgent need for defense. In this research, defense has been categorized into four mechanisms technical defense, operation defense, management defense, and physical defense based on the logic of computer and network security. Also, each mechanism has be...

  10. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  11. Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh

    2008-10-01

    The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571

  12. CHANNEL DE-ALLOCATION SCHEMES FOR GSM/GPRS NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Tigang; Fan Pingzhi; Kam Yiu Lam

    2005-01-01

    Several channel de-allocation schemes for GSM/GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) networks are proposed in this paper. For DRA (Dynamical Resource Allocation) with de-allocation mechanism, if a new voice call arrives and finds that all the channels are busy,then one of the GPRS packets which occupy more than one channel for data transmission may release a channel for the new voice call. This paper presents 5 de-allocation mechanisms, i.e.DA-RANDOM, DA-RICHEST, DA-POOREST, DA-OLDEST and DA-YOUNGEST, to select the GPRS packet for releasing the appropriate channel. Simulation results show that DAOLDEST achieves the best performance, especially in packets blocking probability, among all the de-allocation schemes. Although the performance of the proposed de-allocation schemes is not significantly different, they are all much better than that of the scheme without de-allocation.

  13. Fair subcarrier-power allocation scheme for multiuser multicarrier systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Abd-Elnaby; Germien G Sedhom; Nagy W Messiha; Xu Zhu; Fathi E Abd El-Samie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MU-OFDM) is to maximize the total system capacity in wireless communication systems. Thus, the problem in MU-OFDM system is the adaptive allocation of the resources (subcarriers, bits and power) to different users subject to several restrictions to maximize the total system capacity. In this work, a proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm was presented to assign the subcarriers with highest channel gain to the users. After the subcarrier allocation, subcarrier gain-based power allocation (SGPA) was employed for power and bit loading. The simulation results show that the proposed subcarrier-power allocation scheme can achieve high total system capacity and good fairness in allocating the resources to the users with slightly high computational complexity compared to the existing subcarrier allocation algorithms.

  14. Performance evaluation of sensor allocation algorithm based on covariance control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The covariance control capability of sensor allocation algorithms based on covariance control strategy is an important index to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Owing to lack of standard performance metric indices to evaluate covariance control capability, sensor allocation ratio, etc, there are no guides to follow in the design procedure of sensor allocation algorithm in practical applications. To meet these demands, three quantified performance metric indices are presented, which are average covariance misadjustment quantity (ACMQ), average sensor allocation ratio (ASAR) and matrix metric influence factor (MMIF), where ACMQ, ASAR and MMIF quantify the covariance control capability, the usage of sensor resources and the robustness of sensor allocation algorithm, respectively. Meanwhile, a covariance adaptive sensor allocation algorithm based on a new objective function is proposed to improve the covariance control capability of the algorithm based on information gain. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm have the advantage over the preceding sensor allocation algorithm in covariance control capability and robustness.

  15. Plant-soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata

    OpenAIRE

    te Beest, Mariska; Stevens, Nicola; Olff, Han; van der Putten, Wim H.; van der Wal, Rene

    2009-01-01

    P> Soil communities and their interactions with plants may play a major role in determining the success of invasive species. However, rigorous investigations of this idea using cross-continental comparisons, including native and invasive plant populations, are still scarce. We investigated if interactions with the soil community affect the growth and biomass allocation of the (sub)tropical invasive shrub Chromolaena odorata. We performed a cross-continental comparison with both native and non...

  16. Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 and spectrum allocation on cellular telephone technology

    OpenAIRE

    Glowacki, Jason P.

    2003-01-01

    From 1983, when the first cellular network was established, to 1992, the wireless industry grew by ten million customers. From 1993 to 2000, the wireless industry grew by 90 million customers. Today, there are more than 149 million U.S. wireless subscribers. The phenomenal growth of the wireless industry can be traced to several factors. These factors are improvements in cellular technology, expansion of that technology and the allocation of spectrum by the federal government. This thesis ana...

  17. Factors associated with the allocation of carbohydrates to bunch dry matter production in oil palm.

    OpenAIRE

    Breure, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports on the factors relevant to the allocation of assimilates to oil palm bunch dry matter (DM) production, based on an extensive set of growth and yield records from experiments in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia.Basically, assimilates from gross assimilation of the canopy are first used for maintenance of existing biomass (maintenance respiration). The remaining assimilates are converted into structural DM production. Carbohydrate requirements for components of DM production ar...

  18. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  19. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  20. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  1. Active Cyber Defense Dynamics Exhibiting Rich Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Ren; Xu, Shouhuai

    2016-01-01

    The Internet is a man-made complex system under constant attacks (e.g., Advanced Persistent Threats and malwares). It is therefore important to understand the phenomena that can be induced by the interaction between cyber attacks and cyber defenses. In this paper, we explore the rich phenomena that can be exhibited when the defender employs active defense to combat cyber attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that {\\em active cyber defense dynamics} (or more generally, {\\em cybersecurity dynamics}) can exhibit the bifurcation and chaos phenomena. This has profound implications for cyber security measurement and prediction: (i) it is infeasible (or even impossible) to accurately measure and predict cyber security under certain circumstances; (ii) the defender must manipulate the dynamics to avoid such {\\em unmanageable situations} in real-life defense operations.

