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Sample records for allium sativum leaf

  1. Monitoring the efficacy of mutated Allium sativum leaf lectin in transgenic rice against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Sen, Senjuti; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2016-03-01

    Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. It is associated with significant reduction in rice productivity worldwide. A mutant variant of mannose binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) was previously reported to exhibit strong antifungal activity against R. solani. In this study, the mASAL gene has been evaluated for its in planta antifungal activity in rice plants. mASAL was cloned into pCAMBIA1301 binary vector under the control of CaMV35S promoter. It was expressed in an elite indica rice cv. IR64 by employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses of transgenic plants confirmed the presence and stable integration of mASAL gene. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of various tissue sections of plant parts clearly indicated the constitutive expression of mASAL. The segregation pattern of mASAL transgene was observed in T1 progenies in a 3:1 Mendelian ratio. The expression of mASAL was confirmed in T0 and T1 plants through western blot analysis followed by ELISA. In planta bioassay of transgenic lines against R. solani exhibited an average of 55 % reduction in sheath blight percentage disease index (PDI). The present study opens up the possibility of engineering rice plants with the antifungal gene mASAL, conferring resistance to sheath blight.

  2. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum; Medial prefrontal cortex; Neurobehaviour;. Histomorphology ..... brain atrophy mouse model. Clin Exp.

  3. Effect of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronidazole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Delfan, B; Pournia, Y; Rashidipour, M

    2016-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the common causes of worldwide diarrhea in children. Appropriate medicinal treatment for giardiasis is available but there are some evidences of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, and unpleasant side effects. In order to reach a more natural drug with suitable efficacy and the lowest side effects, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica , and Allium sativum on G. lamblia cysts were evaluated in vitro, as well as antigiardial effect of the extracts was compared with metronidazole as the drug of choice. 2 and 5 mg of the plants extracts and powder of metronidazole 250 mg pills were added to 1 ml of G. lamblia cysts suspension (containing 5,000 cyst/ml normal saline), and the percentages of bioavailability of G. lamblia cysts were examined at the 2nd and 4th h after exposure and in 4 and 37 °C temperatures using eosin 0.1 % and a haemocytometer. The data were analyzed by multiway ANOVA test, Tukey's test, and the SPSS software, version 18. The examinations demonstrated that olive leaf extract had the most fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (37.90 ± 7.01 %), followed by the extract of S. khuzestanica (32.52 ± 9.07 %). Metronidazole 250 mg pills had relatively effective fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (28.75 ± 10.30 %), whereas A. sativum (garlic) had the lowest fatality effect on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (22.65 ± 10.47 %). With respect to higher fatality effect of olive leaf and S. khuzestanica extracts compared with metronidazole in vitro, these plants can be used as suitable candidates to make new antigiardial drugs with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiasis in children.

  4. Biological safety assessment of mutant variant of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a novel antifungal protein for future transgenic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2013-12-04

    Genetic engineering has established itself to be an important tool for crop improvement. Despite the success, there is always a risk of food allergy induced by alien gene products. The present study assessed the biosafety of mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein generated by site directed mutagenesis of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL). mASAL was cloned in pET28a+ and expressed in E. coli, and the safety assessment was carried out according to the FAO/WHO guideline (2001). Bioinformatics analysis, pepsin digestion, and thermal stability assay showed the protein to be nonallergenic. Targeted sera screening revealed no significant IgE affinity of mASAL. Furthermore, mASAL sensitized Balb/c mice showed normal histopathology of lung and gut tissue. All results indicated the least possibility of mASAL being an allergen. Thus, mASAL appears to be a promising antifungal candidate protein suitable for agronomical biotechnology.

  5. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gálvez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors, iprodione (dicar-boximide, and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC₅₀ values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage.

  6. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum ) in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Laura; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; García, Marta; Iglesias, Concepción; Palmero, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors), iprodione (dicar-boximide), and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors) were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC50 values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage. PMID:27721688

  7. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole brains were removed and the medial prefrontal cortex excised and processed for histomorphologic studies by haematoxylin and eosin, and cresyl fast violet techniques. Neurobehavioural test revealed less spontaneous alternation in 156 mg/kg Allium sativum group, while the prefrontal cortices of the test groups ...

  8. ( Allium sativum Linn), ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  9. Antiplatelet activity of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyasat, Bahi; Sabha, Dina; Grotzinger, Kristina; Kempfert, Joerg; Rauwald, Johann-Wilhelm; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Dhein, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has a well-established reputation as a protective agent against cardiovascular disease, while nearly nothing is known about its cousin Allium ursinum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiaggregatory mechanism of garlic and to compare the effects of A. ursinum and A. sativum. In a prospective study, extracts were prepared from A. sativum powder made from fresh A. sativum bulbs and fresh A. ursinum leaves by maceration. The extracts were characterized by thin layer chromatography. Their in vitro effects on human platelet aggregation were examined by light transmission aggregometry after induction by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, A23187, epinephrine and arachidonic acid (ARA) in platelets from healthy volunteers. A. ursinum and A. sativum exert similar antiaggregatory effects: they inhibit platelet aggregation induced via the ADP pathway and to a lesser extent aggregation induced by epinephrine, whereas ARA-, collagen- and A23187-induced aggregation was not affected. It became clear that the alcoholic extract of A. ursinum is the potent form, while the aqueous extract exerted an unspecific activity. The effects were strictly dose related. A. ursinum and A. sativum extracts exhibited similar potencies. Both A. ursinum and A. sativum exert antiaggregatory effects. Garlic extracts are acting by inhibition of the ADP pathway; their mechanisms of action are comparable to that of the clinically used drug clopidogrel. The pharmacologically active component of the extracts appears to be lipophilic rather than hydrophilic, but the precise chemical substance is still unknown. This is the first report on the antiplatelet activity of A. ursinum. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Deciphering the mode of action of a mutant Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Hess, Daniel; Ghosh, Anupama; Das, Sampa

    2015-10-26

    Mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) is a potent, biosafe, antifungal protein that exhibits fungicidal activity against different phytopathogenic fungi, including Rhizoctonia solani. The effect of mASAL on the morphology of R.solani was monitored primarily by scanning electron and light microscopic techniques. Besides different fluorescent probes were used for monitoring various intracellular changes associated with mASAL treatment like change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In addition ligand blot followed by LC-MS/MS analyses were performed to detect the putative interactors of mASAL. Knowledge on the mode of function for any new protein is a prerequisite for its biotechnological application. Detailed morphological analysis of mASAL treated R. solani hyphae using different microscopic techniques revealed a detrimental effect of mASAL on both the cell wall and the plasma membrane. Moreover, exposure to mASAL caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the subsequent intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the target organism. In conjunction with this observation, evidence of the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) was also noted in the mASAL treated R. solani hyphae. Furthermore, we investigated its interacting partners from R. solani. Using ligand blots followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses, we identified different binding partners including Actin, HSP70, ATPase and 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, the present study provides insight into the probable mode of action of the antifungal protein, mASAL on R. solani which could be exploited in future biotechnological applications.

  11. Tissue specific expression of potent insecticidal, Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) in important pulse crop, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to resist the phloem feeding Aphis craccivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Sarkar, Anindya; Mondal, Hossain Ali; Das, Sampa

    2009-08-01

    The phloem sap-sucking hemipteran insect, Aphis craccivora, commonly known as cowpea aphid, cause major yield loss of important food legume crop chickpea. Among different plant lectins Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL), a mannose binding lectin was found to be potent antifeedant for sap sucking insect A. craccivora. Present study describes expression of ASAL in chickpea through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of "single cotyledon with half embryo" explant. ASAL was expressed under the control of CaMV35S promoter for constitutive expression and phloem specific rolC promoter for specifically targeting the toxin at feeding site, using pCAMBIA2301 vector containing plant selection marker nptII. Southern blot analysis demonstrated the integration and copy number of chimeric ASAL gene in chickpea and its inheritance in T(1) and T(2) progeny plants. Expression of ASAL in T(0) and T(1) plants was confirmed through northern and western blot analysis. The segregation pattern of ASAL transgene was observed in T(1) progenies, which followed the 3:1 Mendelian ratio. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) determined the level of ASAL expression in different transgenic lines in the range of 0.08-0.38% of total soluble protein. The phloem tissue specific expression of ASAL gene driven by rolC promoter has been monitored by immunolocalization analysis of mature stem sections. Survival and fecundity of A. craccivora decreased to 11-26% and 22-42%, respectively when in planta bioassay conducted on T(1) plants compared to untransformed control plant which showed 85% survival. Thus, through unique approach of phloem specific expression of novel insecticidal lectin (ASAL), aphid resistance has been successfully achieved in chickpea.

  12. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-07

    Jan 7, 2010 ... The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by ..... fatty acids having double bonds, largely present in the phospholipids of .... disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, possess antioxidant prop- erties and can ...

  13. Investigation of antibacterial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum ), mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Menthe spp.) and onion (Allium cepa) in in vitro conditions against the Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens. E. coli was isolated from the infected tissues of the chickens which were ...

  14. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  15. Extraction, characterisation and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Huang, Gangliang

    2018-07-15

    Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl 2 was 7.35×10 3 . It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  17. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  18. Antibacterial effect of garlic ( Allium sativum ) on Staphyloccus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has had an important dietary and medicinal role for centuries. It is a large annual plant of the Liliaceae family, which grows in most of Africa and in Ethiopia. Ethiopian garlic is used in traditional medicine for infectious disease and some other cases. The present study tested the aqueous extract ...

  19. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  20. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of ... correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1 ... Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and then dried at room temperature ..... the authors named in this article and all liabilities ... health maintenance: A review.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible toxicological risks of Allium sativum aqueous extract upon consumption were assessed in mice and rats using acute and sub-chronic treatments. 36 male Swiss albino mice were used, and the various doses administered were 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g/kg body weight. Mice were observed for behavioural changes ...

  2. ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  3. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell death was ...

  4. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez; Sahily Rojas Pérez; Nilvia Norma Agüero Batista

    2016-01-01

    Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los ...

  5. Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Allium Sativum Linn on the Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This decrease was therefore dose-dependent and when expressed as percentage range from 20.16% to 62.61%. The above results suggest that an aqueous extract of Allium sativum decreases intestinal motility in rabbits. KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, garlic, intestinal motility. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical ...

  6. Comparative Hypolipidaemic Effects of Allium cepa, Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus was induced in 108 out of a total of 117 adult Rattus novergicus using 150mg/kg b wt of alloxan monohydrate. Increasing dosages (200, 250 and 300mg/kg bw ip) of A. cepa, A. sativum and Z. officinale aqueous extracts were given to the diabetic rats for six weeks while the control rats got either normal ...

  7. Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this review is to update and assess the clinical evidence based on rigorous trials of the effectiveness of garlic (A. sativum). Systematic searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, Amed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Natural Standard, and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (search date December 2006). Our own files, the bibliographies of relevant papers and the contents pages of all issues of the review journal FACT were searched for further studies. No language restrictions were imposed. To be included, trials were required to state that they were randomized and double blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of garlic were included if based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. The literature searches identified six relevant systematic reviews and meta-analysis and double-blind randomized trials (RCT) that were published subsequently. These relate to cancer, common cold, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease and pre-eclampsia. The evidence based on rigorous clinical trials of garlic is not convincing. For hypercholesterolemia, the reported effects are small and may therefore not be of clinical relevance. For reducing blood pressure, few studies are available and the reported effects are too small to be clinically meaningful. For all other conditions not enough data are available for clinical recommendations.

  8. Antioxidant and schistosomicidal effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Schistosoma mansoni different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantawy, M M; Aly, H F; Zayed, N; Fahmy, Z H

    2012-07-01

    The schistosomicidal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) powder were tested in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni miracidia, schistosomula, cercaria and adult worms. Results indicate their strong biocidal effects against all stages of the parasite and also show scavenging inhibitory effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present work, the in vivo effects of A. sativum and A. cepa on lipid peroxide and some antioxidant enzymes; thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) (as they have a crucial role in host protection against invading parasite) were also studied. The data demonstrate that, there was a significant inhibition in SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH in infected liver while, significant elevation was detected in lipid peroxide as compared to the normal control. The current resultS clearly revealed that, the used both edible plants enhance the host antioxidant system indicated by lowering in lipid peroxide and stimulation of SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH enzyme levels. Enhancement of such enzymes using A. sativum and A. cepa could in turn render the parasite vulnerable to damage by the host and may play a role in the antischistosomal potency of the used food ingredients.

  9. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Shama; Shetty, Sukanya; Suchetha Kumari; Madhu, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  10. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only

  11. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  14. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum L. DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP DAYA AWET TAHU PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Hendra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tahu termasuk bahan pangan yang cepat mengalami kerusakan sehingga dapat digolongkan ke dalam golongan high perishable food. Komposisi tahu yang banyak mengandung protein dan air menyebabkan tahu merupakan media yang cocok untuk tumbuhnya mikroba sehingga tahu menjadi cepat mengalami kerusakan. Bawang putih (Allium sativum L juga bersifat antimikroba E.coli, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus sureus dan Aerobacter aerogenes. Manfaat lainya adalah dapat mengurangi jumlah bakteri aerob, kaliform dan mikroorganisme lainnya sehingga bahan makanan yang ditambahkan bawang putih akan lebih awet. Rumusan masalah apakah ekstrak bawang putih berpengaruh terhadap lamanya penyimpanan tahu putih? Tujuan Penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak bawang putih (Allium sativum L. terhadap daya awet Tahu putih. Hipotesis Penelitian ini adalah, diduga ada pengaruh pemberian konsentrasi ekstrak bawang putih (Allium sativum L. terhadap daya awet tahu putih. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari 6 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Berdasarkan analisis Varian menunjukkan bahwa signifikansi taraf signifikan pada Tabel 1 F hitung perlakuan lebih besar dari F tabel 0,05 dan F tabel 0,01 yaitu 2,93 4,58 artinya pemberian ekstrak kulit bawang putih (Allium sativum L. memberikan pengaruh sangat nyata terhadap daya awet tahu putih. Berdasarkan rata-rata jumlah mikroorganisme yang ada pada tahu putih, maka di ketahui bahwa konsentrasi Perlakuan P1 (80 gr ekstrak bawang putih (Allium sativum L. dengan masa simpan 1 x 24 jam berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap daya awet  tahu putih.

  15. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  17. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms “Allium sativum,” “Garlic,” “Allicin,” “Ajoene,” “Leishmania,” “in vitro,” “in vivo,” and “clinical trial,” alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26721553

  18. Scolicidal effect of Allium sativum flowers on hydatid cyst protoscolices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Esboei, B; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Fathi, H; Rezaei Anzahaei, F

    2016-01-01

    he s Because there is no effective and safe drug therapy for hydatid cyst, finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. In this study, the scolicidal effect of ultrasonic methanol extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) flower is investigated. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and were exposed to different concentrations of extract for various exposure times. The viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% Eosin staining. The scolicidal activity of extract at a concentration of 50 mg ml-1 was 59, 76, 81 and 86% after 10, 30, 60, and 180 min of exposure respectively. The scolicidal effect at 100 mg ml-1 was 67, 78, 85 and 98% after various exposure times, respectively. The results of this study showed that the ultrasonic extract has high scolicidal activity and might be used as a natural scolicidal agent. Garlic flower extracts is a potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  19. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  20. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  1. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  2. Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. Garlic's properties result from a combination of variety biologically active substances which all together are responsible for its curative effect. The compounds contained in garlic synergistically influence each other so that they can have different effects. The active ingredients of garlic include enzymes (e.g. alliinase), sulfur-containing compounds such as alliin and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (e.g. allicin). There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The concentration of Allicin (main active ingredient) and the source of garlic's distinctive odor depend on processing method. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemicals rather quickly. It's documented that products obtained even without allicin such as aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, liver and other areas. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cold or the prevention of atherosclerosis and the development of tumors. Many available publications indicates possible antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Due to the chemical complexity of garlic and the use of different processing methods we obtain formulations with varying degrees of efficacy and safety.

  3. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  4. De novo assembly and characterization of the garlic (Allium sativum) bud transcriptome by Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiudong; Zhou, Shumei; Meng, Fanlu; Liu, Shiqi

    2012-10-01

    Garlic is widely used as a spice throughout the world for the culinary value of its flavor and aroma, which are created by the chemical transformation of a series of organic sulfur compounds. To analyze the transcriptome of Allium sativum and discover the genes involved in sulfur metabolism, cDNAs derived from the total RNA of Allium sativum buds were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Approximately 26.67 million 90 bp paired-end clean reads were achieved in two libraries. A total of 127,933 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly and were compared with the sequences in public databases. Of these, 45,286 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the Nr database, 29,514 showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and, 20,706 and 21,952 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Moreover, genes involved in organic sulfur biosynthesis were identified. These unigenes data will provide the foundation for research on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in Allium sativum. Key message The obtained unigenes will provide the foundation for research on functional genomics in Allium sativum and its closely related species, and fill the gap of the existing plant EST database.

  5. New cyclic sulfides, garlicnins I2, M, N, and O, from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2018-01-01

    One atypical thiolane-type sulfide, garlicnin I 2 (1), two 3,4-dimethylthiolane-type sulfides, garlicnins M (2) and N (3), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin O (4), were isolated from the acetone extracts of Chinese garlic bulbs, Allium sativum and their structures were characterized. Hypothetical pathways for the production of the respective sulfides were discussed.

  6. New cyclic sulfides extracted from Allium sativum: garlicnins P, J2, and Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2018-01-01

    Two atypical cyclic-type sulfides, garlicnin P (1) and garlicnin J 2 (2), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin Q (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic, Allium sativum, bulbs cultivated in the Kumamoto city area, and their structures characterized. Their production pathways are also discussed.

  7. Atypical Cyclic Sulfides, Garlicnins G, I, and J, Extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Pan, Cheng; El-Aasr, Mona; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Newly characterized, atypical sulfides, garlicnins G (1), I (2), and J (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic bulbs, Allium sativum. Their production pathways are regarded as different from those of cyclic sulfoxides, 3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives such as onionins A 1 -A 3 , garlicnins B 1 -B 4 and C 1 -C 3 .

  8. Observation of the garlic antimicrobial activity (Allium sativum) in compulsory Secondary Education laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  9. Observation of the garlic antimicrobial activity (Allium sativum in compulsory Secondary Education laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El ajo (Allium sativum ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  10. In vitro activity of Allium sativum and Aloe vera extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase of antibiotic resistance needs to be taken as a threat to both animals and human being. In this study the arbitrary concentration of 25%, 50% and 75% of individual and combined Allium sativum and Aloe vera were tested against Salmonella Gallinarum. The antimicrobials were extracted using aqueous ...

  11. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium sativum L. exposed to three different concentrations of Cd (100 M, 1 mM and 10 mM) for 9 days was carried out. The results showed that Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes – high vacuolization in cytoplasm, deposition of electron-dense material in ...

  12. In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Nazer, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is still the main treatment for hydatid disease. Recurrence of the infection is one of the end points of surgery in treating the hydatid cyst which results from the dissemination of protoscolices-rich fluid. Installation of a scolicidal agent into the cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent recurrence. Many scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of the cyst's content, but most of them are not safe due to their undesired side effects. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum is investigated. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg ml(-1)) of garlic extract were used for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 25 mg ml(-1) killed 87.9, 95.6, 96.8, 98.7, 99.6, and 100% of protoscolices following 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of application, respectively. Moreover, the scolicidal activity of Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) was 100% after 10 min of application. Methanolic extract of Allium sativum had a high scolicidal activity in vitro and thus might be used as a scolicidal agent in the surgical treatment of the hydatid cyst. However, further investigation on the in vivo efficacy of Allium sativum extract and its possible side effects is proposed.

  13. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  14. Protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr. versus Allium sativum L. on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, Cristina; Franchi, Gian Gabriele; Cavallo, Federica; Micheli, Lucia

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr., a spontaneous species of the Italian flora, compared with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on liver injury induced by ethanol in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were orally treated with fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs, 250 mg/kg) daily for 5 days, whereas controls received vehicle only. At the end of the experimental 5-day period, the animals received an acute ethanol dose (6 mL/kg, i.p.) 2 hours before the last Allium administration and were sacrificed 6 hours after ethanol administration. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), and reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione in liver tissue were determined. Administration of both Allium species for 5 days (leaves or bulbs) led to no statistical variation of nonenzymatic parameters versus the control group; otherwise Allium treatment caused an increase of GSH and AA levels compared with the ethanol group and a diminution of MDA levels, showing in addition that A. neapolitanum bulb had the best protective effect. Regarding to enzymatic parameters, GR and CAT activities were enhanced significantly compared with the ethanol group, whereas SOD activity showed a trend different from other parameters estimated. However, the treatment with both Allium species followed by acute ethanol administration reestablished the nonenzymatic parameters similar to control values and enhanced the activities of the enzymes measured. These results suggest that fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs) possess antioxidant properties and provide protection against ethanol-induced liver injury.

  15. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.

