WorldWideScience

Sample records for allocation growth defense

  1. Sex-related differences in reproductive allocation, growth, defense and herbivory in three dioecious neotropical palms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Cepeda-Cornejo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, in dioecious plants, female plants allocate more resources to reproduction than male plants. Therefore it is expected that asymmetrical allocation to reproduction may lead to a reproduction-growth tradeoff, whereby female plants grow less than male plants, but invest more in defenses and thus experience lower herbivory than male plants.We tested these expectations by comparing resource allocation to reproduction, growth and defense and its consequences on herbivory in three sympatric dioecious Chamaedorea palms (C. alternans, C. pinnatifrons and C. ernesti-augusti using a pair-wise design (replicated male/female neighboring plants in a Mexican tropical rain forest. Our findings support the predictions. Biomass allocation to reproduction in C. pinnatifrons was 3-times higher in female than male plants, consistent with what is known in C. alternans and C. ernesti-augusti. Growth (height and leaf production rate and biomass production was higher in male plants of all three species. Female plants of the three species had traits that suggest greater investment in defense, as they had 4-16% tougher leaves, and 8-18% higher total phenolic compounds concentration. Accordingly, female plants sustained 53-78% lower standing herbivory and 49-87% lower herbivory rates than male plants.Our results suggests that resource allocation to reproduction in the studied palms is more costly to female plants and this leads to predictable intersexual differences in growth, defense and herbivory. We conclude that resource allocation to reproduction in plants can have important consequences that influence their interaction with herbivores. Since herbivory is recognized as an important selective force in plants, these results are of significance to our understanding of plant defense evolution.

  2. Optimal defense resource allocation in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Guoqiang; Xia, Yongxiang

    2018-02-01

    The robustness research of networked systems has drawn widespread attention in the past decade, and one of the central topics is to protect the network from external attacks through allocating appropriate defense resource to different nodes. In this paper, we apply a specific particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the defense resource allocation in scale-free networks. Results reveal that PSO based resource allocation shows a higher robustness than other resource allocation strategies such as uniform, degree-proportional, and betweenness-proportional allocation strategies. Furthermore, we find that assigning less resource to middle-degree nodes under small-scale attack while more resource to low-degree nodes under large-scale attack is conductive to improving the network robustness. Our work provides an insight into the optimal defense resource allocation pattern in scale-free networks and is helpful for designing a more robust network.

  3. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits, such as...... for and augment each other depending on predator densities and the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms. In the presence of time constraints, the model shows peak investment into morphological and behavioral defense at intermediate resource levels......., such as growth or morphological defense. We develop a mathematical model for prey organisms that comprise time and resource allocation trade-offs for multiple defense traits. Fitness is determined by growth and survival during ontogeny. We determine optimal defense strategies for environments that differ...... in their resource abundance, predation risk, and defense effectiveness. We compare the results with results of simplified models where single defense traits are optimized. Our results indicate that selection acts in favor of integrated traits. The selective advantage of expressing multiple defense traits is most...

  4. Carbon limitation reveals allocation priority to defense compounds in peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkelova, Lenka; Unsicker, Sybille; Forkel, Matthias; Huang, Jianbei; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Studies of carbon partitioning during insect or pathogen infestation reveal high carbon investment into induced chemical defenses to deter the biotic agent (Baldwin, 1998). However, little is known how carbon investment into chemical defenses changes under abiotic stress such as drought. Drought forces plants to close their stomata to prevent water loss through transpiration while decreasing the amount of assimilated carbon. Furthermore drought hampers carbohydrates translocation due to declining plant hydration and reduced phloem functioning (McDowell, 2011; Hartmann et al., 2013; Sevanto, 2014). Hence long lasting drought can force plants into carbon starvation. The aim of our study was to disentangle carbon allocation priorities between growth, maintenance metabolism, storage and production of defense compounds under carbon limiting conditions using peppermint as our model plant. Drought is not the only method how to manipulate plant carbon metabolism and photosynthetic yield. Exposing plants to reduced [CO2] air is a promising tool simulating drought induced carbon limitation without affecting phloem functioning and so carbohydrate translocation (Hartmann et al., 2015). We exposed peppermint plants to drought (50% of the control irrigation) and to low [CO2] (progressive decrease from 350 ppm to 20 ppm) to disentangle hydraulic failure from carbon starvation effects on carbon allocation. Drought was applied as a cross-treatment yielding four treatments: watered and high [CO2] (W+CO2), drought and high [CO2] (D+CO2), water and low [CO2] (W-CO2), drought and low [CO2] (D-CO2). We analyzed the most abundant terpenoid defense compounds (α-Pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, menthone, menthol and pulegone) and used continuous 13CO2 labelling to trace allocation pattern of new and old assimilated carbon in the four carbon sinks (structural biomass, water soluble sugars, starch and terpenoid defense compounds) in young expanding leaf tissue. This leaf tissue grew

  5. Parallel evolution in an invasive plant species: evolutionary changes in allocation to growth, defense, competitive ability and regrowth of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    Although the introduction of invasive plant species in a given area causes economic and ecological problems, it still provides an ideal opportunity for ecologists to study evolutionary changes. According to the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis and Shifting Defense Hypothesis, the release from specialist herbivores after introduction is expected invasive plants to shift their costly defense against specialist herbivores to cheaper defense against local generalist herbivore...

  6. Parallel evolution in an invasive plant species : evolutionary changes in allocation to growth, defense, competitive ability and regrowth of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    Although the introduction of invasive plant species in a given area causes economic and ecological problems, it still provides an ideal opportunity for ecologists to study evolutionary changes. According to the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis and Shifting Defense Hypothesis,

  7. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  8. Optimal defense: snails avoid reproductive parts of the lichen Lobaria scrobiculata due to internal defense allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2010-10-01

    The optimal defense theory (ODT) deals with defensive compounds improving fitness of a particular organism. It predicts that these compounds are allocated in proportion to the risk for a specific plant tissue being attacked and this tissue's value for plant fitness. As the benefit of defense cannot easily be measured in plants, the empirical evidence for ODT is limited. However, lichens are unique in the sense that their carbon-based secondary compounds can nondestructively be removed or reduced in concentration by acetone rinsing. By using such an extraction protocol, which is lethal to plants, we have tested the ODT by studying lichens instead of plants as photosynthetically active organisms. Prior to acetone rinsing, we found five times higher concentration of meta-scrobiculin in the reproductive parts (soralia) of Lobaria scrobiculata compared to somatic parts of this foliose epiphytic lichen species. At this stage, the lichen-feeding snail Cochlodina laminata avoided the soralia. However, after removal of secondary compounds, the snail instead preferred the soralia. In this way, we have successfully shown that grazing pattern inversely reflects the partitioning of the secondary compounds that have a documented deterring effect. Thus our study provides strong and novel evidence for the ODT.

  9. Research on air and missile defense task allocation based on extended contract net protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Based on the background of air and missile defense distributed element corporative engagement, the interception task allocation problem of multiple weapon units with multiple targets under network condition is analyzed. Firstly, a mathematical model of task allocation is established by combat task decomposition. Secondly, the initialization assignment based on auction contract and the adjustment allocation scheme based on swap contract were introduced to the task allocation. Finally, through the simulation calculation of typical situation, the model can be used to solve the task allocation problem in complex combat environment.

  10. Error management in plant allocation to herbivore defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Sih, Andy; Ferrari, Maud C O; Karban, Richard; Preisser, Evan L; Sheriff, Michael J; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2015-08-01

    Herbivores can greatly reduce plant fitness. Error management theory (EMT) predicts the evolution of adaptive plant defensive strategies that err towards making less-costly errors so as to avoid making rare, costly errors. EMT provides a common framework for understanding observed levels of variation in plant defense among and within species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance Analysis and Optimal Allocation of Layered Defense M/M/N Queueing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyue Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One important mission of strategic defense is to develop an integrated layered Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS. Motivated by the queueing theory, we presented a work for the representation, modeling, performance simulation, and channels optimal allocation of the layered BMDS M/M/N queueing systems. Firstly, in order to simulate the process of defense and to study the Defense Effectiveness (DE, we modeled and simulated the M/M/N queueing system of layered BMDS. Specifically, we proposed the M/M/N/N and M/M/N/C queueing model for short defense depth and long defense depth, respectively; single target channel and multiple target channels were distinguished in each model. Secondly, we considered the problem of assigning limited target channels to incoming targets, we illustrated how to allocate channels for achieving the best DE, and we also proposed a novel and robust search algorithm for obtaining the minimum channel requirements across a set of neighborhoods. Simultaneously, we presented examples of optimal allocation problems under different constraints. Thirdly, several simulation examples verified the effectiveness of the proposed queueing models. This work may help to understand the rules of queueing process and to provide optimal configuration suggestions for defense decision-making.

  12. 75 FR 32122 - Revisions to Defense Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: John Isbell, Director (Acting), Defense Programs Division, Office of Strategic Industries.... 700.15 would reflect the time period in which the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security... allocation action; (c) The written signature on a manually placed order, or the digital signature or name on...

  13. Commercial Banks' Sectoral Credit Allocation and Growth of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to analyse the impact of commercial banks sectoral credit allocation on the growth index of Nigeria economy. Data for the study were obtained from secondary sources and analysed using econometric methods namely: ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test; vector error correction model and ...

  14. Immigrants’ initial firm allocation and earnings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While employers are playing an increasingly important role in immigration selection in Canada, little is known about how firm-level characteristics affect the economic integration of immigrants. Using a Canadian employer–employee matched dataset, this paper considers whether immigrants initially employed in low-paying firms in Canada experienced inferior earnings growth than those initially employed in high-paying firms. The results show that the large earnings differential observed between immigrants initially employed in low- and high-paying firms diminished only slightly over the subsequent 14 years, even when differences in demographic and general human capital characteristics are taken into account. Alors que les employeurs jouent un rôle de plus en plus important dans la sélection des immigrants qui s’établissent au Canada, on en sait peu sur la façon dont les caractéristiques au niveau de l’entreprise influencent l’intégration économique de ces derniers. Au moyen d’un ensemble de données appariées sur les employeurs et les employés, le présent document vise à déterminer si la croissance des gains des immigrants employés initialement au Canada par des entreprises à bas salaires est plus faible que celle des gains des immigrants employés au départ par des entreprises à hauts salaires. Les résultats montrent que l’écart important observé entre les gains des immigrants employés au départ par des entreprises à bas salaires et de ceux employés par des entreprises à hauts salaires ne diminuait que légèrement au cours des 14 années suivantes, même après avoir tenu compte des différences de caractéristiques démographiques et de caractéristiques générales du capital humain.

  15. Costs of defense and a test of the carbon-nutrient balance and growth-differentiation balance hypotheses for two co-occurring classes of plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Joy Massad

    Full Text Available One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH. Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being invested in increased defense (mass-balance based allocation. The GDBH further predicts trade-offs in growth and defense should only be observed when resources are abundant. Most support for these hypotheses comes from work with phenolics. We examined trade-offs related to production of two classes of defenses, saponins (triterpenoids and flavans (phenolics, in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae, an abundant tree in Costa Rican wet forests. We quantified physiological costs of plant defenses by measuring photosynthetic parameters (which are often assumed to be stable in addition to biomass. Pentaclethra macroloba were grown in full sunlight or shade under three levels of nitrogen alone or with conspecific neighbors that could potentially alter nutrient availability via competition or facilitation. Biomass and photosynthesis were not affected by nitrogen or competition for seedlings in full sunlight, but they responded positively to nitrogen in shade-grown plants. The trade-off predicted by the GDBH between growth and metabolite production was only present between flavans and biomass in sun-grown plants (abundant resource conditions. Support was also only partial for the CNBH as flavans declined with nitrogen but saponins increased. This suggests saponin production should be considered in terms of detailed biosynthetic pathway models while phenolic production fits mass-balance based allocation models (such as the CNBH. Contrary to expectations based on the two

  16. A model of optimal protein allocation during phototrophic growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faizi, M.; Zavřel, Tomáš; Loureiro, C.; Červený, Jan; Steuer, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 166, apr (2018), s. 26-36 ISSN 0303-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17367S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Cellular protein economy * Cyanobacteria * Microbial growth laws * Photosynthesis * Resource allocation * Systems biology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Environmental biotechnology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  17. A whole-plant perspective reveals unexpected impacts of above- and belowground herbivores on plant growth and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Fabiane M; Alborn, Hans T; Vieira-Neto, Ernane H M; Bruna, Emilio M

    2017-01-01

    Trade-offs between plant growth and defense are central to theoretical frameworks used to study the ecology and evolution of plant defense against herbivores. However, these frameworks, as well as the experiments designed to test them, rarely include belowground herbivores. We experimentally challenged seedlings of the tropical shrub Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) with either aboveground foliar herbivores (Spodoptera caterpillars) or belowground root herbivores (the nematode Meloidogyne incognita) and measured the resulting changes in plant growth rates, biomass allocation, and the concentration of defensive terpenoids in roots and leaves. We found that plants that suffered aboveground herbivory responded with aboveground growth but belowground defense. Similarly, belowground herbivory resulted in root growth but elevated defenses of leaves. These results underscore the importance of belowground plant-herbivore interactions, and suggest that, in contrast to theoretical predictions, plants can simultaneously invest in both growth and defense. Finally, they emphasize the need for a "whole-plant" perspective in theoretical and empirical evaluations of plant-herbivore interactions. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. An Analysis of the Impact of Defense Acquisition Reforms and External Factors on Schedule Growth of Defense Weapon Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giacomazzi, III, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    .... This research presents an empirical model of schedule growth to evaluate the impact of acquisition reform efforts, defense budget changes, unexpected inflation, and major contingency operations (war...

  19. Evolution of plant growth and defense in a continental introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Bradburd, Gideon S; Woods, Ellen C; Züst, Tobias; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Bukovinszky, Tibor

    2015-07-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca, which was introduced from North America to Europe over the past 400 years and which lacks most of its specialized herbivores in the introduced range. Using 10 populations from each continent grown in a common environment, we identified several growth and defense traits that have diverged, despite low neutral genetic differentiation between continents. We next developed a Bayesian modeling approach to account for relationships between molecular and phenotypic differences, confirming that continental trait differentiation was greater than expected from neutral genetic differentiation. We found evidence that growth-related traits adaptively diverged within and between continents. Inducible defenses triggered by monarch butterfly herbivory were substantially reduced in European populations, and this reduction in inducibility was concordant with altered phytohormonal dynamics, reduced plant growth, and a trade-off with constitutive investment. Freedom from the community of native and specialized herbivores may have favored constitutive over induced defense. Our replicated analysis of plant growth and defense, including phenotypically plastic traits, suggests adaptive evolution following a continental introduction.

  20. Crustal Growth: In Defense of the Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Guitreau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Plate tectonics was not even in its teens when Armstrong suggested that mantle and crust have interacted at steady-state over Earth's history. With the help of new geochemical tools and large-scale compilations, the concept of steady-state crust (as opposed to continuous crustal growth) is being revived with the implications that the equivalent of several volumes of present-day crust (PDCV) may have been subducted through geological times. Here we argue --or recall-- that four different lines of evidence invalidate this model. (i) The subduction filter must be particularly efficient for argon, even more so than for LILE and most other volatile elements. Atmosphere collects 40Ar degassed from both the extant crust and the crust dragged down at subduction zones over geological time. Regardless of the residence time of the crust at the surface, the amount of atmospheric 40Ar limits subduction of continental crust into the mantle to < 30% of the PDCV [1]. (ii) EM II, the only component that undoubtedly represents subducted continental crust in oceanic basalts, is extremely uncommon. (iii) Crustal age histograms are irrepressibly episodic. It has been argued that erosion selectively removes the crust with the elusive ages [2]. Ages of detrital zircons, which in the selective erosion conjecture should fill the voids, do not support this view [3]. Episodicity is difficult to reconcile with a continental protolith isolated by the common geological processes working either at mid-ocean ridges or subduction zones. A role may be recognized for Wilson cycles, if they can be shown to have prevailed for the entire history of the Earth. Geochemistry demonstrates that superplume material makes up the crustal protolith of all the major juvenile provinces. (iv) The residence time in the mantle of the elements distinctive of the crust is similar to the age of the Earth or even longer [4]. Continental crust finds its source in the instabilities of the lower mantle and the irreversible

  1. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers

    OpenAIRE

    Hechinger Ryan F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrator...

  2. How to be sweet? Extra floral nectar allocation by Gossypium hirsutum fits optimal defense theory predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Bonifay, C.

    2004-01-01

    Plants employ nectar for two distinct functions. Floral nectar has traditionally been viewed in the context of pollination. Extrafloral nectar on the other hand, can act as an indirect defense, allowing the plant to recruit predators and parasitoids. Whereas this makes for a clear-cut

  3. The Defense Resource Allocation Process. Revision. Selected Reading in National Security Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Jimmy Carter and his Secretary of Defense Harold Brown added several initiatives to the PPBS. In 1976, Carter introduccd Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB) to the...Pontax payments to the Federal Government. Economic Analy;is. A systemaitic approach to the problem of choos - ing how to (employ scarce resources and

  4. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  5. On intersectoral allocations, factors substitutability and multiple long-run growth paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Drugeon, Jean-Pierre; Venditti, Alain

    2003-01-01

    This article considers a two-sector model of economic growth with "labour-augmenting" intersectoral external effects stemming from the aggregate capital stock. It is shown that equilibrium balanced growth paths with a non-trivial labour allocation scheme become available. A set of sufficient...

  6. Explaining development aid allocation by growth: A meta study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The empirical literature explaining the driving forces behind the flows of development aid consists of (at least) 166 studies. One factor that has been analyzed in 30 of these studies is  growth in the recipient country. A priori the effect may as well be positive as negative. This is  an interes......The empirical literature explaining the driving forces behind the flows of development aid consists of (at least) 166 studies. One factor that has been analyzed in 30 of these studies is  growth in the recipient country. A priori the effect may as well be positive as negative. This is......  an interesting factor for two reasons: (1) It is relatively easy to interpret the results, and (2) it  is an important piece in the picture which suggests aid ineffectiveness. The paper is a meta-analysis of the 211 growth-aid estimates found in the 30 empirical studies. Additionally, we present new evidence...

  7. Biomass allocation and long-term growth patterns of temperate lianas in comparison with trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Ryuji; Tateno, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The host-dependent support habit of lianas is generally interpreted as a strategy designed to reduce resource investment in mechanical tissues; this allows preferential allocation to leaf and stem extension, thereby enhancing productivity and competitive abilities. However, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. We examined the aboveground allometries regarding biomass allocation (leaf mass and current-year stem mass (approximated as biomass allocated to extension growth) vs total aboveground mass) and long-term apparent growth patterns (height and aboveground mass vs age, i.e. numbers of growth rings) for nine deciduous liana species in Japan. Lianas had, on average, three- and five-fold greater leaf and current-year stem mass, respectively, than trees for a given aboveground mass, whereas the time course to reach the forest canopy was comparable and biomass accumulation during that period was only one-tenth that of co-occurring canopy trees. The balance between the lengths of yearly stem extension and existing older stems indicated that lianas lost c. 75% of stem length during growth to the canopy, which is probably a consequence of the host-dependent growth. Our observations suggest that, although lianas rely on hosts mechanically, allowing for short-term vigorous growth, this habit requires a large cost and could limit plant growth over protracted periods. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2010-05-07

    The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrators (body snatchers). I quantify growth, reproductive effort, and expected extrinsic mortality for several species that, despite being different species, use the same species' phenotype for growth and survival. These are eight trematode parasitic castrators-the individuals of which infect and take over the bodies of the same host species-and their uninfected host, the California horn snail. As predicted, across species, growth decreased with increased extrinsic mortality, while reproductive effort increased with increased extrinsic mortality. The trematode parasitic castrator species (operating stolen host bodies) that were more likely to be killed by dominant species allocated less to growth and relatively more to current reproduction than did species with greater life expectancies. Both genders of uninfected snails fit into the patterns observed for the parasitic castrator species, allocating as much to growth and to current reproduction as expected given their probability of reproductive death (castration by trematode parasites). Additionally, species differences appeared to represent species-specific adaptations, not general plastic responses to local mortality risk. Broadly, this research illustrates that parasitic castrator guilds can allow unique comparative tests discerning the forces promoting adaptive evolution. The specific findings of this study support the hypothesis that extrinsic mortality influences species differences in growth and reproduction.

  9. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.E.; Calvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  10. Dynamical Allocation of Cellular Resources as an Optimal Control Problem: Novel Insights into Microbial Growth Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nils; Mairet, Francis; Gouzé, Jean-Luc; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

    2016-03-01

    Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment.

  11. Dynamical Allocation of Cellular Resources as an Optimal Control Problem: Novel Insights into Microbial Growth Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Giordano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment.

  12. Genotypic Tannin Levels in Populus tremula Impact the Way Nitrogen Enrichment Affects Growth and Allocation Responses for Some Traits and Not for Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandau, Franziska; Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo; Gundale, Michael J; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2015-01-01

    Plant intraspecific variability has been proposed as a key mechanism by which plants adapt to environmental change. In boreal forests where nitrogen availability is strongly limited, nitrogen addition happens indirectly through atmospheric N deposition and directly through industrial forest fertilization. These anthropogenic inputs of N have numerous environmental consequences, including shifts in plant species composition and reductions in plant species diversity. However, we know less about how genetic differences within plant populations determine how species respond to eutrophication in boreal forests. According to plant defense theories, nitrogen addition will cause plants to shift carbon allocation more towards growth and less to chemical defense, potentially enhancing vulnerability to antagonists. Aspens are keystone species in boreal forests that produce condensed tannins to serve as chemical defense. We conducted an experiment using ten Populus tremula genotypes from the Swedish Aspen Collection that express extreme levels of baseline investment into foliar condensed tannins. We investigated whether investment into growth and phenolic defense compounds in young plants varied in response to two nitrogen addition levels, corresponding to atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. Nitrogen addition generally caused growth to increase, and tannin levels to decrease; however, individualistic responses among genotypes were found for height growth, biomass of specific tissues, root:shoot ratios, and tissue lignin and N concentrations. A genotype's baseline ability to produce and store condensed tannins also influenced plant responses to N, although this effect was relatively minor. High-tannin genotypes tended to grow less biomass under low nitrogen levels and more at the highest fertilization level. Thus, the ability in aspen to produce foliar tannins is likely associated with a steeper reaction norm of growth responses, which suggests a

  13. Changes in biomass allocation buffer low CO2effects on tree growth during the last glaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Gerhart, Laci M; Harrison, Sandy P; Ward, Joy K; Harris, John M; Prentice, I Colin

    2017-02-24

    Isotopic measurements on junipers growing in southern California during the last glacial, when the ambient atmospheric [CO 2 ] (c a ) was ~180 ppm, show the leaf-internal [CO 2 ] (c i ) was approaching the modern CO 2 compensation point for C 3 plants. Despite this, stem growth rates were similar to today. Using a coupled light-use efficiency and tree growth model, we show that it is possible to maintain a stable c i /c a ratio because both vapour pressure deficit and temperature were decreased under glacial conditions at La Brea, and these have compensating effects on the c i /c a ratio. Reduced photorespiration at lower temperatures would partly mitigate the effect of low c i on gross primary production, but maintenance of present-day radial growth also requires a ~27% reduction in the ratio of fine root mass to leaf area. Such a shift was possible due to reduced drought stress under glacial conditions at La Brea. The necessity for changes in allocation in response to changes in [CO 2 ] is consistent with increased below-ground allocation, and the apparent homoeostasis of radial growth, as c a increases today.

  14. Resolution of growth-defense conflict: mechanistic insights from jasmonate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Major, Ian T; Howe, Gregg A

    2018-03-16

    Induced plant resistance depends on the production of specialized metabolites that repel attack by biotic aggressors and is often associated with reduced growth of vegetative tissues. Despite progress in understanding the signal transduction networks that control growth-defense tradeoffs, much remains to be learned about how growth rate is coordinated with changes in metabolism during growth-to-defense transitions. Here, we highlight recent advances in jasmonate research to suggest how a major branch of plant immunity is dynamically regulated to calibrate growth-defense balance with shifts in carbon availability. We review evidence that diminished growth, as an integral facet of induced resistance, may optimize the temporal and spatial expression of defense compounds without compromising other critical roles of central metabolism. New insights into the evolution of jasmonate signaling further suggest that opposing selective pressures associated with too much or too little defense may have shaped the emergence of a modular jasmonate pathway that integrates primary and specialized metabolism through the control of repressor-transcription factor complexes. A better understanding of the mechanistic basis of growth-defense balance has important implications for boosting plant productivity, including insights into how these tradeoffs may be uncoupled for agricultural improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does reproduction compromise defense in woody plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Herms; William J. Mattson

    1991-01-01

    A general principle of adaptive allocation was proposed by Cody (1966) who hypothesized that 1) all living organisms have finite resources to partition among growth and competing physiological processes such as reproduction and defense; and 2) natural selection results in the evolution of unique resource allocation patterns that maximize fitness in different...

  16. Mechanisms to Mitigate the Trade-Off between Growth and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, Talia L; Chae, Eunyoung; Herman, Jacob J; Bergelson, Joy

    2017-04-01

    Plants have evolved an array of defenses against pathogens. However, mounting a defense response frequently comes with the cost of a reduction in growth and reproduction, carrying critical implications for natural and agricultural populations. This review focuses on how costs are generated and whether and how they can be mitigated. Most well-characterized growth-defense trade-offs stem from antagonistic crosstalk among hormones rather than an identified metabolic expenditure. A primary way plants mitigate such costs is through restricted expression of resistance; this can be achieved through inducible expression of defense genes or by the concentration of defense to particular times or tissues. Defense pathways can be primed for more effective induction, and primed states can be transmitted to offspring. We examine the resistance ( R ) genes as a case study of how the toll of defense can be generated and ameliorated. The fine-scale regulation of R genes is critical to alleviate the burden of their expression, and the genomic organization of R genes into coregulatory modules reduces costs. Plants can also recruit protection from other species. Exciting new evidence indicates that a plant's genotype influences the microbiome composition, lending credence to the hypothesis that plants shape their microbiome to enhance defense. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. An evolutionarily young defense metabolite influences the root growth of plants via the ancient TOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Thomsen, Marie-Louise F; Nintemann, Sebastian J; Jagd, Lea Møller; Bourgine, Baptiste; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2017-12-12

    To optimize fitness a plant should monitor its metabolism to appropriately control growth and defense. Primary metabolism can be measured by the universally conserved TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway to balance growth and development with the available energy and nutrients. Recent work suggests that plants may measure defense metabolites to potentially provide a strategy ensuring fast reallocation of resources to coordinate plant growth and defense. There is little understanding of mechanisms enabling defense metabolite signaling. To identify mechanisms of defense metabolite signaling, we used glucosinolates, an important class of plant defense metabolites. We report novel signaling properties specific to one distinct glucosinolate, 3-hydroxypropylglucosinolate across plants and fungi. This defense metabolite, or derived compounds, reversibly inhibits root growth and development. 3-hydroxypropylglucosinolate signaling functions via genes in the ancient TOR pathway. If this event is not unique, this raises the possibility that other evolutionarily new plant metabolites may link to ancient signaling pathways.

  18. Effects of space allocations and energy levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X J; Yan, L; Kim, Y M; Kim, I H

    2018-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of different space allocations and different dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 84 growing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an initial body weight (BW) of 27.10 ± 1.60 kg were used in a 5-week trial. Pigs were blocked based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.60 or 0.80 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,400 or 3,550 kcal/kg ME of diets. In experiment 2, a total of 84 finishing pigs with an initial BW of 67.43 ± 1.97 kg were used in a 10-week trial. Pigs were allotted based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.81 or 1.08 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,300 or 3,450 kcal/kg ME of diet. In experiment 1, high ME diet improved gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) in pigs with low space allocation but not in pigs in high space allocation (p space allocation but decreased ATTD of nitrogen in high space allocation (p space allocation but not in pigs with high space allocation (p space allocation but can improve feed efficiency in growing pigs and daily gain and feed efficiency early-finishing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Distributed Generators Allocation in Radial Distribution Systems with Load Growth using Loss Sensitivity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Vijay Babu, P.; Murty, V. V. S. N.

    2017-06-01

    Rapidly increasing electricity demands and capacity shortage of transmission and distribution facilities are the main driving forces for the growth of distributed generation (DG) integration in power grids. One of the reasons for choosing a DG is its ability to support voltage in a distribution system. Selection of effective DG characteristics and DG parameters is a significant concern of distribution system planners to obtain maximum potential benefits from the DG unit. The objective of the paper is to reduce the power losses and improve the voltage profile of the radial distribution system with optimal allocation of the multiple DG in the system. The main contribution in this paper is (i) combined power loss sensitivity (CPLS) based method for multiple DG locations, (ii) determination of optimal sizes for multiple DG units at unity and lagging power factor, (iii) impact of DG installed at optimal, that is, combined load power factor on the system performance, (iv) impact of load growth on optimal DG planning, (v) Impact of DG integration in distribution systems on voltage stability index, (vi) Economic and technical Impact of DG integration in the distribution systems. The load growth factor has been considered in the study which is essential for planning and expansion of the existing systems. The technical and economic aspects are investigated in terms of improvement in voltage profile, reduction in total power losses, cost of energy loss, cost of power obtained from DG, cost of power intake from the substation, and savings in cost of energy loss. The results are obtained on IEEE 69-bus radial distribution systems and also compared with other existing methods.

  20. Light and nutrient effects on growth and allocation of Inga vera(Leguminosae), a successional tree of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Myster

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of acquiring a better understanding of ecological growth and biomass allocation of Neotropical trees, I inoculated Inga vera Willd. (Leguminosae) plants from cuttings with Rhizobium spp. and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and grew them in a greenhouse for 8 months under varying light (L), phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N) treatments. I obtained the following...