  2. Self-defense training for college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, N

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of self-defense training for college women. Advocates of self-defense training believe these courses will not only provide women with the physical survival techniques necessary to repel attacks effectively, but that this kind of training will also help to prevent future violence by developing traits such as assertiveness and confidence in individuals. There is evidence that women who convey such characteristics are less likely to be victimized. Opponents argue that self-defense training does not properly prepare women for an attack, does not adequately address acquaintance rape threats, and can provide a dangerous false sense of security to students. This article reviews the relevant literature, outlines practical suggestions for initiatives in this area, and describes a model self-defense course at one university. Guidelines for evaluation and implications for university policy and program decisions that address violence against women on college campuses are included. PMID:1583240

  3. Toward an Efficient Website Fingerprinting Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez, Marc; Imani, Mohsen; Perry, Mike; Diaz, Claudia; Wright, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Website Fingerprinting attacks enable a passive eavesdropper to recover the user's otherwise anonymized web browsing activity by matching the observed traffic with prerecorded web traffic templates. The defenses that have been proposed to counter these attacks are impractical for deployment in real-world systems due to their high cost in terms of added delay and bandwidth overhead. Further, these defenses have been designed to counter attacks that, despite their high success rates, have been ...

  4. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  5. Surfing China’s National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People’s Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits, from many countries and regions including China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website’s Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  6. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to neutralize toxins a...

  7. Experimental ocean acidification alters the allocation of metabolic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, T-C Francis; Applebaum, Scott L; Manahan, Donal T

    2015-04-14

    Energy is required to maintain physiological homeostasis in response to environmental change. Although responses to environmental stressors frequently are assumed to involve high metabolic costs, the biochemical bases of actual energy demands are rarely quantified. We studied the impact of a near-future scenario of ocean acidification [800 µatm partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)] during the development and growth of an important model organism in developmental and environmental biology, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Size, metabolic rate, biochemical content, and gene expression were not different in larvae growing under control and seawater acidification treatments. Measurements limited to those levels of biological analysis did not reveal the biochemical mechanisms of response to ocean acidification that occurred at the cellular level. In vivo rates of protein synthesis and ion transport increased ∼50% under acidification. Importantly, the in vivo physiological increases in ion transport were not predicted from total enzyme activity or gene expression. Under acidification, the increased rates of protein synthesis and ion transport that were sustained in growing larvae collectively accounted for the majority of available ATP (84%). In contrast, embryos and prefeeding and unfed larvae in control treatments allocated on average only 40% of ATP to these same two processes. Understanding the biochemical strategies for accommodating increases in metabolic energy demand and their biological limitations can serve as a quantitative basis for assessing sublethal effects of global change. Variation in the ability to allocate ATP differentially among essential functions may be a key basis of resilience to ocean acidification and other compounding environmental stressors.

  8. Defensive medicine practices among gastroenterologists in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Hiyama; Masaharu Yoshihara; Shinji Tanaka; Yuji Urabe; Yoshihiko Ikegami; Tatsuma Fukuhara; Kazuaki Chayama

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the prevalence of defensive medicine and the specific defensive medicine practices among gastroenterologists in Japan.METHODS: A survey of gastroenterologists in Hiroshima, Japan, was conducted by mail in March 2006. The number of gastroenterologists reporting defensive medicine behaviors or changes in their scope of practice and the reported defensive medicine practices, i.e., assurance and avoidance behaviors, were examined.RESULTS: A total of 131 (77%) out of 171 gastroenterologists completed the survey. Three (2%) respondents were sued, and most respondents (96%) had liability insurance. Nearly all respondents (98%) reported practieing defensive medicine. Avoidance behaviors, such as avoiding certain procedures or interventions and avoiding caring for high-risk patients, were very common (96%).Seventy-five percent of respondents reported often avoiding certain procedures or interventions. However,seasoned gastroenterologists (those in practice for more than 20 years) adopted avoidance behaviors significantly less often than those in practice for less than 10 years.Assurance behaviors, i.e., supplying additional services of marginal or no medical value, were also widespread (91%). Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported that they sometimes or often referred patients to other specialists unnecessarily.CONCLUSION: Defensive medicine may be highly prevalent among gastroenterologists throughout Japan, with potentially serious implications regarding costs, access,and both technical and interpersonal quality of care.

  9. Self-Defense in Karabakh Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of force is one of the principles of international law that has been banned by the UN Charter and modern constitutions. However, since the enforcement of the UN Charter, self-defense has become the preferred excuse for states to justify their use of force. Applying self-defense, however, requires some conditions. Immediacy is one of the important conditions of self-defense. This is defined as the timeframe between armed attacks and reaction to it. This situation requires self-defense immediately after the armed conflict or during a reasonable timeframe since its occurance.In this respect, emerging Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s is important. In this article, by comparing two different approaches (strict and board interpretation of the temporal link between the measures of self-defense and the armed attacks (immediacy, the temporal link between the self-defense countermeasures of Azerbaijan and attacks by Armenia in Karabakh Conflict will be examined.