  16. Allium Sativum Methanolic Extract (garlic) Improve Therapeutic Efficacy of Albendazole Against Hydatid Cyst: In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Mohammadi, K H; Heidarpour, M; Borji, H

    2018-04-25

    After gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of prepared methanolic extract of Allium sativum, 40 laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were allocated into four treatment groups, including 1- Albendazole (100 mg/kg); 2- Allium sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L); 3- A. sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L) + Albendazole (50 mg /kg); and 4- untreated control group. After 30 days of daily treatment, total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst as well as blood serum bilirubin and liver enzymes were compared between the mice of different groups. The total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst were significantly lower in treated groups A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 and Albendazole 100 in comparison to those of the control group (p sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50, when compared to the control group. In addition, bilirubin concentration revealed significant decrease in A. sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 groups, when compared to the Albendazole group. In conclusion, administration of A. sativum 10 mL/L improved the anti-hydatidosis activity of Albendazole 50 mg /kg, due to parasitological effects similar to Albendazole 100 mg /kg but less hepatotoxic effects.

  17. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  18. Determination of gamma ray doses suitable for mutation induction in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, Bassam; Ayyoubi, Zouhair

    1993-04-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (Control, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 rads). The cloves were planted in 4 replicates at Deer Alhajar station of the Dept. of Radiation Agriculture. Number of surviving plants was recorded at 2 months after planting and at harvest. Length of foliage was measured at harvest time and weight of cloves was taken two weeks after harvest. Visual readings in the field on plant shape and leaf color were also taken. The results indicated a negative effect of gamma radiation on plant survival especially at doses of 750 and 1000 rads where no plants survived until harvest. Plant length and clove weight were reduced even at 500 rad dose. Percentage of yellow and necrotic plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. No stimulation of plant growth was noticed as a result of irradiation with low doses of gamma rays. Treatment with 500 rads of gamma radiation was considered the best among tested doses for garlic mutagenesis (Using cloves) since it gave acceptable rate of survival and morphologic variation. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  19. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIJAMUR INFUSA UMBI BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum L. TERHADAP Candida albicans SERTA PROFIL KROMATOGRAFINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Diana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As traditional medicine, bawang putih or garlic ( Allium sativum L. can cure as antibacterial and antifungal beside on can restorative as antihypertension, antacid, carminativa (in the dyspepsia, expectorancia and anticolesterol. This research was conducted in order to know the antifungal activity of infusion of Allium sativum against Candida albicans and to identify chemical component’s of this infusion. The antifungal activity was done by liquid dilution method. The MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and MFC (Minimal Fungicidal Concentration value were used as parameter to determine the antifungal activity. Concentration used in this reseach were 17,5%; 16,25%; 15%; 13,75% ; 12,5% dan 11,25% v/v for Candida albicans. The activity was done by incubating the infusion with fungal in CYG DS media of 37ºC for 18-24 hours. Identification of chemical component was carried out by paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The result showed that the MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration for Candida albicans could not be observed because the mixture was turbid. The MFC (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration for Candida albicans was 15% v/v. The tube test and chromatogram showed that the infusion of Allium sativum contained flavonoid, and saponin.

  20. Protective effects of Allium sativum against defects of hypercholesterolemia on pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Abou-El-Naga, Amoura M; Gadallah, Abdelalim A; Bakr, Iman H

    2010-06-10

    Sixty fertile female and male albino rats of Wistar strain (I male/ 3 females) were used in the present study. The females were divided into four groups of ten rats each. Group 1 received water and standard feeds for thirty-four days. Group 2 was fed with a cholesterol-containing diet (1%) for two weeks prior to onset of gestation and maintained administration till parturition, produce atherosclerosis (34 days). Group 3 received intragastric administration of 100mg homogenate of garlic (Allium sativum)/kg body weight for three weeks prior to onset of gestation as well as throughout the gestation period. Group 4 intragastrically administered garlic for one week of group B and maintained with combined garlic-treatment for the mentioned period. At parturition, the pregnant were sacrificed and serum total cholesterol (TCL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and creatine kinase activity (CK) were determined. The total numbers of offspring were recorded and examined morphological for congenital abnormalities. Biopsies of heart and dorsal aorta of both pregnant and their offspring (1 day-age) were processed for investigation at light and transmission electron microscopy. The skeleton of the newborn of different experimental groups were stained with alizarin red s and mor-phometric assessment of mandibular and appendicular bone length. The study revealed that the myocardium of atherosclerotic mother exhibited leuhkocytic inflammatory cell infiltration associated with necrosis, eosinophilia of myocardiai fibers, and edema of blood vessels. Ultrastructural studies revealed swelling of mitochondria, disruption of cristae in the myocardiai muscle fibers. The dorsal aorta possessed accumulation of extra-cellular lipid in intima lining of endothelium. The collagenous fibrils in the tunica adventitia became fragile and loosely separated from each other. Numerous foamy lipid loaden cells were detected within the tunica intima causing deterioration of the elastic fibers, resulting in

  1. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, and Allium hirtifolium Boiss Against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Seyed Amir Razavi Satvati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium which can cause life-threatening infections in humans. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth and is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. Nowadays modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine. Tribulus terrestris, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Allium hirtifolium Boiss are commonly found in Iran and used as antimicrobial agents in folklore medicine. Objectives: In this study, antimicrobial activities of aqueous extracts of some plants were examined in vitro against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts of T. terrestris, A. sativum, S. officinalis and A. hirtifolium Boiss were examined using disc and well diffusion methods, and the19 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of aqueous extracts were determined against E. faecalis using agar and broth dilution methods. Results: The obtained results showed that the extract of A. hirtifolium Boiss inhibited the growth of E. faecalis (MIC of 10 mg/mL. Other plants had no effect on the target bacterium. Conclusion: According to the best effect of A. hirtifolium extract on E. faecalis and stability of this extract in thermal condition, we may purify this extract and use it for treatment of infections.

  2. ENSAYO PRELIMINAR DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA DE EXTRACTOS DE ALLIUM SATIVUM, CORIANDRUM SATIVUM, EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLATA, ORIGANUM VULGARE, ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS Y THYMUS VULGARIS FRENTE A CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Q., Martha I; Vargas A., Andrés F; Pérez C., Jorge E; Mejía G., Luis F

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana frente a Clostridium perfringens (cepa ATCC: 13124) por el método de Kirby Bauer en agar SPS de los aceites esenciales o extractos vegetales obtenidos con solventes orgánicos de diferente polaridad a partir de Allium sativum (ajo), Coriandrum sativum (cilantro), Eugenia Caryophyllata (clavo de olor), Origanum vulgare (orégano), Rosmarinus officinalis (romero) y Thymus vulgaris (tomillo), utilizando la vancomicina como control. Los extractos obtenidos por ...

  3. The essential oil of Allium sativum as an alternative agent against Candida isolated from dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Juache, Alejandro; Aranda-Romo, Saray; Bermeo-Escalona, Josué R; Gómez-Hernández, Araceli; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic transformation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) with tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VICTOR

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... on the introduction of fungal resistance genes in garlic. Key words: Allium .... Then cloves were soaked with a chlorinated solution. (1.8% active ... were immediately inoculated with 50 µl of the bacterial suspension. Ten Petri ...

  5. Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriga, Balaji; Mopuri, Ramgopal; MuraliKrishna, T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Leon Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice’s footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine.

  7. Actividad antiinflamatoria de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD), purificada de la especie Allium sativum (ajo)

    OpenAIRE

    Soberón, Mercedes; Suárez, Silvia; Arnao, Inés; Guija, Emilio; Troncoso, Luzmila; Rojas, Luis; Saldaña, Ítalo; Cordero, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Demostrar la actividad antiinflamatoria de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) purificada de Allium sativum (ajo). Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM Material biológico: Ratas y Allium sativum. Principales medidas de resultados: Muestra de ajo triturada con tampón fosfato 50 mM pH 7,4, incubada 40 minutos y filtrada; fue sometida a extracción con cloroformo:etanol 1:1 (v/v). Se descartó la fase acuosa. ...

  8. The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanolic Extracts of Achillea wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rostami Rad

    2017-12-01

      In this study, the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum extracts, was investigated on 4 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the effect of each extract, was studied using agar dilution method.   Among these three extracts, the Allium sativum  extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Also, observations were indicative of difference in the susceptibility of the studied strains to different extracts, which showed different reactions to each of the extracts based on the origin and antibiotic resistance level.   According to the results of this study, extracts are a natural and valuable sources to produce antimicrobial drugs against pseudomonas strains and other resistant pathogenic bacteria.    

  9. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. The average time of paralysis and death of L. nilotica for Niclosomide (1,250 mg/kg) and the methanol extract of A. sativum L. (600 μg/ml) were 6.22 ± 2.94 and 68.44 ± 28.39 min, respectively. Distilled water and garlic tablets at a dose of 400 mg were determined as the inert group. In this research, the attraction time of the leeches' death among different treatments is significant. In this study, it was determined that Niclosomide, with an intensity of 4+, and methanolic extracts of A. sativum L., with an intensity of 3+, have a good anti-leech effect and can be shown to be effective in cases of leech biting, while distilled water was negative.

  10. A descriptive mutagenicity assessment of tretinoin in Allium sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Llana, Jonamine M.; Reyes, Florence C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is primarily designed to assess the mutagenicity of tretinoin by applying the Allium test. Furthermore, it has the following objectives: to evaluate the macroscopic abnormalities caused by tretinoin based on root length and root form parameters; to investigate whether tretinoin can induce aberrances in cell division such as the formation of micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky chromosome, stretched chromosome, vagrant chromosome and precocious chromosome; to determine the variation in the aberrations in the different concentration of tretinoin. Procedure: eight hundred equal-sized garlic bulbs were immersed in various concentrations of tretinoin and in tap water as control. These were divided into two groups. Six hundred bulbs were evaluated for macroscopic parameters while the remaining two hundred bulbs were fixed for microscopic observations. The Allium test set-ups were placed in the plant laboratory of UP-Manila. The were harvested on the third and on the fifth day. The fixed roots were examined in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The data gathered for macroscopic parameter was statistically tested using Complete Randomized Design and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference. The microscopic abnormalities were determined descriptively for every concentration. Findings: analysis of macroscopic and microscopic parameters showed that: according to the analyses of variances, the number of roots, the root length and the number of root forms such as straight, bent, bulbous and tapered were not equal in all concentrations. However, the difference in the number of curled roots was not significant.; the root length distinctly showed the toxicity effect of tretinoin. The growth or the length of roots decreases as the tretinoin concentration increases; the mitotic abnormalities observed in the garlic cells include micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase. C-metaphase, sticky

  11. A descriptive mutagenicity assessment of tretinoin in Allium sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dela Llana, Jonamine M; Reyes, Florence C

    1999-07-01

    This paper is primarily designed to assess the mutagenicity of tretinoin by applying the Allium test. Furthermore, it has the following objectives: to evaluate the macroscopic abnormalities caused by tretinoin based on root length and root form parameters; to investigate whether tretinoin can induce aberrances in cell division such as the formation of micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky chromosome, stretched chromosome, vagrant chromosome and precocious chromosome; to determine the variation in the aberrations in the different concentration of tretinoin. Procedure: eight hundred equal-sized garlic bulbs were immersed in various concentrations of tretinoin and in tap water as control. These were divided into two groups. Six hundred bulbs were evaluated for macroscopic parameters while the remaining two hundred bulbs were fixed for microscopic observations. The Allium test set-ups were placed in the plant laboratory of UP-Manila. The were harvested on the third and on the fifth day. The fixed roots were examined in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The data gathered for macroscopic parameter was statistically tested using Complete Randomized Design and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference. The microscopic abnormalities were determined descriptively for every concentration. Findings: analysis of macroscopic and microscopic parameters showed that: according to the analyses of variances, the number of roots, the root length and the number of root forms such as straight, bent, bulbous and tapered were not equal in all concentrations. However, the difference in the number of curled roots was not significant.; the root length distinctly showed the toxicity effect of tretinoin. The growth or the length of roots decreases as the tretinoin concentration increases; the mitotic abnormalities observed in the garlic cells include micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase. C-metaphase, sticky

  12. A comparative profile of methanol extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum in diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Abhishek; Shri, Richa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action - Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN. Results: Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa. PMID:21713142

  13. Anti-Parasitic Activities of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Trypanosoma b. brucei and Leishmania tarentolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstin, Sonja; Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Wink, Michael

    2018-04-21

    Background: Garlics and onions have been used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites and microbes since ancient times. Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a concern in many areas of the world, especially in poor countries. Methods: Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae were used to investigate the anti-parasitic effects of dichloromethane extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) bulbs. As a confirmation of known antimicrobial activities, they were studied against a selection of G-negative, G-positive bacteria and two fungi. Chemical analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Results: Chemical analyses confirmed the abundance of several sulfur secondary metabolites in garlic and one (zwiebelane) in the onion extract. Both extracts killed both types of parasites efficiently and inhibited the Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase irreversibly. In addition, garlic extract decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in trypanosomes. Garlic killed the fungi C. albicans and C. parapsilosis more effectively than the positive control. The combinations of garlic and onion with common trypanocidal and leishmanicidal drugs resulted in a synergistic or additive effect in 50% of cases. Conclusion: The mechanism for biological activity of garlic and onion appears to be related to the amount and the profile of sulfur-containing compounds. It is most likely that vital substances inside the parasitic cell, like trypanothione reductase, are inhibited through disulfide bond formation between SH groups of vital redox compounds and sulfur-containing secondary metabolites.

  14. Tubulin cytoskeleton during microsporogenesis in the male-sterile genotype of Allium sativum and fertile Allium ampeloprasum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchórzewska, Dorota; Deryło, Kamil; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Winiarczyk, Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Microsporogenesis in garlic. The male-sterile Allium sativum (garlic) reproduces exclusively in the vegetative mode, and anthropogenic factors seem to be the cause of the loss of sexual reproduction capability. There are many different hypotheses concerning the causes of male sterility in A.sativum; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been comprehensively elucidated.Numerous attempts have been undertaken to understand the causes of male sterility, but the tubulin cytoskeleton in meiotically dividing cells during microsporogenesis has never been investigated in this species. Using sterile A.sativum genotype L13 and its fertile close relative A. ampeloprasum (leek), we have analysed the distribution of the tubulin cytoskeleton during microsporogenesis. We observed that during karyokinesis and cytokinesis, in both meiotic divisions I and II, the microtubular cytoskeleton in garlic L13 formed configurations that resembled tubulin arrangement typical of monocots. However, the tubulin cytoskeleton in garlic was distinctly poorer (composed of a few MT filaments) compared with that found in meiotically dividing cells in A. ampeloprasum. These differences did not affect the course of karyogenesis, chondriokinesis, and cytokinesis, which contributed to completion of microsporogenesis, but there was no further development of the male gametophyte. At the very beginning of the successive stage of development of fertile pollen grains, i.e. gametogenesis, there were disorders involving the absence of a normal cortical cytoskeleton and dramatically progressive degeneration of the cytoplasm in garlic. Therefore,we suggest that, due to disturbances in cortical cytoskeleton formation at the very beginning of gametogenesis, the intracellular transport governed by the cytoskeleton might be perturbed, leading to microspore decay in the male-sterile garlic genotype.

  15. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  16. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

  17. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms.

  18. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice's footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine. © R. Gamboa-Leon et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  19. Estudio microbiológico de ajo(Allium sativum L. y cebolla (Allium cepa L. deshidratados Microbiological study of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepaL. dehydrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Fuselli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se efectuó un estudio microbiológico durante la deshidratación y el almacenamiento de ajo (Allium sativum L. y de cebolla (Allium cepa L.. Al ajo se le efectuó un proceso de escaldado y a la cebolla un salmuereado previo a la deshidratación. En las materias primas los recuentos promedio expresados en UFC/g fueron: bacterias aerobias mesófilas entre 1,2 x 102y 1,6 x 103, mohos y levaduras entre 60 y 1,6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. y Leuconostocmesenteroidessubesp. mesenteroides entre 10 y 50.Se identificaron: Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. Lactobacillus brevis,Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides y levaduras en ajo; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras en dos tipos de cebolla. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides sólo se detectó en un tipo de cebolla. En ajos deshidratados y durante el almacenamiento se hallaron Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras mientras que los mismos con escaldado no presentaron desarrollo. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. y Lactobacillus brevis se identificaron en los dos tipos de cebolla deshidratadas. Con la incorporación del salmuereado la microflora se redujo significativamente hallándose solamente Penicillium spp. La utilización de barreras adicionales de control microbiano tales como escaldado y salmuereado produce un aporte importante a la estabilidad microbiológica de los productos.A microbiological study during the process and the storage of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. dehydrated, with the additional barriers of blanching or brine immersion, was made. In all raw materials the average counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria expressed in CFU/g ranged from 1.2 x 102to 1.6 x 103, molds and yeasts from 60 to 1.6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostocmesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides between 10 and 50. Microorganisms identified were Penicillium spp., Monilia spp

  20. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments.

  1. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P sativum oil was used. A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals.

  2. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  3. Effect of Doses of Oxyfluorfen and Trifluralin Hebicides on Weeds Control and Yields of Garlic Var. Mazand (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahzari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of different doses of oxyfluorfen and trifluralin herbicides on weeds control, economic and biologic yield of garlic var. Mazand (Allium sativum L.. An experiment was conducted in the form of simple randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012 - 2013 year. Factor studied were: one application of trifluralin and oxyfluorfen 1.5, 2 and 2.5 lit.ha-1, two applications of oxyfluorfen 1.5 lit.ha-1, hand weeding control and without weeding control.Results showed that using different doses of herbicides significantly affected density and biomass of weeds. Two applicarions of oxyfluorfen with 1.5 liters per hectare and hand weeding were best options to reduce of weeds biomass. Using of oxyfluorfen herbicide (2 and 2.5 liters resulted in little damage and low stable on garlic. Using of different herbicides with different doses were significant on plant height, number of cloves per bulb, 100 seed weight, biological and economical yield and harvest index. Lowest economic yield was due to control treatment (540 g.m-2 and highest was obtained by using 1.5 liter of oxyfluorfen herbicide (1661.67 g.m-2, hand weeding (1686.67 g.m-2 and split oxyfluorfen application (1670 g.m-2. Finally, oxyfluorfen treatment (1.5 liter on 3 to 4 weeds leaf, were identified as the most appropriate treatments.

  4. Cytogenetical and ultrastructural effects of copper on root meristem cells of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Donghua; Jiang, Wusheng; Meng, Qingmin; Zou, Jin; Gu, Jiegang; Zeng, Muai

    2009-04-01

    Different copper concentrations, as well as different exposure times, were applied to investigate both cytogenetical and ultrastructural alterations in garlic (Allium sativum L.) meristem cells. Results showed that the mitotic index decreased progressively when either copper concentration or exposure time increased. C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, chromosome stickiness and broken nuclei were observed in the copper treated root tip cells. Some particulates containing the argyrophilic NOR-associated proteins were distributed in the nucleus of the root-tip cells and the amount of this particulate material progressively increased with increasing exposure time. Finally, the nucleolar material was extruded from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Also, increased dictyosome vesicles in number, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles containing electron dense granules, altered mitochondrial shape, disruption of nuclear membranes, condensation of chromatin material, disintegration of organelles were observed. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of copper are briefly discussed.

  5. Purification and characterization of a soluble glycoprotein from garlic (Allium sativum) and its in vitro bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Tingting; Xiang, Minghui; Jin, Chenzhong; Zhang, Xuejiao; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Qiuqing; Hu, Yihong

    2016-10-02

    A soluble glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity from ripe garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography. A native mass of 55.7 kDa estimated on gel permeation chromatography and a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis supported that the glycoprotein is a homotetramer. β-Elimination reaction result suggested that the glycoprotein is an N-linked type. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy proved that it contains sugar. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis showed that its sugar component was galactose. The glycoprotein has 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil free radical scavenging activity and the peroxidation inhibition ability to polyunsaturated fatty acid. These results indicated that the glycoprotein has potential for food additives, functional foods, and even biotechnological and medical applications.

  6. Allium sativum L. regulates in vitro IL-17 gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutia, Mouna; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Abouelazz, Omar; Elouaddari, Anass; Al Jahid, Abdellah; Elhou, Abdelhalim; Nadifi, Sellama; Jamal Eddine, Jamal; Habti, Norddine; Badou, Abdallah

    2016-09-29

    Allium sativum L. (A.S.) "garlic", one of the most interesting medicinal plants, has been suggested to contain compounds that could be beneficial in numerous pathological situations including cancer. In this work, we aimed to assess the immunomodulatory effect of A.S. preparation on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. Nontoxic doses of A.S. were identified using MTT assay. Effects on CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation were studied using flow cytometry. The effect of A.S. on cytokine gene expression was studied using qRT-PCR. Finally, qualitative analysis of A.S. was performed by HPLC approach. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA test. The nontoxic doses of A.S. preparation did not affect neither spontaneous nor TCR-mediated CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation. Interestingly, A.S. exhibited a statistically significant regulation of IL-17 gene expression, a cytokine involved in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In contrast, the expression of IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was unaffected. Qualitative analysis of A.S. ethanol preparation indicated the presence of three polyphenol bioactive compounds, which are catechin, vanillic acid and ferulic acid. The specific inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-17 without affecting cell proliferation in human PBMCs by the Allium sativum L. preparation suggests a potential valuable effect of the compounds present in this plant for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer, where IL-17 is highly expressed. The individual contribution of these three compounds to this global effect will be assessed.