  1. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  2. Stand density, tree social status and water stress influence allocation in height and diameter growth of Quercus petraea (Liebl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvé, Raphaël; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Seynave, Ingrid; Collet, Catherine; Lebourgeois, François

    2015-10-01

    Even-aged forest stands are competitive communities where competition for light gives advantages to tall individuals, thereby inducing a race for height. These same individuals must however balance this competitive advantage with height-related mechanical and hydraulic risks. These phenomena may induce variations in height-diameter growth relationships, with primary dependences on stand density and tree social status as proxies for competition pressure and access to light, and on availability of local environmental resources, including water. We aimed to investigate the effects of stand density, tree social status and water stress on the individual height-circumference growth allocation (Δh-Δc), in even-aged stands of Quercus petraea Liebl. (sessile oak). Within-stand Δc was used as surrogate for tree social status. We used an original long-term experimental plot network, set up in the species production area in France, and designed to explore stand dynamics on a maximum density gradient. Growth allocation was modelled statistically by relating the shape of the Δh-Δc relationship to stand density, stand age and water deficit. The shape of the Δh-Δc relationship shifted from linear with a moderate slope in open-grown stands to concave saturating with an initial steep slope in closed stands. Maximum height growth was found to follow a typical mono-modal response to stand age. In open-grown stands, increasing summer soil water deficit was found to decrease height growth relative to radial growth, suggesting hydraulic constraints on height growth. A similar pattern was found in closed stands, the magnitude of the effect however lowering from suppressed to dominant trees. We highlight the high phenotypic plasticity of growth in sessile oak trees that further adapt their allocation scheme to their environment. Stand density and tree social status were major drivers of growth allocation variations, while water stress had a detrimental effect on height in the

  3. Costs and benefits of experimentally induced changes in the allocation of growth versus immune function under differential exposure to ectoparasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pitala

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology has focused on the costs of investment in immunocompetence. However, understanding optimal resource allocation to immune defence requires also identification of its benefits, which are likely to occur only when parasites are abundant.We manipulated the abundance of parasitic hen fleas in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus nests, and supplemented their hosts, the nestlings, with methionine (a sulphur amino acid enhancing cell-mediated immunity during day 3-6. We found a significant interaction between these two experimental factors on the development of immune defences and growth rates. Only in parasitized nests did methionine supplementation boost immune (PHA response, and did nestling with experimentally increased immunocompetence show a relatively faster growth rate than control nestlings between days 6-9. Hence, the allocation of resources into immune defence and its growth-benefits are apparent only in presence of parasites. The main cost of methionine-induced increased allocation to the immune system was an increase in mortality, independently of ectoparasites. Nestlings in all treatments compensated initial growth reduction and all reached equal body size at day 16 (just prior to fledging, indicating a lack of long-term benefits. In addition, methionine treatment tended (P = 0.09 to lower circulating plasma immunoglobulin levels, possibly indicating a trade-off between the cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system.We found no strong benefits of an increased investment in immunocompetence in a parasite-rich environment. Any deviation from the growth trajectory (due to changes in allocation induced by methionine is largely detrimental for survival. Hence, while costs are apparent identifying the benefits of investment in immunocompetence during ontogeny is challenging.

  4. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  5. Larval growth rate and sex determine resource allocation and stress responsiveness across life stages in juvenile frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Robin W; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-03-01

    The extent to which interactions between environmental stressors and phenotypic variation during larval life stages impose carry-over effects on adult phenotypes in wildlife are not clear. Using semi-natural mesocosms, we examined how chronically low food availability and size-specific phenotypes in larval amphibians interact and carry over to influence frog growth, resource allocation, endocrine activity and survival. We tagged three cohorts of larvae that differed in body size and developmental stage at 3 weeks after hatching, and tracked them through 10 weeks after metamorphosis in high and low food conditions. We found that growth and development rates during the early tadpole stage not only affected metamorphic rates, but also shaped resource allocation and stress responsiveness in frogs: the slowest growing larvae from low-food mesocosms exhibited a suppressed glucocorticoid response to a handling stressor; reduced growth rate and fat storage as frogs. We also show for the first time that larval developmental trajectories varied with sex, where females developed faster than males especially in food-restricted conditions. Last, while larval food restriction profoundly affected body size in larvae and frogs, time to metamorphosis was highly constrained, which suggests that the physiology and development of this ephemeral pond-breeding amphibian is adapted for rapid metamorphosis despite large potential variation in nutrient availability. Taken together, these results suggest that larval phenotypic variation significantly influences multiple dimensions of post-metamorphic physiology and resource allocation, which likely affect overall performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Alterations in the antioxidant defense system in prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espejo, M; Gil-Campos, M; Mesa, M D; García-Rodríguez, C E; Muñoz-Villanueva, M C; Pérez-Navero, J L

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress is well known in the pathogenesis of acquired malnutrition. Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with an imbalance in oxidative stress/antioxidant system. Therefore, early postnatal environment and, consequently, extrauterine growth restriction might be associated with alterations in the antioxidant defense system, even in the prepubertal stage. This is a descriptive, analytical, and observational case-control study. The study included two groups; 38 Caucasian prepubertal children born prematurely and with a history of extrauterine growth restriction as the case group, and 123 gender- and age-matched controls. Plasma exogenous antioxidant (retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) concentrations were measured by HPLC; antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were determined in lysed erythrocytes by spectrophotometric techniques. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly lower in extrauterine growth restriction children than in controls (P restriction prepubertal children as compared with controls. After correction by gestational age, birth weight, and length, statistically significant differences were also found, except for retinol. Prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction present alterations in their antioxidant defense system. Knowing these alterations may be important in establishing pharmacological and nutritional treatments as this situation might be associated with higher metabolic disorders in adulthood.

  7. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  8. Effects of simulated root herbivory and fertilizer application on growth and biomass allocation in the clonal perennialSolidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B; Miao, S L; Bazzaz, F A

    1990-08-01

    Compensatory growth in response to simulated belowground herbivory was studied in the old-field clonal perennialSolidago canadensis. We grew rootpruned plants and plants with intact root systems in soil with or without fertilizer. For individual current shoots (aerial shoot with rhizome and roots) and for whole clones the following predictions were tested: a) root removal is compensated by increased root growth, b) fertilizer application leads to increased allocation to aboveground plant organs and increased leaf turnover, c) effects of fertilizer application are reduced in rootpruned plants. When most roots (90%) were removed current shoots quickly restored equilibrium between above-and belowground parts by compensatory belowground growth whereas the whole clone responded with reduced aboveground growth. This suggests that parts of a clone which are shared by actively growing shoots act as a buffer that can be used as source of material for compensatory growth in response to herbivory. Current shoots increased aboveground mass and whole clones reduced belowground mass in response to fertilizer application, both leading to increased allocation to aboverground parts. Also with fertilizer application both root-pruned and not root-pruned plants increased leaf and shoot turnover. Unfertilized plants, whether rootpruned or not, showed practically no aboveground growth and very little leaf and shoot turnover. Effects of root removal were as severe or more severe under conditions of high as under conditions of low nutrients, suggesting that negative effects of belowground herbivory are not ameliorated by abundant nutrients. Root removal may negate some effects of fertilizer application on the growth of current shoots and whole clones.

  9. Economic Growth and Defense Spending in Greece, Turkey and Cyprus: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianou Tasos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and defense spending for three adjacent countries, namely Greece, Turkey and Cyprus. Greece and Cyprus, members-countries of European Union spend much more money than other member countries of EU relatively to their GDP. Turkey is in accession negotiations with EU and is among the top 15 countries with the highest military expenditure. These three countries are particularly interesting case studies because of their high military burdens and the bad relations between them (Greece and Cyprus opposite Turkey. The empirical analysis is based on panel data analysis of data over the period 1960 – 2006.

  10. Defense Spending, Growth And Inequality, 1970-2008: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan TAŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between defense expentures, income inequality and growth in Turkey for the period of 1970-2008. In the study, the problem of lack of time series data has been overcome by using manufacturing pay inequality index constructed by Theil T Statistic. Although there are numerous studies that examine the different aspects of military spending in Turkey, there are few studies that analyse the impact of military spending on income distribution in Turkey. Considering this lack in the literature, the study, utilizing basic cointegration and VAR model, aims to contribute to the literaure

  11. Plant defense, growth, and habitat: a comparative assessment of constitutive and induced resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, Peter A

    2007-08-01

    The growth rate (GR) hypothesis relates the evolution of plant defense to resource availability and predicts that plants that have evolved in abiotically stressful environments grow inherently more slowly and are more constitutively resistant to herbivory than plants from more productive habitats. Stress-adapted plants are also predicted to have reduced inducibility, but this prediction has not been previously tested. To evaluate this hypothesis, I compared the growth of nine species of herbaceous plants from Missouri glade habitats to congeners from more productive non-glade habitats. I also conducted bioassays using larvae of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua to estimate constitutive and inducible resistance in these congeners. Glade congeners tended to grow more slowly and have higher constitutive resistance and lower inducibility than non-glade species. However, none of these comparisons was statistically significant due to the conflicting response of one congeneric pair (Salvia azurea and S. lyrata). Analyses without this genus were consistent with the GR hypothesis, as were analyses that categorized congeners by relative growth rate. These results highlight the complexity in searching for factors that determine plant growth rates and resistance traits across multiple genera and support the hypothesis that both constitutive and induced resistance may be influenced by selection on traits that alter plant growth rates. Future studies should attempt to determine whether variation in inducibility is better explained by habitat or relative plant growth rates.

  12. Dwarf males, large hermaphrodites and females in marine species: a dynamic optimization model of sex allocation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Sawada, Kota; Yusa, Yoichi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the evolutionarily stable schedule of growth and sex allocation for marine benthic species that contain dwarf males. We consider a population in an ephemeral microhabitat that receives a constant supply of larvae. Small individuals can immediately reproduce as a dwarf male or remain immature and grow. Large individuals allocate reproductive resources between male and female functions. The fraction c of newly settled individuals who remain immature and the sex allocation of large individuals m are quantities to evolve. In the stationary ESS, if the relative reproductive success of dwarf males is greater than the survivorship of immature individuals until they reach a mature size, then the population is a mixture of females and dwarf males. If the opposite inequality holds, the population is dominated by hermaphrodites and lacks dwarf males. There is no case in which a mixture of hermaphrodites and dwarf males to be the ESS in the stationary solution. The ESS can be solved by dynamic programming when the strategies depend on the age of the microhabitat (c(t) and m(t)). Typically, the ESS schedule begins with a population composed only of hermaphrodites, which is replaced by a mixture of dwarf males and hermaphrodites and then by a mixture of dwarf males and pure females. The relative importance of these three phases depends on multiple parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Espinoza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don.Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering.Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles, root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed.Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local landrace of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity.Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio.Key words: early testing; environmental interaction; ontogeny; plasticity index; water stress.

  14. Blockmodeling and the Estimation of Evolutionary Architectural Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    uncertainty is high and confidence is low Focused Question: Can parametric cost estimation, in conjunction with DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Blockmodeling and the Estimation of Evolutionary Architectural Growth in...Estimation of Evolutionary Architectural Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs LTC Matthew Dabkowski, U.S. Army, University of Arizona Ricardo

  15. Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, Daniel; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Ponton, Stephane; Sette, Carlos R; Delgado-Rojas, Juan S; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) of stem wood α-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected δ(13)C of stem wood α-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation.

  16. A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with Growth Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Barenholz

    Full Text Available Most proteins show changes in level across growth conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific growth rate rather than the growth environment or the protein function. Although cellular growth rates, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific growth rate. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the growth rate. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific growth rate arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between growth rate and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various growth conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the growth rate. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with growth rate, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the growth rate, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms.

  17. The growth-defense pivot: Crisis management in plants mediated by LRR-RK surface receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Yang, Li; Hetzel, Jonathan; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Chory, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of greater than 200 leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense tradeoffs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants. PMID:25089011

  18. [Characteristics of Stipa grandis growth and reproductive biomass allocation at different hill position of Xilingol grassland, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Gao, Yu-bao; Liu, Hai-ying; Liu, Jing-ling

    2009-09-01

    An investigation was conducted on the vegetative and reproductive biomass allocation of Stipa grandis at the hill-top and hill-foot of Xilingol grassland, and relatedness- and factor analyses were made to study the effects of hill position on the S. grandis seed biomass. Significant differences were observed in the vegetative and reproductive growth of S. grandis plants at the hill-top and hill-foot. At hill-foot, the height and number of non-flowering S. grandis ramets increased by 24.69% and 35.37%, respectively, the number of flowering ramets increased by 102.97%, the vegetative, reproductive, and total biomass increased by 44.14%, 95.59% and 47.45%, respectively, and the 100-grain mass increased by 25.00%, as compared with those at hill-top. The seed biomass of S. grandis at hill-top was mainly affected by soil moisture content, while that at hill-foot was mainly affected by soil pH. Hill position induced the differentiation of soil moisture and N contents, and made the S. grandis at the fertile hill-foot allocating more energy to its sexual reproduction.

  19. Highly plastic resource allocation to growth and reproduction in females of an African annual fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 616-628 ISSN 0906-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Keywords : Nothobranchius * compensatory growth * egg size * life history * diet restriction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2015

  20. Interaction between root growth allocation and mycorrhizal fungi in soil with patchy P distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felderer, B.; Jansa, Jan; Schulin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2013), s. 569-582 ISSN 0032-079X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Preferential root growth * Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Lotus japonicus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.235, year: 2013

  1. Assessing wheat yield, Biomass, and water productivity responses to growth stage based irrigation water allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing irrigated wheat yields is important to the overall profitability of limited-irrigation cropping systems in western Kansas. A simulation study was conducted to (1) validate APSIM's (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator) ability to simulate wheat growth and yield in Kansas, and (2) app...

  2. Analysis of trehalose-6-phosphate control over carbon allocation and growth in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghdasi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Trehalose is the non-reducing alpha-alpha-1, 1-linked glucose disaccharide. The biosynthesic precursor of trehalose, trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), is essential for plant development, growth, carbon utilization and alters photosynthetic capacity but its mode of action is not underestood. This thesis

  3. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, J.; Holopainen, T.; Oksanen, E.; Lindsberg, M-M.; Lappi, J.; Peltonen, P.; Vapaavuori, E.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone were studied on growth, biomass allocation and leaf area of field-grown ozone-tolerant (Clone 4) and ozone-sensitive (Clone 80) European silver birch trees. Seven-year old trees of both types were exposed for three years to outside and chamber control, (1) twice ambient ozone, (2) twice ambient carbon dioxide, and (3) twice ambient carbon dioxide and twice ambient ozone. No effect on biomass allocation was observed when results of the two clones were analyzed together. Total leaf area showed an increase, and leaf abscission appeared delayed in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Elevated ozone caused the dry mass of roots, branches and mean leaf size to decrease, and autumnal leaf abscission occurred earlier than usual in both clones. In general. the effects of elevated ozone were small, however, the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and elevated oxygen were significant. When results from the two clones were analyzed separately, stem diameter, volume growth and total biomass of Clone 80 increased when exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide; elevated concentrations of ozone appeared to have no effect. In Clone 4 elevated ozone caused significant decrease in root and branch biomass, but the effects of elevated carbon dioxide were minimal. Responses to elevated ozone exposure were observed only under ambient carbon dioxide conditions. This response is believed to reflect the greater quantity of carbohydrates available for detoxification and repair under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Alternatively, the response may be due to decreased stomatal conductance, thus decreased ozone uptake under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  4. An ultraviolet B condition that affects growth and defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Yu, Na; Li, Weidong; Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Smagghe, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet B light (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is the shortest wavelength of the solar spectrum reaching the surface of the Earth. It has profound effects on plants, ranging from growth regulation to severe metabolic changes. Low level UV-B mainly causes photomorphogenic effects while higher levels can induce stress, yet these effects tend to overlap. Here we identified a condition that allows growth reduction without obvious detrimental stress in wild type Arabidopsis rosette plants. This condition was used to study the effects of a daily UV-B dose on plant characteristics of UV-B adapted plants in detail. Exploration of the transcriptome of developing leaves indicated downregulation of genes involved in stomata formation by UV-B, while at the same time genes involved in photoprotective pigment biosynthesis were upregulated. These findings correspond with a decreased stomatal density and increased UV-B absorbing pigments. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of defense related genes and meta-analysis showed substantial overlap of the UV-B regulated transcriptome with transcriptomes of salicylate and jasmonate treated as well as herbivore exposed plants. Feeding experiments showed that caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis are directly affected by UV-B, while performance of the aphid Myzus persicae is diminished by a plant mediated process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  6. An Analysis of the Impact of Defense Acquisition Reforms and External Factors on Schedule Growth of Defense Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Jeanne M. Jarvaise, Ron Hess, Daniel M. Norton, and Paul G. Hough. An Analysis of Weapon System Cost Growth. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation...GAO/GGD-99-120). Hanks, Christopher H., Elliot I. Axelband, Shuna Lindsay, Mohammed Rehan Malik, and Brett D. Steele. Reexamining Military...RAND Corporation, 1992 (N-3136-AF). Jarvaise, Jeanne M., Jeffrey A. Drezner, and Dan Norton. Cost Growth Analysis Using Selected Acquisition

  7. Whole-plant C allocation priorities: do secondary metabolites and VOCs matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Huang, Jianbei; Forkelova, Lenka; Behrendt, Thomas; Reichelt, Michael; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2017-04-01

    Whole-plant carbon (C) allocation is a critical issue for understanding plant functioning and has been studied for many decades. Plants fix CO2 from the atmosphere and partition the resulting photosynthetic products (carbohydrates) among several functional pools including growth of structural and reproductive biomass, metabolic processes like respiration but also for the synthesis of secondary metabolites promoting defense and communication. Allocation to secondary metabolites is conceptually viewed as a trade-off between growth and defense. Plants either invest carbohydrates to produce biomass which may be lost - at least partially -to herbivory or they increase allocation to secondary metabolites to deter herbivores from consuming existing biomass. While conceptually intuitive, trade-off hypotheses all suffer from one important shortcoming: the whole-plant carbon balance, critical for determining trade-off relationships, is usually unknown. In the research group on Plant Allocation, we manipulate and measure the whole-plant carbon balance in different species and use tracers to investigate carbon fluxes through the plant and into functional allocation pools. Inducing carbon limitation by reducing atmospheric [CO2] allows us to infer allocation priorities. In this presentation I will show several examples of studies on whole-plant carbon allocation patterns in different plant species. These investigations include assessments of different functional pools like growth, storage, secondary metabolites and volatile emissions as well as the underlying phytohormonal patterns and show that allocation to secondary metabolites and volatiles has a high priority in the whole-plant carbon balance.

  8. [Effects of NaCl stress on the seedling growth and K(+)- and Na(+) -allocation of four leguminous tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hai-Bo; Yin, Yun-Long; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Wei, Xiu-Jun; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Taking the pot-cultured seedlings of four leguminous tree species (Albizia julibrissin, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, and Gleditsia sinensis) as test materials, this paper studied their growth indices, critical salt concentration (C50), and K+ and Na+ allocation under different levels of NaCl stress, aimed to understand the difference of test tree species in salt tolerance. NaCl stress inhibited the seedling growth of the tree species. Under NaCl stress, the dry matter accumulation decreased, while the root/shoot ratio increased, especially for A. julibrissin and G. sinensis. Quadratic regression analysis showed that the C50 of A. julibrissin, R. pseudoacacia, S. japonica, and G. sinensis was 3.0 per thousand, 5.0 per thousand, 4.5 per thousand, and 3.9 per thousand, respectively, i.e., the salt tolerance of the four tree species was in the order of R. pseudoacacia > S. japonica > G. sinensis > A. julibrissin. In the root, stem, and leaf of the four tree species seedlings, the Na+ content increased with the increase of NaCl stress, while the K+ content (except in the root of A. julibrissin) decreased after an initial increase, resulting in a larger difference in the K+/Na+ ratio in the organs. Under the same NaCl stress, the allocation of Na+ in different organs of the four tree species seedlings decreased in the order of root>stem>leaf, while that of K+ differed with tree species and NaCl stress, and leaf was the main storage organ for K+. The K+/Na+ ratio in different organs decreased in the sequence of leaf>stem>root. R. pseudoacacia under NaCl stress accumulated more K+ and less Na+ in stem and leaf, and had higher K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and higher dry mass, being assessed to be more salt-tolerant. In contrast, A. julibrissin under high NaCl stress accumulated more Na+ in stem and leaf, and had a lower K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and lower dry mass, being evaluated to be lesser salt-tolerant. The K+ accumulation in seedling stem and leaf and the Na

  9. Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Daniela; Pohnert, Georg; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2007-08-01

    The submersed macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae) is invasive in Europe and frequently found in aquatic plant communities. Many invertebrate herbivores, such as larvae of the generalist aquatic moth, Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), avoid feeding on E. nuttallii and preferably consume native species. First instar larvae exhibited a high mortality on E. nuttallii compared to the native macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Mortality of older larvae was also high when fed E. nuttallii exposed to high light intensities. Growth of older larvae was strongly reduced on E. nuttallii compared to pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens). Neither differences in nitrogen nor phosphorus content explained the different performance on these submerged macrophytes, but plants differed in their flavonoid content. To investigate whether plant-derived allelochemicals from E. nuttallii affect larval performance in the same way as live plants, we developed a functional bioassay, in which Acentria larvae were reared on artificial diets. We offered larvae Potamogeton leaf disks coated with crude Elodea extracts and partially purified flavonoids. Elodea extracts deterred larvae from feeding on otherwise preferred Potamogeton leaves, and yet, unknown compounds in the extracts reduced growth and survival of Acentria. The flavonoid fraction containing luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide, and chrysoeriol-7-O-diglucuronide strongly reduced feeding of larvae, but did not increase mortality. The concentrations of these compounds in our assays were 0.01-0.09% of plant dry mass, which is in the lower range of concentrations found in the field (0.02-1.2%). Chemical defense in E. nuttallii thus plays an ecologically relevant role in this aquatic plant-herbivore system.

  10. Factors modulating cottongrass seedling growth stimulation to enhanced nitrogen and carbon dioxide: compensatory tradeoffs in leaf dynamics and allocation to meet potassium-limited growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Andy; Buttler, Alexandre; Grosvernier, Philippe; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Nilsson, Mats B; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2013-02-01

    Eriophorum vaginatum is a characteristic species of northern peatlands and a keystone plant for cutover bog restoration. Understanding the factors affecting E. vaginatum seedling establishment (i.e. growth dynamics and allocation) under global change has practical implications for the management of abandoned mined bogs and restoration of their C-sequestration function. We studied the responses of leaf dynamics, above- and belowground biomass production of establishing seedlings to elevated CO(2) and N. We hypothesised that nutrient factors such as limitation shifts or dilutions would modulate growth stimulation. Elevated CO(2) did not affect biomass, but increased the number of young leaves in spring (+400 %), and the plant vitality (i.e. number of green leaves/total number of leaves) (+3 %), both of which were negatively correlated to [K(+)] in surface porewater, suggesting a K-limited production of young leaves. Nutrient ratios in green leaves indicated either N and K co-limitation or K limitation. N addition enhanced the number of tillers (+38 %), green leaves (+18 %), aboveground and belowground biomass (+99, +61 %), leaf mass-to-length ratio (+28 %), and reduced the leaf turnover (-32 %). N addition enhanced N availability and decreased [K(+)] in spring surface porewater. Increased tiller and leaf production in July were associated with a doubling in [K(+)] in surface porewater suggesting that under enhanced N production is K driven. Both experiments illustrate the importance of tradeoffs in E. vaginatum growth between: (1) producing tillers and generating new leaves, (2) maintaining adult leaves and initiating new ones, and (3) investing in basal parts (corms) for storage or in root growth for greater K uptake. The K concentration in surface porewater is thus the single most important factor controlling the growth of E. vaginatum seedlings in the regeneration of selected cutover bogs.

  11. Chemical defense, mycorrhizal colonization and growth responses in Plantago lanceolata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Biere, A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Wagenaar, R.; Klironomos, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Allelochemicals defend plants against herbivore and pathogen attack aboveground and belowground. Whether such plant defenses incur ecological costs by reducing benefits from plant mutualistic symbionts is largely unknown. We explored a potential trade-off between inherent plant chemical defense and

  12. Changes in cytokinins are sufficient to alter developmental patterns of defense metabolites in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütting, Christoph; Schäfer, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Gase, Klaus; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Plant defense metabolites are well known to be regulated developmentally. The optimal defense (OD) theory posits that a tssue's fitness values and probability of attack should determine defense metabolite allocations. Young leaves are expected to provide a larger fitness value to the plant, and therefore their defense allocations should be higher when compared with older leaves. The mechanisms that coordinate development with defense remain unknown and frequently confound tests of the OD theory predictions. Here we demonstrate that cytokinins (CKs) modulate ontogeny-dependent defenses in Nicotiana attenuata. We found that leaf CK levels highly correlate with inducible defense expressions with high levels in young and low levels in older leaves. We genetically manipulated the developmental patterns of two different CK classes by using senescence- and chemically inducible expression of CK biosynthesis genes. Genetically modifying the levels of different CKs in leaves was sufficient to alter ontogenic patterns of defense metabolites. We conclude that the developmental regulation of growth hormones that include CKs plays central roles in connecting development with defense and therefore in establishing optimal patterns of defense allocation in plants. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A CBO Study: Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Percy, Allison

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) faces a growing burden in providing peacetime health care for military personnel, retirees, and their dependents and survivors-who all together number over 8 million...

  14. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  15. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Fernández, Patricia E; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Heras, Horacio

    2014-06-01

    The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense

  16. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  17. High nitrogen and elevated [CO2] effects on the growth, defense and photosynthetic performance of two eucalypt species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novriyanti, Eka; Watanabe, Makoto; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Utsugi, Hajime; Uemura, Akira; Koike, Takayoshi

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and [CO(2)] are increasing and represent environmental problems. Planting fast-growing species is prospering to moderate these environmental impacts by fixing CO(2). Therefore, we examined the responses of growth, photosynthesis, and defense chemical in leaves of Eucalyptus urophylla (U) and the hybrid of E. deglupta × E. camadulensis (H) to different CO(2) and nitrogen levels. High nitrogen load significantly increased plant growth, leaf N, net photosynthetic rate (A(growth)), and photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE). High CO(2) significantly increased A(growth), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) and WUE. Secondary metabolite (SM, i.e. total phenolics and condensed tannin) was specifically altered; as SM of U increased by high N load but not by elevated [CO(2)], and vice versa for SM of H. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of dietary copper concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, T; Cui, H; Guo, J; Guo, Q; Gao, X; Yang, F

    2016-03-01

    A 75-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Cu concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes. Seventy-five male blue foxes (5.78 ± 0.09 kg BW) were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu; 7.78 mg Cu/kg), 2) 12.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu20), 3) 32.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu, 4) 72.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu80), and 5) 152.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu160). A dry feed that consisted of animal meals, soybean meal, extruded corn, and soybean oil was used as the basal diet and Cu was supplemented as reagent grade CuSO∙5HO. The results showed that Cu supplementation increased the ADG ( 0.10). Additionally, Cu supplementation linearly increased the concentration of fecal Cu, liver Cu, serum total protein, and albumin ( < 0.01). Foxes in the Cu160 group had higher serum Cu concentration than those in the control and Cu20 groups ( < 0.05). The concentration of serum cholesterol decreased with dietary Cu supplementation ( < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein, on the contrary, tended to increase with Cu supplementation ( = 0.09). Copper supplementation increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase ( < 0.05) and tended to increase the activity of serum ceruloplasmin ( = 0.07). For fur quality, skin length in the Cu80 group was greater than that in the control and Cu20 groups. In addition, hair color tended to deepen with the increasing of dietary Cu concentrations ( = 0.08). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu supplementation can promote growth and increase fat digestibility and fur length. Additionally, dietary Cu supplementation can enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce serum cholesterol in growing-furring blue foxes.

  19. Estimation of the relationship between growth, consumption, and energy allocation in juvenile pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) as a function of temperature and ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Ashwin; Heintz, Ron

    2016-10-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are generalist predators in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), and are an important predator on other commercially important species. Efficient management of this species can benefit by knowing how these fish adapt to changing environmental conditions, with a focus on how growth and condition are affected by changes in temperature and diet. We conducted a feeding study to understand the relationship between growth, ration, and temperature, and how these factors interact to affect energy allocation strategies. Since growth and condition of juveniles can determine recruitment into the population, this study focused on growth and consumption of age 1+Pacific cod held over 4 temperature treatments (4 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C, and 16 °C) and 3 ration levels (unlimited ration, medium ration, and low ration). We also compared cellular nucleic acid (RNA/DNA) ratios, an instantaneous growth index, total-body lipid, and proximate composition between fish. At 4 °C, 8 °C, and 12 °C, fish at medium and low rations had higher growth rates relative to fish at high rations. Higher food consumption appears to negatively affect digestive ability, assimilation efficiency, and nutrient utilization. RNA/DNA was clearly correlated with growth rates at 4 °C and 8 °C, but this relationship did not hold at higher temperatures. A secondary growth study was conducted to test the reliability of the growth/consumption models derived from the main growth study. Temperature influenced energy reserves (lipid) while tissue growth (protein) was influenced by ration level. Average lipid values were higher at 4 °C than at 8 °C or 12 °C, suggesting a predisposition to heightened lipid synthesis at colder temperatures. Longer durations of warmer water temperature in the GOA could consequently affect energy allocation strategies, with dietary changes in the field potentially amplifying this effect in cold and warm years. This energy allocation strategy could be detrimental

  20. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design

  1. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J

    2014-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g N m(-2) year(-1). Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric.