  10. FAME - a function allocation design tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Andreas; Hoffmann, Mario

    2001-02-15

    Function allocation between man and machine is a key issue when designing automation systems. One should allocate functions in order to maximise the operator's understanding of the situation and ability to handle unexpected events. This should be done by optimising his/her possibility to observe the state of the plant and to control the plant. Thus function allocation cannot be separated from an analysis of the human system interaction, since the information presented to the operators and the controls available for them to manipulate the process significantly affect their tasks and thus influence their role. FAME is a design support tool for analysis of these issues at an early stage in the design process. Simulations in FAME, utilising analytical models, provide a useful supplement to empirical data when studying the effects of automation on the performance of control room operators. FAME consists of components simulating the behaviour of the operator and the automation, as well as a component for the interaction with a process simulator. The Contextual Control Model, COCOM, is chosen as the basis for the operator component in FAME. A goal-oriented approach is taken, and Goals-Means Task Analysis, GMTA, is used to represent the relations between the goals and the means in the simulation of the scenarios. This report discusses how FAME can support the design process through a series of simulations analysing the operator's ability to control the system and their situation understanding during dynamic plant operation. This is done by emphasizing the fulfilment of goals when evaluating input and selecting actions for output. FAME thus puts the operator in the centre of the analysis, and a comparison between human and machine capabilities is not included in this approach. This report describes the underlying principles of FAME and the main requirements to operator simulation in this context. (Author)

  11. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  12. The Changing Shape of the Defense Industry and Implications for Defense Acquisitions and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria A. Greenfield; Ryan R. Brady

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) In the mid-1990s, the US defense industry experienced a dramatic wave of consolidation. This paper seeks to establish the statistical facts of defense industry consolidation, including the ways in which it reshaped the industry in the 1990s; the ways in which it may continue to reshape the industry; and the forces that promote or discourage it. It also seeks to consider the implications of consolidation for defense acquisitions and poli...

  13. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  14. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  15. Temporal Variations on Allocation of Time

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Ajay Kumar

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the allocation of time and trip-making across time-of-day, day-of-week, and month-of-year, as well as over the past forty years. Some interesting findings result. People are working much more, shopping somewhat more on weekends, and stay at home less today than forty years ago. Time spent in travel on each weekend day (Saturday or Sunday) exceeds that on any weekday, as it did forty years ago. Time spent shopping on a typical day in the busiest month (December) is more...

  16. Bidirectional ROF Links with Dynamic Capacity Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chandan , Dharmendra Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available : Radio over fiber (ROF technology is an integration of wireless and fiber optic network. It plays vital role for broad band wireless communication. The well known advantages of optical as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna site in a wireless network. The joint venture of radio signal and optical fiber technology provides dynamic capacity allocation in radio over fiber links.

  17. DYNAMIC BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION ALGORITHM UTILIZING FULL BAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guodong; Wen Jianhua; Wu Jiangxing

    2006-01-01

    A kind of Dynamic Full Bandwidth Utilized (DFBU) allocation algorithm is introduced. This algorithm allows a single link to use bandwidth far beyond its fair share bandwidth in a multi-service packet transporting system. Three important parameters as the bound on maximum and minimum bandwidth, the maximum packet delay and the minimum band width utilization are discussed and analyzed. Results of experiments show that the DFBU-algorithm is capable of making a single link in the system to use all the spare bandwidth (up to full-bandwidth) while the performance of fairness and QoS requirement is still guaranteed.

  18. Logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition of coal consumption in China based on the energy allocation diagram of coal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript attempted to analyze the influencing factors of coal consumption growth in China using the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition method developed based on the physical processes of coal utilization from raw coal to the end-use sectors. By mapping the energy allocation diagram of coal flows, we built a method to balance the energy allocation of coal flows and derived several technical influencing factors. These factors were used to develop an LMDI decomposition method suitable for analyzing the coal consumption growth of complex coal-use systems, such as that of China. The method is subsequently applied to analyze the influencing factors of China's coal consumption growth from 2001 to 2011. The results indicate the rapid growth of GDP (gross domestic production) per capita, which heavily relied on the expansion of heavy industry as the dominant factor driving coal consumption growth. Improvement in the energy efficiency of coal power generation and coal end-use combustion were the primary factors reducing coal consumption. - Highlights: • Energy allocation diagrams of China's coal flows from primary energy to end-use. • An LMDI method for analyzing influencing factors of coal consumption growth. • Policy implications for controlling the coal consumption growth in China

  19. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism.

  20. The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways: The Road to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Elisheva

    2010-01-01

    The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways was an innovation that changed America. The highway system, the greatest public works project in American history, made travel faster, easier, and safer. However, there were serious negative effects of the highways; they hindered the growth of cities, destroyed…