  7. Identity of the immunomodulatory proteins from garlic (Allium sativum) with the major garlic lectins or agglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Fatima; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2010-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), an important medicinal spice, displays a plethora of biological effects including immunomodulation. Although some immunomodulatory proteins from garlic have been described, their identities are still unknown. The present study was envisaged to isolate immunomodulatory proteins from raw garlic, and examine their effects on certain cells of the immune system (lymphocytes, mast cells, and basophils) in relation to mitogenicity and hypersensitivity. Three protein components of approximately 13 kD (QR-1, QR-2, and QR-3 in the ratio 7:28:1) were separated by Q-Sepharose chromatography of 30 kD ultrafiltrate of raw garlic extract. All the 3 proteins exhibited mitogenic activity towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes, murine splenocytes and thymocytes. The mitogenicity of QR-2 was the highest among the three immunomodulatory proteins. QR-1 and QR-2 displayed hemagglutination and mannose-binding activities; QR-3 showed only mannose-binding activity. Immunoreactivity of rabbit anti-QR-1 and anti-QR-2 polyclonal antisera showed specificity for their respective antigens as well as mutual cross-reactivity; QR-3 was better recognized by anti-QR-2 (82%) than by anti-QR-1 (55%). QR-2 induced a 2-fold higher histamine release in vitro from leukocytes of atopic subjects compared to that of non-atopic subjects. In all functional studies, QR-2 was more potent compared to QR-1. Taken together, all these results indicate that the two major proteins QR-2 and QR-1 present in a ratio of 4:1 in raw garlic contribute to garlic's immunomodulatory activity, and their characteristics are markedly similar to the abundant Allium sativum agglutinins (ASA) I and II, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    (Bitter leaf), Allium sativum (Garlic), O. gratissimum. (Scent leaf) ... complex active components that are useful ... hydroxide was added. .... KEY: CPX-Ciprofloxacin, Ro-Rocephin, St-Streptomycin, AU-Augmentin, SXT-Septrin, SP- Sparfloxacin, ...

  9. The in vitro effect of Ferula asafoetida and Allium sativum extracts on Strongylus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Mousa; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Fard, Vahid R. Besharati; Esfandiarpour, Rahim

    2018-01-01

    The high incidence of equine gastrointestinal worms and their increased resistance against anthelmintics has encouraged research into the effectiveness of rational phytotherapy. This study investigates the in vitro anti-parasitic effects of extracts of Ferula asafoetida and Allium sativum, two native plants that are widespread in Iran on Strongylus spp. larvae. Faecal samples were collected from horses, examined by routine parasitology methods and positive samples were used for future examination. After incubation, the third-stage larvae were harvested by the Baermann technique. A hydroalcoholic extract from the plants was used for the antiparasitic study, while tap water was used for controls. Trials for each concentration and control group were performed in three replicates. The results showed that that during the first day of exposure, the hydroalcoholic extract of F. asafoetida at concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml killed over the 90% of the larvae, and A. sativum extract at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/ml killed over the 95% of larvae (p<0.05). The results obtained from the bioassay showed that two plant extracts have a larvicidal effect on the Strongylus spp. larval stages compared with the control group.

  10. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects.

  11. The role of diallyl sulfides and dipropyl sulfides in the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Sergio; Leonardi, Michele; Melai, Bernardo; Fratini, Filippo; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) obtained from fresh bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L. ( Alliaceae), was studied. A. sativum (garlic) EO showed a good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone 14.8 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 21.1 mm), and Escherichia coli (inhibition zone 11.0 mm), whereas the EO of A. porrum (leek) had no antimicrobial activity. The main constituents of the garlic EO were diallyl monosulfide, diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl tetrasulfide. The EO of A. porrum was characterized by the presence of dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), dipropyl trisulfide, and dipropyl tetrasulfide. The antimicrobial activities of the DADS and DPDS were also studied. The results obtained suggest that the presence of the allyl group is fundamental for the antimicrobial activity of these sulfide derivatives when they are present in Allium or in other species (DADS inhibition zone on S. aureus 15.9 mm, P. aeruginosa 21.9 mm, E. coli 11.4 mm). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  13. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2010-03-02

    Electron microscopy (EM) techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb) in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10(-3) to 10(-4) M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER) with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification and tolerance under Pb stress. Vacuoles are

  14. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

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    Liu Donghua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron microscopy (EM techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification

  15. Incorporation of Allium sativum in yogurt: In vitro study on inhibition of diabetes- and hypertension-associated enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabboo Amirdivani Amirdivani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inclusion of Allium sativum on yogurt formation and subsequent storage (4°C, up to 28 days on proteolysis, microbial activity, the inhibition of a-amylase, a-glucosidase and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE-1 in vitro were investigated. A. sativum-yogurt showed higher rates of pH reduction and increment of TA than plain-yogurt during incubation at 41°C. Highest proteolysis,  on day 7 showed in A. sativum-yogurt (62.7±0.80 mg/mL, which was 2-flod higher than plain yogurt (31.0±0.96 mg/mL. Bacterial counts in A.sativum-yogurt were higher for Lactobacillus spp. but lower for S. thermophillus (p<0.05 compared to those in plain yogurt throughout refrigerated storage. Highest inhibitory activities for α-amylase were recorded on day 14 of storage for A. sativum- and plain-yogurts (IC50= 13.7±1.99and 26.3±2.15mg respectively; p<0.05 and on day 7 for α-glucosidase (IC50= 120.7±22.71 and 192.3±33.24mg respectively; p<0.05. The highest anti-ACE-I activity was observed on day 7 of refrigerated storage with A. sativum-yogurt (IC50=6.9±0.23mg being more potent than plain-yogurt (IC50=9.7±0.12mg; p<0.05. A. sativum-yogurt was not favoured for overall aroma, sourness and bitterness in the sensory evaluations but recorded the same overall preference as plain yogurt. A. sativum enhanced the fermentation of yogurt in favour of the population of Lactobacillus spp, stimulated proteolysis of milk proteins and increased the in vitro inhibition of key enzymes associated with diabetes and hypertension.

  16. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other molar was capped with formocresol. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months using standard clinical and radiographic criteria. Statistically, these results revealed significant difference between the radiographic findings of nonvital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. A. sativum oil has potent antibacterial properties that enable it to combat intracanal microbes in the infected pulp of primary molars. Better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. A. sativum oil had more powerful effects than formocresol on the infected pulp of primary nonvital molars.

  17. In vitro and in vivo Nematocidal Activity of Allium sativum and Tagetes erecta Extracts Against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio- Landín, Josefina; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Salinas-Sánchez, David Osvaldo; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; Hernández-Velázquez, Victor Manuel; Valladares-Cisneros, María Guadalupe

    2015-12-01

    In the Mexican ethno-medicine, a number of plants have shown a successful anthelmintic activity. This fact could be crucial to identify possible green anti-parasitic strategies against nematodes affecting animal production. This research evaluated the in vitro and in vivo nematocidal effects of two single and combined plant extracts: bulbs of Allium sativum (n-hexane) and flowers of Tagetes erecta (acetone). The in vivo assay evaluated the administration of extracts either individually or combined against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected gerbils. The in vitro larvicidal activity percentage (LAP) of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts against H. contortus (L3) was determined by means of individual and combined usage of the extracts. Similarly, the extracts were evaluated in terms of reduction in the parasitic population in gerbils infected with H. contortus by individual and combined usage. The LAP at 40 mg/mL was 68% with A. sativum and 36.6% with T. erecta. The combination caused 83.3% mortality of parasites. The oral administration of A. sativum and T. erecta extracts at 40 mg/mL, caused 68.7% and 53.9% reduction of the parasitic burden, respectively. Meanwhile, the combined effect of both extracts shown 87.5% reduction. This study showed evidence about the effect of A. sativum and T. erecta plant extracts by means of individual and combined usage against H. contortus in in vitro and in vivo bioassays in artificially H. contortus-infected gerbils as a model.

  18. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three dimensional structures of receptor site rather than by analogy to other

  19. Modulation of the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from Vibrio cholerae by Allium sativum extract and the bioactive agent allyl sulfide plus synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial susceptibility by A. sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Merissa M; Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared T; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ponce, Robert C; Garcia, John A; Ranaweera, Indrika; Sanford, Leslie M; Hernandez, Alberto J; Willmon, T Mark; Tolson, Grace L; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-10-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux. Thus, we tested whether A. sativum extract acts in synergy with antimicrobials and that a main bioactive component allyl sulfide inhibits EmrD-3 efflux. We found that A. sativum extract and allyl sulfide inhibited ethidium bromide efflux in cells harboring EmrD-3 and that A. sativum lowered the MICs of multiple antibacterials. We conclude that A. sativum and allyl sulfide inhibit EmrD-3 and that A. sativum extract synergistically enhances antibacterial agents.

  20. Efficacy of soluble glycoprotein fraction from Allium sativum purified by size exclusion chromatography on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Ibrahim; Taher, Eman E; El-Sayed, Hoda; Mohammed, Faten A; ELnain, Gehan; Hamad, Rabab S; Bayoumy, Elsayed M

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the efficiency of crude MeOH extracts and soluble glycoprotein fraction of Allium sativum purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on parasitological, histopathological and some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice were investigated. Animals were infected by tail immersion with 100 cercariae/each mouse and divided into five groups in addition to the normal control. The results revealed a significant decrease in mean worm burden in all treated mice especially in the group treated with soluble glycoprotein fraction of A. sativum as compared to infected non-treated control with the disappearance of female worms. Administration of the studied extracts revealed remarkable amelioration in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice. In addition, treatment of mice with crude A. sativum MeOH extract and soluble glycoprotein fraction of A. sativum decreased significantly the activities of studied enzymes as compared to the infected untreated group. The highest degrees of enhancement in pathological changes was observed in the treated one with soluble glycoprotein fraction of A. sativum compared to the infected group represented by small sized, late fibro-cellular granuloma, the decrease in cellular constituents and degenerative changes in eggs. In conclusion, A. sativum treatment had effective schistosomicidal activities, through reduction of worm burden and tissue eggs, especially when it was given in purified glycoprotein fraction. Moreover, the soluble glycoprotein fraction of A. sativum largely modulates both the size and the number of granulomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by Allium sativum extract and their assessment as SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Cristina; Leopold, Loredana Florina; Rugină, Olivia Dumitriţa; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Leopold, Nicolae; Tofană, Maria; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A green synthesis was used for preparing stable colloidal gold nanoparticles by using Allium sativum aqueous extract both as reducing and capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, their potential to be used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was investigated. The obtained gold nanoparticles have spherical shape with mean diameters of 9-15 nm (depending on the amount of reducing agent used under boiling conditions) and are stable up to several months. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the nanoparticles are capped by protein molecules from the extract. The protein shell offers a protective coating, relatively impervious to external molecules, thus, rendering the nanoparticles stable and quite inert. These nanoparticles have the potential to be used as SERS substrates, both in solution and inside human fetal lung fibroblast HFL-1 living cells. We were able to demonstrate both the internalization of the nanoparticles inside HFL-1 cells and their ability to preserve the SERS signal after cellular internalization.

  2. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P < 0.0001) cytotoxicity was observed in all preparations, except with boiled (cooked) garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells.

  4. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehri, Badreddine; Ahmed, Mueen K.K.; Aiache, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10−5 M). Results: It was found that ASBAE induced a dose-dependent relaxation with recorded EC 50 values of 71.87 ± 5.90 µg/mL (n = 7). Pretreatments with mepyramine (10−7 M), methysergide (10−7 M), caffeine (10−6 M), theophylline (10−6 M), nifedipine (10−6 M), and dipyridamole (10−6 M) did not alter ASBAE concentration-response curves. In turn, concentration-response curves to ASBAE were significantly shifted toward right in the presence of aspirin (3.10−3 M), indomethacin (10−6 M), prazosin (10−6 M), and propranolol (10−7 M). Conclusion: It is suggested that the recorded relaxation results are due to the release of prostaglandins E 1 and E 2 consecutively to α- and β-adrenoreceptor stimulation. PMID:21472073

  7. Inhibitory effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharide on micronucleus of Allium sativum root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Liu, Chongbin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the antimutagenic function of the polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with the micronucleus test of Allium sativum root cells induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet was studied. The concentration-effect relation of the two inducers was firstly evaluated. The results showed that an increase of genotoxicity damage was demonstrated and micronuclei frequency induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet displayed dose dependent increases. All the doses of polysaccharide did affect the micronuclei frequency formation compared with the negative control. And also, the significant increase in inhibition rate of micronuclei frequency was observed with the increase of the dose of polysaccharide. It was showed maximum inhibition of micronuclei frequency cells (71.74% and 66.70%) at a concentration of 200g/mL in three experiments. The low molecular weight polysaccharide showed higher inhibition rate than raw polysaccharide at the higher concentration (50g/mL) in the absence of sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet. It was confirmed to be a good mutant inhibitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  9. Oral administration of Allium sativum extract protects against infectious bursal disease in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufen ZHAO,Yuanyuan JIA,Weiwei ZHANG,Lili WANG,Yunfei MA,Kedao TENG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum, Liliaceae has been safely used for more than 5000 years, and research on garlic extract is rapidly increasing because of its multiple biological functions. The in vivo effects of oral administration of garlic mixture (GM, water-soluble extract on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV-infected specific pathogen free male white leghorn chicken were examined through histopathological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results confirmed the protective effects of oral administration of 5 mg·kg-1 BW GM (Group GM1 on bursal lesions after IBDV infection. In particular, protein expression of IBDV in the bursa decreased in Group GM1, indicating that GM administration decreased IBDV replication in the bursa. Furthermore, immunoglobulin M- and A-bearing B lymphocytes significantly increased 7 days post infection in bursae in Group GM1 (P<0.01, suggesting that the oral administration of 5 mg·kg-1 GM offers moderate protection against B cell destruction after IBDV infection. During infection, the concentration of bursal interferon gamma (IFN-g increased and peaked in Group GM1 earlier than in Group T (IBDV-exposed, demonstrating that GM administration prompted the production of IFN-g to protect against IBDV infection.

  10. Garlic (Allium sativum: diet based therapy of 21st century–a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional and nutraceutical foods provide an opportunity to improve one’s health by reducing health care costs and to support economic development in rural communities. For this reason, various phyto-based functional foods are becoming popular worldwide owing to number of evidences for their safer therapeutic applications. Garlic (Allium sativum L., is an essential vegetable that has been widely utilized as seasoning, flavoring, culinary and in herbal remedies. The consumption of traditional plants especially garlic has progressively increased worldwide because of their great effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost. Garlic is well known to contain an array of phytochemicals. These bioactive molecules are playing pivotal role in maintaining human health and having potential to reduce various ailments. It has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its various bioactive components that can be used in different diet based therapies to cure various life-style related disorders. The present review is an attempt to explore the functional/nutraceutical role of garlic against various threats including dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, cardiovascular disorders, antioxidant capacity and carcinogenic perspectives.

  11. Characterization of Active Compounds of Different Garlic (Allium sativum L. Cultivars

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    Szychowski Konrad A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has a reputation as a therapeutic agent for many different diseases such as microbial infections, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Health benefits of garlic depend on its content of biologically-active compounds, which differs between cultivars and geographical regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological activity of aqueous extracts from nine garlic varieties from different countries (Poland, Spain, China, Portugal, Burma, Thailand and Uzbekistan. Antioxidant properties were evaluated through free radical scavenging (DPPH•, ABTS•+ and ion chelation (Fe2+, Cu2+ activities. The cytotoxicity of garlic extracts was evaluated in vitro using Neutral Red Uptake assay in normal human skin fibroblasts. The obtained results revealed that garlic extracts contained the highest amount of syringic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids derivatives. The lowest IC50 values for DPPH•, ABTS•+ scavenging and Cu2+ chelating ability were determined in Chinese garlic extracts (4.63, 0.43 and 14.90 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts from Spanish cultivar Morado and Chinese garlic were highly cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts as they reduced cellular proliferation by 70–90%. We showed diverse contents of proteins and phenolic components in garlic bulbs from different varieties. The obtained results could help to choose the cultivars of garlic which contain significant amounts of active compounds, have important antioxidant properties and display low antiproliferative effect and/or low cytotoxicity against normal human skin fibroblast BJ.

  12. Effect of Doses of Oxyfluorfen and Trifluralin Hebicides on Weeds Control and Yields of Garlic Var. Mazand (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahzari; M.A. Baghestani Meibodi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of different doses of oxyfluorfen and trifluralin herbicides on weeds control, economic and biologic yield of garlic var. Mazand (Allium sativum L.). An experiment was conducted in the form of simple randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012 - 2013 year. Factor studied were: one application of trifluralin and oxyfluorfen 1.5, 2 and 2.5 lit.ha-1, two applications of oxyfluorfen 1.5 lit.ha-1, hand weeding control and without weeding control.Results...

  13. Diallyl Polysulfides from Allium sativum as Immunomodulators, Hepatoprotectors, and Antimycobacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Carel; Arbach, Miriam; Meyer, Debra; Hamilton, Chris; Lall, Namrita

    2017-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest killers, with an annual death rate of ∼1.5 million. The medicinal effects of garlic have been well documented, and natural products have been shown to have antimycobacterial activity. The current study evaluated the efficacy of six Allium sativum L. polysulfide mixtures as antimycobacterial agents together with their cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective activities. The microtitre PrestoBlue assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Excreted cytokine levels were determined by utilizing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by exposing isolated PBMCs to varying concentrations of polysulfide mixtures. Human C3A liver cells were utilized in the hepatoprotective study, to assess the protective effect against the toxicity induced by acetaminophen. Samples with higher amounts of diallyl trisulfide (Sample G4) showed the highest antimycobacterial activity, exhibiting an MIC of 2.5 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Five samples showed moderate toxicity in PBMC, with G1 showing no toxicity. The selective index of G4 was the highest, with a selectivity index close to one. Two samples, G3 and G6 containing higher amounts of diallyl tetrasulfide and lower amounts of diallyl trisulfide, showed >50% hepatoprotection. This is comparable to a hepatoprotective agent, Silymarin, which showed a hepatoprotective effect of 30% at the tested concentration. Diallyl tetrasulfide showed significant antimycobacterial activity. A combination of higher diallyl tetrasulfide and lower diallyl trisulfide was indicative of hepatoprotective activity.

  14. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  15. Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum, possessing a unique genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S; Tsuneyoshi, T; Furutani, H

    1993-09-01

    Rod-shaped flexuous viruses were partially purified from garlic plants (Allium sativum) showing typical mosaic symptoms. The genome was shown to be composed of RNA with a poly(A) tail of an estimated size of 10 kb as shown by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. We constructed cDNA libraries and screened four independent clones, which were designated GV-A, GV-B, GV-C and GV-D, using Northern and Southern blot hybridization. Nucleotide sequence determination of the cDNAs, two of which correspond to nearly one-third of the virus genomic RNA, shows that all of these viruses possess an identical genomic structure and that also at least four proteins are encoded in the viral cDNA, their M(r)s being estimated to be 15K, 27K, 40K and 11K. The 15K open reading frame (ORF) encodes the core-like sequence of a zinc finger protein preceded by a cluster of basic amino acid residues. The 27K ORF probably encodes the viral coat protein (CP), based on both the existence of some conserved sequences observed in many other rod-shaped or flexuous virus CPs and an overall amino acid sequence similarity to potexvirus and carlavirus CPs. The 11K ORF shows significant amino acid sequence similarities to the corresponding 12K proteins of the potexviruses and carlaviruses. On the other hand, the 40K ORF product does not resemble any other plant virus gene products reported so far. The genomic organization in the 3' region of the garlic viruses resembles, but clearly differs from, that of carlaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis based upon the amino acid sequence of the viral capsid protein also indicates that the garlic viruses have a unique and distinct domain different from those of the potexvirus and carlavirus groups. The results suggest that the garlic viruses described here belong to an unclassified and new virus group closely related to the carlaviruses.

  16. Mutagénesis inducida en microbulbos de Allium sativum L.

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    Adriana Pardo Roldán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un protocolo de mutagénesis en microbulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. clon Boconó cultivado in vitro. Para el efecto se realizaron dos ensayos, uno de radiosensibilidad para establecer la dosimetría apropiada de radiación gamma y otro de mutagénesis para determinar el comportamiento de los materiales hasta la etapa de almacenamiento. En el primero los microbulbos fueron tratados con cuatros dosis de radiación gamma (6, 8, 10 y 12 Krad, más un control. Para establecer la dosis óptima se consideró la sobrevivencia del 50% de los microbulbos (DL50. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En el ensayo mutagénico los microbulbos fueron irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad y almacenados durante 45 días a 10 °C en condiciones de oscuridad En este caso se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos (0, 8 y 10 Krad y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En ambos ensayos, los microbulbos irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad registraron los mayores promedios para peso y diámetro, lo cual permite concluir que estas dosis son adecuadas para favorecer la producción de mutantes con características agronómicas deseables en el clon Boconó

  17. Effect of Magnesium Salts on Growth and Production of Garlic (Allium sativum L.

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    Ikbal M. Al-Barzinji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D. experiment with three replicates was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of magnesium salts on growth, yield components and some inorganic minerals of leaves of garlic (Allium sativum L. local variety. The salts (MgSO4.7H2O, Mg(NO32.6H2O and MgCl2.6H2O addition to untreated plants as control. The concentration of Mg were used was constant (1.97 g Mg. L-1 which comes from 2% MgSO4.7H2O. The results revealed that vegetative growth of garlic was affected significantly by magnesium salts. Highest number of leaves was found in plants treated with MgCl2, the treatment which gave the lowest plant height, each of MgSO4 and Mg(NO32 had the highest shoot dry weight. Foliar spraying with Mg(NO32 produced highest shoot dry matter percent and highest percent of leaves Phosphorus leaves content, significantly compared to other treatments. The results showed that spraying plants with Mg(NO32 and MgSO4 improved yield components where head diameter , head weight, cloves number per head and bulbs yield were increased. Foliar spray with MgSO4 had a significant effects on head scale thickness, whereas there were non- significant effects between different Magnesium salts spraying on each of clove dry matter and percent of TSS content. This study concluded that spraying plants with MgSO4 or Mg(NO32 twice (45 days after planting and a month later increased garlic yield and yield quality.