  2. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  3. Effects of sand burial on survival, growth, gas exchange and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila seedlings in the Hunshandak Sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, C Y; Zhang, J Z

    2004-10-01

    In the last decade, the number of young plants of Ulmus pumila in the Hunshandak Sandland has decreased sharply because of severe sand burial, and their ecological protective function has been weakened. In order to develop an understanding of the tolerance of U. pumila to sand burial and to suggest reasonable measures to protect the sparse-elm-grassland ecosystem, the effects of burial on the survival, growth, photosynthesis and biomass allocation in U. pumila were studied. Seedlings were buried at five different depths in pot experiments: no burial (control), partial burial (33 % and 67 % stem height), and complete burial (100 % and 133 % stem height). Growth analyses and measurements of photosynthesis were carried after the plants had been uncovered. All the plants survived partial burial, but about 30 % and 80 % of the seedlings died as a result of the 100 % and 133 % sand burial treatments, respectively. The numbers of newly produced leaves and branches, and the height of the stems of the seedlings in the 33 % and 67 % burial treatments during the period of the experiment were significantly greater than those in the control. Furthermore, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were also elevated by the partial burial, but not affected by burial time. This might be attributed to the increased root length, which improved water acquisition. The biomass and biomass allocation of the seedlings were significantly changed by the burial treatments and burial times. The biomass was enhanced by partial burial but was reduced by complete burial at each burial time. However, the biomass allocation was not significantly changed by the 33 % and 67 % sand burial treatments 2 or 4 weeks following the burial. Ulmus pumila was shown to be tolerant to partial sand burial, but must be protected from complete burial.

  4. Stem girdling indicates prioritized carbon allocation to the root system at the expense of radial stem growth in Norway spruce under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Lethaus, Gina; Winkler, Andrea; Wieser, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    The early culmination of maximum radial growth (RG) in late spring has been found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment. We hypothesized that an early decrease in RG is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon (C) allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally subjected six-year-old Norway spruce saplings (tree height: 1.35 m; n = 80 trees) to two levels of soil water availability (watered versus drought conditions) and manipulated tree C status by physically blocking phloem transport at three girdling dates (GD). The influence of C availability and drought on tree growth (radial and shoot growth; root biomass) in response to girdling was analyzed in both treatments. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs, soluble sugars and starch) were measured in the stem, root and current leader to evaluate changes in tree C status due to girdling. The main finding was a significant increase in RG of the girdled trees compared to the controls above the girdling zone (UZ). At all girdling dates the RG increase was significantly more intense in the drought-stressed compared with watered trees ( c . 3.3 and 1.9-fold higher compared with controls in the drought-stressed and watered trees, respectively), most likely indicating that an early switch of C allocation to belowground occurs as an adaptation to maintain tree water status under drought conditions. Reactivation of the cambium after the cessation of its regular activity was detected in UZ in drought-stressed trees, while below the girdling zone no xylem formation was found and the NSC content was strikingly reduced. Irrespective of water availability, girdling before growth onset significantly reduced the progression of bud break ( P < 0.05) and the length of the current leader shoot by -47% ( P < 0.01) indicating a reduction in xylem hydraulic conductance, which was corroborated by significantly reduced xylem sap flow ( P < 0

  5. Post Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    in the historical record. In the language of medical testing, the plan is to compare unit cost growth for a treatment group—programs that...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8091 March 2017 Post-Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major...funded research and development centers to provide objective analyses of national security issues , particularly those requiring scientific and technical

  6. The Major Causes of Cost Growth in Defense Acquisition, Volume II: Main Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    constitutes the core competence of big industrial companies and is not “outsourced” under contracts to outside companies as are DoD MDAPs. The Boeing 787... Dreamliner ” is unusual in that its internal troubles have come at least partly into public view, but in fact such cost growth and delays are common

  7. Prolonged Cycle Times and Schedule Growth in Defense Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Jeanne M. Jarvaise, Ron Hess, Daniel M. Norton, and Paul G. Hough, An Analysis of Weapon System Cost Growth, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, MR...Mohammed Rehan Malik, and Brett Steele, Reexamining Military Acquisition Reform: Are We There Yet? Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, MG-291-A

  8. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    in such systems. We studied the effects of inorganic nitrogen form (NH4 +, NH4NO3 or NO3 -) on growth, morphology, N uptake, water content and mineral allocation in this species under hydroponic conditions at equimolar concentrations (500μmolNL-1). Generally, the N-form significantly affected growth, biomass...

  9. The Pseudomonas fluorescens Siderophore Pyoverdine Weakens Arabidopsis thaliana Defense in Favor of Growth in Iron-Deficient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, Pauline; Avoscan, Laure; Klinguer, Agnès; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Chervin, Christian; Mazurier, Sylvie; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wendehenne, David; Besson-Bard, Angélique

    2016-05-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores synthesized by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Under iron-limiting conditions, these high-affinity ferric iron chelators are excreted by bacteria in the soil to acquire iron. Pyoverdines produced by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. ameliorate plant growth. Here, we investigate the physiological incidence and mode of action of pyoverdine from Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12 on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions. Pyoverdine was provided to the medium in its iron-free structure (apo-pyoverdine), thus mimicking a situation in which it is produced by bacteria. Remarkably, apo-pyoverdine abolished the iron-deficiency phenotype and restored the growth of plants maintained in the iron-deprived medium. In contrast to a P. fluorescens C7R12 strain impaired in apo-pyoverdine production, the wild-type C7R12 reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in plants grown in iron-deficient conditions. Under this condition, apo-pyoverdine modulated the expression of around 2,000 genes. Notably, apo-pyoverdine positively regulated the expression of genes related to development and iron acquisition/redistribution while it repressed the expression of defense-related genes. Accordingly, the growth-promoting effect of apo-pyoverdine in plants grown under iron-deficient conditions was impaired in iron-regulated transporter1 and ferric chelate reductase2 knockout mutants and was prioritized over immunity, as highlighted by an increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea This process was accompanied by an overexpression of the transcription factor HBI1, a key node for the cross talk between growth and immunity. This study reveals an unprecedented mode of action of pyoverdine in Arabidopsis and demonstrates that its incidence on physiological traits depends on the plant iron status. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The Pseudomonas fluorescens Siderophore Pyoverdine Weakens Arabidopsis thaliana Defense in Favor of Growth in Iron-Deficient Conditions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, Pauline; Avoscan, Laure; Klinguer, Agnès; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Chervin, Christian; Mazurier, Sylvie; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wendehenne, David; Besson-Bard, Angélique

    2016-01-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores synthesized by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Under iron-limiting conditions, these high-affinity ferric iron chelators are excreted by bacteria in the soil to acquire iron. Pyoverdines produced by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. ameliorate plant growth. Here, we investigate the physiological incidence and mode of action of pyoverdine from Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12 on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions. Pyoverdine was provided to the medium in its iron-free structure (apo-pyoverdine), thus mimicking a situation in which it is produced by bacteria. Remarkably, apo-pyoverdine abolished the iron-deficiency phenotype and restored the growth of plants maintained in the iron-deprived medium. In contrast to a P. fluorescens C7R12 strain impaired in apo-pyoverdine production, the wild-type C7R12 reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in plants grown in iron-deficient conditions. Under this condition, apo-pyoverdine modulated the expression of around 2,000 genes. Notably, apo-pyoverdine positively regulated the expression of genes related to development and iron acquisition/redistribution while it repressed the expression of defense-related genes. Accordingly, the growth-promoting effect of apo-pyoverdine in plants grown under iron-deficient conditions was impaired in iron-regulated transporter1 and ferric chelate reductase2 knockout mutants and was prioritized over immunity, as highlighted by an increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. This process was accompanied by an overexpression of the transcription factor HBI1, a key node for the cross talk between growth and immunity. This study reveals an unprecedented mode of action of pyoverdine in Arabidopsis and demonstrates that its incidence on physiological traits depends on the plant iron status. PMID:26956666

  11. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage.

  12. Bacteria and smoke-water extract improve growth and induce the synthesis of volatile defense mechanisms in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, María Victoria; Piccoli, Patricia; Funes Pinter, Iván; Stirk, Wendy Ann; Kulkarni, Manoj; van Staden, Johannes; Bottini, Rubén

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable agricultural practices have been developed as alternative to the use of agrochemicals, and viticulture is not exempt of that. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and smoke water extracts (SW) are environmentally-friendly alternative to those agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the single or combined effects of SW and the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and Bacillus licheniformis (Bl) on the physiology and biochemistry of grapevines plants. After 38 days, single applications of SW solutions and bacterial suspensions increase rooting and root length. Combined treatments had a slight positive effect compared to the water control. At the end of 60-days pot trial, grapevine treated with 1:1000 SW and Pf applied alone showed increases in stem length, leaf area and fresh weight of the roots, shoot and leaves, although not significantly differences from the water control were found. In addition, Pf augmented chlorophyll relative content, all treatments decreased the stomatal conductance (mainly 1:500 SW, Pf and 1:1000 SW + Bl), as well as lipid peroxidation in roots (mainly in bacterial treatments), and induced the synthesis of mono and sesquiterpenes in leaves, where the effect was enhanced in combined treatments. In conclusion, PGPR and SW are effective to improve growth of V. vinifera cuttings as well as to increase the plants defense mechanisms that may help them to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Generalities in the growth, allocation and leaf quality responses to elevated CO2 in eight woody species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J. H C; Carnelli, A. L.; Callaghan, Terry V.

    This paper reports general patterns of relative growth rate and related traits in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 in eight woody species ranging widely in life form, leaf habit, taxonomy and ecology. Young plants of these species, all of comparable ontogenetic phases, were grown simultaneously

  14. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan E. Havko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA, which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  15. Effect of phosphogypsum on growth, physiology, and the antioxidative defense system in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2015-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is the solid waste product of phosphate fertilizer production and is characterized by high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, and certain natural radionuclides. The work reported in this paper examined the influence of PG amendment on soil physicochemical proprieties, along with its potential impact on several physiological traits of sunflower seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sunflower seedlings were grown on agricultural soil substrates amended with PG at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 %. The pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and heavy metal contents increased in proportion to PG concentration. In contrast, no variations were observed in magnesium content and small increases were recorded in potassium content. The effects of PG on sunflower growth, leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, osmotic regulator content, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes were investigated. Concentrations of trace elements in sunflower seedlings grown in PG-amended soil were considerably lower than ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. The 5 % PG dose inhibited shoot extension and accumulation of biomass and caused a decline in total protein content. However, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, proline and sugar contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that enzymatic antioxidation capacity is an important mechanism in tolerance of PG salinity in sunflower seedlings.

  16. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency, carbon-isotope discrimination and carbon allocation during early growth in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgona, J.M.; Farquhar, G.D.; Hubick, K.T.; Rawson, H.M.; Downes, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Transpiration efficiency of dry matter production (W), carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ) and dry matter partitioning were measured on six sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes grown for 32 days in a glasshouse. Two watering regimes, one well watered (HW) and the other delivering half the water used by the HW plants (LW), were imposed. Four major results emerged from this study: Three was significant genotypic variation in W in sunflower and this was closely reflected in Δ for both watering treatments; the low watering regime caused a decrease in Δ but no change in W; nonetheless the genotypic ranking for either Δ or W was not significantly altered by water stress; a positive correlation between W and biomass accumulation occurred among genotypes of HW plants; ρ, the ratio of total plant carbon content to leaf area, was positively correlated with W and negatively correlated with Δ. These results are discussed with reference to the connection between transpiration efficiency and plant growth, indicating that Δ can be used to select for W among young sunflower plants. However, selection for W may be accompanied by changes in other important plant growth characteristics such as ρ. 19 refs., 4 figs

  17. Exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with altered fetal growth patterns: A hypothesis regarding metabolic allocation to growth under hyperglycemic-hypoxemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Michelle; Jeanty, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rising worldwide, including women who grew poorly in early life, presenting intergenerational health problems for their offspring. It is well documented that fetuses exposed to maternal diabetes during pregnancy experience both macrosomia and poor growth outcomes in birth size. Less is known about the in utero growth patterns that precede these risk factor expressions. Fetal growth patterns and the effects of clinical class and glycemic control were investigated in 37 diabetic pregnant women and their fetuses and compared to 29 nondiabetic, nonsmoking maternal/fetal pairs who were participants in a biweekly longitudinal ultrasound study with measurements of the head, limb, and trunk dimensions. White clinical class of the diabetic women was recorded (A2-FR) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels taken at the time of measurement assessed glycemic control (median 6.9%, interquartile range 5.6-9.2%). No significant difference in fetal weight was found by exposure. The exposed sample had greater abdominal circumferences from 21 weeks (P fetuses had a smaller slope for the occipital frontal diameter (P = 0.00) and were brachycephalic. They experienced a proximal/distal growth gradient in limb proportionality with higher humerus / femur ratios (P = 0.04) and arms relatively long by comparison with legs (P = 0.02). HbA1c levels above 7.5% accompanied shorter femur length for thigh circumference after 30 gestational weeks of age. Significant effects of diabetic clinical class and glycemic control were identified in growth rate timing. These growth patterns suggest that hypoxemic and hyperglycemic signals cross-talk with their target receptors in a developmentally regulated, hierarchical sequence. The increase in fetal fat often documented with diabetic pregnancy may reflect altered growth at the level of cell differentiation and proximate mechanisms controlling body composition. These data suggest that the maternal-fetal interchange circuit

  18. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    two significant findings. First, Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) that entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) during...First, Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) that entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) during “bust” funding climates on...Additionally, a major building block of McNamara’s process began operating in 1959. See William D. O’Neil and Gene H. Porter, “What to Buy ? The Role of

  19. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models......An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  20. Functioning of Plantago major and Urtica dioica exposed to elevated CO{sub 2}. Analysis of growth pattern in relation to C and N allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hertog, J.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of this thesis deals with the growth response of P. major and U. dioica to a doubling of the ambient CO2 concentration grown with free access to nutrients (chapters 2 and 3). The questions, how relative growth rate (RGR) and other growth variables of wild plants are affected by elevated CO2 and what time course CO2 effects on the various growth variables have, are dealt with in chapter 2 for P. major. This analysis is extended to the relationship between the C and N metabolism in P. major and U. dioica, as affected by the CO2 concentration, in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the response of P. major to a combination of elevated CO2 and a growth-limiting dose of N. The analysis includes all factors needed to calculate a carbon balance, as well as data on nonstructural carbohydrates and total nitrogen concentrations. The use of fixed exponential addition rates for the supply of nitrate allows to establish relationships between growth variables and total plant nitrogen concentration (N), without interference of differences in plant size, such as often occurs in studies on growth under nutrient-limited conditions. The data from chapter 4 are used in a model study to evaluate the impact of the mode of nutrient limitation, as used in many studies, on the effect of elevated CO2, in combination with nutrient limitation, on plant growth. This chapter elucidates pitfalls in the experimental setup that are often overlooked and indicates possible causes for discrepancies between various studies concerned with the allocation of dry matter in relation to the CO2 treatment. The effect of an increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration on the rate of respiration has caused controversy over the last ten years. Data on root respiration are presented in chapter 6. The data are related to possible effects of elevated CO, on the degree of stimulation of the RGR and on the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. A possible role for CO2 effects on cytochrome and

  1. Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alison E; Macrae, Anna M; Moore, Ben D; Caul, Sandra; Johnson, Scott N

    2013-01-01

    Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the two affected plant growth and defensive chemistry. We exposed four week old P. lanceolata to root herbivory and AM fungi using a 2×2 factorial design (and quantified subsequent effects on plant biomass and iridoid glycosides (IGs) concentrations. Otiorhynchus sulcatus reduced root growth by c. 64%, whereas plant growth was unaffected by AM fungi. Root herbivory reduced extent of AM fungal colonization (by c. 61%). O. sulcatus did not influence overall IG concentrations, but caused qualitative shifts in root and shoot IGs, specifically increasing the proportion of the more toxic catalpol. These changes may reflect defensive allocation in the plant against further attack. This study demonstrates that very early root herbivory during plant development can shape future patterns of AM fungal colonization and influence defensive allocation in the plant.

  2. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  3. Variation in Seed Quality, Seedling Growth and Biomass Allocation of One-year-old Siberian Larch ( Larix sibirica Ledeb. Seedlings Grown in Different Conditions from Diverse Seed Sources of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyam-Osor Batkhuu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation of degraded forests in Mongolia showed very low success and the total area reforested successfully represents only 5% of the total forest lost. One of the reasons for such poor results may be low quality of planting stock due to the poor quality of seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed source variation in seed quality, to examine their growth and biomass allocation in one-year-old seedlings of Siberian larch from diverse seed sources, and to select the most promising seed sources for reforestation of degraded forest lands in Mongolia. Siberian larch seedlings from eight geographically different seed sources were grown at an open nursery and in greenhouse nursery conditions, and seedlings were subjected to growth and biomass allocation measurements at the end of the fi rst growing season. It was found that there were signi fi cant differences in seed quality, growth and biomass allocation among the seed sources in both growth conditions. Overall, Sources No.3 (Tuul river and No.4 (Mungun showed the best growth performances and biomass accumulation at open nursery and greenhouse nursery conditions, respectively. Source No.1 (Ovorkhangai had the lowest performances in both growth conditions for all measured variables. On the other hand, seedlings grown in the greenhouse nursery conditions had more intensive growth and accumulated more biomass compared to seedlings grown in open nursery conditions. However, the proportion of biomass of the roots at open nursery grown seedlings was higher than that of greenhouse grown seedlings, which may indicate a more promising survival rate after fi eld transplanting.

  4. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  5. Approximate Dynamic Programming for Military Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    18] Gerald Brown, Matthew Carlyle, Douglas Diehl, Jeffrey Kline, and Kevin Wood. A two-sided optimization for theater ballistic missile defense. Oper...Conference Proceedings. 1999 IEEE International Conference on, volume 1, pages 1061–1066. IEEE, 1999. [78] TE Phipps and AL Karp . Optimum allocation of

  6. The use of NH4+rather than NO3-affects cell stoichiometry, C allocation, photosynthesis and growth in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. UTEX LB 2380, only when energy is limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zuoxi; Giordano, Mario

    2017-02-01

    The assimilation of N-NO 3 - requires more energy than that of N-NH 4 + . This becomes relevant when energy is limiting and may impinge differently on cell energy budget depending on depth, time of the day and season. We hypothesize that N-limited and energy-limited cells of the oceanic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. differ in their response to the N source with respect to growth, elemental stoichiometry and carbon allocation. Under N limitation, cells retained almost absolute homeostasis of elemental and organic composition, and the use of NH 4 + did not stimulate growth. When energy was limiting, however, Synechococcus grew faster in NH 4 + than in NO 3 - and had higher C (20%), N (38%) and S (30%) cell quotas. Furthermore, more C was allocated to protein, whereas the carbohydrate and lipid pool size did not change appreciably. Energy limitation also led to a higher photosynthetic rate relative to N limitation. We interpret these results as an indication that, under energy limitation, the use of the least expensive N source allowed a spillover of the energy saved from N assimilation to the assimilation of other nutrients. The change in elemental stoichiometry influenced C allocation, inducing an increase in cell protein, which resulted in a stimulation of photosynthesis and growth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Induction of defense responses in cucumber plants by using the cell-free filtrate of the plant growth-promoting fungus Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kaori; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher; Kato, Kimihiko; Kubota, Mashaharu; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 is a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) and an inducer of systemic defense responses. The mechanisms underlying the effect of GP17-2 on the reduction of cucumber leaf damage caused by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare were investigated. Cucumber leaves treated with the culture filtrate (CF) of GP17-2 exhibited a clear systemic resistance against subsequent infection with C. orbiculare. The number and size of lesions caused by the disease were reduced in CF-treated plants, in comparison with that in the control plants. The results showed that CF treatment could trigger a set of defense responses, including the production of hydrogen peroxide, formation of lignin, emission of ultra-weak photons, accumulation of salicylic acid, and increase in the transcription of the genes for the defense-related enzymes chitinase and peroxidase. Furthermore, subsequent inoculation of CF-pretreated plants with C. orbiculare resulted in higher systemic expression of the genes for chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase relative to nontreated, inoculated plants; this indicated that CF mediates a potentiation state in the plant, enabling it to mount a rapid and effective response on infection by C. orbiculare. Our results indicate that the ability of CF of GP17-2 to stimulate active oxygen species, lignification, SA accumulation, and defense gene activation and potentiation in the host is the possible mode of action of the GP17-2 elicitor and inducer of induced systemic resistance against C. orbiculare infection in cucumber plants.

  8. Preference of Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 acyl amido synthetase for growth versus defense hormone acyl substrates is dictated by concentration of amino acid substrate aspartate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Okrent, Rachel A; Wildermuth, Mary C

    2017-11-01

    The GH3 family of adenylating enzymes conjugate acyl substrates such as the growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids via a two-step reaction of acyl substrate adenylation followed by amino acid conjugation. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 was previously shown to be unusual in that it could adenylate both IAA and the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoate). Our detailed studies of the kinetics of GH3.5 on a variety of auxin and benzoate substrates provides insight into the acyl preference and reaction mechanism of GH3.5. For example, we found GH3.5 activity on substituted benzoates is not defined by the substitution position as it is for GH3.12/PBS3. Most importantly, we show that GH3.5 strongly prefers Asp as the amino acid conjugate and that the concentration of Asp dictates the functional activity of GH3.5 on IAA vs. SA. Not only is Asp used in amino acid biosynthesis, but it also plays an important role in nitrogen mobilization and in the production of downstream metabolites, including pipecolic acid which propagates defense systemically. During active growth, [IAA] and [Asp] are high and the catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) of GH3.5 for IAA is 360-fold higher than with SA. GH3.5 is expressed under these conditions and conversion of IAA to inactive IAA-Asp would provide fine spatial and temporal control over local auxin developmental responses. By contrast, [SA] is dramatically elevated in response to (hemi)-biotrophic pathogens which also induce GH3.5 expression. Under these conditions, [Asp] is low and GH3.5 has equal affinity (K m ) for SA and IAA with similar catalytic efficiencies. However, the concentration of IAA tends to be very low, well below the K m for IAA. Therefore, GH3.5 catalyzed formation of SA-Asp would occur, fine-tuning localized defensive responses through conversion of active free SA to SA-Asp. Taken together, we show how GH3.5, with dual activity on IAA and SA, can integrate cellular metabolic status via Asp to

  9. Family Differences in Aboveground Biomass Allocation in Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts

    2002-01-01

    The proportion of tree growth allocated to stemwood is an important economic component of growth efficiency. Differences in growth efficiency between species, or between families within species, may therefore be related to how growth is proportionally allocated between the stem and other aboveground biomass components. This study examines genetically related...

  10. Defense and the Economy: The Issues of Jobs, Inflation, and Longrun Growth. Hearings before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth of the Committee on the Budget. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (December 7 and 9, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Budget.

    This 2-day Congressional hearing on the impact of defense spending on the economy focuses on three aspects of the relationship between expenditures for national defense and the state of the economy: jobs, inflation, and long-run growth. Testimony includes statements, prepared statements, and additional information submitted for the record by…

  11. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  12. Plant–Soil Feedback Effects on Growth, Defense and Susceptibility to a Soil-Borne Disease in a Cut Flower Crop: Species and Functional Group Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Kun Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants can influence the soil they grow in, and via these changes in the soil they can positively or negatively influence other plants that grow later in this soil, a phenomenon called plant–soil feedback. A fascinating possibility is then to apply positive plant–soil feedback effects in sustainable agriculture to promote plant growth and resistance to pathogens. We grew the cut flower chrysanthemum (Dendranthema X grandiflora in sterile soil inoculated with soil collected from a grassland that was subsequently conditioned by 37 plant species of three functional groups (grass, forb, legume, and compared it to growth in 100% sterile soil (control. We tested the performance of chrysanthemum by measuring plant growth, and defense (leaf chlorogenic acid concentration and susceptibility to the oomycete pathogen Pythium ultimum. In presence of Pythium, belowground biomass of chrysanthemum declined but aboveground biomass was not affected compared to non-Pythium inoculated plants. We observed strong differences among species and among functional groups in their plant–soil feedback effects on chrysanthemum. Soil inocula that were conditioned by grasses produced higher chrysanthemum above- and belowground biomass and less leaf yellowness than inocula conditioned by legumes or forbs. Chrysanthemum had lower root/shoot ratios in response to Pythium in soil conditioned by forbs than by grasses. Leaf chlorogenic acid concentrations increased in presence of Pythium and correlated positively with chrysanthemum aboveground biomass. Although chlorogenic acid differed between soil inocula, it did not differ between functional groups. There was no relationship between the phylogenetic distance of the conditioning plant species to chrysanthemum and their plant–soil feedback effects on chrysanthemum. Our study provides novel evidence that plant–soil feedback effects can influence crop health, and shows that plant–soil feedbacks, plant disease

  13. Plant and microbial uptake and allocation of organic and inorganic nitrogen related to plant growth forms and soil conditions at two subarctic tundra sites in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In order to follow the uptake and allocation of N in different plant functional types and microbes in two tundra ecosystems differing in nutrient availability, we performed a 15Nlabeling experiment with three N forms and followed the partitioning of 15N label among plants, microorganisms and soil...... transported a high proportion of 15N to aboveground parts, whereas the dwarf shrubs allocated most 15N to underground storage. Enhanced 13C in Betula nana roots represents the first field evidence of uptake of intact glycine by this important circumpolar plant. Plant and microbial uptake of label...... was complementary as plants took up more inorganic than organic N, while microbes preferred organic N. Microbes initially took up a large part of the added label, but over the following four weeks microbial 15N decreased by 50% and most 15N was recovered in soil organic matter, while a smaller but slowly increasing...

  14. The transcription factor ABI4 Is required for the ascorbic acid-dependent regulation of growth and regulation of jasmonate-dependent defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Pellny, Till K; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-09-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation.

  15. Sapwood allocation in tropical trees: a test of hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Vlam, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Sterck, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon allocation to sapwood in tropical canopy trees is a key process determining forest carbon sequestration, and is at the heart of tree growth and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM). Several allocation hypotheses exist including those applying assumptions on fixed allocation, pipe model,

  16. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    APUC estimate from the other three sources. The PA&E cost growth database is documented in a briefing by John McCrillis given at the 2003 Annual DoD...Group: A History. McLean, VA: Logistics Management Institute (now LMI), 1998. Tyson, Karen W., Neang I. Om, D. Calvin Gogerty, and J. Richard Nelson

  17. Phytohormones and induction of plant-stress tolerance and defense genes by seed and foliar inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense cells and metabolites promote maize growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Josiane; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-12-01

    Azospirillum spp. are plant-growth-promoting bacteria used worldwide as inoculants for a variety of crops. Among the beneficial mechanisms associated with Azospirillum inoculation, emphasis has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation process and to the synthesis of phytohormones. In Brazil, the application of inoculants containing A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 to cereals is exponentially growing and in this study we investigated the effects of maize inoculation with these two strains applied on seeds or by leaf spray at the V2.5 stage growth-a strategy to relieve incompatibility with pesticides used for seed treatment. We also investigate the effects of spraying the metabolites of these two strains at V2.5. Maize growth was promoted by the inoculation of bacteria and their metabolites. When applied via foliar spray, although A. brasilense survival on leaves was confirmed by confocal microscopy and cell recovery, few cells were detected after 24 h, indicating that the effects of bacterial leaf spray might also be related to their metabolites. The major molecules detected in the supernatants of both strains were indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-ethanol, indole-3-lactic acid and salicylic acid. RT-PCR of genes related to oxidative stress (APX1, APX2, CAT1, SOD2, SOD4) and plant defense (pathogenesis-related PR1, prp2 and prp4) was evaluated on maize leaves and roots. Differences were observed according to the gene, plant tissue, strain and method of application, but, in general, inoculation with Azospirillum resulted in up-regulation of oxidative stress genes in leaves and down-regulation in roots; contrarily, in general, PR genes were down-regulated in leaves and up-regulated in roots. Emphasis should be given to the application of metabolites, especially of Ab-V5 + Ab-V6 that in general resulted in the highest up-regulation of oxidative-stress and PR genes both in leaves and in roots. We hypothesize that the benefits of inoculation of Azospirillum on

  18. Effects of dietary copper on growth, digestive, and brush border enzyme activities and antioxidant defense of hepatopancreas and intestine for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q Q; Feng, L; Jiang, W D; Liu, Y; Jiang, J; Li, S H; Kuang, S Y; Tang, L; Zhou, X Q

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on fish growth, digestive and absorptive enzyme activities, and antioxidant status in the hepatopancreas and intestine, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (282±2.8 g) were fed six diets containing 0.74 (basal diet), 2.26, 3.75, 5.25, 6.70, and 8.33 mg Cu /kg diet for 8 weeks. Results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG) and feed intake were increased with dietary Cu levels up to 3.75 mg/kg diet. In addition, the positive effects of dietary Cu at a level 3.75 or 5.25 mg/kg diet on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase activities in the hepatopancreas and of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in three intestine segments produced significantly (Pdietary Cu levels up to 3.75 mg/kg diet (Pdietary Cu at 3.75 or 5.25 mg/kg diet decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content partly by significantly (Pdietary Cu improved growth and digestive and absorptive capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation partly by enhancing antioxidant defense in the hepatopancreas and intestine. The dietary Cu requirement for PWG, plasma ceruloplasmin activity, and FE of young grass carp (282-688 g) were 4.78, 4.95, and 4.70 mg/kg diet, respectively.