  18. Ultrapathological evaluation of the anticancer effect of blackseed (Nigella sativa and garlic (Allium sativum in mice

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    Wael Gamal Nouh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, 120 virgin female mice (body weight 40±10 gm were divided into 6 equal groups. Mice in Group 1 served as a control. Mice in Groups 2 and 3 were fed on a basal diet provided with 100 mg/kg b.wt from each of blackseed (Nigella sativa and garlic (Allium sativum, respectively, for one month. Mice in Group 4 were inoculated subcutanously (S/C with Ehrlich tumor cells after one month from the start of the experiment. Mice in Groups 5 and 6 were treated similarly to those in Groups 3 and 4, respectively, for one month and then immediately inoculated S/C with Ehrlich tumor cells (ETC, 0.1 mL/mouse. Blood samples were taken from mice of Groups 1, 2 and 3 at one month of experiment and tissue specimens were collected from mice in all groups two weeks after inoculation of Ehrlich tumor cells. Histopathologically, Groups 2 and 3 showed proliferation of mononuclear phagocytic system and mild degeneration of internal organs. In Group 4, histopathology revealed neoplastic mass with signs of malignancy, ultrastructurely exhibited pleomorphism, degenerated organelles with activated euo- and heterochromatin and cavitations of the cytoplasm. Groups 5 and 6 revealed much smaller neoplastic growth with necrosis and hemorrhage. The necrotic neoplastic cells replaced by empty cavities with congested blood vessels, the others showed pyknotic or karryolytic nuclei. In Groups 5 and 6, the electron microsopic appearance of the neoplastic growth exhibited degenerated and swollen cells with multiple cavitations. Most of the cytoplasmic organelles were degenerated with activation of lysozymes. It could be concluded that, both garlic and black seed minimize the histopathological and electron microscopic alterations of ETC in mice.

  19. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum) en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  20. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

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    José Pedro López Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ajo (Allium sativum ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  1. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the

  2. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  3. Genotoxic Effects of Diuron Contaminated Soil on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum: A Possible Mechanism of Chromosome Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P N; Chauhan, L K S; Chandra, Saurabh; Gupta, S K

    2004-01-01

    Diuron, a persistant substituted urea herbicide, was tested in the root meristem cells of Allium sativum for the possible cytogenetic effects and to compare the sensitivity with Allium cepa. Test concentrations of diuron 22.5, 45.0, and 90.0 ppm were mixed in soil and the cloves of A. sativum were placed over diuron-contaminated soils. Root meristematic cells were sampled at 48 h to score Mitotic/Chromosomal aberrations and to analyze the effect on mitotic index (MI). Microscopic analyses revealed significant and dose-dependent induction of mitotic as well as chromosomal breaks. The frequency of mitotic aberrations was every time found much higher than that of chromosomal aberrations. Mild percentage of Micronucleated and Binucleated cells was observed, as MI also declined during the analysis. Based on the data of valence charge densities on the atoms of herbicide molecule and spectroscopic studies, a possible mechanism of interaction of diuron with DNA molecule for chromosomal aberrations has been proposed.

  4. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  5. The effect of the humic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L. on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken

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    Veronika PISTOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and humic acids and garlic powder (Allium sativum L. combination on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens were studied. A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 3 treatments (n=40. The control group of chickens was fed complete feed mixtures without any additives. Treatment T1 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1% of humic acid. Treatment T2 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1.8% of humic acid and 0.2% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 1999.1±355.8 and 1958.6±201.2 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 in both treatments groups compared to control group. In T1 was weight of gizzard (values in the order of the groups: 34.9±5.2; 43.1±9.4 and 38.9±7.0 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to control group. Carcass weight, weight of heart weight of liver and carcass yield of treatments groups was higher, but differences in these indicators were not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The results of this experiment indicate that humic acids may by an alternative replacement of feed antibiotics.

  6. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  7. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ali, Sara E; Hodaya, Rashad H; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Sultani, Haider N; Laub, Annegret; Eissa, Tarek F; Abou-Zaid, Fouad O F; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-05-08

    Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum , flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum . Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens

  8. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to

  9. Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes in Different Planting Densities

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    shiva akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plants may be exposed to various stresses and water deficit is the most important limiting factor of growth and yield in many parts of the world and Iran. Stress induced growth decrement can be because of cell development decrease due to decrement of turgor pressure and meiosis and photosynthesis decrease due to stomata closure. Determination of desired planting density is one of the success factors of plant growth and production. Garlic (Allium sativum has been an important medicinal plant over centuries in human life. According to the importance of medicinal plants and studying the effects of drought stress on them, the goal of this research is to investigate the effect of drought stress and planting density on growth and morphological characteristics of two ecotypes of garlic and determining the preferable ecotype and density from the perspective of these traits. Materials and methods This experiment was performed in 2012 in a farm in south east of Semnan. It was conducted on a split-plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress with 60, 80 and 100 percent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc were the main plot factors and factorial combination of three planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes of Tabas and Toroud were the levels of sub plot factors. To estimate water requirement of garlic, daily measured meteorology parameters of Semnan synoptic station were used and water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 instructions. From mid-January, the sampling of leaf area, bulb and leaf fresh and dry weight was started with destructive method every other week and continued until middle of Jun. three plant were selected randomly from each plot in each turn. From middle of May, height and number of leaves were measured. Leaf area measurement was done by leaf area meter (Delta-T. To estimate growth indices, dry weight of aerial and

  10. Allium sativum produces terpenes with fungistatic properties in response to infection with Sclerotium cepivorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Mariela; Bottini, Rubén; Burba, José Luis; Piccoli, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated terpene biosynthesis in different tissues (root, protobulb, leaf sheath and blade) of in vitro-grown garlic plants either infected or not (control) with Sclerotium cepivorum, the causative agent of Allium White Rot disease. The terpenes identified by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in infected plants were nerolidol, phytol, squalene, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene, whose levels significantly increased when exposed to the fungus. Consistent with this, an increase in terpene synthase (TPS) activity was measured in infected plants. Among the terpenes identified, nerolidol, α-pinene and terpinolene were the most abundant with antifungal activity against S. cepivorum being assessed in vitro by mycelium growth inhibition. Nerolidol and terpinolene significantly reduced sclerotia production, while α-pinene stimulated it in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to fungal growth inhibition, electron microscopy observations established morphological alterations in the hyphae exposed to terpinolene and nerolidol. Differences in hyphal EtBr uptake suggested that one of the antifungal mechanisms of nerolidol and terpinolene might be disruption of fungal membrane integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on garlic (Allium sativum L.): a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaymurat, Talgar; Gu, Jianxiu; Xu, Changshan; Yang, Zhikun; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Yuxue; Liu, Yichun

    2012-05-01

    The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the root growth, root apical meristem mitosis and mitotic aberrations of garlic (Allium sativum L.) were investigated. ZnO NPs caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of root length. When treated with 50 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24 h, the root growth of garlic was completely blocked. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was estimated to be 15 mg/L. The mitosis index was also decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ZnO NPs also induced several kinds of mitotic aberrations, mainly consisted of chromosome stickiness, bridges, breakages and laggings. The total percentage of abnormal cells increased with the increase of ZnO NPs concentration and the prolongation of treatment time. The investigation provided new information for the possible genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on plants.

  12. Dažu smago metālisko elementu noteikšana ķiplokos (Allium sativum)

    OpenAIRE

    Bleidele, Zaiga

    2016-01-01

    Dažu smago metālisko elementu noteikšana ķiplokos (Allium sativum). Bleidele Z., zinātniskais vadītājs Dr. ķīm., prof. Vīksna A. Bakalaura darbs, 48 lappuses, 21 attēli, 19 tabulas, 45 literatūras avoti, 5 pielikumi. Latviešu valodā. Darbā tika analizēti Latvijā un Ķīnā audzēti ķiploki un lielveikalos nopirktās ķiploku garšvielas. Eksperimentāli tika noteikts cinka un vara masas koncentrācijas izmantojot liesmas atomabsorbcijas spektrometriju, bet svina un kadmija masas koncentrācijas noteikš...

  13. Dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and garlic (Allium sativum alleviates oxidative stress in experimental myocardial infarction

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    P. Mukthamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fiber-rich fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum and garlic (Allium sativum are understood to exert cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. The cardioprotective influence of a combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic by their antioxidant influence was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rats administered isoproterenol. Wistar rats were maintained on high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks along with dietary interventions of fenugreek (10%, garlic (2% and their combination. Myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol injection. Increased circulatory troponin, disturbed activities of cardiac ATPases, increased serum iron and decreased ceruloplasmin confirmed myocardial infarction. Elevated lipid peroxides accompanied with reduced antioxidant molecules caused by isoproterenol and altered activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum and heart in induced myocardial necrosis were countered by dietary fenugreek, garlic, and fenugreek + garlic. Dietary fenugreek seeds and garlic ameliorated isoproterenol-induced compromised antioxidant status, the cardioprotective effect being higher by the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic.

  14. PENGARUH KOMBINASI EKSTRAK PETROLEUM ETER BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum Linn DENGAN VITAMIN C TERHADAP AKTIVITAS Candida albicans

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    Nurul Khaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum contains organosulfur compound that plays an important role as an antibacterial and antifungal activities. Ascorbic acid or vitamine C also has been show has a good activity as an antioxidant and as an antifungal. The aims of the research is to determine the effect of the combination of petroleum ether garlic extract with vitamin C against Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition testing done by Kirby-Bauer method. The results showed that the combination of petroleum ether garlic extract with vitamin C in concentration of 50% did not show an activity significantly. Meanwhile, the activity of petroleum ether garlic extract alone at concentration of 50 and 75% showed activities towards Candida albicans with a diameter of inhibition zone are 19.46 and 27.46 mm respectively.

  15. Cytogenetic effects of the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on root-tip cells of Allium sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K.N.; Benner, J.F.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1978-02-01

    Chromosomal and mitotic abnormalities induced by the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on the root-tips of garlic, Allium sativum L., were investigated. Chromosomal abnormalities in the form of breakages, bridges, lags, stickiness, and differential condensation were observed. In addition, multinucleate cells, polyploid cells, and multipolar mitotic divisions were observed. In general the results indicate that the percentage of abnormalities increased when root-tips were exposed to higher numbers of smoke puffs. The effect of the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on the mitotic index is striking. It shows a slight increase at a low number of puffs and a decrease at high numbers, particularly at the 10, 15 and 20 puff levels. The results indicate that the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke induces significant effects on chromosome structure and number.

  16. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. A multicentric, double-blind randomized, homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Allium sativum

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    Raj K Manchanda

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The pathogenetic response elicited during the proving trial expands the scope of use of the drug A. sativum and will benefit the research scholars and clinicians. The generated symptoms of this drug will carry more value when verified clinically.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  19. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

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    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  20. Effect of Allium sativum and fish collagen on the proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities in cheese and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shori, A B; Baba, A S; Keow, J N

    2012-12-15

    There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Jin, Wenjie; Park, Junghyuck; Yoon, Wonjin; Lee, Yunyeol; Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Shin, Dongbin; Yoo, Miyoung

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables, including garlic, elephant garlic and onion, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among organosulphur compounds, elephant garlic had considerable γ-glutamyl peptides, and garlic had the highest alliin content. Onion had low level of organosulphur compounds than did elephant garlic and garlic. In addition, antioxidant capacities were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The results showed that garlic had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by elephant garlic and onion. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and organosulphur compounds (R > 0.77). Therefore, our results indicate that there was a close relationship between antioxidant capacity and organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables.

  2. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  3. Low Genetic Diversity Among Garlic (Allium sativum L. Accessions Detected Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Escasa Diversidad Genética entre Accesiones de Ajo (Allium sativum L. Detectada Mediante ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD

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    Mario Paredes C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a species of vegetative propagation, showing high morphological diversity. Besides, its clones have specific adaptations to different agroclimatic regions. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 65 garlic clones collected in Chile and introduced from different countries, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fourty random primers of 10 mers generated a total of 398 bands with an 87% of polymorphism. Each primer amplified between two and 20 bands. The size of the fragments obtained fluctuated between 3200 and 369 bp. The results showed that the clones analyzed had a genetic similarity rate of 94%. In addition, 70% of them were clustered in one major group. However, in spite of that situation several clones have different agronomic characteristicsEl ajo (Allium sativum L. es una especie de propagación vegetativa, que presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica. Los clones de esta especie tienen una adaptación específica a diferentes regiones agroclimáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad genética existente en 65 clones de ajos colectados en Chile e introducidos desde diferentes países, utilizando RAPD (ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar. Para esta evaluación se utilizaron 40 partidores de 10-mers. Los partidores generaron entre dos y 20 bandas, observándose un alto número de patrones con bandas múltiples. Los fragmentos generados difieren en su tamaño entre 3.200 y 369 pb. Los partidores generaron 398 bandas, de las cuales un 87% fueron polimórficas. El análisis estadístico realizado detectó una similitud genética alta, de un 94% entre las accesiones evaluadas, donde aproximadamente un 70% de los clones formaron un grupo homogéneo. Sin embargo, este grupo incluye clones que presentan diferentes características agronómicas

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum) Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Paulo César; Raimundo Figueroba, Sidney; Dias Nani, Bruno; Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Luiz; Vilela Muniz, Bruno; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Sartoratto, Adilson; Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo; Carlos Groppo, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa) and Allium tuberosum (Atu) against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923) and MRSA (ATCC 33592). Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 10 8 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 - Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 - Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 - amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 - Asa 400mg/kg; G7 - amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  5. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Amir, Mohd; Baig, Mohd Affan; Qureshi, M Irfan; Ali, Sher; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI) from a plant Allium sativum (garlic) with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI) was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD) spectroscopy. ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max)" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C) but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min) and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM). The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH. To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites. Therefore, ASPI

  6. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Guatemala, definida por marcadores de ADN

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    Fredy Uber Rosales-Longo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de las poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Gua temala, definida por mar cado res de ADN. En Guatemala es escasa la in for ma ción sobre la diversidad genética de ajo. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: incidir en el mejoramiento de Allium sativum, so bre la base del conocimiento de su variabilidad genética, así mismo, establecer una colección in vi tro de la co lec ción de las poblaciones cultivadas en Guatemala. Los experimentos fueron realizados entre octubre de 2005 y marzo de 2006. La determinación de las variaciones de ADN se realizaron me dian te la téc ni ca de AFLP™. La información se analiza por medio de análisis de componentes principales, análisis de coordenadas principales y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante la inspección de los pro duc tos de AFLP™ y análi sis estadísticos, se detectó una alta variabilidad genética entre los materiales vegetales colectados. Las muestras clasificadas co mo del ti po “Chi leno”, correspondieron a los tipos “Criollo”. Nueve bien diferenciados grupos genéticos se conformaron en un dendrograma y se con fir mó que la diversidad genética descubierta es una función del lugar don de se cul ti van las po bla cio nes de ajo. Se identificó una mayor diversidad genética entre las mues tras de ajo del ti po “Crio llo” que las que se tienen en tre los ma te ria les del ti po “Chileno”, como producto de la mayor dispersión espacial de los primeros. Los materiales genéticos de ajo se encuentran actualmente preservados en un Banco de Germoplasma in vi tro en la Uni dad de Bio tec no lo gía del IC TA.

  7. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Naz Shamsi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI from a plant Allium sativum (garlic with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials.Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD spectroscopy.ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM. The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH.To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites

  8. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  9. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect.

  11. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  12. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Owoloye, Tosin R; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues' malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents.

  13. Optimization of Water Content for the Cryopreservation Of Allium sativum In Vitro Cultures by Encapsulation-Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P T; Souch, G R; Zamecnik, J; Harding, K

    There is a general requirement to determine and correlate water content to viability for the standardization of conservation protocols to facilitate effective cryostorage of plant germplasm. This study examined water content as a critical factor to optimize the cryostorage of Allium sativum. Stem discs were excised from post-harvest, stored bulbs prior to cryopreservation by encapsulation-dehydration and water content was determined gravimetrically. Survival of cryopreserved stem discs was 42.5 %, with 22.5 % exhibiting shoot regrowth following 6 h desiccation. Gravimetric data demonstrated a correlation between water content corresponding with survival / regrowth from desiccated, cryopreserved stem discs. For encapsulated stem discs a 25 % residual moisture and corresponding water content of 0.36 g H2O g -1 d.wt correlated with maximal survival following ~6.5 h of desiccation. The data concurs with the literature suggesting the formation of a stable vitrified state and a 'window' for optimal survival and regrowth that is between 6 - 10 h desiccation. Further studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are suggested to substantiate these findings.

  14. Insight into the biochemical, kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of garlic (Allium sativum) phytocystatin: Implication for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohd Faizan; Ahmed, Azaj; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-02-01

    Phytocystatins are cysteine proteinase inhibitors present in plants. They play crucial role in maintaining protease-anti protease balance and are involved in various endogenous processes. Thus, they are suitable and convenient targets for genetic engineering which makes their isolation and characterisation from different sources the need of the hour. In the present study a phytocystatin has been isolated from garlic (Allium sativum) by a simple two-step process using ammonium sulphate fractionation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR with a fold purification of 152.6 and yield 48.9%. A single band on native gel electrophoresis confirms the homogeneity of the purified inhibitor. The molecular weight of the purified inhibitor was found to be 12.5kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. The garlic phytocystatin was found to be stable under broad range of pH (6-8) and temperature (30°C-60°C). Kinetic studies suggests that garlic phytocystatins are reversible and non-competitive inhibitors having highest affinity for papain followed by ficin and bromelain. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed significant conformational change upon garlic phytocystatin-papain complex formation. Secondary structure analysis was performed using CD and FTIR. Garlic phytocystatin possesses 33.9% alpha-helical content as assessed by CD spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heavy metal contamination in water, soil and a potential vegetable garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.I.; Ahmad, K.; Yasmeen, S.; Mehmood, N.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in soil, water, and garlic (Allium sativum L.) (watered with canal, ground and sewage waters) in a semi-arid region was investigated in this study. A sub-urban area of district Khushab, Pakistan was chosen as the study site to assess the risks associated with the consumption of this vegetable supplied with three different types of water for irrigation. Sewage water had higher contents of metals and metalloids (Cu, Ni, Se, Mo, As, Fe and Zn) than in other waters. Mean metal concentrations were below the permissible values, but those of Pb and Mo exceeded their respective limits. Metal correlation for the vegetable and soil was significantly positive except for Cu. The range of bio-concentration factor varied between 0.06-20.51 mg/kg. The sewage water had the highest pollution load index. Zinc had the highest daily intake value (0.199), while Se had the lowest value (0.003). The range for health index stood between 0.261-73.44 mg/kg. Metals like Zn, Ni and Cu had enrichment factor higher than 1.0 which raised serious health concerns. It has been a routine to irrigate crops with sewage water but proper management of wastewater is required prior to its supply to the fields. Hazardous quotient (HQ) indicated alarming levels of different metals with respect to public health due to utilization of this vegetable receiving wastewater irrigation. (author)

  16. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of low Molecular Weight Compounds in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorek, Maria; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is the subject of many studies due to its numerous beneficial properties. Although compounds of garlic have been studied by various analytical methods, their tissue distributions are still unclear. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) appears to be a very powerful tool for the identification of the localisation of compounds within a garlic clove. Visualisation of the spatial distribution of garlic low-molecular weight compounds with nanoparticle-based MSI. Compounds occurring on the cross-section of sprouted garlic has been transferred to gold-nanoparticle enhanced target (AuNPET) by imprinting. The imprint was then subjected to MSI analysis. The results suggest that low molecular weight compounds, such as amino acids, dipeptides, fatty acids, organosulphur and organoselenium compounds are distributed within the garlic clove in a characteristic manner. It can be connected with their biological functions and metabolic properties in the plant. New methodology for the visualisation of low molecular weight compounds allowed a correlation to be made between their spatial distribution within a sprouted garlic clove and their biological function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2016-11-26

    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (H o ) and expected (H e ) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  18. Preventive effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on oxidative stress and histopathology of cardiac tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, R; Mohaddes, G; Mohammadi, M; Alihemmati, A; Badalzadeh, R; Ghaznavi, R; Ghyasi, R; Mohammadi, Sh

    2015-12-01

    Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

  19. Diallylthiosulfinate (Allicin), a Volatile Antimicrobial from Garlic (Allium sativum), Kills Human Lung Pathogenic Bacteria, Including MDR Strains, as a Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Jana; Levina, Natalja; van der Linden, Mark; Gruhlke, Martin; Martin, Christian; Slusarenko, Alan J

    2017-10-12

    Garlic ( Allium sativum ) has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas , Streptococcus , and Staphylococcus , including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined and compared to clinical antibiotics using standard European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) procedures. The cytotoxicity of allicin to human lung and colon epithelial and murine fibroblast cells was tested in vitro and shown to be ameliorated by glutathione (GSH). Similarly, the sensitivity of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) to allicin was decreased by raising the [GSH] to the approximate blood plasma level of 1 mM. Because allicin inhibited bacterial growth as a vapor, it could be used to combat bacterial lung infections via direct inhalation. Since there are no volatile antibiotics available to treat pulmonary infections, allicin, particularly at sublethal doses in combination with oral antibiotics, could make a valuable addition to currently available treatments.

  20. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L.) and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, J P; Sacramento, L V S; Carlos, I Z

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandna Chand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic and Zingiber officinale (ginger has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus only. In addition, agar well diffusion method showed higher zone in inhibition when compared with the zone of inhibition produced by the spice of same concentration against the test microorganism by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic sensitivity of the four different bacteria was tested with commercially available antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin; Oxytetracycline; Vancomycin; Streptomycin; Gentamicin; Tetracycline; Novobiocin; Amikacin and Penicillin G. Penicillin G produced the highest zone of inhibition of 40.00±0.00against Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest zone of inhibition of 0.00±0.00against Escherichia coli.

  2. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Quintero-Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile.

  3. An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Synergy of Garlic (Allium sativum and Utazi (Gongronema latifolium on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eja, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the on-going search for potent and resistance-free antimicrobial medicinal plants, the antimicrobial and synergistic effects of the plants, Allium sativum (E1 and Gongronema latifolium (E2 on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The sensitivities of E. coli and S. aureus to E1 and E2 and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the plant extracts, individually and in combination with themselves, and with ciprofloxacin (CPX and ampicillin (AMP, were tested using standard procedures. E1 and E2 individually showed appreciable antimicrobial effect (zones of inhibition > 16mm. The combination of E1 and E2 against the test organisms was not effective due to antagonism between E1 and E2. E1 or E2 when combined with CPX, completely suppressed the effect of CPX against E. coli, and rather produced additive effect on S. aureus similar to the combination of E2 and AMP against S. aureus, although CPX alone was more effective than either E1 or E2, unlike AMP. Synergism was observed in the combination of E1 and AMP against S. aureus. It is concluded that synergism associated with the combination of medicinal plants is doubtful. However, the synergistic or additive effect between garlic and conventional drugs to some strains of bacteria which are resistant to some conventional drugs, gives hope of fighting drug resistance.

  4. Diallylthiosulfinate (Allicin, a Volatile Antimicrobial from Garlic (Allium sativum, Kills Human Lung Pathogenic Bacteria, Including MDR Strains, as a Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Reiter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H2O2 using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus, including multi-drug resistant (MDR strains, was demonstrated. Minimal inhibitory (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC were determined and compared to clinical antibiotics using standard European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST procedures. The cytotoxicity of allicin to human lung and colon epithelial and murine fibroblast cells was tested in vitro and shown to be ameliorated by glutathione (GSH. Similarly, the sensitivity of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS to allicin was decreased by raising the [GSH] to the approximate blood plasma level of 1 mM. Because allicin inhibited bacterial growth as a vapor, it could be used to combat bacterial lung infections via direct inhalation. Since there are no volatile antibiotics available to treat pulmonary infections, allicin, particularly at sublethal doses in combination with oral antibiotics, could make a valuable addition to currently available treatments.

  5. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L. and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L. is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America, is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines’ production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12 and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  6. Study of the effects of ionizing radiation on the biochemical and biological properties of garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddeb, Wiem

    2008-01-01

    Garlic is used since sevral hundred years to deal with various health issues. During last decades sevral works was interested to specify these problems, in this work we studied the effects of the gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical and biological properties of Allium sativum. This study was undertaken on the bulb irradiated by implying amounts of differents irradiation from 140 to 260Gy. First we proceeded to analyse the effects of these irradiations on the composition of garlic such as : allicin, protein, reducing sugars, total sugars, triglycerides and polyphenols. Second we tested the effect of these extracts radiotreated on the cell multiplication and the enzymatic activity of salmonella Hadar. The obtained results showed that the irradiated garlic extracts, present a slight nonsignificant reduction in the allicine proteinn sugar reducers, triglyceride and polyphenols concentration. However, this reduction is significant during application of the amount 260Ky. In addition, a deterioration of the growth observed after treatment by different concentrations of aqueous irradiated garlic extract. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of aqueous extract of garlic used and the used irradiation dose. These observations would be in favor that the irradiations induce a slight midification of physico-chemical properties and they affect the anbacterial activity against salmonella Hdar. (Author)

  7. Detección molecular de potyvirus en hojas y minibulbillos de ajo, Allium sativum, asociados a un programa de producción de semilla limpia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parra Fuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Detección molecular de potyvirus en hojas y minibulbillos de ajo, Allium sativum, asociados a un programa de producción de semilla limpia Título en ingles: Molecular detection of potyvirus in leaves and small bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum, associated a clean seed production program Titulo corto: Detección de potyvirus en plantas de ajo Resumen: El ajo (Allium sativum L se reproduce vegetativamente utilizando bulbillos, condición que favorece la propagación de enfermedades, especialmente bacterias, hongos y virus que afectan la calidad y el rendimiento del cultivo. Por este motivo se implementó la identificación molecular por RT-PCR de los potyvirus LYSV y OYDV en el sistema de producción de semilla limpia de ajo en tres clones nacionales. En la fase de producción de semilla limpia mediante micropropagación, se estandarizó el establecimiento de meristemos de ajo. La presencia de potyvirus se analizó en 586 plántulas mediante ELISA y en 70 por RT-PCR. Para la RT-PCR se extrajo ARN a partir de microbulbillos y hojas de plántulas, obteniéndose 1.7 a 226 ng/ml de ARN y se sintetizó entre 35 a 50 ng de cADN. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el protocolo de desinfección produjo una viabilidad del 73.6%. El análisis ELISA presentó un saneamiento del 96.1% de las plántulas a potyvirus, mientras que con RT-PCR se identificó la presencia de LYSV en el 8.6% de las muestras evaluadas. El virus del enanismo amarrillo de la cebolla (OYDV no fue detectado en ninguna de las muestras. Los resultados muestran que el cultivo in vitro de meristemos de ajo es una excelente alternativa para la producción de semilla, mostrando un 92% de eficiencia. Además, validan el diagnóstico eficiente del potyvirus LYSV en hojas y microbulbillos de ajo. Palabras clave: Allium sativum, ELISA, micropropagación, LSYV, potyvirus, OYDV, RT-PCR. Abstract:  Garlic (Allium sativum L, reproduces vegetatively using bulbils, condition

  8. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman; Sujatha, Venugopal; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant (K SV ) were found to be 7.02 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (ethidium bromide), 4.22 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (acridine orange) and 7.6 × 10 6 Mˉ 1 (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT–DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. - Graphical abstract: Highly stable, innocuous, biocompatible SeNPs nanoparticle has been synthesized using Allium sativum (garlic) extract as reductant. The purity and crystallinity were characterized, further divulge the base pare interaction with Calf –Thymus DNA through various spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of SeNPs in aqueous extract of Allium sativum. • Characterization of synthesized SeNPs using high throughput techniques. • SeNPs directly interact with CT-DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

  9. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India); Sujatha, Venugopal [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy, E-mail: tchinnasamy@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India)

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern–Volmer quenching constant (K{sub SV}) were found to be 7.02 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (ethidium bromide), 4.22 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (acridine orange) and 7.6 × 10{sup 6} Mˉ{sup 1} (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT–DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. - Graphical abstract: Highly stable, innocuous, biocompatible SeNPs nanoparticle has been synthesized using Allium sativum (garlic) extract as reductant. The purity and crystallinity were characterized, further divulge the base pare interaction with Calf –Thymus DNA through various spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of SeNPs in aqueous extract of Allium sativum. • Characterization of synthesized SeNPs using high throughput techniques. • SeNPs directly interact with CT-DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

  10. Semejanzas entre el ajo (Allium sativum) costarricense y el ajo asiático según secuencias de ADN ribosomal

    OpenAIRE

    Barboza Rojas, Karina; Hernández Soto, Alejandro; Zúñiga Vega, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    En Costa Rica, la producción de ajo (Allium sativum) es escasa y se limita principalmente a las regiones de Llano Grande de Cartago. Sin embargo, por el precio que tiene actualmente en el mercado, el ajo costarricense se vislumbra como una hortaliza que podría constituirse en un recurso valioso para los productores nacionales. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se presenta la caracterización mediante secuencias ribosomales de materiales de ajo provenientes Costa Rica y su comparación con ajo i...

  11. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  12. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-D-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-06-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms. One isoform, which was previously identified in the tetrad stage, displayed maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the remaining two isoforms, which were novel, were most active at pH 6.0 and 7.3. The corresponding in vivo values ranged from pH 4.75 to 6.0. In contrast, in A. atropurpureum, a sexually propagating species, three callase isoforms, active at pH 4.8-5.2, 6.1, and 7.3, were identified in samples of microsporangia that had released their microspores. The corresponding in vivo value for this plant was 5.9. The callose wall persists around A. sativum meiotic cells, whereas only one callase isoform, with an optimum activity of pH 4.8, is active in the acidic environment of the microsporangium. However, this isoform is degraded when the pH rises to 6.0 and two other callase isoforms, maximally active at pH 6.0 and 7.3, appear. Thus, factors that alter the pH of the microsporangium may indirectly affect the male gametophyte development by modulating the activity of callase and thereby regulating the degradation of the callose wall.

  13. Improvement of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) resistance to white rot and storability using gamma irradiation induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Mirali, N.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2001-01-01

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6, and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotia and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (author)

  14. Honey/Chitosan Nanofiber Wound Dressing Enriched with Allium sativum and Cleome droserifolia: Enhanced Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-03-01

    Two natural extracts were loaded within fabricated honey, poly(vinyl alcohol), chitosan nanofibers (HPCS) to develop biocompatible antimicrobial nanofibrous wound dressing. The dried aqueous extract of Cleome droserifolia (CE) and Allium sativum aqueous extract (AE) and their combination were loaded within the HPCS nanofibers in the HPCS-CE, HPCS-AE, and HPCS-AE/CE nanofiber mats, respectively. It was observed that the addition of AE resulted in the least fiber diameter (145 nm), whereas the addition of the AE and CE combination resulted in the least swelling ability and the highest weight loss. In vitro antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed in comparison with the commercial dressing AquacelAg and revealed that the HPCS-AE and HPCS-AE/CE nanofiber mats allowed complete inhibition of S. aureus and the HPCS-AE/CE exhibited mild antibacterial activity against MRSA. A preliminary in vivo study revealed that the developed nanofiber mats enhanced the wound healing process as compared to the untreated control as proved by the enhanced wound closure rates in mice and by the histological examination of the wounds. Moreover, comparison with the commercial dressing Aquacel Ag, the HPCS, and HPCS-AE/CE demonstrated similar effects on the wound healing process, whereas the HPCS/AE allowed an enhanced wound closure rate. Cell culture studies proved the biocompatibility of the developed nanofiber mats in comparison with the commercial Aquacel Ag, which exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. The developed natural nanofiber mats hold potential as promising biocompatible antibacterial wound dressing.

  15. Potential protective effects of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal; Al-Rasheed, Nouf; Bassiouni, Yieldez; Faddah, Laila; Mohamad, Azza M

    2014-01-01

    Among famous medicinal plants with known antioxidant activity; black seed (Nigella sativa, NS) and garlic (Allium sativum) which have been used in traditional medicine. In recent years, rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) have been increasing globally. The present work was designed to study the potential protective effects of black seed and raw garlic homogenate against fructose-induced MS in rats and to assess the benefits gained from their combination. Fifty male albino Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. A control group was allowed to feed on normal chow and drink tap water. MS group was fed the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. Treated groups received NS or garlic either alone or in combination as oral supplements along with high fructose diet for 8 weeks. Results revealed that body weight, liver weight, fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly increased while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the activities of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose -6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PHD) and catalase in liver tissues were significantly decreased in MS group compared to the control group. Administration of NS or garlic either alone or in combination significantly ameliorated all the above-mentioned altered parameters. Treatment with both NS and garlic showed the utmost reduction in serum LDL-C and TG levels and could restore the activities of the studied enzymes in liver nearly to normal values. It was concluded that both NS and garlic were effective in attenuating multiple abnormalities of MS. Combination of these medicinal plants may have additional effectiveness in reducing serum TC, LDL-C and increasing HDL-C levels which could be a step in the prevention and management of MS.

  16. Efecto hipotensor del extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas en un modelo experimental in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chaupis-Meza

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar si el extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas tiene igual o mejor efecto hipotensor que el captopril en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio experimental in vivo con ratas machos Holtzman, clasificados en cinco grupos: 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg de extracto de ajo, Captopril de 100 mg/kg y un grupo vehículo. El L-NAME (N- -nitro L-arginina-metil-éster administrado vía intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg desde el inicio del experimento, elevó la presión arterial desde el tercer día. El análisis estadístico consistió en las pruebas T de Student para medias pareadas, ANOVA y comparación múltiple de Scheffe. Resultados. El ajo macerado extraído por un proceso hidroalcohólico durante 18 semanas provocó una disminución de la presión arterial en animales de experimentación. El análisis de los tratamientos sobre la presión arterial media (PAM, obtuvieron diferencias significativas desde el tercer día. La comparación sobre la PAM final versus PAM basal (medias no diferentes y el efecto hipotensor (% fueron: ajo-100 (p=0,008, 59,8%; ajo-500 (p=0,021, 80,6%; ajo-1000 (p=0,034, 88,5%, Captopril (p=0,437, 99,9% y vehículo (p=0,001, 0%. Conclusiones. El ajo macerado a un periodo de 18 semanas resultó eficaz para producir un efecto hipotensor en ratas, inducidas a hipertensión arterial por L-NAME

  17. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae e de seu extrato aquoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae, in natura, e do extrato aquoso, frente à Candida albicans (Ca e a Estreptococos do grupo B (EGB. O alho in natura e os extratos aquosos 30% e 170%, foram submetidos à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana usando os métodos de Difusão em Ágar pela técnica do disco e do poço. Os resultados mostraram que o alho, in natura, apresentou halo de inibição de 55,3 ± 2,6 milímetros (mm frente a Ca e de 27,1 ± 2,6 mm frente à EGB, enquanto o halo de inibição do miconazol foi de 24 ± 0,5 mm e o da Penicilina G de 29,8 ± 0,3 mm. O extrato aquoso de alho a 30% não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana frente à Ca e à EGB Já o extrato aquoso de alho a 170% apresentou halo de inibição frente a Ca, de 11,3 ± 0,7 mm na técnica do disco e de 14,5 ± 0,9 mm na técnica do poço, porém não inibiu o crescimento da EGB Conclui-se que o alho in natura apresentou melhor efeito inibitório frente às cepas de Ca e de EGB

  18. Efek Rimpang Kunyit (Curcuma longa L. dan Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L. terhadap Sensitivitas Insulin pada Tikus Galur Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Sovia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown the antidiabetic effect of turmeric and garlic. However their mechanism of action remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of three turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and garlic extracts (Allium sativum L., that are, hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract on blood glucose levels with glucose tolerance test. Furthermore the most effective extracts and its active compound (curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine tested with insulin tolerance test. Forty Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups that was normal group, group that treated with a high fat emulsion (control group and remaining groups were treated with a high fat emulsion and turmeric extract 50 mg/kgBW, garlic extract 50 mg/kgBW, curcuminoid 25 mg/kgBW, S-methyl cysteine 25 mg/kgBW, turmeric-garlic extract combination each 25 mg/kgBW and curcuminoid-S-methyl cysteine combination each 12,5 mg/kgBW for 10 days. Insulin resistance was evaluated by insulin tolerance test. This study conducted from August–October 2010 at Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati (SITH Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB. Results of this study showed that insulin tolerance test constanta (KITT were bigger in animals that treated with garlic extract (7.2±0.84, curcuminoid (7.14±0.74 and combination of curcuminoid-S-methyl cysteine (7.46±0.64 compared with positive control group (3.2±1.92. In conclusions garlic extract, curcuminoid and combination of curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine improve insulin sensitivity.

  19. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus

  20. Biological activities of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important bacterial pathogens, their phytochemical and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Uzma Azeem; Ali, Shaukat; Shahnawaz, Amna Mir; Shafique, Irsa; Zafar, Atiya; Khan, Muhammad Abdul Rauf; Ghous, Tahseen; Saleem, Azhar; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2017-05-01

    The spread of bacterial infectious diseases is a major public threat. Herbs and spices have offered an excellent, important and useful source of antimicrobial agents against many pathological infections. In the current study, the antimicrobial potency of fresh, naturally and commercial dried Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts had been investigated against seven local clinical bacterial isolates such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Serratia marcesnces by the agar disc diffusion method. All tested pathogens except P. aeruginosa and E. coli were most susceptible to ethanolic and methanolic extracts of A. sativum. Similarly, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts of Z. officinale showed a greater zone of inhibition of tested pathogens except for P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We found that all extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale have a strong antibacterial effect compared to recommended standard antibiotics through activity index. All results were evaluated statistically and a significant difference was recorded at Psativum and Z. officinale proposed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phenols, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Retention factor of diverse phytochemicals provides a valuable clue regarding their polarity and the selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Significant inhibition of S. aureus was also observed through TLC-Bioautography. FT-IR Spectrometry was also performed to characterize both natural and commercial extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale to evaluate bioactive compounds. These findings provide new insights to use A. sativum and Z. officinale as potential plant sources for controlling pathogenic bacteria and potentially considered as cost-effective in the management of diseases and to the threat of drug resistance phenomenon.

  1. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth crust and isspread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativumto reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oraltreatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/ kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50 induceda significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanineaminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ALP, cholesterol, lipidperoxidation (LPO and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead exposed mice weresignificantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status ofthe liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxidedismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione (GSH. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kgbody weight for 10 days, the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/ kg body weight and500 mg/ kg body weight and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/ kg body weight and 250 mg/ kg bodyweight and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly Histological examination of theliver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate exposed group and treatment with garlicimproved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract thedeleterious effects of lead nitrate.

  2. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  3. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.

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    Marianna Lenková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world and highly valued throughout the ages as a culinary spice. It is a hardy perennial belonging to the Alliaceae family. The garlic bulb is the most commonly used portion of the plant, composed of 5 - 20 individual. It is a very good source of manganese, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine. In addition, garlic is a good source of other minerals, including phosphorous, calcium, potassium, iron and copper. Many of the perceived therapeutic effects of garlic are thought to be due to its active ingredient allicin. This sulphur-containing compound gives garlic its distinctive pungent smell and taste. Garlic possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal properties allowing it to stand against all infections. This work has focused on the evaluation and comparison of total content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in five varieties of garlic - Mojmír, Záhorský, Lukan, Havran and Makoi. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. The total content of polyphenols was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols in garlic were in the range 621.13 mg.kg-1 (Záhorský to 763.28 mg.kg-1 (Havran. Total polyphenols content in garlic declined in the following order: Havran >Mojmír >Makoi >Lukan >Záhorský. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Statistically significant highest value of antioxidant was recorded in 20.22% (Mojmír and the lowest value was in 13.61% (Záhorský. The values of antioxidant activity observed in the varieties of garlic may be arranged as follows: Mojmír >Havran >Lukan >Makoi >Záhorský. In all the analysed varieties of garlic was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenols.

  4. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

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    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  5. Assessment of in vitro and in vivo anthelminthic potential of extracts of Allium sativum bulb against naturally occurring ovine gastrointestinal nematodiosis.

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    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes, thereby forcing researchers to search for ethno-veterinary alternatives. The objective is to assess the anthelminthic potential of various extracts of the bulb of Allium sativum in naturally infected sheep. In vitro anthelminthic activities of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the bulb of A. sativum were investigated against the egg (500 eggs/ml) and larvae of naturally infected sheep. The aqueous extract of A. sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelminthic activity in three groups (n = 15 each) of naturally infected Chokla sheep with a negative control group receiving no treatment, a positive control group was given a single oral dose of albendazole at 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight, and a group administered a single oral dose of an aqueous extract at 5 g/animal. Data were analysed using the general linear model. Aqueous extract showed better efficacy in egg hatch assay and larval development test. However, in larval paralysis test, reverse trend was seen as methanolic extract was more potent than the aqueous counterpart. A significant amount of 57% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post-treatment, although in initial stages it showed 30% and 83% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters. Bulb of A. sativum possesses good anthelminthic efficacy and further research is thereby warranted before recommending it for nematode control programme in ovines.

  6. Efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações cardiovasculares de ratos Wistar com infarto do miocárdio.