  19. Growth and Study of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Frequency Conversion Devices with Applications in Defense and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    temperature. The next candidates that cover both atmospheric windows of transparency are sources based on some of the ternary lead salts . These sources...with metal Ga was placed in the first zone. HCl passing the molten Ga formed GaCl and delivered it to the middle (mixing) zone where GaCl meets for...the growth hillocks can be mitigated by adding additional 2.5M of alkali chloride to the 5M NaOH mineralizer in the solution, which stimulates the

  20. Loss of the innate immunity negative regulator IRAK-M leads to enhanced host immune defense against tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qifa; Gan, Lu; Wang, Jianxia; Wilson, Ingred; Li, Liwu

    2010-01-01

    IRAK-M is a negative regulator of innate immunity signaling processes. Although attenuation of innate immunity may help to prevent excessive inflammation, it may also lead to compromised immune surveillance of tumor cells and contribute to tumor formation and growth. Here, we demonstrate that IRAK-M−/− mice are resistant to tumor growth upon inoculation with transplantable tumor cells. Immune cells from IRAK-M−/− mice are responsible for the anti-tumor effect, since adoptive transfer of splenocytes from IRAK-M−/− mice to wild type mice can transfer the tumor-resistant phenotype. Upon tumor cell challenge, there are elevated populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a decreased population of CD4+ CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in IRAK-M −/− splenocytes. Furthermore, we observe that IRAK-M deficiency leads to elevated proliferation and activation of T cells and B cells. Enhanced NFκB activation directly caused by IRAK-M deficiency may explain elevated activation of T and B cells. In addition, macrophages from IRAK-M−/− mice exhibit enhanced phagocytic function toward acetylated LDL and apoptotic thymocytes. Collectively, we demonstrate that IRAK-M is directly involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune signaling processes, and deletion of IRAK-M enhances host anti-tumor immune response. PMID:17477969

  1. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H 2 O 2 , which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of

  2. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.pflugmacher@tu-berlin.de

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of

  3. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1 infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to

  4. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    21 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding.................................................22 F. SUMMARY...on demand, hybrid channel allocation in wireless networks, and 3 Beowulf Ethernet channel bonding. The background information presented in this...channels are available for dynamic allocation [Ref 32]. 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding A by-product of using older computers in a NASA research lab

  5. Impact of osmotic stress on seedling growth observations, membrane characteristics and antioxidant defense system of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardees M. Mickky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out a straightforward technique for screening the tolerance of ten wheat genotypes to two levels of osmotic stress at early seedling stage. Data revealed that polyethylene glycol-induced drought had general negative effect on seedling morphological characters indicated by plumule and radicle length, number of adventitious roots as well as seedling biomass and water content. Water deficit could also suppress membrane integrity by stimulating lipid peroxidation with marked increase in membrane leakage and subsequent decrease in its stability index. For all the addressed germination parameters and seedling membrane features, the impact of severe drought was more pronounced than that of moderate drought. Simultaneously, moderate stress could activate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and ascorbic peroxidase of the studied genotypes; but these enzymes were inhibited by severe stress. The activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was conversely retarded by drought whether at moderate or severe level. More interestingly, a novel function “Stress Impact Index; SII” was introduced to rank the estimated morpho-physiological traits (SIItrait as well as the considered genotypes (SIIgenotype according to their sensitivity to stress. Values of SIItrait implied that germination parameters were generally affected by drought more intensively than membrane characteristics and finally came the antioxidant enzymes with the least degree of suppression when applying stress. Based on the magnitudes of SIIgenotype, Sids 13 seemed to be the most drought-tolerant wheat cultivar while Shandawel 1 could be the most sensitive one at their juvenile growth stage.

  6. Dynamic allocation and transfer of non-structural carbohydrates, a possible mechanism for the explosive growth of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Zhou, Guomo; Gu, Honghao; Li, Quan; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Moso bamboo can rapidly complete its growth in both height and diameter within only 35–40 days after shoot emergence. However, the underlying mechanism for this “explosive growth” remains poorly understood. We investigated the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in shoots and attached mature bamboos over a 20-month period. The results showed that Moso bamboos rapidly completed their height and diameter growth within 38 days. At the same time, attached mature bamboos transferred almost all the NSCs of their leaves, branches, and especially trunks and rhizomes to the “explosively growing” shoots via underground rhizomes for the structural growth and metabolism of shoots. Approximately 4 months after shoot emergence, this transfer stopped when the leaves of the young bamboos could independently provide enough photoassimilates to meet the carbon demands of the young bamboos. During this period, the NSC content of the leaves, branches, trunks and rhizomes of mature bamboos declined by 1.5, 23, 28 and 5 fold, respectively. The trunk contributed the most NSCs to the shoots. Our findings provide new insight and a possible rational mechanism explaining the “explosive growth” of Moso bamboo and shed new light on understanding the role of NSCs in the rapid growth of Moso bamboo. PMID:27181522

  7. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  8. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...... rate and increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in ‘1110’ but not in ‘Vinjett’. With AMF, nitrogen concentrations increased in roots of both cultivars, but decreased in grains of ‘Vinjett’ and in side-tiller grains of ‘1110’ regardless of water status. With water deficits, AMF colonization...

  9. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthetic responses are related to intensity of root severance and soil moisture conditions in the plantation tree Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Zhang, Sheng; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-07-01

    We employed the warm temperate conifer Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. as a model of plantation forest species to investigate ecophysiological responses to root treatments (control (0%), and ∼25, 50 or 75% of the initial root mass) under well-watered and water-limited conditions. Our results indicated that total root dry mass accumulation was negatively associated with the severity of root pruning, but there was evidence of multiple compensatory responses. The plants exhibited higher instantaneous and long-term (assessed by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C) water-use efficiency in pruning treatments, especially under low water availability. Root pruning also increased the fine root/total root mass ratio, specific root length and fine root vitality in both water availability treatments. As a result of the compensatory responses, under well-watered conditions, height, stem dry mass accumulation, leaf/fine root biomass ratio (L/FR), transpiration rate, photosynthetic capacity and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (EN) were the highest under 25% pruning. Yet, all these traits except L/FR and foliage nitrogen content were severely reduced under 75% pruning. Drought negatively affected growth and leaf gas exchange rates, and there was a greater negative effect on growth, water potential, gas exchange and EN when >25% of total root biomass was removed. The stem/aboveground mass ratio was the highest under 25% pruning in both watering conditions. These results indicate that the responses to root severance are related to the excision intensity and soil moisture content. A moderate root pruning proved to be an effective means to improve stem dry mass accumulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cotton Defense Induction Patterns Under Spatially, Temporally and Quantitatively Varying Herbivory Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenring, Michael; Meissle, Michael; Hagenbucher, Steffen; Naranjo, Steven E; Wettstein, Felix; Romeis, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In its defense against herbivores, cotton ( Gossypium sp.) relies in part on the production of a set of inducible, non-volatile terpenoids. Under uniform damage levels, in planta allocation of induced cotton terpenoids has been found to be highest in youngest leaves, supporting assumptions of the optimal defense theory (ODT) which predicts that plants allocate defense compounds to tissues depending on their value and the likelihood of herbivore attack. However, our knowledge is limited on how varying, and thus more realistic, damage levels might affect cotton defense organization. We hypothesized that the allocation of terpenoids and densities of terpenoid-storing glands in leaves aligns with assumptions of the ODT, even when plants are subjected to temporally, spatially and quantitatively varying caterpillar ( Heliothis virescens ) damage. As expected, cotton plants allocated most of their defenses to their youngest leaves regardless of damage location. However, defense induction in older leaves varied with damage location. For at least 14 days after damage treatments ended, plants reallocated defense resources from previously young leaves to newly developed leaves. Furthermore, we observed a positive hyperbolic relationship between leaf damage area and both terpenoid concentrations and gland densities, indicating that cotton plants can fine-tune defense allocation. Although it appears that factors like vascular constraints and chemical properties of individual defense compounds can affect defense levels, our results overall demonstrate that induced defense organization of cotton subjected to varying damage treatments is in alignment with key assumptions of the ODT.

  11. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than th...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...

  12. Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology, nitrogen uptake capacity and nutrient allocation of four tropical aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia cucullata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus involucratus and Vetiveria zizanioides)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-01-01

    with species and tissue, but differences between treatments were generally small. We conclude, that the free-floating S. cucullata and I. aquatica are good candidate species for use in constructed wetland systems to remove N from polluted water. The rooted emergent plants can be used in subsurface flow...... and Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) and two emergent species (Cyperus involucratus Rottb. and Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small) were grown with these N treatments at equimolar concentrations (500 M). Overall, the plants responded well to NH4+. Growth as RGR was highest in S. cucullata (0.12±0.003 d−1......) followed by I. aquatica (0.035 ±0.002 d−1), C. involucratus (0.03±0.002 d−1) and V. zizanioides (0.02±0.003 d−1). The NH4+ uptake rate was significantly higher than the NO3− uptake rate. The free-floating species had higher nitrogen uptake rates than the emergent species. The N-uptake rate differed between...

  13. Do capital flows change domestic credit allocation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Bezemer, Dirk

    Since the 1990s, domestic bank credit has been reallocated away from lending to non-financial business and toward households. An expanding literature discusses negative effects on growth and stability of this change in credit allocation. We research its drivers. We hypothesize that if foreign

  14. Integration of defense waste into the Civilian Repository Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-24

    The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the fee calculation method proposed by Waste Management would result in an accurate and fair allocation of costs to both civilian and defense owners of nuclear waste. We reviewed Waste Management`s proposed cost allocation plans to be used in calculating fees for defense waste disposal. We also evaluated Waste Management`s actions toward developing a defense waste fee payment schedule. Our examination was made in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards which included tests of internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations to the extent necessary to satisfy the scope of the audit.

  15. Growth and biomass allocation of the C4 grasses Brachiaria brizantha and B. humidicola under shade Crescimento e alocação de biomassa nas gramíneas C4 Brachiaria brizantha e B. humidicola sob sombreamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOACYR BERNARDINO DIAS-FILHO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth and biomass allocation responses of the tropical forage grasses Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and B. humidicola were compared for plants grown outdoors, in pots, in full sunlight and those shaded to 30% of full sunlight over a 30day period. The objective was to evaluate the acclimation capacity of these species to low light. Both species were able to quickly develop phenotypic adjustments in response to low light. Specific leaf area and leaf area ratio were higher for low-light plants during the entire experimental period. Low-light plants allocated significantly less biomass to root and more to leaf tissue than high-light plants. However, the biomass allocation pattern to culms was different for the two species under low light: it increased in B. brizantha, but decreased in B. humidicola, probably as a reflection of the growth habits of these species. Relative growth rate and tillering were higher in high-light plants. Leaf elongation rate was significantly increased on both species under low light; however, the difference between treatments was higher in B. brizantha. These results are discussed in relation to the pasture management implications.O crescimento e a alocação de biomassa das gramíneas forrageiras tropicais Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e B. humidicola foram comparados, em plantas cultivadas em vasos, a pleno sol e a 70% de interceptação da luz solar, durante um período de 30 dias. O objetivo foi avaliar a capacidade de aclimatação dessas espécies ao sombreamento. Ambas as espécies mostraram-se capazes de desenvolver rapidamente ajustes fenotípicos em resposta ao sombreamento. A área foliar específica e a razão de área foliar foram maiores durante todo o período experimental, nas plantas cultivadas à sombra. As plantas sombreadas alocaram significativamente menos biomassa nas raízes e mais nas folhas do que as plantas cultivadas à sombra. No entanto, a alocação de biomassa no colmo foi

  16. Investment into defensive traits by anuran prey (Lithobates pipiens) is mediated by the starvation-predation risk trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Amanda M; Pereira, David; Murray, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    Prey can invest in a variety of defensive traits when balancing risk of predation against that of starvation. What remains unknown is the relative costs of different defensive traits and how prey reconcile investment into these traits when energetically limited. We tested the simple allocation model of prey defense, which predicts an additive effect of increasing predation risk and resource availability, resulting in the full deployment of defensive traits under conditions of high risk and resource saturation. We collected morphometric, developmental, and behavioural data in an experiment using dragonfly larvae (predator) and Northern leopard frog tadpoles (prey) subject to variable levels of food availability and predation risk. Larvae exposed to food restriction showed limited response to predation risk; larvae at food saturation altered behaviour, development, and growth in response to predation risk. Responses to risk varied through time, suggesting ontogeny may affect the deployment of particular defensive traits. The observed negative correlation between body size and activity level for food-restricted prey--and the absence of a similar response among adequately-fed prey--suggests that a trade-off exists between behavioural and growth responses when energy budgets are limited. Our research is the first to demonstrate how investment into these defensive traits is mediated along gradients of both predation risk and resource availability over time. The interactions we demonstrate between resource availability and risk level on deployment of inducible defenses provide evidence that both internal condition and extrinsic risk factors play a critical role in the production of inducible defenses over time.

  17. Investment into defensive traits by anuran prey (Lithobates pipiens is mediated by the starvation-predation risk trade-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Bennett

    Full Text Available Prey can invest in a variety of defensive traits when balancing risk of predation against that of starvation. What remains unknown is the relative costs of different defensive traits and how prey reconcile investment into these traits when energetically limited. We tested the simple allocation model of prey defense, which predicts an additive effect of increasing predation risk and resource availability, resulting in the full deployment of defensive traits under conditions of high risk and resource saturation. We collected morphometric, developmental, and behavioural data in an experiment using dragonfly larvae (predator and Northern leopard frog tadpoles (prey subject to variable levels of food availability and predation risk. Larvae exposed to food restriction showed limited response to predation risk; larvae at food saturation altered behaviour, development, and growth in response to predation risk. Responses to risk varied through time, suggesting ontogeny may affect the deployment of particular defensive traits. The observed negative correlation between body size and activity level for food-restricted prey--and the absence of a similar response among adequately-fed prey--suggests that a trade-off exists between behavioural and growth responses when energy budgets are limited. Our research is the first to demonstrate how investment into these defensive traits is mediated along gradients of both predation risk and resource availability over time. The interactions we demonstrate between resource availability and risk level on deployment of inducible defenses provide evidence that both internal condition and extrinsic risk factors play a critical role in the production of inducible defenses over time.

  18. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of Rolandra fruticosa (asteraceae in response to shade Crescimento, alocação de biomassa e fotossíntese de Rolandra fruticosa (asteraceae em resposta ao sombreamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr B. Dias-Filho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of shade on growth, biomass allocation patterns and photosynthetic response was examined for Rolandra fruticosa (L. Kuntze, a common perennial weed shrub in cultivated pastures and agricultural areas of Brazilian Amazonia, for plants grown in full sunlight and those shaded to 30 % of full sunlight over a 34-d period. Specific leaf area and leaf area ratio were higher for shade plants during all the experimental period. Shade plants allocated significantly less biomass to root tissue than sun plants and relative growth rate was higher in sun plants. Sun leaves had significantly higher dark respiration and light saturated rates of photosynthesis than shade leaves. The apparent quantum efficiency was higher for shade leaves, while light compensation point was higher for sun leaves. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Estudou-se o efeito do sombreamento nocrescimento, alocação de carbono e respostas fotossintéticas de Rolandra fruticosa (L. Kuntze, uma planta daninha de porte arbustivo, comum em áreas de pastagem e agrícolas da Amazônia Brasileira, submetida a condições de pleno sol e a 70 % de interceptação da luz solar, durante 34 dias. A área foliar específica e a razão de área foliar foram maiores nas plantas sombreadas durante todo o período experimental. Plantas sombreadas alocaram menor quantidade de biomassa para as raízes, quando comparadas às plantas de sol e a taxa de crescimento relativo foi maior para as plantas de sol. A respiração no escuro e a taxa de fotossíntese máxima foram maiores para as folhas de plantas não sombreadas. A eficiência quântica aparente foi maior para as folhas de plantas sombreadas, enquanto que o ponto de compensação de luz foi maior para folhas a pleno sol. Esses resultados são discutidos com relação as suas importâncias ecológica e de manejo.

  19. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  20. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

  1. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  2. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  3. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  4. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...

  5. Allocation of Heme is Differentially Regulated by Ferrochelatase Isoforms in Arabidopsis Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heme is involved in various biological processes as a cofactor of hemoproteins located in various organelles. In plant cells, heme is synthesized by two isoforms of plastid-localized ferrochelatase, FC1 and FC2. In this study, by characterizing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants, we showed that the allocation of heme is differentially regulated by ferrochelatase isoforms in plant cells. Analyses of weak (fc1-1 and null (fc1-2 mutants suggest that FC1-producing heme is required for initial growth of seedling development. In contrast, weak (fc2-1 and null (fc2-2 mutants of FC2 showed pale green leaves and retarded growth, indicating that FC2-producing heme is necessary for chloroplast development. During the initial growth stage, FC2 deficiency caused reduction of plastid cytochromes. In addition, although FC2 deficiency marginally affected the assembly of photosynthetic reaction center complexes, it caused relatively larger but insufficient light-harvesting antenna to reaction centers, resulting in lower efficiency of photosynthesis. In the later vegetative growth, however, fc2-2 recovered photosynthetic growth, showing that FC1-producing heme may complement the FC2 deficiency. On the other hand, reduced level of cytochromes in microsomal fraction was discovered in fc1-1, suggesting that FC1-producing heme is mainly allocated to extraplastidic organelles. Furthermore, the expression of FC1 is induced by the treatment of an elicitor flg22 while that of FC2 was reduced, and fc1-1 abolished the flg22-dependent induction of FC1 expression and peroxidase activity. Consequently, our results clarified that FC2 produces heme for the photosynthetic machinery in the chloroplast, while FC1 is the housekeeping enzyme providing heme cofactor to the entire cell. In addition, FC1 can partly complement FC2 deficiency and is also involved in defense against stressful conditions.

  6. Organizing principles underlying microorganism's growth-robustness trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Alessandro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Growth Robustness Reciprocity (GRR) is an intriguing microbial manifestation: the impairment of microorganism's growth enhances their ability to resist acute stresses, and vice-versa. This is caused by regulatory interactions that determine higher expression of protection mechanisms in response to low growth rates. But because such regulatory mechanisms are species-specific, GRR must result from convergent evolution. Why does natural selection favor such an outcome? We used mathematical models of optimal cellular resource allocation to identify the general principles underlying GRR. Non-linear optimization allowed to predict allocation patterns of biosynthetic resources (ribosomes devoted to the synthesis of each cell component) that maximize growth. These models predict the down-regulation of stress defenses under high substrate availabilities and low stress levels. Under these conditions, stress tolerance ensues from growth-related damage dilution: the higher the substrate availability, the fastest the dilution of damaged proteins by newly synthesized proteins, the lower the accumulation of damaged components into the cell. In turn, under low substrate availability growth is too slow for effective damage dilution, and the expression of the defenses up to some optimal level then increases growth. As a consequence, slow-growing cells are pre-adapted to withstand acute stresses. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between growth and stress tolerance can be explained as a consequence of optimal resource allocation for maximal growth. We acknowledge fellowship SFRH/BPD/90065/2012 and grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia" (project PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Precipitation affects plant communication and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Enrico; Mancuso, Stefano; Karban, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Anti-herbivore defense shows high levels of both inter- and intraspecific variability. Defending against herbivores may be costly to the plant when it requires a tradeoff in allocation between defense and other missed opportunities, such as reproduction. Indeed, the plastic expression of defensive traits allows the plant to invest resources in defense only when the risk of being damaged actually increases, avoiding wasted resources. Plants may assess risk by responding to volatile cues emitted by neighbors that are under attack. Most plastic responses likely depend on environmental conditions. In this experiment, we investigated the effect of water availability on resistance induced by volatile cues in sagebrush. We found that plants receiving additional water over summer and/or volatile cues from neighbor donor plants showed reduced herbivore damage compared to control plants. Interestingly, we found no evidence of interactions between additional water and volatile cues. We performed an inferential analysis comparing historical records of the levels of herbivore damage during different years that had different temperature and precipitation accumulations. Results confirmed findings from the experiment, as the regression model indicated that sagebrush was better defended during wetter and hotter seasons. Reports from the literature indicated that sagebrush is extremely sensitive to water availability in the soil. We suggest that water availability may directly affect resistance of herbivory as well as sensitivity to cues of damage. Costs and benefits of allocating resources to defensive traits may vary with environmental conditions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. The use of NH4+ rather than NO3- affects cell stoichiometry, C allocation, photosynthesis and growth in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp UTEX LB 2380, only when energy is limiting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruan, Z.; Giordano, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2017), s. 227-236 ISSN 0140-7791 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : carbon allocation * cyanobacteria * elemental stoichiometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 6.173, year: 2016

  9. The ecology and evolution of inducible defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvell, C D

    1990-09-01

    Inducible defenses are responses activated through a previous encounter with a consumer or competitor that confer some degree of resistance to subsequent attacks. While the importance of inducible resistance has long been known in host-parasite interactions, it is only recently that its importance has emerged in other natural systems. Although the structural defenses produced by invertebrates to their competitors and predators are by no means the same as an immune response triggered by parasites, these responses all share the properties of (1) specificity, (2) amplification and (3) memory. This review discusses the following ecological consequences and evolutionary causes of inducible defenses: (1) Inducible defenses render historical factors important in biological interactions and can affect the probability of individual survival and growth, as well as affect population dynamics of consumers in some circumstances. (2) Although the benefits of inducible defenses are often balanced by fitness costs, including reduced growth, reproductive output and survivorship, the role of costs and benefits in the evolution of inducible defenses is by no means clear. A more integrated approach would involve a multivariate analysis of the role of natural selection on the inducible characters of interest, their norms of reaction and correlated fitness characters. (3) The disproportionate representation of inducible, morphological defenses among clonal organisms may be due to both a higher rate of origination and enhanced selection to maintain these defenses in clonal taxa. (4) Inducible defenses should be most common when reliable cues are available, attacks by biological agents are unpredictable, and the fitness gains of defenses are balanced by the costs. An integrated approach to studying inducible defenses would thus combine mechanistic estimates of costs, population-level estimates of defense effectiveness, and genetic estimates of correlations between fitness and inducible

  10. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  12. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  13. Allometry of individual reproduction and defense in eusocial colonies: A comparative approach to trade-offs in social sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornbusch, Sarah L; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Duffy, J Emmett

    2018-01-01

    Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reproductive skew, and aggressive territoriality coupled with cooperative defense. In eusocial Synalpheus colonies, individual reproduction is limited to female 'queens', whose fecundity dictates colony growth. Given that individual reproduction and defense are both energetically costly, individual and colony fitness likely depend on the optimal allocation of resources by these reproducing individuals towards these potentially competing demands. Synalpheus species, however, display varying degrees of eusociality, suggesting that reproducing females have adopted different strategies for allocation among reproduction and defense. Here, we use structural equation modeling to characterize the relationships between the allometry of queen reproductive capacity and defensive weaponry, and colony size in six eusocial Synalpheus species, estimating trade-offs between reproduction and defense. We document strong trade-offs between mass of the fighting claw (defense) and egg number (reproduction) in queens from weakly eusocial species, while the trade-off is reduced or absent in those from strongly eusocial species. These results suggest that in less cooperative species, intra-colony conflict selects for queen retention of weapons that have significant costs to fecundity, while reproducing females from highly eusocial species, i.e., those with a single queen, have been able to reduce the cost of weapons as a result of protection by other colony members.

  14. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  15. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  16. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  17. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  18. Physiological responses of two tropical weeds to shade: I. Growth and biomass allocation Respostas fisiológicas de duas plantas invasoras tropicais ao sombreamento: I. Crescimento e alocação de biomassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, two weeds found in pastures and crop areas in Brazilian Amazonia, were grown in controlled environment cabinets under high (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ and low (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ light regimes during a 40-day period. For both species leaf dry mass and leaf area per total plant dry mass, and leaf area per leaf dry mass were higher for low-light plants, whereas root mass per total plant dry mass was higher for high-light plants. High-light S. cayennensis allocated significantly more biomass to reproductive tissue than low-light plants, suggesting a probably lower ability of this species to maintain itself under shaded conditions. Relative growth rate (RGR in I. asarifolia was initially higher for high-light grown plants and after 20 days started decreasing, becoming similar to low-light plants at the last two harvests (at 30 and 40 days. In S. cayennensis, RGR was also higher for high-light plants; however, this trend was not significant at the first and last harvest dates (10 and 40 days. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, duas plantas invasoras encontradas em pastagens e áreas agrícolas da Amazônia brasileira, foram cultivadas durante 40 dias, em câmaras de crescimento sob alto (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹, "sol" e baixo (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹, "sombra" regime de luz. Em ambas as espécies a razão de massa e de área foliar por unidade de massa total da planta, e a área foliar por unidade de massa foliar foram maiores na sombra, enquanto a proporção de biomassa alocada para as raízes foi maior nas plantas ao sol. Em S. cayennensis a alocação de biomassa para tecido reprodutivo foi maior nas plantas ao sol, sugerindo uma provável menor habilidade dessa

  19. Defense style changes with the addition of psychodynamic group therapy to clonazepam in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnik, Daniela Z; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Blanco, Carlos; Moraes, Carolina; Hauck, Simone; Mombach, Clarissa K; Strapasson, Atahualpa C P; Manfro, Gisele G; Eizirik, Cláudio L

    2009-07-01

    Psychodynamic Group Therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are strategies to reduce symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). The addition of PGT might lead to changes in defense styles. The objective of this study is to examine changes in defense styles when comparing clonazepam to psychodynamic group therapy plus clonazepam in GSAD during 12 weeks. Fifty-seven patients that met DSM-IV criteria for GSAD participated. social anxiety disorder symptoms were evaluated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and defense styles with the Defense Style Questionnaire. All defense styles changed overtime for both groups, especially mature defense style, which increased independently of the treatment allocation group. Regression analyses found that overtime there was a reduction in neurotic defenses in the combined group, whereas there was an increase in the clonazepam group. Neurotic defense style can change toward greater adaptiveness with the addition of PGT to clonazepam in GSAD, even in 12 weeks.

  20. Misexpression of AtTX12 encoding a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain induces growth defects and expression of defense-related genes partially independently of EDS1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Kee

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a tissue-specific GAL4/UAS activation tagging system was used for the characterization of genes which could induce lethality when ubiquitously expressed. A dominant mutant exhibiting stunted growth was isolated and named defective root development 1-D (drd1-D). The T-DNA tag was located within the promoter region of AtTX12, which is predicted to encode a truncated nucleotide-binding leucinerich repeat (NLR) protein, containing a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The transcript levels of AtTX12 and defense-related genes were elevated in drd1-D, and the misexpression of AtTX12 recapitulated the drd1-D phenotypes. In the presence of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), a key transducer of signals triggered by TIR-type NLRs, a low-level of AtTX12 misexpression induced strong defective phenotypes including seedling lethality whereas, in the absence of EDS1, a high-level of AtTX12 misexpression induced weak growth defects like dwarfism, suggesting that AtTX12 might function mainly in an EDS1-dependent and partially in an EDS1-independent manner. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(12): 693-698].

  1. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions.

  2. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  3. FY12 CPD Formula Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...

  4. Defense Co-Production: Collaborative National Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Robert R

    2005-01-01

    ...) and the defense industry at large. The aim of the study will be to examine the evolution of the procurement and contracting process since World War II with a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the increasingly symbiotic...

  5. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  6. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  7. Generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitsch, Jonathan; Ge, Yan; Young, Benjamin; Hu, Feifang

    2012-12-10

    Dynamic allocation has received considerable attention since it was first proposed in the 1970s as an alternative means of allocating treatments in clinical trials which helps to secure the balance of prognostic factors across treatment groups. The purpose of this paper is to present a generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method that simultaneously balances treatment assignments at three key levels: within the overall study, within each level of each prognostic factor, and within each stratum, that is, combination of levels of different factors Further it offers capabilities for unbalanced and adaptive designs for trials. The treatment balancing performance of the proposed method is investigated through simulations which compare multidimensional dynamic allocation with traditional stratified block randomization and the Pocock-Simon method. On the basis of these results, we conclude that this generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method is an improvement over conventional dynamic allocation methods and is flexible enough to be applied for most trial settings including Phases I, II and III trials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Issues in national missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-01

    Strategic missiles and weapons are proliferating rapidly; thus, the US and its Allies are likely to face both capable bilateral threats and multilateral configurations with complex coalitions for which defenses could be essential for stability. Current hit-to-kill interceptor and radar and infrared detection, track, and discrimination technology should suffice for limited threats, but it is necessary to meet those threats in time while maintaining growth potential for the more sophisticated threats likely to follow. National Missile Defense faces a confusing array of threats, programs, and alternatives, but the technologies in development are clearly an appropriate first step towards any of them. They are likely to succeed in the near term; the challenge is to retain flexibility to provide needed options in the mid and long terms.

  9. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Additional... the component, (2) The business demands imposed on the component by the Director of Central... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of...

  10. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Wei, Chao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20-24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and recent advances in understanding the roles of miRNAs involved in the plant defense against viruses and viral counter-defense. We also document the application of miRNAs in plant antiviral defense. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene silencing and provides insights on the never-ending arms race between plants and viruses.

  11. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Penitentiary integral defense

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez Román

    2012-01-01

    Penitentiary integral defense is a set of techniques designed to solve the breach of the peace that may appear in the penitentiary world. This paper studies the scope and legal framework of penitentiary self-defense. This kind of self-defense is defined by the particular characteristics of a confinement context and a very specific regulation aimed at preserving the integrity of prisoners and penitentiary staff as well as prison facilities. A technical section illustrating the main penitentiar...

  13. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  14. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  15. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  16. Plasticity in Meristem Allocation as an Adaptive Strategy of a Desert Shrub under Contrasting Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of resource allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth is a core component of a plant’s life-history strategy. Plants can modify their biomass allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting environments. Meristems can have alternative fates to commit to vegetative growth, reproduction, or remaining inactive (dormant or senescent/dead. However, knowledge about whether meristem fates can interpret adaptive changes in biomass allocation remains largely unknown. We measured aboveground plant biomass (a proxy of plant size and meristem number of a dominant shrub Artemisia ordosica in three populations occupying different habitats in the Mu Us Desert of northern China. Size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation among habitats were compared. The size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation of A. ordosica strongly varied across habitats. There were significant positive linear relationships between meristem allocation and biomass allocation in all habitats, indicating that meristem allocation is an indicator of the estimated resource allocation to reproductive and vegetative organs in this species. Plasticity in meristem allocation was more likely caused by larger individuals having less active meristems due to environmental stress. Vegetative meristems (VM were likely more vulnerable to environmental limitation than reproductive ones, resulting in the ratio of resource investment between vegetative and reproductive functions exhibiting plasticity in different habitats. A. ordosica invested a higher fraction of its resource to reproduction in the adverse habitat, while more resource to vegetative growth in the favorable habitat. A. ordosica adopts different resource allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting habitat conditions through altering its meristem fates. Our results suggest that the arid-adapted shrub A. ordosica deactivates more VM than reproductive ones to hedge against environmental stress

  17. Plant defense against herbivores: chemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of different chemical defenses covering nearly all classes of (secondary) metabolites that represent a major barrier to herbivory: Some are constitutive; others are induced after attack. Many compounds act directly on the herbivore, whereas others act indirectly via the attraction of organisms from other trophic levels that, in turn, protect the plant. An enormous diversity of plant (bio)chemicals are toxic, repellent, or antinutritive for herbivores of all types. Examples include cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, alkaloids, and terpenoids; others are macromolecules and comprise latex or proteinase inhibitors. Their modes of action include membrane disruption, inhibition of nutrient and ion transport, inhibition of signal transduction processes, inhibition of metabolism, or disruption of the hormonal control of physiological processes. Recognizing the herbivore challenge and precise timing of plant activities as well as the adaptive modulation of the plants' metabolism is important so that metabolites and energy may be efficiently allocated to defensive activities.