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    T. U. ANDRADE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O alho (Allium sativum apresenta várias ações benéficas ao sistema circulatório, tais como diminuição dos níveis de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol e da pressão arterial, além de efeito antioxidante. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações da hemodinâmica cardiovascular e estruturais macroscópicas do coração de animais com infarto induzido experimentalmente. Ratos Wistar foram tratados, previamente e após indução do infarto, com homogeneizado de alho na dose de 125mg/Kg/dia durante 21 dias, por via oral (uma semana antes e duas depois do procedimento de infarto. Os grupos controle passaram por cirurgia fictícia (SHAM. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controles e infartados com (SHAMT, INFT; respectivamente ou sem (SHAM, INF; respectivamente tratamento com alho. Houve redução da hipertrofia do ventrículo direito (INF=0,75±0,05 vs. INFT=0,61±0,03 mg/Kg; p<0,01, da área de infarto (INF=29,7±4,8% vs. INFT=20,4±1,4%; p<0,05 e regularização dos níveis de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS; INF=100±8 vs. INFT=127±7 mmHg; p<0,05 e média (PAM; INF=94±4 vs. INFT=110±6 mmHg; p<0,01 dos animais INFT comparados com os INF. Houve um menor número de animais mortos após o procedimento de infarto no grupo INFT em relação ao grupo INF (20%, n=2; 45,5%, n=5; respectivamente. Esses achados indicam que o alho tem um importante papel na prevenção e no controle de alterações cardiovasculares, uma vez que houve redução do número de mortes pós-infarto e melhor perfil cardiovascular dos animais INFT. Palavras-chave: Allium sativum. Infarto do miocárdio.Hipertrofia cardíaca. Hemodinâmica cardiovascular.

  7. Biochemical changes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage following γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Orioli, G.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) on post-dormant garlic seed cloves in terms of total DNA, total RNA, total protein and soluble carbohydrates in order to correlate these levels with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation. Decreases in total DNA content were found in inner sprouts immediately and 100 days after irradiation. The total RNA and protein contents and the carbohydrate content of the storage leaf or the inner sprout were not affected by γ-irradiation. The results support the notion that in post-dormant garlic seed cloves, DNA content and its behaviour seem to be among the sensitive cellular responses to radiation. (author)

  8. Biochemical changes in garlic (Allium sativum L. ) during storage following [gamma]-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Orioli, G.A. (Univ. Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Univ. Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate an acute dose of [gamma]-rays (10 Gy) on post-dormant garlic seed cloves in terms of total DNA, total RNA, total protein and soluble carbohydrates in order to correlate these levels with sprouting inhibition induced by [gamma]-irradiation. Decreases in total DNA content were found in inner sprouts immediately and 100 days after irradiation. The total RNA and protein contents and the carbohydrate content of the storage leaf or the inner sprout were not affected by [gamma]-irradiation. The results support the notion that in post-dormant garlic seed cloves, DNA content and its behaviour seem to be among the sensitive cellular responses to radiation. (author).

  9. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Monica B.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.; Croci, Clara A.

    1997-01-01

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  10. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Monica B.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.; Croci, Clara A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-12-01

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of {sup 60} Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies of Allium sativum extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in rats brain and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Saoudi, Mongi; Sellami, Hanen; Rahmouni, Fatma; Lahyani, Amina; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2017-09-18

    The present study investigated the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant capacities of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in rat's brain and kidney. The in vitro result showed that highest extraction yield was achieved with methanol (20.08%). Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract exhibited the highest total phenolic, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity. The in vivo results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase of the acetylcholinesterase level (AChE) in brain and plasma, the brain and kidney conjugated dienes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels as compared to control group. The antioxidant enzymes results showed that deltamethrin treatment induced a significantly decrease (p < 0.01) in brain and kidney antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) to control group. The co-administration of garlic extract reduced the toxic effects in brain and kidney tissues induced by deltamethrin.

  12. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum.

  13. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of fitotoxic metabolites of Altenaria porri (Ellis Ciferri on plants and calluses of Allium sativum L., aimed to the fitoimprovement

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    Yiliam González Moya

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain phytotoxic metabolites from Alternaria porri and to know their influences on garlic plants and calli in plant breeding for resistanse to alternariosis, a research was carried out. Filtrates were obtained in Fries medium 30 days after fungus incubation which was statically cultivated at 28±1 0C and constant darkness. Biological assays using several filtrate concentrations were developed in garlic plants of different ages (clone ‘Criollo’ through punture method and also in garlic calli (clone ‘Chileno’. The highest phytotoxic effect was observed in 110 days old plants when they were inoculated with filtrates concentrated at 70% initial volume. Calli showed weight losses and changed their coloration when filtrate was concentrated above 40%. Key Words: Allium sativum, In vitro selection, Plant breeding

  15. Assessment of the effect of Allium sativum on serum nitric oxide level and hepatic histopathology in experimental cystic echinococcosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Ayman Nabil; Ahmed, Naglaa Samier

    2016-09-01

    The current study was carried out to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on experimental cystic echinococcosis by measuring the serum nitric oxide level and studying hepatic histopathological changes. The experimental animals were divided into five groups, ten mice in each, group (I): prophylactic; group (II): therapeutic; group (III): prophylactic and therapeutic; group (IV): infected nontreated; group (V): non infected non treated. The results showed that serum nitric oxide was significantly increased as a result of infection in all infected groups compared to group V. Statistical significant difference was noted in serum nitrate level in group I at 1st and 8th week post infection compared to the same time interval in group IV. In group II, statistical significance was noticed only at the 1st week post infection. Statistical significant difference was noted in serum nitrate level in group III at 1st, 4th, 6th and 8th week post infection compared to same time interval in group IV. Hydatid cysts developed in livers of mice of group IV as early as 4 weeks of infection while no cysts were found in groups I,II and III. Histopathologically there were moderate pathological changes in group I and group II as hepatocytes showed moderate steatosis, moderate venous congestion and inflammatory cellular infiltrate with foci of degeneration and necrosis. While livers of mice of group III showed mild steatosis, mild venous congestion, mild inflammatory cellular infiltrate, no necrosis and no biliary hyperplasia. Accordingly, that garlic (Allium sativum) may be a promising phototherapeutic agent for cystic echinococcosis.

  16. Lauric acid and myristic acid from Allium sativum inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra: in silico analysis reveals possible binding to protein kinase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyan, Rajiniraja; Gurunathan, Jayaraman

    2016-12-01

    The bulb of Allium sativum Linn (Alliaceae) has numerous medicinal values. Though the petroleum ether extract of the bulb has shown to exhibit antimycobacterial activity, the phytochemical(s) responsible for this inhibitory activity is not known. To characterize the bioactive compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum (garlic) that inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was employed to isolate the bioactive compounds. Antimycobacterial activity was evaluated by well-diffusion method and microplate alamar blue assay (MABA). Infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to characterize the bioactive compounds. Autodock was used to obtain information on molecular recognition, and molecular dynamics simulation was performed using GROMACS. The bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Ra were found to be lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA). The minimal inhibitory concentration of LA and MA was found to be 22.2 and 66.7 μg/mL, respectively. In silico analysis revealed that these fatty acids could bind at the cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the cytosolic domain of serine/threonine protein kinase B (PknB). The inhibition activity was dependent on the alkyl chain length of the fatty acid, and the amino acid residues involved in binding to fatty acid was found to be conserved across the Pkn family of proteins. The study indicates the possibility of using fatty acid derivatives, involving Pkn family of proteins, to inhibit the signal transduction processes in M. tuberculosis.

  17. Influência de épocas de plantio e cultivares no rendimento total da cultura do alho (Allium sativum l. em Santa Maria, RS Planting date and cultivar influence on the total yield of garlic (Allium sativum L. in Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nadir Trevisan

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no ano agrícola de 1984, afim de avaliar a influência de três épocas de plantio (27 de abril, 18 de maio e 14 de julho na produção total de bulbos de nove cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os maiores rendimentos totais de bulbos foram obtidos no plantio de 18 de maio. Gigante Lavínia foi a cultivar mais produtiva. As cultivares São Lourenço e Gigante Inconfidentes destacaram-se pelos rendimentos, os quais não diferiram significativamente entre si.The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Santa Maria, in southernmost Brazil, during the growing season of 1984, to determine the influence of three different planting dates (April 27, May 18 and July 14 on the yield of nine garlic, Allium sativum Z., cultivars. The experimental design was a split plot complete block, with planting dates as main plots and cultivars as subplots. Blocks were replicated four times. The highest yields were obtained with planting date May 18. Gigante Lavínia ranked first among cultivars. The outstanding performances of São Lourenço and Gigante Inconfidentes were not significantly different.

  18. Combined proteomic and molecular approaches for cloning and characterization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD2) from garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji Sfaxi, Imen; Ezzine, Aymen; Coquet, Laurent; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2012-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs; EC 1.15.1.1) are key enzymes in the cells protection against oxidant agents. Thus, SODs play a major role in the protection of aerobic organisms against oxygen-mediated damages. Three SOD isoforms were previously identified by zymogram staining from Allium sativum bulbs. The purified Cu, Zn-SOD2 shows an antagonist effect to an anticancer drug and alleviate cytotoxicity inside tumor cells lines B16F0 (mouse melanoma cells) and PAE (porcine aortic endothelial cells). To extend the characterization of Allium SODs and their corresponding genes, a proteomic approach was applied involving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS analyses. From peptide sequence data obtained by mass spectrometry and sequences homologies, primers were defined and a cDNA fragment of 456 bp was amplified by RT-PCR. The cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame coding for 152 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity (82-87%) with sequences of Cu, Zn-SODs from other plant species. Molecular analysis was achieved by a protein 3D structural model.

  19. Evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic (Allium sativum L. as a biopesticide against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Nwachukwu Ifeanyi Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshly prepared garlic (Allium sativum L. juice, containing the antimicrobial allicin, was evaluated as a possible grain pro-tectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.. Each experiment was set out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications, and there was a control treatment. Adult mortality and weight loss percentage were investigated. There was an observed increase in adult mortality following days of exposure in all treatments. Statistically significant (p < 0.05 reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice samples were freshly prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN and a cultivar purchased from a supermarket in Germany (GAG. These garlic juice samples exhibited lethal effects causing at least 90% adult mortality in contact toxicity tests. The amount of allicin in GUN was 1.88 mg/ml according to High Pressure Liquids Chromatography (HPLC analysis, while the amount of allicin in GAG was 3.50 mg/ml. This study highlights the potential of A. sativum containing allicin for biorational control of maize grains against S. zeamais infestation and damage.

  20. Chemical characterization of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their inhibition effect on the growth of some food pathogens

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    A.C.T. Mallet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the chemical composition of the Allium sativum and Origanum vulgare essential oils and their effect on the growth inhibition of microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa, S. Choleraesuis, A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum, important food contaminants. The main constituents of the oregano essential oil were 4-terpineol (27.03%, γ-terpinene (20.04%, and β-cymene (6.34%, and the main constituents of the garlic essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (38, 81%, diallyl disulfide (25.23%, and methyl allyl trisulfide (12.52%. Inhibition zones were formed in in vitro tests on the bacteria S. Choleraesuis and P. aeruginosa, except for A. sativum against P. aeruginosa. The inhibition of mycelial growth caused by the oregano essential oil occurred with the concentrations of 0.10, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL-1 for the A. flavus, A. niger and P. simplicissimum fungi, respectively. The CMI for the garlic oil began at the 0.03 mg mL-1 concentration for all species of fungi. The oils presented an inhibitory effect against the microorganisms studied and constitute an alternative for microbiological control in food.

  1. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. Materials and Methods: AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375–480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3–6 nm, 3–22 nm, and 3–18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Conclusion: Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. SUMMARY The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger

  2. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-07-01

    Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375-480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3-6 nm, 3-22 nm, and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper were evaluatedThe AgNPs formed were characterized using UV

  3. Phenotypic characterization and inheritance of two foliar mutants in pea (Pisum Sativum L.): 'Reduced leaf size' and 'Orange leaf'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.; Tcekova, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Two foliar pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by reduced leaf size (2/978) and orange leaf (2/1409 M) were established. Both mutants were described morphologically and their productivity potential , pollen viability and inheritance of the mutant traits were evaluated. The mutant 2/978 was identified after irradiation of dry seeds from cv Borek with 15 Gy fast neutrons and was related to the leaf mutation 'rogue'. Reciprocal crosses between mutant 2/978 and cv Borel were executed, and F 1 and F 2 generations were analyzed. The altered leaf trait was presented in all F 1 plants suggesting a dominant character. F 2 segregation data indicated that the trait was controlled by a single dominant gene. The mutant 2/1409M originated from the mutant 2/978 after irradiation with 50 Gy γ-rays. The main mutant's phenotypic characteristic was the orange-yellow coloration of leaves and plants. After of series of crosses it was established that induced chlorophyll mutation is monogenic, recessive and both mutant traits are independently inherited. Two mutants could be used as appropriate plant material for genetic and biological investigations

  4. (Allium sativum) on Broilers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE COMPUTERS

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... garlic (Treatment 4) had significantly higher values of average final body weight, average daily gain and feed cost/kg gain. ... which is one of the most biological active compounds in ... antioxidant and cancer preventive effects (Ross, 1999). ..... and Animal factors on day and night grazing activity of imported.

  5. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Aşkin Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS (2⋅10−2 M has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P<.05 inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  6. Semejanzas entre el ajo (Allium sativum costarricense y el ajo asiático según secuencias de ADN ribosomal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Barboza Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica, la producción de ajo (Allium sativum es escasa y se limita principalmente a las regiones de Llano Grande de Cartago. Sin embargo, por el precio que tiene actualmente en el mercado, el ajo costarricense se vislumbra como una hortaliza que podría constituirse en un recurso valioso para los productores nacionales. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se presenta la caracterización mediante secuencias ribosomales de materiales de ajo provenientes Costa Rica y su comparación con ajo importado de China. El ADN se extrajo a partir de hojas de vitroplantas de ajo mantenidas en un congelador a -70°C, pulverizadas en un mortero. El ADN ribosomal se amplificó, purificó y secuenció. Se realizó el análisis bioinformático de las secuencias ribosomales. El BLASTn permitió determinar que los productos de PCR amplificados corresponden a la secuencia parcial de los genes 28S y 18S (sitios de unión de los cebadores y a la secuencia completa de la región ITS-1, 5.8S e ITS-2. Se encontró que todas las secuencias alinearon en casi un 100% con la accesión EU626375.1 publicada en la base de datos del GeneBank, correspondiente al clon Allium sativum voucher BF-ALL-037. En general, las secuencias mostraron ser muy conservadas. Los puntajes obtenidos del alineamiento realizado con ClustalW reflejaron una identidad del 97 al 99% entre las secuencias.El presente estudio es el primer reporte de este tipo que se realiza sobre ajo costarricense y generó información básica e indispensable para continuar con los estudios moleculares de este cultivo.

  7. Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes in virus-free garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Magalí Diana; Yañez-Santos, Anahí Mara; Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Quiroga, Mariana Paola; Marfil, Carlos Federico; Conci, Vilma Cecilia; García-Lampasona, Sandra Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report assessing epigenetic variation in garlic. High genetic and epigenetic polymorphism during in vitro culture was detected.Sequencing of MSAP fragments revealed homology with ESTs. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a worldwide crop of economic importance susceptible to viral infections that can cause significant yield losses. Meristem tissue culture is the most employed method to sanitize elite cultivars.Often the virus-free garlic plants obtained are multiplied in vitro (micro propagation). However, it was reported that micro-propagation frequently produces somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level, which is an undesirable trait when breeders are seeking to maintain varietal stability. We employed amplification fragment length polymorphism and methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) methodologies to assess genetic and epigenetic modifications in two culture systems: virus-free plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro multiplication and field culture. Our results suggest that garlic exhibits genetic and epigenetic polymorphism under field growing conditions. However, during in vitro culture system both kinds of polymorphisms intensify indicating that this system induces somaclonal variation. Furthermore, while genetic changes accumulated along the time of in vitro culture, epigenetic polymorphism reached the major variation at 6 months and then stabilize, being demethylation and CG methylation the principal conversions.Cloning and sequencing differentially methylated MSAP fragments allowed us to identify coding and unknown sequences of A. sativum, including sequences belonging to LTR Gypsy retrotransposons. Together, our results highlight that main changes occur in the initial 6 months of micro propagation. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epigenetic assessment in garlic.

  8. The combined effect of the gamma radiations of 60 Co and different chemicals on the cells of the radicular vegetative tip of Allium sativum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Rodica; Popescu, D.; Andrei, M.

    1999-01-01

    The gamma ionizing radiations used alone in the treatment of Allium Sativum L. affected differently the cells belonging to the two zones of the root causing modifications of the cellular parameters which have been previously estimated. Data in the literature established that the damage of the interphasic nucleus of the cells determines the obstruction of the DNA synthesis and the delay of the cell mitosis. Sparrow, A. H., Miller, M. W. and Al-Rubeai confirmed the existence of a relationship between the nuclear volumes and the radiosensitivity of the different types of cells. The aim of this experiment was to counteract the harmful effect of gamma radiations at cellular level with the help of combined treatments, namely, the gamma radiations associated with different chemicals having radioprotective effects. The biological significance of the obtained values was established by statistical calculations with the help of the Student (t) test. The values of the estimated cellular parameters, NV, ICV, CV, NCR showed that, although there were certain fluctuations, their values were not always significant. (author)

  9. Selenium nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous extract of Allium sativum perturbs the structural integrity of Calf thymus DNA through intercalation and groove binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhuthupurakkal, Preedia Babu; Polaki, Lokeswara Rao; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Subastri, Ariraman; Sujatha, Venugopal; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical application of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) demands the eco-friendly composite for synthesis of SeNPs. The present study reports an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (AqEAS) plug-up the current need. Modern spectroscopic, microscopic and gravimetric techniques were employed to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Characterization studies revealed the formation of crystalline spherical shaped SeNPs. FTIR spectrum brings out the presence of different functional groups in AqEAS, which influence the SeNPs formation and stabilization. Furthermore the different aspects of the interaction between SeNPs and CT-DNA were scrutinized by various spectroscopic and cyclic voltametric studies. The results reveals the intercalation and groove binding mode of interaction of SeNPs with stacked base pair of CT-DNA. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K SV ) were found to be 7.02×10 6 M- 1 (ethidium bromide), 4.22×10 6 M- 1 (acridine orange) and 7.6×10 6 M- 1 (Hoechst) indicating strong binding of SeNPs with CT-DNA. The SeNPs - CT-DNA interactions were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. The present study unveils the cost effective, innocuous, highly stable SeNPs intricate mechanism of DNA interaction, which will be a milestone in DNA targeted chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Linn.) Bulbs Ameliorated Pituitary-Testicular Injury and Dysfunction in Wistar Rats with Pb-Induced Reproductive Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Ademoye, Aderonke K; Imafidon, Christian E; Ojo, Esther O; Oladele, Ayowole A

    2016-06-15

    To determine the effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs (AEASAB) on pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with lead-induced reproductive disturbances. Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups such that the control group received propylene glycol at 0.2 ml/100 g intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days, the toxic group received lead (Pb) alone at 15 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 10 days while the treatment groups were pretreated with lead as the toxic group after which they received graded doses of the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day via oral route for 28 days. Pb administration induced significant deleterious alterations in the antioxidant status of the brain and testis, sperm characterization (counts, motility and viability) as well as reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) of exposed rats (p < 0.05). These were significantly reversed in the AEASAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Also, there was marked improvement in the Pb-induced vascular congestion and cellular loss in the pituitary while the observed Pb-induced severe testicular vacuolation was significantly reversed in the representative photomicrographs, following administration of the extract. AEASAB treatment ameliorated the pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with Pb-Induced reproductive disturbances.

  11. Ameliorative Effects of Allium sativum Extract on iNOS Gene Expression and NO Production in Liver of Streptozotocin + Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Behrouj, Hamid; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Lotfi, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, which is strongly associated with liver dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, through an oxidative stress pathway, damages various tissues. Herbal medicine is a good candidate to ameliorate hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract (AGE) on gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) were evaluated in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. Four groups of rats contained normal control rats, garlic control rats (AGE), Streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats (DM), and diabetic rats treated with garlic (DM + AGE). Glucose levels and liver enzymes activities were determined by colorimetric assay in the serum. Gene expression of iNOS by real-time PCR, NO levels by Griess method, oxidative stress parameters by spectrophotometric method and histopathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin staining method were evaluated in the liver tissues. Glucose levels, activities of liver enzymes, oxidative stress markers, iNOS gene expression, and NO production increased significantly in diabetic rats in comparison with control rats, whereas after oral administration of garlic, these parameters decreased significantly, close to the normal levels. Hence, the beneficial effects of garlic on the liver injury of diabetes could be included in the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of garlic via a decrease in gene expression of iNOS and subsequent NO production.