  18. Success in Investing: Integrating Spending Policy into Asset Allocation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful college and university investments hinge on an asset allocation strategy capable of meeting the institution's needs for income and growth in principal at the lowest possible risk. Periodic adjustments must be made when there is a shift in the institution's risk tolerance, modification in need for income distribution, and changes in…

  19. Cellular energy allocation of pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator compound) on cellular energy allocation of a heterometabolous insect, Brachynema germari Kol. The fifth instar of this insect was treated with 0, 20, 60, 100, 200 and 500 mg l-1 formulation of pyriproxyfen (Admiral 10EC) and the ...

  20. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Wei, Chao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20–24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant–pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense ...

  1. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  2. Effects of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (sod1 genotype and genetic background on growth, reproduction and defense in Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin M Bonner

    Full Text Available Resistance of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to the trematode Schistosoma mansoni is correlated with allelic variation at copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1. We tested whether there is a fitness cost associated with carrying the most resistant allele in three outbred laboratory populations of snails. These three populations were derived from the same base population, but differed in average resistance. Under controlled laboratory conditions we found no cost of carrying the most resistant allele in terms of fecundity, and a possible advantage in terms of growth and mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to drive resistant alleles of sod1 into natural populations of the snail vector for the purpose of controlling transmission of S. mansoni. However, we did observe a strong effect of genetic background on the association between sod1 genotype and resistance. sod1 genotype explained substantial variance in resistance among individuals in the most resistant genetic background, but had little effect in the least resistant genetic background. Thus, epistatic interactions with other loci may be as important a consideration as costs of resistance in the use of sod1 for vector manipulation.

  3. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  4. Preserving the allocation ratio at every allocation with biased coin randomization and minimization in studies with unequal allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2012-04-13

    The demand for unequal allocation in clinical trials is growing. Most commonly, the unequal allocation is achieved through permuted block randomization. However, other allocation procedures might be required to better approximate the allocation ratio in small samples, reduce the selection bias in open-label studies, or balance on baseline covariates. When these allocation procedures are generalized to unequal allocation, special care is to be taken to preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation step. This paper offers a way to expand the biased coin randomization to unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every allocation. The suggested expansion works with biased coin randomization that balances only on treatment group totals and with covariate-adaptive procedures that use a random biased coin element at every allocation. Balancing properties of the allocation ratio preserving biased coin randomization and minimization are described through simulations. It is demonstrated that these procedures are asymptotically protected against the shift in the rerandomization distribution identified for some examples of minimization with 1:2 allocation. The asymptotic shift in the rerandomization distribution of the difference in treatment means for an arbitrary unequal allocation procedure is explicitly derived in the paper. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  6. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk......-to-one matching model by including a set of objects, such that a matching consists of two agents from disjoint sets, and an object. Agents' preference lists consist of all possible pairs of objects and agents from the other set, and thus contain important information about agent-object tradeoffs. The notion...

  7. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís M Nazareth

    Full Text Available Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF. We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group.

  8. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  9. Defense Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self defense is the basic response of every living organism. This response is readily observed in animals because of their physical movements typically involved in that pro- cess. Being immobile, plants have evolved highly complex defense mechanisms that differ from those commonly seen in animals. Plants are able to ...

  10. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  11. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  12. Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We examined resource limitations on growth and carbon allocation in a fast-growing, clonal plantation of Eucalyptus grandis urophylla in Brazil by characterizing responses to annual rainfall, and response to irrigation and fertililization for 2 years. Productivity measures included gross primary production (GPP), total belowground carbon allocation (...

  13. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  14. Operational risk economic capital allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Vlasov, Vladimir E.; Medvedeva, Marina A.

    2013-10-01

    In the paper we describe a model of operational risk of economic capital estimation and allocation based on Loss Distribution Approach (LDA). Bank's total losses are modeled through Monte-Carlo simulations of its business units' losses. It allows to fairly distributing the corresponding capital between business units in order to assess and manage their risk adjusted performance.

  15. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  16. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  17. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In addition, this chapter develops a microeconomic model to explore donors’ aid allocation decisions and their potential impact on aid effectiveness...the promotion of market-based principles to restructure macroeconomic policies in developing countries. The greater focus on...be explained by successful development 29 efforts of number of countries in the region, such as Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Singapore, and Peoples

  18. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  19. Modelling C allocation in response to nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation in ecosystems is a key variable of the global terrestrial C cycle. While photosynthesis governs the amount of C that enters ecosystems, its subsequent allocation to compartments with different life times determines its over-all residence time and variations in allocation patterns drive changes in ecosystem C balance and its response to environmental change. A better understanding of the controls on allocation is thus key to improving global vegetation models that commonly rely on using fixed partitioning factors. Observational data suggests variations of ecosystem structure and functioning along large-scale gradients of resource availability. Below-ground C allocation, inferred as gross primary production minus above-ground biomass production increases along gradients of decreasing nutrient availability. This is not only due to more root growth, but also due to enhanced production of exudates and stimulation of root symbionts and has been interpreted to reflect optimal plant allocation decisions under a varying soil fertility status. Here, we propose a model that accounts for trade-offs between (i) growth in above-ground and (ii) below-ground plant compartments, (iii) exudation to the rhizosphere and root symbionts and (iv) temporary storage in non-structural pools. By postulating the maximization of long-term growth under a given (seasonal regime) of soil nitrogen (N) availability, we attempt to reproduce observed large-scale gradients. The model is formulated based on a C cost for different N uptake decisions, where the cost is a function of N availability, root mass, and soil temperature (for biological N fixation). On a daily time scale, ecosystem N uptake may be realized by C exudation to the rhizosphere and/or symbiotic fixation of atmospheric N2. On an annual time scale, allocation to roots versus leaves is adjusted to soil inorganic N availability and modeled to yield maximum total growth. Exudation versus temporary storage of C is

  20. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar......, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...

  1. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

  2. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  4. Enemies lost : parallel evolution in structural defense and tolerance to herbivory of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Tiantian; Doorduin, Leonie; Temme, Andries; Pons, Thijs L.; Lamers, Gerda E. M.; Anten, Niels P. R.; Vrieling, Klaas

    According to the Shifting Defense Hypothesis, invasive plants should trade-off their costly quantitative defense to cheaper qualitative defense and growth due to the lack of natural specialist enemies and the presence of generalist enemies in the introduced areas. Several studies showed that plant

  5. Enemies lost: parallel evolution in structural defense and tolerance to herbivory of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, T.; Doorduin, L.; Temme, A.; Pons, T.L.; Lamers, G.E.M.; Anten, N.P.R.; Vrieling, K.

    2015-01-01

    According to the Shifting Defense Hypothesis, invasive plants should trade-off their costly quantitative defense to cheaper qualitative defense and growth due to the lack of natural specialist enemies and the presence of generalist enemies in the introduced areas. Several studies showed that plant

  6. Herbivory alters plant carbon assimilation, patterns of biomass allocation and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiutta, María Laura; Scholz, Fabián Gustavo; Goldstein, Guillermo; Bucci, Sandra Janet

    2018-01-01

    Herbivory can trigger physiological processes resulting in leaf and whole plant functional changes. The effects of chronic infestation by an insect on leaf traits related to carbon and nitrogen economy in three Prunus avium cultivars were assessed. Leaves from non-infested trees (control) and damaged leaves from infested trees were selected. The insect larvae produce skeletonization of the leaves leaving relatively intact the vein network of the eaten leaves and the abaxial epidermal tissue. At the leaf level, nitrogen content per mass (Nmass) and per area (Narea), net photosynthesis per mass (Amass) and per area (Aarea), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), leaf mass per area (LMA) and total leaf phenols content were measured in the three cultivars. All cultivars responded to herbivory in a similar fashion. The Nmass, Amass, and PNUE decreased, while LMA and total content of phenols increased in partially damaged leaves. Increases in herbivore pressure resulted in lower leaf size and total leaf area per plant across cultivars. Despite this, stem cumulative growth tended to increase in infected plants suggesting a change in the patterns of biomass allocation and in resources sequestration elicited by herbivory. A larger N investment in defenses instead of photosynthetic structures may explain the lower PNUE and Amass observed in damaged leaves. Some physiological changes due to herbivory partially compensate for the cost of leaf removal buffering the carbon economy at the whole plant level.

  7. Innovative Carbon Allowance Allocation Policy for the Shenzhen Emission Trading Scheme in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial allocation of tradable carbon emission allowances is among the most contentious issues in developing an emission trading scheme (ETS. China faces serious dilemmas of system complexity and information incompleteness and asymmetry in allocating carbon allowance among enterprises. As one of the pilot ETS regions, Shenzhen has launched the first regional cap-and-trade ETS (SZ ETS in China. Adhering to the overall plan and classification analysis, SZ ETS intends to solve the aforementioned dilemmas by developing innovative allowance allocation policies. A fundamental principle is to allocate allowances based on carbon intensity and actual output, according to which a two-step allocation procedure is constructed. A competitive game mechanism is introduced for allowance allocation among manufacturing enterprises. Empirical results indicate the following: (1 Carbon allowance allocation based on carbon intensity and actual output can mitigate carbon emission growth by reducing CO2 emitted per unit output, and, thus, buffer the shocks of unexpected economic fluctuations to ETS stability; (2 Competitive game allocation may contribute to improving the use of scattered information to enhance the efficiency of information and emission resource allocation. Exploring SZ ETS may provide a reference for formulating future national carbon allowance allocation policies in China and other developing regions.

  8. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that by ninth or tenth grade, males begin to externalize conflict while females tend to deal with conflict internally. This differentiation of defense choice by sex is clearly established by the last two years of high school. (JMB)

  9. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  10. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  11. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  12. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  13. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  14. Integer Programming Models for Sales Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1980-01-01

    A practical conceptual framework for sales resource allocation modeling is presented in this paper. A literature review of sales resource allocation models is described in terms of this framework. The conceptual framework also lends itself to several integer programming models which may be used to address the variety of sales resource allocation decisions faced by every sales organization. A general model for sales resource allocation is developed which incorporates multiple sales resources, ...

  15. Genomics Mechanisms of Carbon Allocation and Partitioning in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias; Peter, Gary; Martin, Timothy

    2009-07-30

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration. It is also unclear how environmental cues such as nitrogen availability impact the genes that regulate growth, and biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. To address these questions we phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above and below ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Fifty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for twenty traits analyzed. The majority of QTL are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and QTL co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Gene expression analysis of all poplar genes was also characterized in differentiating xylem, whole-roots and developing leaves of 192 of the segregating population. By integrating the QTL and gene expression information we identified genes that regulate carbon partitioning and several biomass growth related properties. The work developed in this project resulted in the publication of three book chapters, four scientific articles (three others currently in preparation), 17 presentations in international conferences and two provisional patent applications.

  16. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes

  17. The Effect of Corruption on Government Expenditure Allocation in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Jajkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effect of corruption on the allocation of government expenditures by function. Equations using pooled panel dataset for 21 OECD countries between 1998 and 2011 were tested, and the findings show that government expenditure on defense and general public services increase, while government expenditures on education, health, recreation, culture and religion decline with higher levels of corruption. This paper presents new results and new evidence on the link between corruption and allocation of government expenditures in OECD countries.

  18. Corrupt Bureaucracy and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Djumashev, Ratbek

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.

  19. Instrumentation requirements for radiological defense of the U.S. population in community shelters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Gant, K.S.

    1978-08-01

    Estimates are made of requirements for instruments for radiological defense of the U.S. population in the event of a nuclear attack. A detailed Community Shelter Plan posture is developed for each of 42,000 Standard Location Areas. Travel distance from residence to shelter in urban areas is limited to approximately 1 mile. Sixty percent of the U.S. population is sheltered in home basements, thirty-one percent in National Shelter Survey shelters, and nine percent is in neither. Three minimum allocations of instruments are developed. Allocation A, one radiological defense set per shelter, is essentially the same as the current civil defense allocations but is found to be inadequate for about 100,000 shelters having more than 100 occupants. Allocation B requires 3.4 million new dosimeters based on estimated shelter occupancy and provides a minimum instrumentation for radiological defense but not enough instruments to maintain individual dose records. Allocation C would require 18.1 million new dosimeters and would provide adequate instrumentation to maintain dose records for all shelter occupants

  20. Instrumentation requirements for radiological defense of the U. S. population in community shelters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, C.M.; Gant, K.S.

    1978-08-01

    Estimates are made of requirements for instruments for radiological defense of the U.S. population in the event of a nuclear attack. A detailed Community Shelter Plan posture is developed for each of 42,000 Standard Location Areas. Travel distance from residence to shelter in urban areas is limited to approximately 1 mile. Sixty percent of the U.S. population is sheltered in home basements, thirty-one percent in National Shelter Survey shelters, and nine percent is in neither. Three minimum allocations of instruments are developed. Allocation A, one radiological defense set per shelter, is essentially the same as the current civil defense allocations but is found to be inadequate for about 100,000 shelters having more than 100 occupants. Allocation B requires 3.4 million new dosimeters based on estimated shelter occupancy and provides a minimum instrumentation for radiological defense but not enough instruments to maintain individual dose records. Allocation C would require 18.1 million new dosimeters and would provide adequate instrumentation to maintain dose records for all shelter occupants.

  1. On System Engineering a Barter-Based Re-allocation of Space System Key Development Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmann, William J.

    NASA has had a decades-long problem with cost growth during the development of space science missions. Numerous agency-sponsored studies have produced average mission level development cost growths ranging from 23 to 77%. A new study of 26 historical NASA science instrument set developments using expert judgment to re-allocate key development resources has an average cost growth of 73.77%. Twice in history, during the Cassini and EOS-Terra science instrument developments, a barter-based mechanism has been used to re-allocate key development resources. The mean instrument set development cost growth was -1.55%. Performing a bivariate inference on the means of these two distributions, there is statistical evidence to support the claim that using a barter-based mechanism to re-allocate key instrument development resources will result in a lower expected cost growth than using the expert judgment approach. Agent-based discrete event simulation is the natural way to model a trade environment. A NetLogo agent-based barter-based simulation of science instrument development was created. The agent-based model was validated against the Cassini historical example, as the starting and ending instrument development conditions are available. The resulting validated agent-based barter-based science instrument resource re-allocation simulation was used to perform 300 instrument development simulations, using barter to re-allocate development resources. The mean cost growth was -3.365%. A bivariate inference on the means was performed to determine that additional significant statistical evidence exists to support a claim that using barter-based resource re-allocation will result in lower expected cost growth, with respect to the historical expert judgment approach. Barter-based key development resource re-allocation should work on science spacecraft development as well as it has worked on science instrument development. A new study of 28 historical NASA science spacecraft

  2. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  3. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  4. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  5. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  6. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) and the US defense posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    Issues surrounding the Strategic Defense Initiative are discussed. Comments are made on the research and development program and the effect of this program on the defensive posture of the United States.

  7. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  8. Evolution of Hormone Signaling Networks in Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Matthias L; Berry, Hannah M; Mine, Akira; Argueso, Cristiana T; Tsuda, Kenichi

    2017-08-04

    Studies with model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed that phytohormones are central regulators of plant defense. The intricate network of phytohormone signaling pathways enables plants to activate appropriate and effective defense responses against pathogens as well as to balance defense and growth. The timing of the evolution of most phytohormone signaling pathways seems to coincide with the colonization of land, a likely requirement for plant adaptations to the more variable terrestrial environments, which included the presence of pathogens. In this review, we explore the evolution of defense hormone signaling networks by combining the model plant-based knowledge about molecular components mediating phytohormone signaling and cross talk with available genome information of other plant species. We highlight conserved hubs in hormone cross talk and discuss evolutionary advantages of defense hormone cross talk. Finally, we examine possibilities of engineering hormone cross talk for improvement of plant fitness and crop production.

  9. On the allocation of credit and aggregate fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature on financial development and growth has highlighted the possibility of endogenous business cycles arising for particular levels of a given credit multiplier. These studies concentrate on loans directed to the productive activity and neglect the role of credit to consumption. In this paper, we consider an endogenous growth model, where a representative agent must choose how to allocate credit; basically, the agent considers a simple rule where the share of credit to consumption reacts to deviations of the consumption - wealth ratio relatively to the corresponding steady state level. The setup generates nonlinear dynamics, which are analyzed both locally and globally.

  10. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    evacuation , missile defense, reconnaissance and surveillance, sea lane control, search and rescue, special operations, strategic and theater airlift...decontamination technology advances. Recently, novel types of polymeric support termed “ starburst ” dendrimer polymers have been developed. The ability to...threats • Optimize military performance; survival and stabilization of combat casualties • Provide the world’s best casualty evacuation and medical

  11. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  12. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  13. 75 FR 40857 - Webinar About Advanced Defense Technologies RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ..., training, mentoring, matchmaking and other services to support small business development and growth in... regional innovation clusters, as well as experience fostering small business development and growth... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Webinar About Advanced Defense Technologies RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small...

  14. Ministries of Defense: Driving Force in Defense Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction. For more effective democratic civilian control (and better defense decisions), Ministries of Defense bridge the gap between political institutions and the armed forces. These institutions translate political objectives into military capabilities. MODs, staffed with enough civilian defense experts, provide the continuity and stability needed in a democratic system.

  15. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  16. Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...... governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met...... by decision makers at the institutional level, provide, so it is promised, legitimate decisions. While we agree that A4R represents an important contribution to the priority-setting debate, we challenge the framework in two respects. First, we argue that A4R, and more specifically the relevance condition of A...

  17. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  18. Sexual Responsivity and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Thomas; Bekker, Demoyne

    1976-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether high- and low-sexual responders on a double-entendre word association test differed in defensive preference on Gleser and Ihilevich's Defense Mechanism Inventory. (Author)

  19. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  20. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  1. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  2. Optimal defense strategies in an idealized microbial food web under trade-off between competition and defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Våge

    Full Text Available Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating and top-down (biomass regulating factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW, predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.

  3. Towards an understanding of the molecular regulation of carbon allocation in diatoms: the interaction of energy and carbon allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Fanesi, Andrea; Wilhelm, Christian

    2017-09-05

    In microalgae, the photosynthesis-driven CO 2 assimilation delivers cell building blocks that are used in different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known about how the cell regulates the subsequent carbon allocation to, for example, cell growth or for storage. However, knowledge about these regulatory mechanisms is of high biotechnological and ecological importance. In diatoms, the situation becomes even more complex because, as a consequence of their secondary endosymbiotic origin, the compartmentation of the pathways for the primary metabolic routes is different from green algae. Therefore, the mechanisms to manipulate the carbon allocation pattern cannot be adopted from the green lineage. This review describes the general pathways of cellular energy distribution from light absorption towards the final allocation of carbon into macromolecules and summarizes the current knowledge of diatom-specific allocation patterns. We further describe the (limited) knowledge of regulatory mechanisms of carbon partitioning between lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in diatoms. We present solutions to overcome the problems that hinder the identification of regulatory elements of carbon metabolism.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  5. Belowground herbivory and plant defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Belowground-feeding herbivores may be very destructive to plants. Roots are known to produce various defense compounds to protect themselves against these herbivores, both with direct and indirect—inducible—defense compounds. Recent literature reviews reveal no overall pattern for root-shoot defense

  6. Cross talk in defense signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves against attack by herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens. Some of these defense mechanisms are preexisting, whereas others are only activated upon insect or pathogen invasion. Induced defense responses entail fitness

  7. Defense Mechanisms in Group Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents considerations and strategies for conceptualizing, recognizing, and modifying defense mechanisms through the group counseling process. Provides awareness of defense mechanisms in planning for and implementation of group counseling, describes interaction patterns for identifying defenses among group participants, and clarifies modification…

  8. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  9. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  10. Boomeranging in structural defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known. PMID:22990448

  11. Defense against Space Weapons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    which can be used at present are space defense missiles, killer satellites, high energy laser weapons and particle beam weapons. In 1962, the U.S... laser weapons and particle beam weapons have the ad- 4vantages of high power, concentrated energy, hit accuracy, and conven- ience of use. They have... weapons development amounts to 5 US$200,000,000. At present, irradiation by a laser weapon operating on the earth’s surface can cause optical and infrared

  12. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    capital assets, such as an F-35 Joint Strike Fighter or a Virginia-class submarine. Investment costs are distinguished from expenses, which are...procurement funds before a formal Milestone C approval. How else does DOD purchase goods and services? How does DOD procurement relate to defense...purchase services (e.g., research, architectural design, or cleaning services) and smaller goods (e.g., gauze or light bulbs) because such purchases

  13. Defense suppression benefits herbivores that have a monopoly on their feeding site but can backfire within natural communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, J.J.; Alba, J.M.; Simoni, S.; Villarroel, C.A.; Stoops, M.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Schuurink, R.C.; Sabelis, M.W.; Kant, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plants have inducible defenses to combat attacking organisms. Hence, some herbivores have adapted to suppress these defenses. Suppression of plant defenses has been shown to benefit herbivores by boosting their growth and reproductive performance. Results: We observed in field-grown

  14. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  15. Sex allocation promotes the stable co-occurrence of competitive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity has long been a source of wonder and scientific curiosity. Theoretically, the co-occurrence of competitive species requires niche differentiation, and such differences are well known; however, the neutral theory, which assumes the equivalence of all individuals regardless of the species in a biological community, has successfully recreated observed patterns of biodiversity. In this research, the evolution of sex allocation is demonstrated to be the key to resolving why the neutral theory works well, despite the observed species differences. The sex allocation theory predicts that female-biased allocation evolves in species in declining density and that this allocation improves population growth, which should lead to an increase in density. In contrast, when the density increases, a less biased allocation evolves, which reduces the population growth rate and leads to decreased density. Thus, sex allocation provides a buffer against species differences in population growth. A model incorporating this mechanism demonstrates that hundreds of species can co-occur over 10,000 generations, even in homogeneous environments, and reproduces the observed patterns of biodiversity. This study reveals the importance of evolutionary processes within species for the sustainability of biodiversity. Integrating the entire biological process, from genes to community, will open a new era of ecology.

  16. Credit allocation for research institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-P.; Guo, Q.; Yang, K.; Han, J.-T.; Liu, J.-G.

    2017-05-01

    It is a challenging work to assess research performance of multiple institutes. Considering that it is unfair to average the credit to the institutes which is in the different order from a paper, in this paper, we present a credit allocation method (CAM) with a weighted order coefficient for multiple institutes. The results for the APS dataset with 18987 institutes show that top-ranked institutes obtained by the CAM method correspond to well-known universities or research labs with high reputation in physics. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the CAM method when citation links are added or rewired randomly quantified by the Kendall's Tau and Jaccard index. The experimental results indicate that the CAM method has better performance in robustness compared with the total number of citations (TC) method and Shen's method. Finally, we give the first 20 Chinese universities in physics obtained by the CAM method. However, this method is valid for any other branch of sciences, not just for physics. The proposed method also provides universities and policy makers an effective tool to quantify and balance the academic performance of university.

  17. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... examples and an empirical illustration are also provided....

  19. 'Unconscionable and irrational' SAPS human resource allocation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These areas also suffer among the highest rates of murder and serious violent crime in the province. The allocation of human resources to policing impinges on various constitutional rights. Given the inequity and irrationality apparent in the allocation of police personnel, the Khayelitsha Commission recommended that this ...

  20. Nash Social Welfare in Multiagent Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramezani (Sara); U. Endriss; E. David; E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D. Sarne; O. Shehory (Onn)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and

  1. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  2. Risk and reliability allocation to risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The risk allocation procedure is used as an analytical model to support the optimal decision making for reliability/availability improvement planning. Both levels of decision criteria, the plant risk measures and plant performance indices, are used in risk allocation procedure. Decision support system uses the multi objective decision making concept. (author) [sl

  3. Optimal Allocation in Stratified Randomized Response Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Shabbir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A Warner (1965 randomized response model based on stratification is used to determine the allocation of samples. Both linear and log-linear cost functions are discussed under uni and double stratification. It observed that by using a log-linear cost function, one can get better allocations.

  4. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  5. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    to submissions in such a way that all submissions receive feedback of similar quality and that we are able to significantly outperform simple random allocation of reviewers. Additionally we investigate the effect of pre-allocating reviews in comparison to allocating reviewers live during the review process......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good...

  6. Optimal allocation of resources in systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, C.; Lieberman, G.J.; Ross, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the design of a new system, or the maintenance of an old system, allocation of resources is of prime consideration. In allocating resources it is often beneficial to develop a solution that yields an optimal value of the system measure of desirability. In the context of the problems considered in this paper the resources to be allocated are components already produced (assembly problems) and money (allocation in the construction or repair of systems). The measure of desirability for system assembly will usually be maximizing the expected number of systems that perform satisfactorily and the measure in the allocation context will be maximizing the system reliability. Results are presented for these two types of general problems in both a sequential (when appropriate) and non-sequential context

  7. Russia's defense spending and the economic decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Oxenstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.

  8. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  9. Growth and reproductive attributes of radionuclide phytoremediators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that growth attributes including relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf are index and specific leaf area, dry matter allocated to stem and leaves and number of reproductive organs decreased with the increase of radionuclide content of the plant, while the dry matter allocated to root and reproductive ...

  10. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    provides a framework for examining spending patterns of the federal government by category of activity, rather than by agency or type of financing ...federal spending. Since federal agencies often have diverse, overlapping responsibilities , it is not uncommon for them to be associated with multiple...agency responsible for approximately 96% of spending within the National Defense Budget (050). Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function

  11. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant portion derived...

  12. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant...

  13. Identifying Memory Allocation Patterns in HEP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Rauschmayr, N.

    2017-10-01

    HEP applications perform an excessive amount of allocations/deallocations within short time intervals which results in memory churn, poor locality and performance degradation. These issues are already known for a decade, but due to the complexity of software frameworks and billions of allocations for a single job, up until recently no efficient mechanism has been available to correlate these issues with source code lines. However, with the advent of the Big Data era, many tools and platforms are now available to do large scale memory profiling. This paper presents, a prototype program developed to track and identify each single (de-)allocation. The CERN IT Hadoop cluster is used to compute memory key metrics, like locality, variation, lifetime and density of allocations. The prototype further provides a web based visualization back-end that allows the user to explore the results generated on the Hadoop cluster. Plotting these metrics for every single allocation over time gives a new insight into application’s memory handling. For instance, it shows which algorithms cause which kind of memory allocation patterns, which function flow causes how many short-lived objects, what are the most commonly allocated sizes etc. The paper will give an insight into the prototype and will show profiling examples for the LHC reconstruction, digitization and simulation jobs.

  14. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  15. Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi; Hamid R Davoodi

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses some channels through which corruption affects growth such as the impact of corruption on enterprises, on the allocation of talent, and on investment. It also discusses the impact of corruption on some aspects of public finance.

  16. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  17. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  18. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Prey use a variety of mechanisms to avoid the risk of predation, including chemical defense, camouflage, and conspicuous coloration. Here we show that variation in these forms of protection can have profound effects on macroevolutionary patterns in amphibians. Chemical defense and conspicuous coloration both increase speciation rates, in line with the “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis. However, chemical defense also increases extinction rates, lowering net diversification. We therefore show tha...

  19. Dynamic Asset Allocation with Stochastic Income and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Sørensen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    We solve for optimal portfolios when interest rates and labor income are stochastic with the expected income growth being affine in the short-term interest rate in order to encompass business cycle variations in wages. Our calibration based on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data supports...... this relation with substantial variation across individuals in the slope of this affine function. The slope is crucial for the valuation and riskiness of human capital and for the optimal stock/bond/cash allocation both in an unconstrained complete market and in an incomplete market with liquidity and short...

  20. Physiological, morphological and allocational plasticity in understory deciduous trees: importance of plant size and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian; Lechowicz, Martin J; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    In a 4-year study, we investigated changes in leaf physiology, crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation in seedlings and saplings of shade-tolerant sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and intermediate shade-tolerant yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) growing in natural understory light (0.5 to 35% of full sunlight) or in understory light reduced by 50% with shade nets to simulate the effect of gap closure. Leaf physiological parameters were mainly influenced by the light gradient, whereas crown morphological and whole-tree allocational parameters were mainly influenced by tree size. No single physiological, morphological or allocational trait was identified that could explain the difference in shade tolerance between the species. Yellow birch had higher growth rates, biomass allocation to branches and leaf physiological plasticity and lower crown morphological plasticity in unmodified understory light than sugar maple. Sugar maple did not display significant physiological plasticity, but showed variation with tree size in both crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allocation. When sugar maple was small, a greater proportion of whole-tree biomass was allocated to roots. However, physiological differences between the species decreased with decreasing light and most morphological and allocational differences tended to disappear with increasing tree size, suggesting that many species differences in shade-tolerance are expressed mainly during the seedling stage. Understory trees of both species survived for 4 years under shade nets, possibly because of higher plasticity when small and the use of stored reserves when taller. Copyright 2004 Heron Publishing

  1. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  2. PUBLIC GOODS, CORRUPTION AND GROWTH???

    OpenAIRE

    Ratbek Dzhumashev

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.