  12. Apoptosis and survival parameters during protection from radiation-induced thymocyte death by a candidate radioprotector, GC-2112, from Allium sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunagan, J.; Perey, K.; Deocaris, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Biomedical studies on nuclear fallout effects show that whole-body exposure to relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (2-10 Gy) induces the hematopoietic syndrome (HS) characterized by severe anemia and immunodeficiency and death within 10-30 days. The thymocyte model applies in many cell death researches and is found to undergo a morphologically and molecularly distinct p53-based apoptosis with DNA-damaging insults, such as radiation exposure. We have shown that exogenously applied radioprotector from allium sativum (garlic), GC-2112, improves total cellular survival for various observation periods concomitantly shifting the LD 50/24 from 7 Gy (control) to 21 Gy (GC-2112). This increased survival characteristic of the radioprotected macrophage-free thymocytes, however, fails to correlate with the prevention of apoptosis-associated DNA scissions. Mechanisms to the observed radiomodification may possibly involve cysteine compounds found rich in garlic. These preliminary findings show promise in the applications of selected herbal drugs as dietary prophylaxis against clinical morbidities arising from either medical, occupational or environmental exposures to ionizing radiation. (author)

  13. Determination of mineral constituents in medicinally important plants Nigell sativa, Myristica fragrans Houtt and allium sativum Linn. using atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.J.; Jakhrani, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Medicinal properties have been attributed to a large variety of plants cultivated in different parts of Pakistan. Only few of these plants have been analyzed for their mineral content and large number remain unanalyzed. It is imperative to analyse the plants for their trace element content, which have healing power for mankind in numerous ailment and disorders. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to see the commonly occurring elements among some medicinal plants and in its decoction such as Nigella sativa, Allium sativum, Myristica fragrans houtt, for fifteen elements has been carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Two procedures were employed for decomposition of organic matter present in the plant samples. The result obtained from both the procedures was compared with each other. For all three plant samples relatively higher results were obtained when samples were decomposed with Nitric acid and hydrogen per oxide mixture. The level of essential elements was to be found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The level of important elements such as Zinc, Iron was present in considerable amount. (author)

  14. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum L. stem extract on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inhye; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son

    2013-08-30

    This study was designed to examine the potential health benefits of Allium sativum L. (garlic) stem extract (ASSE) on obesity and related disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obese mice were orally administered ASSE at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 4 weeks. Consumption of ASSE significantly suppressed body weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight regardless of daily food intake. Obese mice fed ASSE also exhibited a significant decrease in WAT cell size. The decreased level of adiponectin and increased level of leptin in obese mice reverted to near normal mice levels in ASSE-treated mice. ASSE administration significantly improved lipid parameters of the serum and liver and inhibited fat accumulation in the liver by modulating the activities of hepatic lipid-regulating enzymes in obese mice. Administration of ASSE also led to significant increases in antioxidant enzymes and suppressed glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue. These results suggest that ASSE may ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative damage in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Efek Antidiabetes Kombinasi Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum Linn. dan Rimpang Kunyit (Curcumma domestica Val. dengan Pembanding Glibenklamid pada Penderita Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ame Suciati Setiawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. and curcumin extract (Curcumma domestica Val. can be used as an antidiabetic oral to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients and the clinical trial showed that the extract can decrease blood glucose at a dose 2.4 g/day. This clinical trial was conducted to know the antidiabetic effect of the combination of garlic and curcumin extract compared with antidiabetic oral, glibenclamide. The subjects were >35 years of age with type 2 DM who came to internal and endocrine clinic RSUP. Hasan Sadikin Bandung and has been treated with medical nutrition therapy for 2 weeks period November 2007–December 2008. The research design was parallel, randomized and double blind. The combination of garlic and curcumin extract decreased mean value of fasting blood glucose 9.25 mg/dL, 2h PP blood glucose 22.25 mg/dL, HbA1c 1,30% and insulin 12.57 mg/ dL compared with baseline whereas glibenclamide decreased the mean value of fasting blood glucose 72.37 mg/dL, 2h PP 114,25 mg/dL, HbA1c 4.12% and increased insulin 3.34 mg/dL. In conclusion, the extract combination has antidiabetic effect eventhough the effect was not as high as glibenclamide

  16. Apoptosis and survival parameters during protection from radiation-induced thymocyte death by a candidate radioprotector, GC-2112, from Allium sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunagan, J; Perey, K [Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, Manila (Philippines); Deocaris, C C [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-12-31

    Biomedical studies on nuclear fallout effects show that whole-body exposure to relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (2-10 Gy) induces the hematopoietic syndrome (HS) characterized by severe anemia and immunodeficiency and death within 10-30 days. The thymocyte model applies in many cell death researches and is found to undergo a morphologically and molecularly distinct p53-based apoptosis with DNA-damaging insults, such as radiation exposure. We have shown that exogenously applied radioprotector from allium sativum (garlic), GC-2112, improves total cellular survival for various observation periods concomitantly shifting the LD{sub 50/24} from 7 Gy (control) to 21 Gy (GC-2112). This increased survival characteristic of the radioprotected macrophage-free thymocytes, however, fails to correlate with the prevention of apoptosis-associated DNA scissions. Mechanisms to the observed radiomodification may possibly involve cysteine compounds found rich in garlic. These preliminary findings show promise in the applications of selected herbal drugs as dietary prophylaxis against clinical morbidities arising from either medical, occupational or environmental exposures to ionizing radiation. (author).

  17. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Psidium guajav on hepatic and intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Background: Present study investigated the synergistic effect of polyherbal formulations (PHF of Allium sativum L Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn and Psidium guajava L. in the inhibition/induction of hepatic and intestinal CYPs and Phase-II conjugated drug metabolizing enzymes. Consumption of these herbal remedy has been extensively documented for diabetes treatment in Auyureda. Methodology: PHF of these five herbs was prepared and different doses were orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of different groups except control group. Expression of mRNA and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes were examined by RT-PCR and HPLC in isolated liver and intestine microsomes in PHF pretreated rats. Results: Activities of hepatic and intestinal Phase-II enzyme levels increased along with mRNA levels except CYP3A mRNA level. PHF administration increases the activity of hepatic and intestinal UDPGT and GST in response to dose and time; however, activity of hepatic SULT increased at higher doses. Conclusions: CYPs and Phase-II conjugated enzymes levels can be modulated in dose and time dependent manner. Observations suggest that poly herbal formulation might be a possible cause of herb-drug interaction, due to changes in pharmacokinetic of crucial CYPs and Phase-II substrate drug. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 372-382

  18. Sulphur fertilization influences the sulphur species composition in Allium sativum: sulphomics using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Andrea; Ronzan, Marilena; Feldmann, Joerg

    2017-10-18

    Garlic (A. sativum) contains a large number of small sulphur (S)-containing metabolites, which are important for its taste and smell and vary with A. sativum variety and growth conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of different sulphur-fertilization regimes on low molecular weight S-species by attempting the first sulphur mass balance in A. sativum roots and bulbs using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS. Species unspecific quantification of acid soluble S-containing metabolites was achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS/MS. For identification of the compounds, high resolution ESI-MS (Orbitrap LTQ and q-TOF) was used. The plants contained up to 54 separated sulphur-containing compounds, which constitute about 80% of the total sulphur present in A. sativum. The roots and bulbs of A. sativum contained the same compounds, but not necessarily the same amounts and proportions. The S-containing metabolites in the roots reacted more sensitively to manipulations of sulphur fertilization than those compounds in the bulbs. In addition to known compounds (e.g. γ-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine) we were able to identify and partially quantify 31 compounds. Three as yet undescribed S-containing compounds were also identified and quantified for the first time. Putative structures were assigned to the oxidised forms of S-1-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-2-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-allyl/propenyl-containing PC-2 and 2-amino-3-[(2-carboxypropyl)sulfanyl]propanoic acid. The parallel use of ICP-MS/MS as a sulphur-specific detector and ESI-MS as a molecular detector simplifies the identification and quantification of sulphur containing metabolites without species specific standards. This non-target analysis approach enables a mass balance approach and identifies the occurrence of the so far unidentified organosulphur compounds. The experiments showed that the sulphur-fertilization regime does not influence sulphur-speciation, but the concentration of some S

  19. The Effects of Drought Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Anti-oxidant of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes with Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva akbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress reduces plant growth by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, translocation, ion uptake, carbohydrates, nutrient metabolism and growth promoters. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an annual bulb crop that has been cultivated since ancient times and was used as a spice and condiment for many centuries. Garlic is an important plant because of its pharmaceutical properties. The optimum yield of this bulb crop depends on well-managed irrigation, fertilization and cultivation practices. In the final and middle stages of growth, garlic is sensitive to water stress and low irrigation is unsuitable in these stages. This experiment was established to study the influence of drought stress and planting density on yield and its components and the non-enzymatic anti-oxidant content of two different garlic ecotypes. Materials and methods This study was conducted in 2011-2012 in a farmland at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation rates (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC as the main plot and the factorial combination of three levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud as the sub-plots. To estimate the crop water requirement, different meteorological parameters were collected from Semnan weather station and were used based on FAO-56 water irrigation calculation instructions. After harvesting, ten garlic plants were sampled randomly in each plot and bulb yield components were measured. To calculate the leaves anti-oxidant content, DPPH method was used. The statistical significances of mean values were assessed by analysis of variance and LSD tests at p≤0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS and Mstat-C softwares. Results and discussion

  20. Multiple garlic (Allium sativum L.) microRNAs regulate the immunity against the basal rot fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Mishra, Rukmini; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs. Forty-five miRNAs representing 39 conserved and six novel sequences responsive to FOC were detected. qRT-PCR analyses further classified them into three classes based on their expression patterns in susceptible line CBT-As11 and in the resistant line CBT-As153. North-blot analyses of six selective miRNAs confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Expression studies on a selective set of target genes revealed a negative correlation with the complementary miRNAs. Furthermore, transgenic garlic plant overexpresing miR164a, miR168a and miR393 showed enhanced resistance to FOC, as revealed by decreased fungal growth and up-regulated expression of defense-responsive genes. These results indicate that multiple miRNAs are involved in garlic immunity against FOC and that the overexpression of miR164a, miR168a and miR393 can augment garlic resistance to Fusarium basal rot infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  2. Protective effect of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) on induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and garlic (Allium sativum) have been previously observed to have cardioprotective influence in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Since low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process, we evaluated their potential in minimizing the LDL oxidation in rats. Fenugreek seeds, garlic, and their combination were included along with a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Iron-induced oxidation of LDL in vivo was considerably lowered by dietary fenugreek and garlic. The extent of copper-induced oxidation of isolated LDL in vitro was also significantly lesser in fenugreek-fed or fenugreek+garlic-fed rats. Anodic electrophoretic mobility of the oxidized LDL on agarose gel in case of spice-fed animals was decreased and hence consistent with the observed protective influence on LDL oxidation. Dietary fenugreek, garlic, and their combination significantly lowered lipid peroxide levels in plasma, liver, and heart in iron (II)-administered rats. The results suggest that these two dietary spices have protective effect on LDL oxidation under normal situation as well as in hypercholesterolemic situation. The protective effect of the combination of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro was greater than that of the individual spices. The protective effect of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro as evidenced in the present study is suggestive of their cardioprotective potential since LDL oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process.

  3. Biophysical insight into structure-function relation of Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor by thermal, chemical and pH-induced modulation using comprehensive spectroscopic analysis.

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    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Naz, Huma; Haque, Md Anzarul; Fatima, Sadaf

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the structural and functional changes in the nature of Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI) on undergoing various denaturation with variable range of pH, temperature and urea (at pH 8.2). ASPI being anti-tryptic in nature has native molecular mass of ∼15kDa. The conformational stability, functional parameters and their correlation were estimated under different conditions using circular dichroism, fluorescence and activity measurements. ASPI was found to fall in belongs to α+β protein. It demonstrated structural and functional stability in the pH range 5.0-12.0 and up to70°C temperature. Further decrease in pH and increase in temperature induces unfolding followed by aggregation. Chemical induced denaturation was found to be cooperative and transitions were reversible and sigmoid. T m (midpoint of denaturation), ΔC p (constant pressure heat capacity change) and ΔH m (van't Hoff enthalpy change at T m were calculated to be 41.25±0.2°C, 1.3±0.07kcalmol -1 K -1 and 61±2kcalmol -1 respectively for thermally denatured ASPI earlier. The reversibility of the protein was confirmed for both thermally and chemically denatured ASPI. The results obtained from trypsin inhibitory activity assay and structural studies are found to be in a significant correlation and hence established structure-function relationship of ASPI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the potential effect of Allium sativum, Momordica charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Ocimum sanctum & Psidium guajava on intestinal P-glycoprotein in rats

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    Devendra Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Background: This study was evaluated synergistic effect of Polyherbal formulation (PHF of Allium sativum L., Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn and Psidium guajava L on p-glycoprotein of intestine. These five herbs were traditionally used for diabetes. These herbs are commonly present in ayurvedic product as antidiabetics in India. Methodology: PHF was prepared by five indigenous herbs. Different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats of different groups for multiple weeks except control groups. Alteration in Pgp expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blotting while modulation in activity of Pgp was evaluated using rhodamine 123 as transport substrate by in-situ absorption and everted gut sac method. Results: In PHF pretreated group received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for seven days, mRNA level decreased by 1.75, 2.45 and 2.37 fold respectively as compared to control. Similarly when PHF at dose of 100 mg/kg/day was given consequently for four weeks maximum decrease in Pgp expression level was observed only after one week and further increase in the treatment duration did not produce significant decrease compared to first week treatment. Pgp mediated transport of rhodamine 123 was significantly decreased with everted gut sac prepared from PHF pretreated rats (one week compared to those prepared from vehicle treated rats. Conclusions: In conclusion, we report that PHF pretreatment down regulated the expression of intestinal Pgp and this down regulated intestinal Pgp would result in decreased functional activity. Additionally this down regulated Pgp expression might affect the bioavailability of antidiabetic Pgp substrate drugs. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(1.000: 68-74

  5. Caracterización óptica y estructural de nanopartículas de Allium sativum L. impregnadas en lomo de bovino

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    Kelly Johana Figueroa-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las características ópticas y estructurales de nanopartículas de polvo de ajo (Allium sativum L., obtenidas por reducción y selección de tamaño, para comparación con muestras de polvo de ajo comercial. El tamaño de partícula se determinó empleando microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM y las caracterizaciones óptica y estructural se realizaron, respectivamente, por espectroscopia infrarroja transformada de Fourier (FTIR y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Para determinar el efecto de las nanopartículas de polvo de ajo cuando fueron aplicadas sobre trozos de lomo (Longissimus dorsi de bovino se utilizó la técnica de fluorescencia. Los tamaños de las partículas del polvo sometido a reducción y selección de tamaño presentaron valores entre 50 y 100 nm y las de polvo de ajo normal entre 400 y 500 nm. En los espectros de FTIR se observaron los principales grupos funcionales y los difractogramas de rayos X permitieron concluir que se trata de materiales amorfos. Por su tamaño más reducido, las nanopartículas migran más rápido al interior del músculo del bovino que las micropartículas, lo que permite una mejor absorción y aprovechamiento de sus componentes y se constituye en un resultado innovador en el campo de la ciencia de los alimentos.

  6. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq

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    Leticia A. Egea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions; (ii create a core collection; (iii relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  7. The effect of the humic substances, garlic (Allium sativum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and walnut (Juglans regia on carcass parameters of broiler chickens

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    Veronika Pistová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic substances, garlic (Allium sativum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and walnut (Juglans regia on carcass parameters of broiler chickens were studied. Broiler chickens Ross 308 (n=60 were divided into 3 groups (n=20. The chickens of the control group were fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chickens in the first experimental group E1were fed a diet containing 1.5% of humic substances, 0.4% of garlic powder and 0.1% of wormwood. Chickens in the second experimental group E2 were fed a diet containing 1.5% of humic substances, 0.4% of garlic powder and 0.1% of walnut.  The carcass weight, weight of heart, liver, gizzard, carcass yield and EPEF were evaluated. The carcass weight was in both experimental groups higher, but no statistically significant (P>0.05 in compare with the control group (values in the order of the groups: 1246.93±172.61; 1352.16±139.89 and 1308.30±166.17 g±SD. In the first experimental group E1 were weight of heart (12.15±2.29 g±SD and weight of gizzard (41.58±7.44 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to the control group (9.99 ±1.82; 33.62±5.03 g±SD.

  8. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L

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    Subodh Kumar Chand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of post transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, 6 conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L. were analysed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450 family proteins were predicted and verified using 5’ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  9. Kastamonu Sarmısağının (Allium sativum L. Kimyasal Bileşiminin Belirlenmesi Üzerine Araştırma

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    Nevzat Artık

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarımsak (Allium sativum L. antimikrobiyal etkisi ve çeşni verme özelliği nedeni ile üretilmektedir. Ülkemizde Kastamonu yöresinde yetiştirilen sarımsak, bileşimi ve etken maddesi nedeniyle tüm Avrupa ülkelerinde tanınmaktadır. Sarmısağın bileşim unsurları konusunda yeterli bilgi mevcut değildir. Bu araştırmada Kastamonu ilinden sağlanan 40 farklı sarımsak örneğinde fiziksel, kimyasal özellikler ve Hunter renk değerleri saptanmıştır. Sarımsak örneklerinde şeker analizleri enzimatik yöntemle belirlenmiştir. Sarımsak örneklerinde toplam şeker miktarı %33.41-49.67 sınırları arasında değişim göstermektedir. Toplam şekeri oluşturan şekerlerden D-glukoz %1.169-2.03, D-fruktoz %2.872-10.394 ve sakaroz %22.67-41.0 düzeyindedir. Sarımsak örneklerinde sarmısağın antimikrobiyal etki ve çeşni açısından önemli bileşiği olan uçucu organik sülfür bileşikleri, allil sülfür [(CH3H52S] cinsinden %0.097-0.214 arasında bulunmuştur. Kastamonu sarımsak örnekleri vitamin, mineral ve uçucu sülfür bileşikleri açısından zengin bir gıda maddesidir.

  10. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic Medicinal Plant (Allium sativum L. under the Conditions of Different Organic and Chemical Fertilizers Application

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    Yaser Esmaeilian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, the effect of exogenous organic amendments on soil properties and plant growth characteristics has received renewed attention. Although the utilization of mineral fertilizers could be viewed as the best solution in terms of plant productivity, this approach is often inefficient in long-term in tropical ecosystems due to the limited ability of low-activity clay soils to retain nutrients. Intensive use of agrochemicals in agricultural systems is also known to have irreversible effects on soil and water resources. Vermicompost is currently being promoted to improve soil quality, reduce water and fertilizer needs and therefore increase the sustainability of agricultural practices in tropical countries. Vermicomposting is a process which stabilizes organic matter under aerobic and mesophilic conditions through the joint action of earthworms and microorganisms. The products of vermicomposting have been successfully used to suppress plant pests and diseases, as well as increase crop productivity. Cow manure is an excellent fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. It also adds organic matter to the soil which may improve soil structure, aeration, soil moisture-holding capacity, and water infiltration. Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help plants' nutrients uptake by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil. They accelerate certain microbial processes in soil which augment the extent of availability of nutrients in a form easily assimilated by plants. Very often microorganisms are not as efficient in natural surroundings as one would expect them to be and therefore artificially multiplied cultures of efficient selected microorganisms play a vital role in accelerating the microbial processes in soil. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a very powerful medicinal plant that is

  11. Evaluation of Two Mycorrhiza Species and Nitroxin on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in an Ecological Agroecosystem

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    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maintenance of soil fertility is one of the most important issues affecting the sustainability of food production. The application of ecological inputs such as mycorrhiza and biofertilizers are one of those approaches which are needed to maintain soil fertility Biofetilizers include different types of free living organisms that convert unavailable nutrients to available forms and enhance root development and better seed germination. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR occupy the rhizosphere of many plant species and have beneficial effects on the host plant. They may directly and indirectly influence the plant growth. A direct mechanism would be to increase plant growth by supplying the plant with nutrients and hormones. Indirect mechanisms, on the other hand, include reduced susceptibility to diseases and acting as a form of defense referred to as induces systematic resistance. Mycorrhiza arbuscular fungi are other coexist microorganisms that improve soil fertility, nutrients cycling and agroecosystem health. Mycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant organisms in agricultural soils. Many researchers have pointed to the positive roles of mycorrhizal fungi on plants growth characteristics. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are found in 85% of all plant families and occur in many crop species. Mineral nutrients such as potassium, calcium, copper, zinc and iron are assimilated more quickly and in greater amounts by mycorrhizal plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation has also been shown to increase plant resistance of pathogen attack. Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a very powerful medicinal plant that is often underestimated. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in any mild climates. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (row and cooked or for medicinal purposes. They have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Despite of many studies on the effects of mycorrhiza and

  12. Investigating the Effect of Chemical Management on Weeds Population, Agronomical Traits and Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in Mazandaran Province

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    Sobhan Mahzari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an important winter crop in northern of Iran with a total of 9580 ha which produces approximately 90, 197 tons per year. It is the second most widely cultivated species of the genus, Allium after onion (Allium cepa. Also, Garlic along with onions and leeks are three major cultivated species in Alliaceae family. This plant because of high economic and medicinal values is cultivated in 2610 hectares of agricultural lands of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Slow growth rate, low height, and a thin canopy that does not cover the soil enough to sup-press weeds make garlic a poor competitor against the latter until the beginning of spring. According results, reported 71% yield losses in garlic crop if weeds are allowed to grow during the crop season. Weed interference is affected by the time of weed emergence relative to the crop’s phenological development. The weeds, which emerge early or simultaneously with the crop, are highly competitive and should be managed by farmers. Most weed management strategies in cereals target seedlings, as they are the most sensitive stage of the weed. However, emergence of weed seedlings varies every year in timing, extent and intensity. Therefore in this study, the effect of chemical management on reducing the density and biomass of weeds, yield and agronomic characteristics of garlic were studied in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: After the selection of location test, in order to determine the physical and chemical properties before the preparation of soil for planting, sampling from the soil was carried out from the depth of 0 to 30 cm at some point. The farm was plowed using a moldboard plow, then the used fertilizers in this study were added to the soil twice before planting and then the fertilizers were incorporated with the soil using a Disc. The amount of used fertilizers in this study according to soil test were including: 200 kg Urea per hectare that

  13. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de alho e casca de canela contra fungos do grupo Aspergillus flavus Evaluation of essential oils from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum zeilanicum and their toxicity against fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group

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    Elson de C. Viegas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da propriedade inibitória de óleos essenciais vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos e da importância das espécies do grupo Aspergillus flavus, que apresentam potencial para síntese de aflatoxina, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro a toxicidade de óleos essenciais vegetais contra fungos do grupo A. flavus, isolados a partir da cultura do amendoim. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a toxicidade de oito óleos essenciais vegetais no desenvolvimento micelial de dois isolados do grupo A. flavus, em comparação ao fungicida sintético benomyl. Em seguida, foi avaliada a toxicidade dos óleos de casca de canela (Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. e de bulbilho de alho (Allium sativum L. contra 37 isolados do grupo A. flavus, durante 12 meses. A maior inibição do desenvolvimento micelial de A. flavus foi obtida com o emprego dos óleos essenciais de casca de canela e de bulbilho de alho, e o efeito inibitório variou com o isolado testado.Considering the inhibitory property of essential plant oils on the mycelial development of fungi, and the importance of Aspergillus flavus-like fungi which may produce aflatoxins, this research was designed to evaluate the toxicity of essential oils against fungi belonging to the group A. flavus isolated from peanut crops. The toxicity of eight essential oils against two isolates of A. Flavuslike fungi was evaluated in comparison to the synthetic fungicide benomyl. The toxicity of Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. and Allium sativum L. essential oils was also evaluated against 37 fungal isolates for a period of 12 months. The highest inhibition of the mycelial development of A. flavus was obtained with cinnamon and garlic essential oils. The inhibitory effect on growth was variable according to the fungal isolate.