  3. In vitro testing of defense reactions in zygotic and somatic embryos of Abies numidica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense of desiccated cotyledonary somatic embryos and mature zygotic embryos of Abies numidica was tested in vitro by dual cultures with tester, fungus Phaeolus schweinitzii. Both types of embryos expressed defense reactions manifested by inhibited growth of fungal tester towards the embryos. Mycelial growth was described by logistic sigmoid growth model with a single asymptote. Mutual comparisons of mycelial growth in presence of zygotic and somatic embryos showed significant differences in parameters of mycelium growth curves towards the embryos. Larger defense reactions were observed in zygotic embryos relative to somatic embryos and unlimited control cultivations without embryo. The possible role of auxin in the defense response of plant embryos is discussed.

  4. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  5. U.S. Army Recruiter Allocation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...

  6. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine...... the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption...

  7. Teaching Psychological Defense Mechanisms: "The Defense Mechanisms Game."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Charles G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the rules for an educational game in which students reinforce psychology lecture material by creating and dramatizing defense mechanisms such as reaction formation, displacement, and fantasy. Provides definitions and examples of the various defense mechanisms that can be portrayed. (JP)

  8. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that enhancing defensive enzymes' activities and inducing new isozymes may be related to mitigating pathogen-induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be involved in the mechanisms of plant against fungal ...

  9. Resource allocation criteria in a hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Bodina, A.; Pavan, A.; Castaldi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Allocate fixed resources among competing users is a challenge in terms of hospital management in order to obtain the best performance considering strategic objectives. In order to address this need, a system of evaluation in an important research and teaching hospital was designed. This study describes resource allocation criteria in a hospital focusing on the evaluation system and its developed application methodology. Methods. The indicator system allows the strategic ...

  10. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  11. Macroeconomic Influences on Optimal Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Flavin, Thomas; Wickens, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a tactical asset allocation strategy that incorporates the effects of macroeconomic variables. The joint distribution of financial asset returns and the macroeconomic variables is modelled using a VAR with a multivariate GARCH (M-GARCH) error structure. As a result, the portfolio frontier is time varying and subject to contagion from the macroeconomic variable. Optimal asset allocation requires that this be taken into account. We illustrate how to do this using three ri...

  12. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  13. Discrete Tolerance Allocation for Product Families

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper extends earlier research on the discrete tolerance allocation problem in order to optimize an entire product family simultaneously. This methodology enables top-down tolerancing approach where requirements on assembly level on products within a family are allocated to single part requirements. The proposed solution has been implemented as an interface with an optimization algorithm coupled with a variation simulation software. The paper also consists of an exten...

  14. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  15. Resource Allocation in the Department of Defense: A Case Study of Army Aviation Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    for the comments of Rand colleagues Chery 1 Cook, Christopher Harz , James Hosek, Robert Paulson, and Robert Shishko. Laura Goeglein, Helen Loesch, and...pp. 233-247. Harz , C., Problems in Army Vehicle Maintenance: Results of a Ques- tionnaire Survey, The Rand Corporation, R-2487-ARPA, June 1981

  16. 78 FR 12294 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Defense Priorities and Allocations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...: Direct all written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of...) 482-4895, Lawrence[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This recordkeeping...

  17. Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kyle J; Seiter, Emily M; Johnson, Erin E; Saporito, Ralph A

    2018-02-10

    Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens. While natural alkaloid mixtures in dendrobatid poison frogs have recently been shown to inhibit growth of non-pathogenic microbes, no studies have examined the effectiveness of alkaloids against microbes that infect these frogs. Herein, we examined how alkaloid defenses in the dendrobatid poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, affect growth of the known anuran pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Frogs were collected from five locations throughout Costa Rica that are known to vary in their alkaloid profiles. Alkaloids were isolated from individual skins, and extracts were assayed against both pathogens. Microbe subcultures were inoculated with extracted alkaloids to create dose-response curves. Subsequent spectrophotometry and cell counting assays were used to assess growth inhibition. GC-MS was used to characterize and quantify alkaloids in frog extracts, and our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of these pathogens. The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkaloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

  18. Defense Styles in Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty-five serious suicide attempters, paired to neuropsychiatric controls on relevant variables, were tested within two weeks of their attempt with the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Attempters revealed more turning-against-self defenses as hypothesized but showed no differences from controls in use of fantasized hostility. Implications for…

  19. Assertion and Defense Mechanism Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massong, Stefan R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether assertive and nonassertive individuals differ in defense mechanisms they most typically rely on when confronted with interpersonal stress and conflict. Results indicated assertive males and females both endorsed the most adaptive defense mechanism cluster, whereas nonassertive males and females endorsed more primitive defense…

  20. The enigma of sex allocation in Selaginella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kurt B; Burd, Martin

    2018-02-12

    The division of resource investment between male and female functions is poorly known for land plants other than angiosperms. The ancient lycophyte genus Selaginella is similar in some ways to angiosperms (in heterospory and in having sex allocation occur in the sporophyte generation, for example) but lacks the post-fertilization maternal investments that angiosperms make via fruit and seed tissues. One would therefore expect Selaginella to have sex allocation values less female-biased than in flowering plants and closer to the theoretical prediction of equal investment in male and female functions. Nothing is currently known of sex allocation in the genus, so even the simplest predictions have not been tested. Volumetric measurements of microsporangial and megasporangial investment were made in 14 species of Selaginella from four continents. In five of these species the length of the main above-ground axis of each plant was measured to determine whether sex allocation is related to plant size. Of the 14 species, 13 showed male-biased allocations, often extreme, in population means and among the great majority of individual plants. There was some indication from the five species with axis length measurements that relative male allocation might be related to the release height of spores, but this evidence is preliminary. Sex allocation in Selaginella provides a phylogenetic touchstone showing how the innovations of fruit and seed investment in the angiosperm life cycle lead to typically female-biased allocations in that lineage. Moreover, the male bias we found in Selaginella requires an evolutionary explanation. The bias was often greater than what would occur from the mere absence of seed and fruit investments, and thus poses a challenge to sex allocation theory. It is possible that differences between microspores and megaspores in their dispersal ecology create selective effects that favour male-biased sexual allocation. This hypothesis remains tentative. © The

  1. Unwiring jasmonic acid defense signaling : Molecular regulation and ecological costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    In natural environments, plants have to deal with a wide diversity of attackers, resulting in major crop losses in agricultural settings. Plant can activate defense responses against these attackers, however, there are fitness penalties like reduced plant growth associated with this. The production

  2. Defense mechanisms of hepatocytes against Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eBast

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative facultative intracellular rod Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, an infectious disease with a wide range of clinical presentations. Among the observed visceral abscesses, the liver is commonly affected. However, neither this organotropism of B. pseudomallei nor local hepatic defense mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated so far. Own previous studies using electron microscopy of the murine liver after systemic infection of mice indicated that hepatocytes might be capable of killing B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the interaction of B. pseudomallei with these cells and to analyse the role of hepatocytes in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense. In vitro studies using the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2 revealed that B. pseudomallei can invade these cells. Subsequently, B. pseudomallei is able to escape from the vacuole, to replicate within the cytosol of HepG2 cells involving its type 3 and type 6 secretion systems, and to induce actin tail formation. Furthermore, stimulation of HepG2 cells showed that IFNgamma can restrict growth of B. pseudomallei in the early and late phase of infection whereas the combination of IFNgamma, IL-1beta and TNFalpha is required for the maximal antibacterial activity. This anti-B. pseudomallei defense of HepG2 cells did not seem to be mediated by iNOS-derived nitric oxide or NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide. In summary, this is the first study describing B. pseudomallei intracellular life cycle characteristics in hepatocytes and showing that IFNgamma-mediated, but nitric oxide- and reactive oxygen species-independent, effector mechanisms are important in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense of hepatocytes.

  3. Wormuth: Work on Security, Defense 'Holistically'

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Concepts spawned at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security could be very valuable to government entities such as the Department of Defense as that agency expands its focus in...

  4. SOME NOTES ON COST ALLOCATION IN MULTICASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Skorin-Kapov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the cost allocation strategies with the problef of broadcasting information from some source to a number of communication network users. A multicast routing chooses a minimum cost tree network that spans the source and all the receivers. The cost of such a network is distributed among its receivers who may be individuals or organizations with possibly conflicting interests. Providing network developers, users and owners with practical computable 'fair' cost allocation solution procedures is of great importance for network mamagement. Consequently, this multidisciplinary problem was extensively studied by Operational Researchers, Economists, Mathematicians and Computer Scientists. The fairness of various proposed solutions was even argued in US courts. This presentation overviews some previously published, as well as some recent results, in the development of algorithmic mechanisms to efficiently compute 'attractive' cost allocation solutions for multicast networks. Specifically, we will analyze cooperative game theory based cost allocation models that avoid cross subsidies and/or are distance and population monotonic. We will also present some related open cost allocation problems and the potential contribution that such models might make to this problem in the future.

  5. Methodology for allocating reliability and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes a methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants. The work investigates the technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk, which are expressed in a set of global safety criteria and which may not necessarily be rigid, to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner. The report also provides general discussions on the problem of reliability and risk allocation. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm. The work mainly addresses the first two steps of a typical decision analysis, i.e., (1) identifying alternatives, and (2) generating information on outcomes of the alternatives, by performing a multiobjective optimization on a PRA model and reliability cost functions. The multiobjective optimization serves as the guiding principle to reliability and risk allocation. The concept of ''noninferiority'' is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The final step of decision analysis, i.e., assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided, and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation, preference assessment, and uncertainty are discussed. 29 refs., 44 figs., 39 tabs

  6. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller tha...... fairness tests related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies all three tests in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual subunits. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the group among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose three...

  7. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFENSE SPENDING AND MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur OZSOY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the rate of Defense Spendings in the GDP, and the growth rate of GDP, and the portion of current accounts in GDP and Annual Inflation Rate are examined with getting the annual data between the 1980-2006 years, and using VAR model for Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Turkey. In course of this examination, the results of Granger Casuality and Impulse-Response Functions and Variance Decomposition were used. The focus point of our study is for the reason of defense spendings are effective on macroeconomic variables that while Egypt and Israel has uni-directional Granger causality from the defense spendings to inflation, for other countries there couldn`t be found any Granger causality. On the other hand when we look at the impulse response functions, in case of a shock of defense spending as a percentage of GNP, while the rate of Israel`s inflation and Current account as a percentage of GNP are affected by the pozitive direction , Turkey`s growth rate is affected negatively. For Egypt and Jordan, the significiant effects on defense spendings according to macroeconomic variables couldn`t be found any significiant effects.

  9. The importance of ecological costs for the evolution of plant defense against herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Ellen; Etienne, Rampal S

    2015-01-01

    Plant defense against herbivory comes at a cost, which can be either direct (reducing resources available for growth and reproduction) or indirect (through reducing ecological performance, for example intraspecific competitiveness). While direct costs have been well studied in theoretical models,

  10. Defense Logistics Agency Family Housing Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Director, Defense Logistics Agency (Installation Support Group) requested the audit to review the process the Defense Logistics Agency installations use to determine family housing requirements...

  11. Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariah S. Carbone; Claudia I. Czimczik; Trevor F. Keenan; Paula F. Murakami; Neil Pederson; Paul G. Schaberg; Xiaomei Xu; Andrew D. Richardson

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality.We used the radiocarbon (14C) ‘bomb spike’ as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree...

  12. 34 CFR 200.89 - MEP allocations; Re-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of recruiters, size or growth in local migratory child population, effectiveness of local quality... documentation; and Quality control. 200.89 Section 200.89 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control. (a) Allocation of funds under the MEP for fiscal...

  13. Resource allocations, knowledge network characteristics and entrepreneurial orientation of multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; Lee, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in multinational corporations (MNCs) and develops a new typology of MNC EO based on combining R&D and asset growth investment intensities as orthogonal resource allocations. A cluster analysis of US MNCs on these two dimensions reveals three types

  14. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  15. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  17. Allocating environmental liabilities within a facilities agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, A.

    2000-01-01

    Some environmental issues at jointly owned oil and gas facilities in Alberta are examined, including ways to allocate liability for those issues among the facility's owners, and between the facility's owners and custom users. Causes of environmental contamination, the scope of clean-up costs and some industry initiatives to sort out the question of who pays the environmental costs are also discussed. Some aspects of the legislation in Alberta imposing environmental liabilities on parties to a construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreement, and relevant provisions of the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA)'s Model Operating Procedure are also explained. The author concludes by regretting the industry's failure to develop adequate mechanisms to allocate the costs of environmental damage resulting from operations, and by recommending that agreements pertaining to joint ownership of a facility should address the issues involved in allocating environmental liabilities

  18. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good...... feedback. In this paper we present a novel way to intelligently allocate reviewers for peer feedback. We train a statistical model to infer the quality of feedback based on a dataset of feedback quality evaluations. This dataset contains more than 20,000 reviews where the receiver of the feedback has...

  19. Robust resource allocation in future wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Parsaeefard, Saeedeh; Mokari, Nader

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art research on robust resource allocation in current and future wireless networks. The authors describe the nominal resource allocation problems in wireless networks and explain why introducing robustness in such networks is desirable. Then, depending on the objectives of the problem, namely maximizing the social utility or the per-user utility, cooperative or competitive approaches are explained and their corresponding robust problems are considered in detail. For each approach, the costs and benefits of robust schemes are discussed and the algorithms for reducing their costs and improving their benefits are presented. Considering the fact that such problems are inherently non-convex and intractable, a taxonomy of different relaxation techniques is presented, and applications of such techniques are shown via several examples throughout the book. Finally, the authors argue that resource allocation continues to be an important issue in future wireless networks, and propose spec...

  20. Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale

    OpenAIRE

    de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

    2014-01-01

    Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The ...

  1. Plants eavesdrop on cues produced by snails and induce costly defenses that affect insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Connolly, Brian M; Choi, Won-Gyu; Guiden, Peter W; Swanson, Sarah J; Gilroy, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Although induced defenses are widespread in plants, the degree to which plants respond to herbivore kairomones (incidental chemicals that herbivores produce independent of herbivory), the costs and benefits of responding to cues of herbivory risk, and the ecological consequences of induced defenses remain unclear. We demonstrate that undamaged tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum, induce defenses in response to a kairomone (locomotion mucus) of snail herbivores (Helix aspersa). Induced defense had significant costs and benefits for plants: plants exposed to snail mucus or a standard defense elicitor (methyl jasmonate, MeJA) exhibited slower growth, but also experienced less herbivory by an insect herbivore (Spodoptera exigua). We also find that kairomones from molluscan herbivores lead to deleterious effects on insect herbivores mediated through changes in plant defense, i.e., mucus-induced defenses of Solanum lycopersicum-reduced growth of S. exigua. These results suggest that incidental cues of widespread generalist herbivores might be a mechanism creating variation in plant growth, plant defense, and biotic interactions.

  2. Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    sources. Taking advantage of global competition could also result in benefits to the U.S. military such as better technological innovation, reduction... globalization of the DoD acquisition process and proves the U.S. defense industry is not the end-all answer to achieving technological superiority on...dominance, and even more so now that the defense industry is moving towards globalization . Numerous means of technology transfer exist, including

  3. Release of resource constraints allows greater carbon allocation to secondary metabolites and storage in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Forkelová, Lenka; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]) is rapidly increasing, and this may have substantial impact on how plants allocate metabolic resources. A thorough understanding of allocation priorities can be achieved by modifying [CO 2 ] over a large gradient, including low [CO 2 ], thereby altering plant carbon (C) availability. Such information is of critical importance for understanding plant responses to global environmental change. We quantified the percentage of daytime whole-plant net assimilation (A) allocated to night-time respiration (R), structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during 8 weeks of vegetative growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) growing at low, ambient and elevated [CO 2 ] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). R/A remained relatively constant over a large gradient of [CO 2 ]. However, with increasing C availability, the fraction of assimilation allocated to biomass (SG + NSC + SMs), in particular NSC and SMs, increased. At low [CO 2 ], biomass and NSC increased in leaves but decreased in stems and roots, which may help plants achieve a functional equilibrium, that is, overcome the most severe resource limitation. These results reveal that increasing C availability from rising [CO 2 ] releases allocation constraints, thereby allowing greater investment into long-term survival in the form of NSC and SMs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. How to Optimize the Commission Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available in this paper, the commission allocation mechanism between the mobile application store and the mobile application developer is studied under the game theory. Firstly, based on the non-cooperative game theory, the paper researches the equilibrium solution of the inter-firm game under the conditions of different sales scale, and then extend the study to the circumstance of infinite game. In addition, the paper analyzes the Pareto improvement achieved by choosing cooperative strategy of strategic alliance from different parts. Finally, problem of the commission allocation problem is resolved.

  5. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2011-11-01

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  6. Browsing affects intra-ring carbon allocation in species with contrasting wood anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, S; Paterson, E; Sim, A; Hester, A J; Millard, P

    2011-02-01

    Current knowledge on tree carbon (C) allocation to wood is particularly scarce in plants subjected to disturbance factors, such as browsing, which affects forest regeneration worldwide and has an impact on the C balance of trees. Furthermore, quantifying the degree to which tree rings are formed from freshly assimilated vs. stored carbohydrates is highly relevant for our understanding of tree C allocation. We used (13)C labelling to quantify seasonal allocation of stored C to wood formation in two species with contrasting wood anatomy: Betula pubescens Ehrh. (diffuse-porous) and Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl. (ring-porous). Clipping treatments (66% shoot removal, and unclipped) were applied to analyse the effect of browsing on C allocation into tree rings, plus the effects on tree growth, architecture, ring width and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs). The relative contribution of stored C to wood formation was greater in the ring-porous (55-70%) than in the diffuse-porous species (35-60%), although each species followed different seasonal trends. Clipping did not cause a significant depletion of C stores in either species. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the proportion of stored C allocated to earlywood growth was observed in clipped birches, and this could be explained through changes in tree architecture after clipping. The size of C pools across tree species seems to be important in determining the variability of seasonal C allocation patterns to wood and their sensibility to disturbances such as browsing. Our results indicate that the observed changes in C allocation to earlywood in birch were not related to variations in the amount or concentration of NSC stores, but to changes in the seasonal availability of recently assimilated C caused by modifications in tree architecture after browsing.

  7. THE PROGNOSIS OF RUSSIAN DEFENSE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTED THROUGH REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kapustina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates the results of investigation the major internal and external factors which influence the development of the defense industry, as well as the results of regression analysis which quantitatively displays the factorial contribution in the growth rate of Russian defense industry. On the basis of calculated regression dependences the authors fulfilled the medium-term prognosis of defense industry. Optimistic and inertial versions of defense product growth rate for the period up to 2009 are based on scenario conditions in Russian economy worked out by the Ministry of economy and development. In conclusion authors point out which factors and conditions have the largest impact on successful and stable operation of Russian defense industry.

  8. Overcompensation of herbivore reproduction through hyper-suppression of plant defenses in response to competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Chafi, Rachid; Villarroel, Carlos A; Alba, Juan M; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-06-01

    Spider mites are destructive arthropod pests on many crops. The generalist herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae induces defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and this constrains its fitness. By contrast, the Solanaceae-specialist Tetranychus evansi maintains a high reproductive performance by suppressing tomato defenses. Tetranychus evansi outcompetes T. urticae when infesting the same plant, but it is unknown whether this is facilitated by the defenses of the plant. We assessed the extent to which a secondary infestation by a competitor affects local plant defense responses (phytohormones and defense genes), mite gene expression and mite performance. We observed that T. evansi switches to hyper-suppression of defenses after its tomato host is also invaded by its natural competitor T. urticae. Jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) defenses were suppressed more strongly, albeit only locally at the feeding site of T. evansi, upon introduction of T. urticae to the infested leaflet. The hyper-suppression of defenses coincided with increased expression of T. evansi genes coding for salivary defense-suppressing effector proteins and was paralleled by an increased reproductive performance. Together, these observations suggest that T. evansi overcompensates its reproduction through hyper-suppression of plant defenses in response to nearby competitors. We hypothesize that the competitor-induced overcompensation promotes competitive population growth of T. evansi on tomato. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Carbon allocation patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest ecosystems along the gradient of soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriiska, Kaie; Uri, Veiko; Frey, Jane; Napa, Ülle; Kabral, Naima; Soosaar, Kaido; Rannik, Kaire; Ostonen, Ivika

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. Changes in C allocation alter ecosystems carbon sequestration and plant-soil-atmosphere gas exchange, hence having an impact on the climate. Currently, there is lack of reliable indicators that show the direction of C accumulation patterns in forest ecosystems on regional scale. The first objective of our study was to determine the variability of carbon allocation in hemiboreal coniferous forests along the gradient of soil fertility in Estonia. We measured C stocks and fluxes, such as litter, fine root biomass and production, soil respiration etc. in 8 stands of different site types - Scots pine (Cladonia, Vaccinium, Myrtillus, Fragaria) and Norway spruce (Polytrichum, Myrtillus, Oxalis, Calamagrostis alvar). The suitability of above- and belowground litter production (AG/BG) ratio was analysed as a carbon allocation indicator. The second aim of the study was to analyse forest C allocation patterns along the north-south gradient from northern boreal Finland to hemiboreal Estonia. Finally, C sequestration in silver birch and grey alder stands were compared with coniferous stands in order to determine the impact of tree species on carbon allocation. Preliminary results indicate that estimated AG/BG ratio (0.5 ... 3.0) tends to decrease with increasing soil organic horizon C/N ratio, indicating that in less fertile sites more carbon is allocated into belowground through fine root growth and in consequence the soil organic carbon stock increases. Similar trends were found on the north-south forest gradient. However, there was a significant difference between coniferous and broadleaf stands in C allocation patterns. Net ecosystem exchange in Estonian coniferous stands varied from -1.64 ... 3.95 t C ha-1 yr-1, whereas older stands tended to be net carbon sources.

  10. Type monotonic allocation schemes for multi-glove games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Solymosi, T.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiglove markets and corresponding games are considered.For this class of games we introduce the notion of type monotonic allocation scheme.Allocation rules for multiglove markets based on weight systems are introduced and characterized.These allocation rules generate type monotonic allocation schemes for multiglove games and are also helpful in proving that each core element of the corresponding game is extendable to a type monotonic allocation scheme.The T-value turns out to generate a ty...

  11. Free allocation in the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS): identifying efficient mechanisms through to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    . Besides, it enables to avoid over-allocations and perverse threshold effects observed in Phase III, but it further mutes the carbon price signal to consumers, and should be complemented by additional mechanisms to exploit demand -side abatement potentials. This mechanism would lead to a less impacting CSCF of 71% in 2030 with a 1.4% annual growth assumption that would however depend on the aggregate output level. Based on our estimates, this factor would be comprised between 62% and 82% in 2030, entailing an uncertainty about the net carbon cost borne by installations amounting to 10% of added value for the cement sector and 6% for the steel sector, with a 30 euro/tCO 2 price assumption. - In Scenario 3, a more targeted and focused allocation is presented, which better reflects the exposure to carbon leakage risks. It is proposed to use differentiated allocation rates either based on carbon cost and trade intensity thresholds like implemented in California for example, or based on targeted maximum carbon costs for each sectors depending on trade intensity. This would enable to reduce the allocation volume and overcome the ex post correction and the uncertainty coming with it, and to mitigate carbon costs more efficiently for exposed sectors. - The Scenario 4 assesses the European Commission's proposal, which could be leading to a 20% ex post reduction of allocation volume to all installations by 2030, on top of the 20% uniform reduction of benchmarks. Focusing allocation to exposed sectors, and enhancing flexibility in the supply of free allowances through a dynamic New Entrant Reserve could be levers to help combat carbon leakages more efficiently and maintain incentives to reduce emissions. In the end, it appears that a combination of instruments is needed to forge a credible road-map for decarbonization of industry sectors: a predictable carbon price signal, flexible and targeted free allocation, as well as additional instruments to steer demand for low

  12. European defense industrial policy and the United Kingdom's defense industrial base

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Hartley

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between European and U.K. defense industrial policy. It considers recent initiatives to create a European Defense Equipment Market and the U.K.’s Defense Industrial Strategy. The European and U.K. defense industries are evaluated and some of the future policy choices are assessed. The future defense firm will be different and there will be conflicts between efforts to open up national defense markets and the desire to maintain national defense industrie...

  13. Some effects of soil-moisture availability on above-ground production and reproductive allocation in Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G L; Syvertsen, J P; Reynolds, J F; Willson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Data from the US/IBP Desert Biome validation studies indicate that above-ground production and biomass allocated to reproduction in Larrea tridentata vary from one year to another depending upon the timing and extent of soil-moisture availability. In an attempt to verify these observations and determine to what extent water availability can affect total aboveground production and reproductive allocation in this widely distributed warm desert shrub, a series of soil-moisture augmentation experiments were conducted. High levels of soil moisture had a greater effect on reproductive allocation than on total above-ground production. Enhanced soil moisture during the period of active growth increased total above-ground production and reduced the percentage of biomass allocated to reproduction. Enhanced soil moisture during the normal periods of little or no growth did not increase total above-ground production.

  14. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  15. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  16. Defense Security Assistance Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... $10 billion Foreign Military Sales Program. As envisioned, it will replace 13 automated information systems used by the Military Departments and Defense Security Assistance Agency and will provide standardized and improved security assistance...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in

  18. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  19. Defense economics: Achievements and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Hartley

    2007-01-01

    Defense economics is now an established part of economics. This article reviews its achievements as represented by papers published in the research journal Defense and Peace Economics. The range of topics in the journal is reviewed, especially since 2000, and major gaps in coverage are identified. A changing research agenda reflects new developments such as terrorism and international peacekeeping. Gaps remain such as the need for good quality case studies of conflict (e.g., Iraq) and of majo...

  20. Antimicrobial defense of the earthworm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; De Baetselier, P.; Beschin, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2000), s. 283-300 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/1385; GA ČR GA310/00/1372 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cellular defense mechanisms * humoral defense mechanisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2000

  1. Gastrointestinal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hyder; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-11-01

    To summarize and illuminate the recent findings regarding gastroduodenal mucosal defense mechanisms and the specific biomolecules involved in regulating this process, such as glucagon-like peptides (GLPs). There has been a growing interest in luminal nutrient chemosensing and its physiological effects throughout the digestive system. From the ingestion of food in the oral cavity to the processing and absorption of nutrients in the intestines, nutrient chemosensing receptors signal the production and release of numerous bioactive peptides from enteroendocrine cells, such as the proglucagon-derived peptides. There has been a major emphasis on two proglucagon-derived peptides, namely GLP-1 and GLP-2, due to their apparent beneficial effect on gut structure, function, and on metabolic processes. As an incretin, GLP-1 not only enhances the effect and release of insulin on pancreatic βcells but also has been implicated in having trophic effects on the intestinal epithelium. In addition, GLP-2, the other major proglucagon-derived peptide, has potent intestinotrophic effects, such as increasing the rate of mucosal stem cell proliferation, mucosal blood flow, and fluid absorption, as well as augmenting the rate of duodenal bicarbonate secretion to improve gastric mucosal health and longevity. Understanding the mechanisms underlying nutrient chemosensing and how it relates to GLP release can further elucidate how the gut functions in response to cellular changes and disturbances. Furthermore, a more in-depth comprehension of GLP release and its tissue-specific effects will help improve the utility of GLP-1 and GLP-2 receptor agonists in clinical settings. This, in turn, should help patients suffering from intestinal failure, malabsorption, and mucosal injury.

  2. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ivan B.; Bohte, Sander M.; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Lameris, Han; Bakker, Piet J. M.; La Poutré, Han

    2009-01-01

    Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in demand,

  3. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye...

  4. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  5. Patient flow based allocation of hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M

    1995-01-01

    The current practice of allocating resources within a hospital introduces peaks and troughs in the workloads of departments and leads therefore to loss of capacity. This happens when requirements for capacity coordination are not adequately taken into account in the decision making process of allocating resources to specialties. The first part of this research involved an analysis of the hospital's production system on dependencies between resources, resulting in a number of capacity coordination requirements that need to be fulfilled for optimized resource utilization. The second, modelling, part of the study involved the development of a framework for resource management decision making, of a set of computer models to support hospital managerial decision making on resource allocation issues in various parts of the hospital, and of an implementation strategy for the application of the models to concrete hospital settings. The third part of the study was devoted to a number of case-studies, illustrating the use of the models when applied in various resource management projects, such as a reorganization of an operating theatre timetable, or the development of a master plan for activities of a group of general surgeons serving two locations of a merged hospital system. The paper summarizes the main findings of the study and concludes with a discussion of results obtained with the new allocation procedure and with recommendations for future research.

  6. FARM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PROFITABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...

  7. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  8. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  9. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  10. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  11. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  12. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  13. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and restrictions of this section. The sector allocation proposal must contain an appropriate analysis... partners in a corporation owning a permit; who are partners (general or limited) to a permit owner; who, in... biological, economic, and social impacts of sectors and their fishing operations consistent with...

  14. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the optimum compromise allocation in multivariate stratified sampling with non-linear objective function and probabilistic non-linear cost constraint. The probabilistic non-linear cost constraint is converted into equivalent deterministic one by using Chance Constrained programming. A numerical ...

  15. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  16. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information retrieval system described in § 1355.53 of this part shall be treated as necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan under title IV-E, without regard to whether the system... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public...

  17. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... talent. (e) The Secretary will ensure that SBRS slots are used in support of high priority programs...

  18. Cost Allocation in a Bank ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorndal, E.; Hamers, H.; Koster, M.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a situation in which a group of banks consider connecting their Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) in a network, so that the banks customers may use ATMs of any bank in the network. The problem studied is that of allocating the total transaction costs arising in the network, among the

  19. Cost Allocation in a Bank ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorndal, E.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Koster, M.A.L.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a situation in which a group of banks consider connecting their Automated TellerMachines (ATMs) in a network, so that the banks customers may use ATMs of any bank in the network.The problem studied is that of allocating the total transaction costs arising in the network, among the

  20. Capital Allocation Effects of Financial Reporting Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of stricter financial reporting enforcement on capital allocation and reporting quality in a game-theoretic model and derives conclusions about optimal enforcement strictness. Analysis of the model shows that reporting quality strictly increases with tighter

  1. Sequential auctions for full truckload allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we examine the use of sequential auctions for the dynamic allocation of transportation jobs. For all players, buyers and sellers, we develop strategies and examine their performance both in terms of individual benefits and with respect to the global logistical performance (resource

  2. Spatial allocation of forest recreation value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Catrina Paez; Edgard Chavez

    2009-01-01

    Non-market valuation methods and geographic information systems are useful planning and management tools for public land managers. Recent attention has been given to investigation and demonstration of methods for combining these tools to provide spatially-explicit representations of non-market value. Most of these efforts have focused on spatial allocation of...

  3. Financial Resource Allocation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušpuriene, Ana; Sakalauskas, Leonidas; Dumskis, Valerijonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers a problem of financial resource allocation in a higher education institution. The basic financial management instruments and the multi-stage cost minimization model created are described involving financial instruments to constraints. Both societal and institutional factors that determine the costs of educating students are…

  4. A Hierarchal System of Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Constructs a hierarchy of defense mechanisms through the addition of the concepts of secondary and tertiary defenses to the already existing psychoanalytic defenses and increases the explanatory power of the concept of defense. Research generated from this theoretical model is presented. (Author/BEF)

  5. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  6. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  7. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  8. Strategies for Allocation of the US Federal Budget: Military and Innovative Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhova Darya A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define the conceptual framework and features of priority directions in redistribution of the US federal funds. This subject is very relevant because it discloses a system of financing and allocations of the most powerful state in the world in many aspects. The article describes the structure of government funding of the national military sector and directions of the modernization of the US military-industrial complex. It has been determined that in the global expansion of military actions the USA in no case remain aloof from the given events. Manufacturing the US military products plays a key role in the defense industry not only of the country itself but also the international community as a whole. For Ukraine, with the complications in its military-political situation, the cooperation with the United States and inclusion of the financial assistance to our country in its federal budget are very important. The mentioned directions for allocating the received funds in the amount of $ 300 mln by the Ukrainian government confirm the support by the American state of our military equipment and modernization of the national defense industry

  9. Efficient and equitable spatial allocation of renewable power plants at the country scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Martin; Egerer, Jonas; Lange, Martin; Masurowski, Frank; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Oehlmann, Malte

    2017-09-01

    Globally, the production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid growth. One of the most pressing issues is the appropriate allocation of renewable power plants, as the question of where to produce renewable electricity is highly controversial. Here we explore this issue through analysis of the efficient and equitable spatial allocation of wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants in Germany. We combine multiple methods, including legal analysis, economic and energy modelling, monetary valuation and numerical optimization. We find that minimum distances between renewable power plants and human settlements should be as small as is legally possible. Even small reductions in efficiency lead to large increases in equity. By considering electricity grid expansion costs, we find a more even allocation of power plants across the country than is the case when grid expansion costs are neglected.

  10. Growth–Defense Tradeoffs in Plants: A Balancing Act to Optimize Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Growth–defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth–defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth–defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth–defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  11. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhordar, Zahra A.; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  12. Induced defense mechanisms in an aquatic angiosperm to insect herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornoff, Felix; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2014-05-01

    In terrestrial angiosperms, defense and resistance mechanisms against herbivores have been studied extensively; yet this topic is poorly understood in aquatic angiosperms. We investigated induced response mechanisms in Myriophyllum spicatum to the generalist insect herbivore Acentria ephemerella in three independent experiments. Various morphological and chemical response variables were examined in grazed apical shoots and compared to undamaged controls. We further estimated plant palatability of induced and non-induced apices in choice assays, and assessed the growth response of Acentria larvae in no-choice feeding assays. Leaves of induced apices were splayed out horizontally and changed in color from green to red. The dry matter content and thus plant toughness increased by up to 19%, but silica levels stayed constant. Induced apices exhibited a decline in chlorophyll content of up to 34%, reflected also by a 10% decrease in nitrogen levels, while nitrogen increased by 14% in lower parts of grazed shoots. Also, herbivore-deterring total phenolic compounds increased by up to 20% in apices. In choice trials, Acentria larvae strongly avoided grazed tips, and growth was reduced by 25% on induced apices. In total, we observed five different induced resistance and defensive traits in grazed apices: changes in appearance, increased plant toughness, delocalization of N-containing metabolites, increased polyphenols, and reduced nutritional value. The observed changes prevent herbivore damage and loss of apical tissue, which are most valuable for plant fitness. Our study presents the first evidence of multiple, parallel defense strategies including constitutive and induced defense mechanisms in a freshwater angiosperm.

  13. Seasonal evolution of carbon allocation to biomass in a French beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Laura; Calvaruso, Christophe; Conil, Sébastien; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Longdoz, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of ecosystem behavior in term of assimilated carbon (C) use. In the global climate change context, this C allocation could play a critical role in predicting ecosystems long terms emissions (Trumbore 2006) and has become a major goal of several emergent studies The monthly C allocation has been determined for a 50-year old beech forest located in north-east of France through the quantification of Gross Primary Production (GPP), biomass production and some of its components (holocelluloses, lignin). In a second phase, the potential factors influencing those productions and allocations throughout a year have been assessed. The temporal evolution of GPP was obtained from the partitioning of eddy-covariance flux measurements and monitored for one year. It was connected to tree aboveground C biomass growth at a monthly step. To achieve the latter, site specific allometric equations were used with trees diameter at breast height (DBH) measured monthly during the growing season on one hand and, on the other hand, C concentrations were deduced from analyses on trunk cores (sampled monthly) and on leaves and bulk branches cores (sampled at the beginning and at the end of the growing season). The C allocated to the aboveground biomass was then estimated, along with the portion allocated to structural C. The results show the delay existing between the end of the tree growth and carbon assimilation. We analyze the possibility to explain this divergence by a compensation coming from the C concentration evolution. Keywords: Carbon allocation, Forest, Biomass production, Carbon concentration, Eddy Covariance Trumbore S. 2006. Carbon Respired by Terrestrial Ecosystems - Recent Progress and Challenges. Global Change Biology 12 (2): 141-53.

  14. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, Ian A.; Hanley, Nick; Kornienko, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives.

  15. Time-allocation matching between punishing situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, M Z; Church, R M

    1978-03-01

    In the presence and absence of white noise, response-independent aversive events were delivered to rats according to several variable-time electric-shock schedules. The animals could switch from the noise component to the no-noise component and vice versa by making a single lever-press response. If the schedule in one component was not in operation when the animal was in the other component, the proportion of time allocated to one component equalled or matched the proportion of obtained punishers in the other component. If both schedules were always in operation, minimizing tended to occur: the animals allocated almost all of their time to the component having the lower shock rate. An analysis of these results, in terms of the expected time until an aversive event, is presented.

  16. Fund Allocation in Complex Rehabilitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hegazy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil Infrastructure assets require continuous renewal actions to sustain their operability and safety. Allocating limited renewal funds amongst numerous building components, however, represents a large-scale optimization problem and earlier efforts utilized genetic algorithms (GAs to optimize medium size problems yet exhibit steep performance degradation as problem size increases. In this research, after experimenting with various approaches of segmenting a large problem into multiple smaller sub-problems, clustered segmentation proved to be the most promising. The paper discusses the underlying life cycle analysis model, the various segmentation methods, and the optimization results using the improved GAs + clustered segmentation, which proved to be able to optimize asset renewals for 50,000 components with no noticeable performance degradation. The proposed method is simple and logical, and can be used on variety of asset types to improve infrastructure fund allocation. Future extension of this research is then highlighted.

  17. Risk allocation in independent power supply contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Campbell, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Congress has made significant progress in recent months toward amending the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA). The purposes of such amendment are to broaden power supply options for electric utilities and expand competition in whole-sale power generation markets. PUHCA reform is an integral part of President Bush's National Energy Strategy and has been included in legislation pending in both Houses of Congress. Congress will, hopefully, approve energy legislation that includes PUHCA reform before it adjourns this year. PUHCA reform has, however, stimulated heated debate within the power industry itself as well as among various consumer interest groups. One important issue in the public debate concerns risk allocation. If PUHCA is reformed, will risk be allocated efficiently and equitably between independent power producers and electric utility buyers? This article addresses that important question

  18. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Long Jian-Cheng; Ding Jian-Xun; Shi Qin; Hu Mao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks. The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth. An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity). Three network structures (scale-free, small-world, and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy. Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Register allocation for fine grain threads on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicore processor has multiple processing cores on the same chip. Unicore and multicore processors are architecturally different. Since individual instructions are needed to be scheduled onto one of the available cores, it effectively decreases the number of instructions executed on the individual core of a multicore processor. As each core of a multicore processor has a private register file, it results in reduced register pressure. To effectively utilize the potential benefits of the multicore processor, the sequential program must be split into small parallel regions to be run on different cores, and the register allocation must be done for each of these cores. This article discusses register allocating heuristics for fine grained threads which can be scheduled on multiple cores. Spills are computed and its effect on speed-up, power consumption and performance per power is compared for a RAW benchmark suite.

  20. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  1. Effects of diet breadth on autogenous chemical defense of a generalist grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C G; Hess, T A; Whitman, D W; Silk, P J; Blum, M S

    1987-02-01

    The lubber grasshopper,Romalea guttata, produces a metathoracic defensive secretion containing primarily phenolics and quinones. This insect feeds on a wide range of plant species. Insects reared on an artificial diet and a diet of onion,Allium canadense, had secretions that contained fewer compounds, lower concentrations of compounds, and markedly altered relative composition of components compared to insects reared on a varied diet of 26 plant species that included onion. The study demonstrates that diet breadth has a major effect on the quality and quantity of the autogenous defensive secretion of this generalist herbivore. The results are compared to diet effects known in chemically defended specialists. Two possible mechanisms explaining the effects of diet breadth are proposed: one involves changes in precursor availability with changing diet breadth; the other suggests that physiological stress due to diet restriction changes allocation of resources to chemical defense.

  2. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    h a,c , j k and h. N are all positive constants. If the budget of the survey is fixed in advance, say, C , then the multivariate allocation problem is stated to minimize the variances for various characters for a desired precision as the following p convex programming problems. p,..., j .L,..., h;N n and. C c nc to. Subject. N a n a. V.Min.

  3. Allocating nuclear power plant costs: an extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The author modifies and extends the argument presented in the September 22, 1983 issue by Richard E. Nellis for using economic depreciation to allocate nuclear power plant costs. The two goals of his model are to charge constant real costs to consumers and to provide a fair return of .125 to investors in each period. The addition of other objectives requires further modification of the model since the schedule of revenues that are deemed to be optimum defines the depreciation schedule. 1 table

  4. Student Time Allocation and Educational Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano BRATTI; Stefano STAFFOLANI

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of lecture attendance and self-study on undergraduate students' academic performance. We first introduce a simple theoretical model in which students decide the optimal allocation of their time between lecture attendance, self-study and leisure. Under some assumptions, we find a positive relationship between lecture attendance and time devoted to self-study in each course, from which we infer that estimates of the elasticity of student performance with ...

  5. Plasticity in learning causes immediate and trans-generational changes in allocation of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Davidowitz, Goggy; Papaj, Daniel R

    2013-08-01

    Plasticity in the development and expression of behavior may allow organisms to cope with novel and rapidly changing environments. However, plasticity itself may depend on the developmental experiences of an individual. For instance, individuals reared in complex, enriched environments develop enhanced cognitive abilities as a result of increased synaptic connections and neurogenesis. This suggests that costs associated with behavioral plasticity-in particular, increased investment in "self" at the expense of reproduction-may also be flexible. Using butterflies as a system, this work tests whether allocation of resources changes as a result of experiences in "difficult" environments that require more investment in learning. We contrast allocation of resources among butterflies with experience in environments that vary in the need for learning. Butterflies with experience searching for novel (i.e., red) hosts, or searching in complex non-host environments, allocate more resources (protein and carbohydrate reserves) to their own flight muscle. In addition, butterflies with experience in these more difficult environments allocate more resources per individual offspring (i.e., egg size and/or lipid reserves). This results in a mother's experience having significant effects on the growth of her offspring (i.e., dry mass and wing length). A separate study showed this re-allocation of resources comes at the expense of lifetime fecundity. These results suggest that investment in learning, and associated changes in life history, can be adjusted depending on an individual's current need, and their offspring's future needs, for learning.

  6. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Villamarín

    Full Text Available Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata, a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  7. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  8. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  9. Resource allocation criteria in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodina, A; Pavan, A; Castaldi, S

    2017-06-01

    Allocate fixed resources among competing users is a challenge in terms of hospital management in order to obtain the best performance considering strategic objectives. In order to address this need, a system of evaluation in an important research and teaching hospital was designed. This study describes resource allocation criteria in a hospital focusing on the evaluation system and its developed application methodology. The indicator system allows the strategic management to rapidly detect the priorities in the evaluations of the Strategic, Organizational, Managerial, Economic, Research and Qualitative conditions of each unit. The chosen indicators are expressed with three numerical values, (1 indicating critical status, 2 acceptable conditions and 3 a good operational situation). The adopted evaluation system considered different thematic areas: Strategic, Organizational, Managerial, Economic, Research and Qualitative. In order to define each area, 3 fields of evaluation have been chosen. The indicators have been structured according to a pyramid system allowing creating a single indicator for each area for each unit. Furthermore, a single indicator has been fixed in order to facilitate a first consideration on whether to carry out or not closer examinations of the most critical units. This manuscript describes an attempt to define objective criteria for the allocation of scarce resources in order to achieve the hospital's strategic objectives. The indicators identified allow to obtain an overall score for each unit, which allows the management to prioritize the needs.

  10. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  13. A Channel Allocation Mechanism for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed and the user behavior (e.g., call inter-arrival time and call holding time to analyze the adaptable number of communication calls in the specific cell for channel allocation. In experiments about call block probabilities (CBP, this study simulated two cases that are the situations of the whole day and traffic accident. The simulation results show that all CBPs in the scenario of whole day are less than 21.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the static channel allocation (SCA mechanism. Moreover, all CBPs in the scenario of traffic accidents are less than 16.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the SCA mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can decrease the number of CBPs effectively.

  14. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution.

  15. Potential effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...

  16. Dynamic capacity allocation for low-cost multicarrier multimode PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, R.O.; van Bochove, A.C.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Sikkes, B.

    A stable-matching-based multiuser multicarrier capacity allocation algorithm is proposed. It responds to ONU backlogs and dynamic subchannel gains. Benchmarked against Binary Linear Programming, it results in just 5% less allocated capacity, at much lower complexity.

  17. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because of...

  18. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  19. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  20. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be ... fungal diseases occurring in pear plants and fruits. Periodic application of .... Changes in SOD activity and isozyme in pear calli infected with MFH and BBP. Lanes 1-10: After ...

  1. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Goebel, Michael E; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how variation in the pattern and magnitude of parental effort influences allocation decisions in offspring. We determined the energy budget of Antarctic fur seal pups and examined the relative importance of timing of provisioning, pup traits (mass, condition, sex), and weather (wind chill and solar radiation) on allocation of energy obtained in milk by measuring milk energy intake, field metabolic rate (FMR), and growth rate in 48 Antarctic fur seal pups over three developmental stages (perinatal, premolt, and molt). The relative amount of milk energy used for growth was 59.1% ± 8.1% during the perinatal period but decreased to 23.4% ± 15.5% and 26.0% ± 13.9% during the premolt and molt. This decrease was associated with a greater amount of time spent fasting, along with an increase in pup activity while the mother was at sea foraging. Average daily milk intake, pup mass, and condition were all important in determining how much energy was available for growth, but the amount of energy obtained as milk was the single most important factor determining pup growth. While mean mass-specific FMR did not change with developmental stage (range = 1.74-1.77 mL O(2)/g/h), the factors that accounted for variation in FMR did. Weather (wind chill and solar radiation) and pup traits (mass and condition) influenced mass-specific FMR, but these impacts varied across development. This study provides information about the factors influencing how offspring allocate energy toward growth and maintenance and improves our predictions about how a changing environment may affect energy allocation in pups.

  2. Reproductive allocation and costs in gynodioecious Leucopogon melaleucoides (Ericaceae): implications for the evolution of gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughton, G; Ramsey, M

    2011-11-01

    In dioecious species, females typically allocate more resources to reproduction and incur greater costs of reproduction than males. In gynodioecious species, sex-based differences in reproductive allocation (RA) and costs have been less studied. Such knowledge, however, is relevant to address how females establish and increase in frequency in populations. We examine RA and reproductive costs by comparing fruit set, the proportion of biomass allocated to reproduction, and the responses of fruit set and vegetative growth to shoot defoliation in females and hermaphrodites in gynodioecious Leucopogon melaleucoides. Relative to hermaphrodites, females exhibited a two-fold fruit set advantage. Female fruit set increased proportionately with flower number, but hermaphrodite fruit set was reduced on plants with more flowers. Sex-based differences in allocation to other traits were small. Thus, female RA at flowering was similar to hermaphrodite RA, but was 1.4-fold greater at fruiting. Relative to controls, defoliation reduced fruit set and the percentage of shoots that produced new vegetative growth similarly in both sexes. However, females had a lower proportion of shoots with new growth overall. Further, defoliation on females reduced the dry mass of new growth by 44% compared with controls, whereas hermaphrodites were not affected. These results indicate a trade-off between reproduction and vegetative growth, and greater female costs of reproduction, particularly under resource-limiting conditions. In the absence of compensatory traits to offset higher female reproductive costs, such trade-offs have the potential to retard the spread of females in gynodioecious populations. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning: Meta-analytical perspectives in phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, Patrick; Charest, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress

  4. Allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning: Meta-analytical perspectives in phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audet, Patrick [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: paude086@uottawa.ca; Charest, Christiane [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: ccharest@uottawa.ca

    2008-11-15

    In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress.

  5. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability...

  6. Reward-allocation judgments in Romania : A factorial survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzea, C.; Meseşan-Schmitz, L.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated reward-allocation judgments when positive outcomes (monetary rewards) were distributed and the allocator was not a co-recipient, in a sample of 200 Romanian students. Within a full factorial survey design, seven factors, selected to affect the allocation decision, were orthogonally

  7. 11 CFR 106.4 - Allocation of polling expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of polling expenses. 106.4 Section 106.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL ALLOCATIONS OF CANDIDATE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES § 106.4 Allocation of polling expenses. (a) The purchase of opinion poll results by a candidate or...

  8. Matching today's allocation of LDC expenses with cost causation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankel, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the costs of natural gas distribution and how to integrate these costs into the allocation of local distribution companies expenses for the purpose of establishing rate structures. The author's contention is that costs related to throughput are a larger share than historically used allocation factors suggest. Topics include the historical allocation factors, a case study and the conclusions drawn from it

  9. 12 CFR 327.53 - Allocation and payment of dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS Implementation of Dividend Requirements § 327.53 Allocation and payment of dividends. (a)(1) The allocation of any dividend among insured depository institutions shall be based on the... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and payment of dividends. 327.53...

  10. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-10-07

    Selective allocation of patients into the compared groups of a randomised trial may cause allocation bias, but the mechanisms behind the bias and its directionality are incompletely understood. We therefore analysed the mechanisms and directionality of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials. Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included various manipulations with randomisation envelopes. Out of 57 methods publications 11 (19 %) mentioned explicitly that allocation bias can go in either direction. We hypothesised that the direction of allocation bias is mainly decided by the interaction between the patient allocators' motives and treatment preference. Inadequate allocation concealment may exaggerate treatment effects in some trials while underestimate effects in others. Our hypothesis provides a theoretical overview of the main factors responsible for the direction of allocation bias.

  11. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section 28.52 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING... allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve...

  12. Resource Allocation for A Mobile Application Oriented Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Lu, W.W.; Xie, X.

    2005-01-01

    A Montium is a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture designed by the CADTES group of the University of Twente for mobile applications. This paper presents a resource allocation method to allocate variables to storage places and to schedule data movements for the Montium. The resource allocation

  13. Risk allocation approach to reactor safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcek, O.; Temme, M.I.; Derby, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a risk allocation technique used for determining nuclear power plant design reliability requirements. The concept of risk allocation-optimum choice of safety function reliabilities under a maximum risk constraint - is described. An example of risk allocation is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology

  14. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO or...

  15. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  16. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  17. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  18. National Security and the Industrial Policy Debate: Modernizing Defense Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    term, renewable resource is increased productivity, and we should note here the conclusions of the economist Joseph Schumpeter , who demonstrated that a...Conseguences for Economic Growth. Structural Change , and Employment, ed. Herbert Giersh (Tubingen: JCB Mohr, 1981) 330. 22. Paul Krugman, The Aae of...Lexington Books, 1988) 14. 20. William P. Rogerson, "Inefficiently Low Production Rates in Defense Procurement: An Economic Analysis ," report for the

  19. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  20. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  1. Defense mechanisms in ethics consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agich, George J

    2011-12-01

    While there is no denying the relevance of ethical knowledge and analytical and cognitive skills in ethics consultation, such knowledge and skills can be overemphasized. They can be effectively put into practice only by an ethics consultant, who has a broad range of other skills, including interpretive and communicative capacities as well as the capacity effectively to address the psychosocial needs of patients, family members, and healthcare professionals in the context of an ethics consultation case. In this paper, I discuss how emotion can play an important interpretive role in clinical ethics consultation and why attention to the role of defense mechanisms can be helpful. I concentrate on defense mechanisms, arguing first, that the presence of these mechanisms is understandable given the emotional stresses and communicative occlusions that occur between the families of patients and critical care professionals in the circumstances of critical care; second, that identifying these mechanisms is essential for interpreting and managing how these factors influence the way that the "facts" of the case are understood by family members; and, third, that effectively addressing these mechanisms is an important component for effectively doing ethics consultation. Recognizing defense mechanisms, understanding how and why they operate, and knowing how to deal with these defense mechanisms when they pose problems for communication or decision making are thus essential prerequisites for effective ethics consultation, especially in critical care.

  2. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantenga, Todd. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolda, Tamara Gibson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  3. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  4. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  5. On Some Tendencies in Defense Policy of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia K. Meden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the newest trends in the German defense policy, caused by the aggravation of European geopolitical situation. The author analyzes various sources, among them official reports presented to the Ministry of Defense and the Bundestag; speeches by the Minister of Defense and by supreme commanders of the Bundeswehr; published in mass media information on condition and problems of the military forces, as well as modernization of the equipment. Officially it is deemed, that the reform of the Bundeswehr which started in 2011, so far has turned into an amorphous process of renewal (Neuausrichtung, intended to improve the military organization. Since the acting Cabinet was farmed, Ursula von der Leyen - the first woman Minister of Defense of Germany - directs these activities, and her style of work affects all the work in the Ministry. Meanwhile, the revision of the main parameters of the defensive activity and the whole German politics is caused not by a fresh leadership, but by the most sharp after the end of the "cold war" geopolitical crisis in Europe. The author comes to conclusion, that a turning point in the Defensive Policy of Germany is taking shape, so that all the aspects of military organization are now affected: command stuff training, military equipment, strengthening of ties with allies. Anti-Russian propaganda in mass-media reanimates an image of an enemy and prepares public opinion to the future growth of military expenses; it even overcomes certain pacifism, so usual in modern society. Here in Russia, one must take all this into account, as an idea of the low fighting capacity of the Bundeswehr, which was formed in the last years, is getting obsolete, and could became a dangerous illusion.

  6. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens .

  7. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  8. The Full Costs of Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arrow, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    ... and, therefore, are expensive. The Bush administration's interest in building a comprehensive, or "layered," missile defense system could lead to extraordinary defense budget costs over the next twenty to thirty years...

  9. Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krieg, Kenneth J

    2007-01-01

    ... Transformation initiatives and the goals that it has established to achieve change. It provides implementation plans to reform the Defense Acquisition System in the Department of Defense to keep pace with changing demands and adapt to new challenges...

  10. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  11. Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Search form Search Basket Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center About DVBIC Leadership ... link is external) Read more DCoE news articles » Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Crisis Intervention (24/ ...

  12. Mechanical stimuli regulate the allocation of biomass in trees: demonstration with young Prunus avium trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Dupraz, Christian; Jaouen, Gaëlle; Ploquin, Stéphane; Adam, Boris

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tree-shelters are increasingly used to protect tree seedlings against browsing animals and herbicide drifts. The biomass allocation in young seedlings of deciduous trees is highly disturbed by common plastic tree-shelters, resulting in poor root systems and reduced diameter growth of the trunk. The shelters have been improved by creating chimney-effect ventilation with holes drilled at the bottom, resulting in stimulated trunk diameter growth, but the root deficit has remained unchanged. An experiment was set up to elucidate the mechanisms behind the poor root growth of sheltered Prunus avium trees. Tree seedlings were grown either in natural windy conditions or in tree-shelters. Mechanical wind stimuli were suppressed in ten unsheltered trees by staking. Mechanical stimuli (bending) of the stem were applied in ten sheltered trees using an original mechanical device. Sheltered trees suffered from poor root growth, but sheltered bent trees largely recovered, showing that mechano-sensing is an important mechanism governing C allocation and the shoot-root balance. The use of a few artificial mechanical stimuli increased the biomass allocation towards the roots, as did natural wind sway. It was demonstrated that there was an acclimation of plants to the imposed strain. This study suggests that if mechanical stimuli are used to control plant growth, they should be applied at low frequency in order to be most effective. The impact on the functional equilibrium hypothesis that is used in many tree growth models is discussed. The consequence of the lack of mechanical stimuli should be incorporated in tree growth models when applied to environments protected from the wind (e.g. greenhouses, dense forests).

  13. Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog

    that these processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation....... It contributes to both the introduction and definition of various ground handling resource allocation problems, and proposes a mathematical formulation of the problems. These contributions are presented in four scientific papers and one technical report, which are included. All the models and solution methods...

  14. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  15. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  16. FAME - a function allocation design tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Andreas; Hoffmann, Mario

    2001-02-01

    Function allocation between man and machine is a key issue when designing automation systems. One should allocate functions in order to maximise the operator's understanding of the situation and ability to handle unexpected events. This should be done by optimising his/her possibility to observe the state of the plant and to control the plant. Thus function allocation cannot be separated from an analysis of the human system interaction, since the information presented to the operators and the controls available for them to manipulate the process significantly affect their tasks and thus influence their role. FAME is a design support tool for analysis of these issues at an early stage in the design process. Simulations in FAME, utilising analytical models, provide a useful supplement to empirical data when studying the effects of automation on the performance of control room operators. FAME consists of components simulating the behaviour of the operator and the automation, as well as a component for the interaction with a process simulator. The Contextual Control Model, COCOM, is chosen as the basis for the operator component in FAME. A goal-oriented approach is taken, and Goals-Means Task Analysis, GMTA, is used to represent the relations between the goals and the means in the simulation of the scenarios. This report discusses how FAME can support the design process through a series of simulations analysing the operator's ability to control the system and their situation understanding during dynamic plant operation. This is done by emphasizing the fulfilment of goals when evaluating input and selecting actions for output. FAME thus puts the operator in the centre of the analysis, and a comparison between human and machine capabilities is not included in this approach. This report describes the underlying principles of FAME and the main requirements to operator simulation in this context. (Author)

  17. An overview on network cost allocation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Delberis A. [PUC - Pontificia University Catholic, Department of Electrical Engineering, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, 22453-900 Gavea - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio [UNESP - State University of Sao Paulo, Department of Electrical Engineering, Campus of Ilha Solteira, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Contreras, Javier [UCLM - Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This work is devoted to study and discuss the main methods to solve the network cost allocation problem both for generators and demands. From the presented, compared and discussed methods, the first one is based on power injections, the second deals with proportional sharing factors, the third is based upon Equivalent Bilateral Exchanges, the fourth analyzes the power flow sensitivity in relation to the power injected, and the last one is based on Z{sub bus} network matrix. All the methods are initially illustrated using a 4-bus system. In addition, the IEEE 24-bus RTS system is presented for further comparisons and analysis. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  18. An overview on network cost allocation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Delberis A.; Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio; Contreras, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This work is devoted to study and discuss the main methods to solve the network cost allocation problem both for generators and demands. From the presented, compared and discussed methods, the first one is based on power injections, the second deals with proportional sharing factors, the third is based upon Equivalent Bilateral Exchanges, the fourth analyzes the power flow sensitivity in relation to the power injected, and the last one is based on Z bus network matrix. All the methods are initially illustrated using a 4-bus system. In addition, the IEEE 24-bus RTS system is presented for further comparisons and analysis. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  19. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  20. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  1. Optimal Asset Allocation under Quadratic Loss Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Ines; Hlouskova, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the asset allocation of a quadratic loss-averse (QLA) investor and derive conditions under which the QLA problem is equivalent to the mean-variance (MV) and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) problems. Then we solve analytically thetwo-asset problem of the QLA investor for a risk-free and a risky asset. We find that the optimal QLA investment in the risky asset is finite, strictly positive and is minimal with respect to the reference point for a value strictly larger than the...

  2. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural...... breaks in correlations. Only when correlations are constant does the parametric DCC model deliver the best outcome. The methodologies are illustrated by evaluating two interesting portfolios. The first portfolio consists of the equity sector SPDRs and the S&P 500, while the second one contains major...

  3. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  4. Temporal Variations on Allocation of Time

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Ajay Kumar

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the allocation of time and trip-making across time-of-day, day-of-week, and month-of-year, as well as over the past forty years. Some interesting findings result. People are working much more, shopping somewhat more on weekends, and stay at home less today than forty years ago. Time spent in travel on each weekend day (Saturday or Sunday) exceeds that on any weekday, as it did forty years ago. Time spent shopping on a typical day in the busiest month (December) is more...

  5. Changes in Defense Mechanism Functioning During Group Therapy for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert; Tasca, Giorgio A; Presniak, Michelle; Francis, Kylie; Palardy, Melissa; Grenon, Renee; Mcquaid, Nancy; Hayden, Genevieve; Gick, Mary; Bissada, Hany

    2015-01-01

    This study examined change in defensive mechanism functioning during group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) for women with binge-eating disorder (BED). Women with BED (N = 85) received 16 weeks of GPIP. Five group therapy sessions (sessions 1, 3, 8, 12, and 16) from each of the 12 groups were video recorded and transcribed. Participants were rated on an observer-based measure of defensive functioning, the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS). Symptom outcomes were assessed pre- and posttreatment. Overall defensive functioning (ODF) scores improved significantly during group treatment, with specific defense level improvements in high adaptive, major image distorting, and action defenses. The linear increase in ODF mediated a decrease in binge-eating episodes and depressive symptoms. Reverse mediation was also noted. A cubic growth curve best modeled ODF data such that ODF improved in the early stage, followed by a slower rate of improvement in the middle stage, and a further increase in rate of improvement at the end of treatment. Change in defense mechanism functioning may be an important aspect of group psychotherapy that is related to improved symptoms for women with BED who receive GPIP. The cubic trend that represented nonlinear growth in ODF is consistent with psychodynamic theory and a stage model of psychotherapy.

  6. Energy savings potential in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of factor price distortion and allocative inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001–2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001–2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. - Highlights: • We measure energy savings potential resulted from allocative inefficiency in China's industrial sector. • Allocative inefficiency is explained based on the theoretical and empirical models. • Factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted because of government regulations. • Energy pricing reform is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency

  7. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective allocation of patients into the compared groups of a randomised trial may cause allocation bias, but the mechanisms behind the bias and its directionality are incompletely understood. We therefore analysed the mechanisms and directionality of allocation bias in randomised...... the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Results: Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included...... various manipulations with randomisation envelopes. Out of 57 methods publications 11 (19 %) mentioned explicitly that allocation bias can go in either direction. We hypothesised that the direction of allocation bias is mainly decided by the interaction between the patient allocators’ motives...

  8. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  9. Psychological defense mechanisms and electroencephalographic arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksen, H. R.; Olff, M.; Mann, C.; Sterman, M. B.; Ursin, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological defense as measured by the Kragh tachistoscopic Defense Mechanisms Test (DMT), and general arousal properties of the individual as measured with electroencephalogram (EEG). The DMT assesses defense by presenting neutral and

  10. Experimental ocean acidification alters the allocation of metabolic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, T-C Francis; Applebaum, Scott L; Manahan, Donal T

    2015-04-14

    Energy is required to maintain physiological homeostasis in response to environmental change. Although responses to environmental stressors frequently are assumed to involve high metabolic costs, the biochemical bases of actual energy demands are rarely quantified. We studied the impact of a near-future scenario of ocean acidification [800 µatm partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)] during the development and growth of an important model organism in developmental and environmental biology, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Size, metabolic rate, biochemical content, and gene expression were not different in larvae growing under control and seawater acidification treatments. Measurements limited to those levels of biological analysis did not reveal the biochemical mechanisms of response to ocean acidification that occurred at the cellular level. In vivo rates of protein synthesis and ion transport increased ∼50% under acidification. Importantly, the in vivo physiological increases in ion transport were not predicted from total enzyme activity or gene expression. Under acidification, the increased rates of protein synthesis and ion transport that were sustained in growing larvae collectively accounted for the majority of available ATP (84%). In contrast, embryos and prefeeding and unfed larvae in control treatments allocated on average only 40% of ATP to these same two processes. Understanding the biochemical strategies for accommodating increases in metabolic energy demand and their biological limitations can serve as a quantitative basis for assessing sublethal effects of global change. Variation in the ability to allocate ATP differentially among essential functions may be a key basis of resilience to ocean acidification and other compounding environmental stressors.

  11. Strategy for Homeland Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1 As defined by “Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership : Priorities for the 21st Century Defense,” January...and nuclear (CBRN) consequence management response forces in recognition of the proliferation of destructive technologies and the potent ideologies...the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Although DoD is always in a support role to civilian authorities (primarily the Federal Emergency Management Agency, or

  12. Contribution to the improvement of management in defense logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Ljubojević

    2013-12-01

    improving management in the defense, especially in its logistics, through greater synergy in action, with the least consumption of resources while maintaining or even expanding the system capability („Smart defense” concept, „Pool and share” concept, organizational changes in the field of logistics - the set up Joint Logistic Support Groups, etc.. Understanding and implementing these reforms require a special attitude towards the environment and circumstances in which management decisions are made. Logistical and „nonlogistical” management in the defense needs a broader approach to problems, which will provide them consideration of all the consequences that their decisions can have, not only in the defense, but to all stakeholders, especially end-users of services of the defense system - a society or citizens (civilians and citizens in uniform. Management in the defense system often focuses only on one aspect of the final desired state while ignoring its other aspects or impacts on the wider system, the social environment or the state. In fact, it often tends to minimize the costs of defense, regardless of the implications that arise in the field of defense capabilities and levels of security, particularly „in the long run”. Some of the basic principles of good governance in the defense logistics would be: legality, transparency, responsibility, discipline, cooperation and partnership, continuous improvement and others. As a part of planned and organized work to improve management in defense logistics (analogy applies to the defense system as a whole, special attention should be focused on creating a concept that promotes proper selection, choice, education, training, motivation and development of managers among the most competent, the most educated and the most experienced personnel.   Conclusion   Changes in governance in the public sector, more or less, affect all its segments. Given that the budget allocation for defense is rather high and the defense

  13. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  14. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  15. Examining Carbon Acquisition and Allocation in Coccolithophores: Carbon Accounting to Understand Paleoproductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, S. R.; Polissar, P. J.; Stoll, H. M.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that coccolithophores actively manage their growth and carbon allocation in response to changing environmental conditions. For example, recent work has identified carbon-concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores—in which the organisms actively enhance the abundance of CO2 in the chloroplast by pumping in bicarbonate—as the source of vital isotope effects in coccolith calcite. Understanding the record for and consequences of this management in the geologic record remains challenging. Here we examine the geometry and geochemistry of coccoliths in surface sediments from the deep ocean to relate these measurements to the modern growth environment in the surface ocean. In this core-top dataset that spans a wide range of environmental and oceanographic settings, we measure the size and thickness of coccolith plates, the trace metal and stable isotopic carbon in coccolith calcite, as well as determine alkenone biomarker fluxes and alkenone carbon isotopic composition (ɛp). This holistic approach aims to elucidate the carbon acquisition and allocation strategies employed by modern coccolithophores and ultimately provide a better framework for interpreting paleoproductivity. This method may provide insight into the growth rate and carbon allocation of coccoliths in the past, and may improve our understanding of the influence of atmospheric CO2 on coccolithophore communities.

  16. Impact of Childhood Malnutrition on Host Defense and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K; Zambruni, Mara; Melby, Christopher L; Melby, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    The global impact of childhood malnutrition is staggering. The synergism between malnutrition and infection contributes substantially to childhood morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric indicators of malnutrition are associated with the increased risk and severity of infections caused by many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Since childhood malnutrition commonly involves the inadequate intake of protein and calories, with superimposed micronutrient deficiencies, the causal factors involved in impaired host defense are usually not defined. This review focuses on literature related to impaired host defense and the risk of infection in primary childhood malnutrition. Particular attention is given to longitudinal and prospective cohort human studies and studies of experimental animal models that address causal, mechanistic relationships between malnutrition and host defense. Protein and micronutrient deficiencies impact the hematopoietic and lymphoid organs and compromise both innate and adaptive immune functions. Malnutrition-related changes in intestinal microbiota contribute to growth faltering and dysregulated inflammation and immune function. Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the malnutrition-infection synergism, critical gaps in our understanding remain. We highlight the need for mechanistic studies that can lead to targeted interventions to improve host defense and reduce the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  18. Effective Proactive and Reactive Defense Strategies against Malicious Attacks in a Virtualized Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Yeong-Sung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization plays an important role in the recent trend of cloud computing. It allows the administrator to manage and allocate hardware resources flexibly. However, it also causes some security issues. This is a critical problem for service providers, who simultaneously strive to defend against malicious attackers while providing legitimate users with high quality service. In this paper, the attack-defense scenario is formulated as a mathematical model where the defender applies both proactive and reactive defense mechanisms against attackers with different attack strategies. In order to simulate real-world conditions, the attackers are assumed to have incomplete information and imperfect knowledge of the target network. This raises the difficulty of solving the model greatly, by turning the problem nondeterministic. After examining the experiment results, effective proactive and reactive defense strategies are proposed. This paper finds that a proactive defense strategy is suitable for dealing with aggressive attackers under “winner takes all” circumstances, while a reactive defense strategy works better in defending against less aggressive attackers under “fight to win or die” circumstances.

  19. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... an investor: (i) Commits to make an investment in the Allocatee in a specified amount and on... NMTCs to its investors. A non-profit applicant wishing to apply for a NMTC Allocation must demonstrate... record of raising capital, particularly from for-profit investors; the extent to which the applicant has...

  20. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... only those Equity Investments that are evidenced by a written, signed document in which an investor: (i... NMTCs to its investors. A non-profit applicant wishing to apply for a NMTC Allocation must demonstrate... Controlling Entity) and their track record of raising capital, particularly from for-profit investors; the...

  1. Department of Defense Software Factbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    auto-generated code (created from a tool and used without change) Each of these sources requires a different amount of work effort to...for verification purposes. This tool successfully extracts the information from the standard Excel form for 2630-2 (initial) and 2630-3 (final...University. All Rights Reserved. This material is based upon work funded and supported by the Department of Defense under Contract No. FA8702-15-D-0002

  2. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  3. Social interactions promote adaptive resource defense in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes; Heeb, Eva Linda; Neupert, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Social insects vigorously defend their nests against con- and heterospecific competitors. Collective defense is also seen at highly profitable food sources. Aggressive responses are elicited or promoted by several means of communication, e.g. alarm pheromones and other chemical markings. In this study, we demonstrate that the social environment and interactions among colony members (nestmates) modulates the propensity to engage in aggressive behavior and therefore plays an important role in allocating workers to a defense task. We kept Formica rufa workers in groups or isolated for different time spans and then tested their aggressiveness in one-on-one encounters with other ants. In groups of more than 20 workers that are freely interacting, individuals are aggressive in one-on-one encounters with non-nestmates, whereas aggressiveness of isolated workers decreases with increasing isolation time. We conclude that ants foraging collectively and interacting frequently, e.g. along foraging trails and at profitable food sources, remain in a social context and thereby maintain high aggressiveness against potential competitors. Our results suggest that the nestmate recognition system can be utilized at remote sites for an adaptive and flexible tuning of the response against competitors.

  4. Tests of sex allocation theory in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärer, Lukas

    2009-06-01

    Sex allocation is a crucial life-history parameter in all sexual organisms. Over the last decades a body of evolutionary theory, sex allocation theory, was developed, which has yielded capital insight into the evolution of optimal sex allocation patterns and adaptive evolution in general. Most empirical work, however, has focused on species with separate sexes. Here I review sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites and summarize over 50 empirical studies, which have aimed at evaluating this theory in a diversity of simultaneous hermaphrodites spanning nine animal phyla. These studies have yielded considerable qualitative support for several predictions of sex allocation theory, such as a female-biased sex allocation when the number of mates is limited, and a shift toward a more male-biased sex allocation with increasing numbers of mates. In contrast, many fundamental assumptions, such as the trade-off between male and female allocation, and numerous predictions, such as brooding limiting the returns from female allocation, are still poorly supported. Measuring sex allocation in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals remains experimentally demanding, which renders evaluation of more quantitative predictions a challenging task. I identify the main questions that need to be addressed and point to promising avenues for future research.

  5. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Masaki, Emiko; Fraser, Nicole; Benedikt, Clemens; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David P; Gray, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1) when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2) when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8%) decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6%) reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to expand or contract programmes and to which coverage levels to maximize impact.

  6. 32 CFR 28.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Defense. 28.500 Section 28.500 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 28.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) Exemption authority...

  7. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  8. Factors associated with the allocation of carbohydrates to bunch dry matter production in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports on the factors relevant to the allocation of assimilates to oil palm bunch dry matter (DM) production, based on an extensive set of growth and yield records from experiments in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia.
    Basically, assimilates from gross assimilation of the

  9. Effects of nutrient availabiiity on biomass allocation as well as constitutive and rapid induced herbivore resistance in poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Glynn; Daniel A. Herms; Marie Egawa; Robert Hansen; William J. Mattson

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have examined effects of nutrient availability on constitutive herbivore resistance of plants, but few have addressed effects on expression of rapid induced resistance (RIR). We quantified effects of two levels of nutrient availability on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, and constitutive secondary metabolism of black poplar (>i>Populus...

  10. Allocation of CO2 emission permits-Economic incentives for emission reductions in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.; Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The economic impacts on developing regions following a global cap and trade system for carbon dioxide are assessed through the use of an energy-economy systems model. Both an equal per capita allocation and a contraction and convergence allocation with convergence of the per capita emissions by 2050 are shown to offer economic incentive for Africa, India and probably also Latin America to accept binding emissions commitments under a 450 ppm carbon dioxide stabilization scenario. The gain for Latin America is mainly a result of increased export revenues from sales of bio-fuels as a result of the climate policy. It is, on the other hand, unlikely that these allocation approaches would offer an economic incentive for China to join the regime because of its high economic growth, present higher per capita emissions than India and Africa, and more costly mitigation options than Latin America. A more stringent allocation for developing countries such as contraction with convergence of the per capita emissions by the end of this century is estimated to generate reduced net gains or increased net losses for the developing regions (though Africa is still expected to gain)

  11. Natural selection on immune defense: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeloh, Laura; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Seppälä, Otto

    2017-02-01

    Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that confounds trade-offs in empirical studies. In a field experiment where we maintained Lymnaea stagnalis snails individually in cages in a lake, we investigated phenotypic selection on two immune defense traits, phenoloxidase (PO)-like activity and antibacterial activity, in hemolymph. We used a diverse laboratory population and manipulated snail resource level by limiting their food supply. For six weeks, we followed immune activity, growth, and two fitness components, survival and fecundity of snails. We found that PO-like activity and growth were under stabilizing selection, while antibacterial activity was under positive directional selection. Selection on immune traits was mainly driven by variation in survival. The form of selection on immune defense apparently depends on the particular trait, possibly due to its importance for countering the present parasite community. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Hormone-regulated defense and stress response networks contribute to heterosis in Arabidopsis F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Lyons, Rebecca L; Greaves, Ian K; Kazan, Kemal; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2015-11-17

    Plant hybrids are extensively used in agriculture to deliver increases in yields, yet the molecular basis of their superior performance (heterosis) is not well understood. Our transcriptome analysis of a number of Arabidopsis F1 hybrids identified changes to defense and stress response gene expression consistent with a reduction in basal defense levels. Given the reported antagonism between plant immunity and growth, we suggest that these altered patterns of expression contribute to the greater growth of the hybrids. The altered patterns of expression in the hybrids indicate decreases to the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis pathway and increases in the auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] biosynthesis pathway. SA and IAA are hormones known to control stress and defense responses as well as plant growth. We found that IAA-targeted gene activity is frequently increased in hybrids, correlating with a common heterotic phenotype of greater leaf cell numbers. Reduced SA concentration and target gene responses occur in the larger hybrids and promote increased leaf cell size. We demonstrated the importance of SA action to the hybrid phenotype by manipulating endogenous SA concentrations. Increasing SA diminished heterosis in SA-reduced hybrids, whereas decreasing SA promoted growth in some hybrids and phenocopied aspects of hybrid vigor in parental lines. Pseudomonas syringae infection of hybrids demonstrated that the reductions in basal defense gene activity in these hybrids does not necessarily compromise their ability to mount a defense response comparable to the parents.

  13. Dynamic asset allocation and latent variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten; Trolle, Anders Bjerre

    -models where some ofthe state-variables (e.g. expected excess returns) may not be directly observable.A realistic multivariate model is estimated and applied to analyze the portfolioimplications of investment horizon and return predictability when real interest ratesand expected excess returns on stock......We derive an explicit solution to the portfolio problem of a power utility investorwith preferences for wealth at a ¯nite investment horizon. The investor can investin assets with return dynamics described as part of a general multivariate model.The modeling framework encompasses discrete-time VAR...... and bonds are not directly observed but mustbe estimated as part of the problem faced by the investor. The solution exhibitssmall variability in portfolio allocations over time compared to the case when excessreturns are assumed observable.JEL Classification: G11Keywords: Portfolio choice, predictability...

  14. Pediatric heart allocation and transplantation in Eurotransplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jacqueline M; Thul, Josef; De Pauw, Michel; Delmo Walter, Eva; Strelniece, Agita; Green, Dave; de Vries, Erwin; Rahmel, Axel; Bauer, Juergen; Laufer, Guenther; Hetzer, Roland; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Meiser, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric heart allocation in Eurotransplant (ET) has evolved over the past decades to better serve patients and improve utilization. Pediatric heart transplants (HT) account for 6% of the annual transplant volume in ET. Death rates on the pediatric heart transplant waiting list have decreased over the years, from 25% in 1997 to 18% in 2011. Within the first year after listing, 32% of all infants (heart transplant. Survival after transplantation improved over the years, and in almost a decade, the 1-year survival went from 83% to 89%, and the 3-year rates increased from 81% to 85%. Improved medical management of heart failure patients and the availability of mechanical support for children have significantly improved the prospects for children on the heart transplant waiting list. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  15. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  16. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  17. Portfolio Allocation Subject to Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio de Deus Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Credit Risk is an important dimension to be considered in the risk management procedures of financial institutions. Is a particularly useful in emerging markets where default rates on bank loan products are usually high. It is usually calculated through highly costly Monte Carlo simulations which consider different stochastic factors driving the uncertainly associated to the borrowers liabilities. In this paper, under some restrictions, we drive closed form formulas for the probability distributions of default rates of bank loans products involving a big number of clients. This allows us to quickly obtain the credit risk of such products. Moreover, using these probability distributions, we solve the problem of optimal portfolio allocation under default risk.

  18. Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mocková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers. 

  19. Evolutionary demography and intrahousehold time allocation: school attendance and child labor among the Okavango Delta Peoples of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, John

    2002-01-01

    The ways in which resources are allocated within households and/or families, especially within the context of children's time allocation to labor and schooling, has long been a subject of concern to demographers and economists. Differential investment in children and resulting differences in activity budgets may have significant effects on children's growth and development as well as on aspects of reproduction. This study uses predictions regarding parental investment in the embodied capital of offspring generated by evolutionary theory to examine the pattern of children's time allocation to labor and schooling among the Okavango Delta Peoples of Botswana. Models incorporating individual costs and benefits of resource allocation, conflicts of interests between men and women and between parents and offspring, and the effects of family composition, subsistence ecology, and gender are developed and applied to data on time allocation, household demography, and household economy. Several findings emerged: (1) The availability of alternative productive tasks strongly affects intra- and intergenerational labor substitution. (2) The presence of similarly aged children of the same sex within the household decreases the likelihood of both boys and girls engaging in a specific productive activity and increases the likelihood of children's school attendance. (3) Birth order, the labor needs of the household, and parents' marital status all affect school attendance. These results have implications for understanding the determinants of children's time allocation to labor and schooling and consequent impacts on development, health, and welfare.

  20. Choice of Antiviral Allocation Scheme for Pandemic Influenza Depends on Strain Transmissibility, Delivery Delay and Stockpile Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydeamore, Michael; Bean, Nigel; Black, Andrew J; Ross, Joshua V

    2016-02-01

    Recently, pandemic response has involved the use of antivirals. These antivirals are often allocated to households dynamically throughout the pandemic with the aim being to retard the spread of infection. A drawback of this is that there is a delay until infection is confirmed and antivirals are delivered. Here an alternative allocation scheme is considered, where antivirals are instead preallocated to households at the start of a pandemic, thus reducing this delay. To compare these two schemes, a deterministic approximation to a novel stochastic household model is derived, which allows efficient computation of key quantities such as the expected epidemic final size, expected early growth rate, expected peak size and expected peak time of the epidemic. It is found that the theoretical best choice of allocation scheme depends on strain transmissibility, the delay in delivering antivirals under a dynamic allocation scheme and the stockpile size. A broad summary is that for realistic stockpile sizes, a dynamic allocation scheme is superior with the important exception of the epidemic final size under a severe pandemic scenario. Our results, viewed in conjunction with the practical considerations of implementing a preallocation scheme, support a focus on attempting to reduce the delay in delivering antivirals under a dynamic allocation scheme during a future pandemic.

  1. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  2. On the allocation of functions between human and machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1979-09-01

    The idea of allocating functions between human and machine was proceduralized early through aids like Fitts' List which describes the relative advantages of men and machines. Although the principle is clear, function allocation has never worked in practice. Some conditions for function allocations are discussed; adequate logic, a common man-machine system language, usable human engineering guides and data and professional habits and attitudes. Trends which will influence ergonomics procedures are described; influence from technology, increasing work environment requirements and user participation requirements. A procedural structure for human engineering or ergonomics in control system design is suggested. This does not include a separate function allocation activity but a number of activities, the result of which will be a systematic function allocation. A case study on ergonomics techniques for systematic function allocation in a control system is described in an appendix to the report. (author)

  3. Defense Infrastructure: Department of Defense Renewable Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    to this report include Harold Reich, Assistant Director; Stacy Bennett; Sharon Reid; Rebecca Rygg; Christopher Turner; and Michael Willems...Photovoltaic Fully Operational 2010 No 2009 1 $37.54 $37.54 Appropriated 183 Dept Navy Naval Base San Diego CA 200 kW PV Carport, McCandless Blvd Sub...Notes from the Department of Defense 183 Dept Navy Naval Base San Diego CA 200 kW PV Carport, McCandless Blvd Sub-Station Parking Lot 0.00 0.00

  4. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  5. Preemptive kidney transplantation: an ethical challenge for organ allocation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2017-01-01

    Preemptive transplants are advisable in advanced stages of kidney disease. The clinical advantages of preemptive transplantation over dialysis are evident. Nevertheless, preemptive transplantations raise ethical concerns, particularly regarding the allocation of medical resources. The present article proposes some criteria for organ allocation policies regarding preemptive transplantations: criteria regarding medical benefit and justice are absolutely essential when addressing the issue of organ allocation, but other ethical values should also be taken into account. The "principle of double effect" offers useful pointers.

  6. Modeling the multi-scale mechanisms of macromolecular resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Laurence; Yurkovich, James T; King, Zachary A

    2018-01-01

    As microbes face changing environments, they dynamically allocate macromolecular resources to produce a particular phenotypic state. Broad 'omics' data sets have revealed several interesting phenomena regarding how the proteome is allocated under differing conditions, but the functional consequen...... and detail how mathematical models have aided in our understanding of these processes. Ultimately, such modeling efforts have helped elucidate the principles of proteome allocation and hold promise for further discovery....

  7. EXPERIENCED TASK-BASED MULTI ROBOT TASK ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ezercan Kayır, H. Hilal

    2017-01-01

    In multi robot system applications, itis possible that the robots transform their past experiences into usefulinformation which will be used for next task allocation processes by usinglearning-based task allocation mechanisms. The major disadvantages of multi-robotQ-learning algorithm are huge learning space and computational cost due togeneralized state and joint action spaces of robots. In this study, experiencedtask-based multi robot task allocation approach is proposed. According to thisa...

  8. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  9. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  10. Exhaustible resources and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.F.

    1984-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a booming natural resource sector on regional economic growth, with particular attention to the impact of regional government policy on mineral rent taxation and the allocation of resource revenues. The author's approach is first to document the relevant theory and then apply it to the case of the uranium industry in Saskatchewan

  11. Phosphate supply explains variation in nucleic acid allocation but not C : P stoichiometry in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.; Allison, S. D.

    2014-03-01

    Marine microbial communities mediate many biogeochemical transformations in the ocean. Consequently, processes such as primary production and carbon (C) export are linked to nutrient regeneration and are influenced by the resource demand and elemental composition of marine microbial biomass. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that differential partitioning of element resources to various cellular components can directly influence overall cellular elemental ratios, especially with respect to growth machinery (i.e., ribosomal RNA) and phosphorus (P) allocation. To investigate whether allocation to RNA is related to biomass P content and overall C : P biomass composition in the open ocean, we characterized patterns of P allocation and C : P elemental ratios along an environmental gradient of phosphate supply in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASG) from 35.67° N, 64.17° W to 22.676° N, 65.526° W. Because the NASG is characterized as a P-stressed ecosystem, we hypothesized that biochemical allocation would reflect sensitivity to bioavailable phosphate, such that greater phosphate supply would result in increased allocation toward P-rich RNA for growth. We predicted these changes in allocation would also result in lower C : P ratios with increased phosphate supply. However, bulk C : P ratios were decoupled from allocation to nucleic acids and did not appear to vary systematically across a phosphate supply gradient of 2.2-14.7 μmol m-2 d-1. Overall, we found that C : P ratios ranged from 188 to 306 along the transect, and RNA represented only 6-12% of total particulate P, whereas DNA represented 11-19%. We did find that allocation to RNA was positively correlated with phosphate supply rate, suggesting a consistent physiological response in biochemical allocation to resource supply within the whole community. These results suggest that community composition and/or nonnucleic acid P pools may influence ecosystem-scale variation in C : P stoichiometry more than

  12. Can decision rules simulate carbon allocation for years with contrasting and extreme weather conditions? A case study for three temperate beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Verbeeck, Hans; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2013-01-01

    allocation scheme taking into account drought-induced changes in allocation dynamics and acclimation of respiration. Model validation was performed against extensive datasets of C fluxes and C pools for a 9 years period (2000-2008) for the site of parameterisation (the beech forest of Hesse, France...... allocation and wood growth at beech stands with contrasting climate and standing stock. However, the allocation model required high quality GPP input and errors (even modest) in GPP resulted in large errors in the growth of the tree organs lowest in the modelled sink hierarchy (woody organs). The ability...... of drought-induced changes in fine root dynamics and of short-term thermal acclimation of maintenance respiration should not be overlooked when simulating the C cycle of forests, particularly for sites likely to experience extreme drought and heat waves. The most relevant model bias was the inaccurate...

  13. Online Job Allocation with Hard Allocation Ratio Requirement (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    of the Nineteenth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA ’08, (Philadelphia, PA, USA), pp. 982–991, Society for Industrial and...when jobs arrive according to some random process . I. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we discuss the problem of online job allocation for cloud computing...not only stores the video but also has remaining capacity to process this request. If no server can process this request, the request is dropped, which

  14. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  15. Allocation trade-off under climate warming in experimental amphibian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change could either directly or indirectly cause population declines via altered temperature, rainfall regimes, food availability or phenological responses. However few studies have focused on allocation trade-offs between growth and reproduction under marginal resources, such as food scarce that may be caused by climate warming. Such critical changes may have an unpredicted impact on amphibian life-history parameters and even population dynamics. Here, we report an allocation strategy of adult anuran individuals involving a reproductive stage under experimental warming. Using outdoor mesocosm experiments we simulated a warming scenario likely to occur at the end of this century. We examined the effects of temperature (ambient vs. pre-/post-hibernation warming and food availability (normal vs. low on reproduction and growth parameters of pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus. We found that temperature was the major factor influencing reproductive time of female pond frogs, which showed a significant advancing under post-hibernation warming treatment. While feeding rate was the major factor influencing reproductive status of females, clutch size, and variation of body size for females, showed significant positive correlations between feeding rate and reproductive status, clutch size, or variation of body size. Our results suggested that reproduction and body size of amphibians might be modulated by climate warming or food availability variation. We believe this study provides some new evidence on allocation strategies suggesting that amphibians could adjust their reproductive output to cope with climate warming.

  16. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei; Lawrence, Gregory; Buyantuev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  17. Evolution of plant growth and defense in a continental introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.A.; Hastings, A.P.; Bradburd, G.S.; Woods, E.C.; Züst, T.; Harvey, J.A.; Bukovinszki, T.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed

  18. Evolution of Plant Growth and Defense in a Continental Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.A.; Hastings, A.P.; Bradburd, G.S.; Woods, E.C.; Züst, T.; Harvey, J.A.; Bukovinszky, T.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed

  19. Evolution of Plant Growth and Defense in a Continental Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hastings, Amy P.; Bradburd, Gideon S.; Woods, Ellen C.; Züst, Tobias; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Bukovinszky, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common

  20. The transcriptional corepressor MTGR1 regulates intestinal secretory lineage allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Rosenblatt, Daniel; Williams, Amanda D; Washington, Mary K; Revetta, Frank; Short, Sarah P; Reddy, Vishruth K; Hunt, Aubrey; Shroyer, Noah F; Engel, Michael E; Hiebert, Scott W; Williams, Christopher S

    2015-03-01

    Notch signaling largely determines intestinal epithelial cell fate. High Notch activity drives progenitors toward absorptive enterocytes by repressing secretory differentiation programs, whereas low Notch permits secretory cell assignment. Myeloid translocation gene-related 1 (MTGR1) is a transcriptional corepressor in the myeloid translocation gene/Eight-Twenty-One family. Given that Mtgr1(-/-) mice have a dramatic reduction of intestinal epithelial secretory cells, we hypothesized that MTGR1 is a key repressor of Notch signaling. In support of this, transcriptome analysis of laser capture microdissected Mtgr1(-/-) intestinal crypts revealed Notch activation, and secretory markers Mucin2, Chromogranin A, and Growth factor-independent 1 (Gfi1) were down-regulated in Mtgr1(-/-) whole intestines and Mtgr1(-/-) enteroids. We demonstrate that MTGR1 is in a complex with Suppressor of Hairless Homolog, a key Notch effector, and represses Notch-induced Hairy/Enhancer of Split 1 activity. Moreover, pharmacologic Notch inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) rescued the hyperproliferative baseline phenotype in the Mtgr1(-/-) intestine and increased production of goblet and enteroendocrine lineages in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. GSI increased Paneth cell production in wild-type mice but failed to do so in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. We determined that MTGR1 can interact with GFI1, a transcriptional corepressor required for Paneth cell differentiation, and repress GFI1 targets. Overall, the data suggest that MTGR1, a transcriptional corepressor well characterized in hematopoiesis, plays a critical role in intestinal lineage allocation. © FASEB.