  14. Application of Spent Mushroom Compost and Mycorrhiza on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in the Low Input Cropping System

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    P rezvani moghaddam

    2017-10-01

    , manganese and copper and water. In return, the plant provides carbohydrates for the fungi. Materials and methods In order to study the effect of mushroom compost and mycorrhiza on yield of garlic (Allium sativum L., a split plot experiment based on RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2010-11 growing season in research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae (use and non-use and spent mushroom compost levels (SMC (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 t ha-1 were considered as the main and sub factors. In order to determine the physic-chemical properties of soil, sampling was done at a depth of 0 to 30 cm. Distance on and between rows was considered 10 and 20 cm, respectively. In order to weeds control, manual weeding was done three times. At the end of the growing season, economic yield, biological yield, plant height, shoot dry weight, bulb diameter, bulblet weight per plant, bulblet volume per plant and bulblet number per plant were measured. Analysis of variance was done with SAS Ver 9.1 software. Result and discussion The results showed that the effect of different levels of mushroom compost was significant on the most studied traits, but mycorrhiza had no significant effect on yield and yield components of garlic. Based on the results, highest diameter and length of the bulb and bulblets were observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC. The highest economic yield (12760 kg ha-1 was observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC, so that the application of SMC increased economic yield by 48 percent compared to control. The highest dry matter production and harvest index also were observed in application of 100 t ha-1 SMC. Organic and biological fertilizers are among the most significant resources for development of agricultural soil quality and increase in the yield of different medicinal plants. It has been reported that this ecological inputs provide favorable conditions for plant growth and development through improvement of physical

  15. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  16. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunagan, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  17. Arsenic-induced stress activates sulfur metabolism in different organs of garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants accompanied by a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Torres, Carmelo; Feriche-Linares, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruíz, Marta; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination is a major environmental problem which affects most living organisms from plants to animals. This metalloid poses a health risk for humans through its accumulation in crops and water. Using garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants as model crop exposed to 200μM arsenate, a comparative study among their main organs (roots and shoots) was made. The analysis of arsenic, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and lipid peroxidation contents with the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle), and the main components of the NADPH-generating system, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) was carried out. Data showed a correlation among arsenic accumulation in the different organs, PCs content and the antioxidative response, with a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots. Overall, our results demonstrate that there are clear connections between arsenic uptake, increase of their As-chelating capacity in roots and a decline of antioxidative enzyme activities (catalase and the ascorbate peroxidase) whose alteration provoked As-induced oxidative stress. Thus, the data suggest that roots act as barrier of arsenic mediated by a prominent sulfur metabolism which is characterized by the biosynthesis of high amount of PCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Inheritance of the narrow leaf mutation in Pea (Pisum Sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Three pea mutant lines 2/111, 2/174 and 3/106 with reduced narrow oblong leaves were produced after gamma irradiation. They were characterized morphologically and for seed productivity elements. The size and shape of the stipules and the leaflets were evaluated by L/W (length/width) indices. Reciprocal crosses between mutants and normal plants were executed, and F1, F2 generations were analysed. It was established that mutants 2/111 and 3/106 have intermediate inheritance and they are allelic with each other; mutant 2/174 revealed single-gene recessive inheritance with deficiency of mutant plants. It was concluded that 2/174 was not allelic with 2/111 and 3/106. Mutants 2/111 and 3/106 exhibited a phenotype similar to previously described mutant fom (folium oblongum). Allelic test between the new mutants and these described previously was not performed. The reported here lines are utilized to increase understanding of the control of leaf development in pea. (authors)

  19. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Sandalio, Luisa M; Romero-Puertas, María C

    2012-03-01

    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H(2)O(2) level under abiotic stress.

  20. Potentiation of antioxidant effect of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Shubhra; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant role of tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, CB), a rich source of soluble fibre, was investigated in a hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress situation in rats. In the context of dietary garlic (Allium sativa) potentiating the hypocholesterolemic influence of CB, we also examined if dietary garlic enhances the antioxidant potential of CB. Groups of Wistar rats were rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding them a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made by inclusion of 15% tender CB powder or 1% garlic powder or their combination in a high-cholesterol diet. Concentrations of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and liver were examined. Dietary CB displayed an antioxidant influence in terms of elevating ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations and stimulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes both in blood and liver. The antioxidant effect of dietary CB was generally potentiated by co-administration of garlic. Thus, consumption of tender CB and garlic together could form a strategy for improving the body's antioxidant status.

  1. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  2. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessions of Allium sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and A. acuminatum, A. aflatunense, A. atroviolaceum, A. canadense, A. longicuspis, A. moly, A. ponticum, A. roseum, A. scorodoprasum, A. senescens, A. stipitatum, and Allium sp. (wild or ornamental species) were screened for re...

  3. Effect of Irradiation of 60CO Gamma Rays on Growth of Garlic (Allium Sativum L) Plants Cv. Lumbu Hijau at Low Land Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismiyati Sutarto; Kumala Dewi; Arwin; Nurrohma

    2004-01-01

    Garlic originally come from the sub tropical area. In Indonesia, garlic is grown generally in high land area with an altitude between 1000 - 1600 m above sea level. Therefore, the area for growing and producing garlic is limited. Besides, genetic variation of garlic is very narrow since garlic belongs to vegetatively propagated crops. An effort for increasing genetic variation of garlic was done by exposing garlic cloves to gamma rays in order to obtain garlic mutant lines adapted to low land area. Garlic cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma rays 0 (untreated) 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy at the Centre for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology. Each dose consisted of 150 garlic cloves. Untreated and irradiated garlic cloves were grown at Bandar Buat Experimental Station (50 m above sea level), Padang, West Sumatera. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replication. The parameter observed were percentage of grown plants and survival harvested plants, plant height, leaf number, chlorophyll content, number of stomata, plant age, number of cloves per bulbs, fresh, dry weight and diameter of bulbs. The result indicated that the dose of gamma rays 6 Gy is an advantage dose for obtaining well adapted garlic mutant lines in the low land area. (author)

  4. EFFICACY OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may first try traditional remedies which can, and do lead to blindness . ... and may end up as scars or eye perforations leading ... eye drop. (0.3% Evril ) and Group C (GPC) was the control ... introduce 3 drops of different garlic dilutions and.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  6. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Оценка чувствительности Allium сера и Lepidium sativum с использованием ксенобиотиков адамантанового ряда

    OpenAIRE

    Шутова, Юлия

    2010-01-01

    В данной статье проанализирована сравнительная чувствительность двух растительных тест-объектов: Allium cepa и Lepidium sativum по оценке токсического воздействия ксенобиотиков адамантанового ряда. Выявлено, что Allium cepa является более предпочтительным тест-объектом для оценки токсичности антропогенных ксенобиотиков....

  8. 大蒜对印度明对虾黑鳃病原耐药菌株哈维氏弧菌抗菌活性的研究%Antibacterial activity of Allium sativum against multidrug-resistant Vibrio harveyi isolated from black gill-diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲明(译)

    2012-01-01

    本研究针对大蒜提取物对印度明对虾(Fenneropenaeusindicus)黑腮病病原多重耐药哈维氏弧菌(Vibrioharveyi)体外和体内的抗菌活性进行了评价。先利用市售的几种抗生素记录致病性哈维氏弧菌的抗菌谱。然后,利用琼脂扩散法来研究大蒜对哈维氏弧菌的抗菌活性。将哈维氏弧菌接种在琼脂平板上,对每种大蒜提取物(鲜榨大蒜提取物-FsGE,冻干大蒜提取物-FDGE以及用甲醇提取的大蒜提取物-MGE)设计三种不同的浓度。结果表明,鲜榨大蒜提取物对哈维氏弧菌的抑菌活性明显优于冻干大蒜提取物和用甲醇提取的大蒜提取物。本研究分别在对虾基础饲料中添加O%(对照)、0.5%和1%浓度梯度的大蒜来评价大蒜治疗感染哈维氏弧菌的对虾的效果。结果表明,综合大蒜提取物的短期和长期防治(1%含量)的效果分析,对虾累积死亡率降低了75%。本研究探讨了鲜榨大蒜提取物替代抗生素在印度明对虾饲养防病上的优点。%The present study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of Allium sativum extracts against the multidrug- resistant Vibrio harveyi, isolated from the black gill-diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. Initially, the antibiogram of pathogenic V. harveyi was documented for its resistance towards selected commercial antibiotics. Further, antibacterial activity of A. sativum against Vibrio harveyi was performed by the agar well diffusion method. V. harveyi culture was seeded over the agar plates, and each of the garlic extracts (freshly squeezed garlic extract-FSGE, freeze-dried garlic extract-FDGE and methanolic garlic extract-MGE) was tested at three different concentrations. FSGE showed greater inhibitory activity against V. harveyi than FDGE and MGE. Three diets of standard meal preparation for shrimp containing 0% garlic as a control, 0. 5% garlic and 1% garlic treatments were formulated to

  9. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  10. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  11. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d. In the expand......To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d...

  12. In vitro propagation of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) through adventitious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Balady, Sids 40 and VFG 180 (3 - 1) as well as a garlic wild type through adventitious shoot organogenesis. Shoot and root apices were subjected to eight callus induction treatments. A combination of 1 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BA + 5 mg L-1 ...

  13. (Allium sativum L.) Liliaceae as protectants against the maize weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REV. FR. ANTHONY

    2014-03-05

    , was evaluated as a possible grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Each experiment was set out in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and a control treatment. Adult.

  14. Trypanocidal efficacy of Allium sativum bulb extract, diminazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v5i2.49855 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  15. Determining effective radiation mutagen dose for garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to get database for future garlic mutation breeding studies. For this aim, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy doses of Cs 137 (gamma-ray) were applied on garlic cloves as a physical mutagen. 50 cloves were used for each dose. Sixty days after treatment, germination rate and shoot development of cloves were determined. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED 50 ) was calculated by regression analyses. According to the results, 4.455 Gy dose was found to be effective as ED 50 . (author)

  16. Determination of crossed gamma doses for garlic improvement (Allium Sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, S.; Labrada, A.; Savin, V.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of four Cuban varieties of garlic was made so as to optimized the use of ionizing radiations in Cuba to breed vegetatively propagated crops such as garlic. The dose-effect regresion equation characterizing the radioinhibition zone of each crop was presented. We used a criteria to select the irradiation dose to be used in mutation breeding techniques based on obtaining height variability in the productive indicators, a survival and a number of garlic cloves high enough to allow and adequate reproduction of M1 plants. It was verified that this small inhibitor doses of radiations produced a higher percentage of good variability than the medium and high doses. With the use of small inhibitor doses (GR10-GR20) on the Guadalupe-15 garlic variety, 65 variety plants were obtained., 93.7% out of this number is higher than the control in the indicators considered

  17. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and selenite (SeO 3 2− ) or selenate (SeO 4 2− ). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO 3 2− or SeO 4 2− ) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg 2+ levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO 3 2− and SeO 4 2− were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH) 2 and Hg(Met) 2 . Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH) 2 , together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se

  18. Histological Effects Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    control and were administered distill water daily for period of five weeks. While groups B, C ... The result obtained in the various treatment groups revealed in a non-dose dependent fashion increase .... Nanotechnology 3:887-892. Brender, MD ...

  19. Influence of local spices ( Tetrapieura tetraptera and Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initial microbial counts of ground meat before treatment with preservatives were ... Ground meat was treated with garlic (g), Tetrapleura tetraptera (t), sodium nitrite (n) or ... processing counts were 1 x 103cfu/g, 1 x 103cfu/g, 2.7 x 104cfu/g, 1 x ...

  20. Growth and Nutrients Content and Uptake of Garlic ( Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Thus, the study was conducted on Andosol and Vertisol soils at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia, for two consecutive (dry and main rainy) seasons to assess the effect of various rates of compound fertilizers on growth, and nutrient content and uptake of ...

  1. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  2. Cadmium cytotoxity: study of Allium sativum L. root meristems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, E.; Deysson, G.

    1976-01-01

    Three cadmium salts, CdSO/sub 4/, Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and Cd(OAc)/sub 2/ were tested on garlic root meristems. CdSO/sub 4/ was the most toxic of the three; when 10/sup -7/ mol/ml was used, mitostasis resulted within 24 hours and cellular death after forty-eight hours. Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and Cd(OAc)/sub 2/ were lethal at 5 x 10/sup -7/ mol/ml. 1 figure, 1 table.

  3. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  4. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  5. Genetic transformation of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) with tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic yield and quality have decreased due to white rot disease caused by Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. A transformation protocol to introduce tobacco chitinase and glucanase genes into garlic embryogenic calli using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. LBA4404 strain having pC2301CHGLU plasmid with ...

  6. Comparison of accumulation of four metalloids in Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Awaya, Yumi; Anan, Yasumi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the accumulation and metabolism of four metalloids: arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te) in garlic to determine whether garlic can be used for the phytoremediation of those metalloids. Garlic was able to efficiently accumulate As and Se, the two-fourth-period metalloids. However, it was not able to accumulate Sb and Te, the two-fifth-period metalloids, because their bioaccumulation factors were below one. Speciation analyses revealed that four metalloids could be metabolized in garlic, although their metabolites could not be identified yet. Results also suggested that garlic was able to distinguish the metalloids in groups 15 and 16 and the fourth and fifth periods, i.e., As, Se, Sb, and Te. Therefore, garlic is one of the potential plants for the phytoremediation of the fourth-period metalloids.

  7. Conservation of garlic bulbs (allium sativum L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting. (author)

  8. Leaf blight of catharanthus roseus (l). g. don caused by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid and its in vitro control through bio-pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mridha, M.A.U.; Rehman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.).G. Don, a highly valued medicinal plant suffers from a serious disease. A survey on the symptom and severity of the leaf blight of C. roseus was performed in the nurseries of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences (IFESCU), Bangladesh Council of Industrial Research (BCSIR) and Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Bangladesh. An observation was also made in the avenues and garden of King Saud University (KSU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No disease was recorded in KSU, but severe infections were found in all the locations surveyed in Bangladesh. The highest infection percentage and the highest disease index were found in BCSIR nursery followed by BFRI and the lowest was recorded in IFESCU nursery. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid was isolated and it was proved to be pathogenic. This is the first report of leaf blight of C. roseus caused by M. phaseolina. Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum Vitex negundo, Mucuna pruriens, Calotropis procera, Terminalia arjuna, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinalis and Allium cepa were used as biopesticides. Out of the nine plant species screened, T. arjuna showed the highest (58.37%) inhibition percentage which was followed by A. indica (55.72%) and the lowest (27.4%) inhibition percentage were obtained with V. negundo whereas the rest of the plant extracts showed more or less same inhibitory effect. (author)

  9. Powdery mildew of Allium species caused by Oidiopsis taurica in Brazil Oídio em espécies do gênero Allium, causado por Oidiopsis taurica, no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (Syn. Oidiopsis sicula Scalia was identified as the causal agent of a powdery mildew disease occurring on distinct Allium species in Brazil. This disease was initially observed in plastic house and field-grown garlic (Allium sativum and leek (A. porrum accessions in Brasília (Federal District and in field-grown and greenhouse onion (A. cepa cultivars in Belém do São Francisco (Pernambuco State and Brasília, respectively. Typical symptoms consisted of chlorotic areas on the leaf surface corresponding to a fungal colony. These lesions turned to a brownish color with the progress of the disease. Fungi morphology was similar to that described for O. taurica. Endophytic mycelium emerging through estomata, light pale conidia were dimorphic (lanceolate primary conidia and somewhat cylindrical secondary conidia, fibrosin bodies were absent, conidia formed predominantly single (not in chains, and appressoria were non-lobed. Its sexual stage, Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arnaud, was not observed. Inoculations were performed with the O. taurica isolates from distinct Allium hosts. These isolates were also pathogenic to sweet pepper and tomato, indicating an apparent absence of host specialization. One bunching onion (A. fistulosum accessions was not infected by O. taurica suggesting that this species might carry useful resistance alleles to this pathogen. This is the first formal report of a powdery mildew disease on species of the genus Allium in Brazil. This disease might become important on these vegetable crops especially in hot and dry areas such as those in the Central and Northeast regions of Brazil.O fungo Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (= Oidiopsis sicula Scalia foi identificado como sendo o agente causal de uma nova doença do tipo oídio em alho (Allium sativum, alho porró (A. porrum e cebola (A. cepa no Brasil. Esta doença foi observada tanto em condições de casa de vegetação quanto a campo em Brasília e Pernambuco. O

  10. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  11. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  12. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Furletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  13. Beslenme ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemli Bazı Sebzeler I: Sarımsak (Allium sativum L., Enginar (Cynara scolymus L., Kereviz (Apium graveolens L. ve Lahana (Brassica oleraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Altıniğne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Karbonhidrat, mineral madde ve vitamin gibi önemli bazı besin ögelerini çok miktarda içeren sebzeler, beslenme amacıyla kullanıldıkları gibi, içerdikleri bazı ilaç etken maddeleri nedeniyle halk sağlığında tedavi amacıylada kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede genel özellikleri, besin içerikleri ve halk sağlığında kullanılma amaçları yönünden sarımsak (A. sativum, enginar (C. scolymus, kereviz (A. graveolens ve lahana (B. oleraceae sebzeleri ele alınarak incelenmiştir.

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals in hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), leek (Allium porrum L.) and chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Kotyza, Jan; Lenikusová, Ivana; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, 3-4 (2009), s. 761-769 ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/06/P002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Onion * leek * garlic Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2009 www.isfae.org/scientficjournal/2009/issue3/abstracts/abstract142.php

  15. ALLIUM HOOKERII LIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    increase the food supply and add variety to the diet [5]. ... available in the Himalayan range including Nepal, China [6]. ... altitude, between 93.42oE to 94.47oE longitude and between 23.83 o ... The leaf decoction (Decoction is a method of extraction, by boiling, or ..... Dry fish washed in water are fried in a small amount of.

  16. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  17. Effect Of Walnut Leaf, Coriander And Pomegranate On Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanism of most of herbal used for diabetes mellitus treatment has not been well defined. This study was performed to investigate hypoglycemic effect of walnut leaf (Juglans regia L.), coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum L.) or pomegranate seed (Punica granatum L.), and their possible role on pancreatic tissue. Diabetes ...

  18. Anatomia foliar de soja infectada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais Leaf anatomy of soybean infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Mussury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Glycine max (L. Merril,infectadas pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais foram avaliadas, visando determinar in vivo as modificações anatômicas nas diferentes estruturas/tecidos foliares, além de reconhecer prováveis mecanismos de defesa. Folhas de soja cultivar 181 provenientes do quinto nó foram inoculadas com fungo e tratadas com diferentes extratos vegetais, água e álcool 70%. Para comparação foram analisadas a anatomia das folhas sadia e infectada e realizadas medidas nas estruturas/tecidos foliares. Na folha infectada, observou-se destruição da epiderme e parênquima lacunoso, visível proliferação de tricomas e cutícula espessada, principalmente na face abaxial. Observou-se a presença de compostos fenólicos nas células da epiderme quando rompida, em função do crescimento micelial. Nas folhas infectadas e tratadas com os extratos vegetais de Azadirachta indica, Maytenus ilicifolia e Allium sativum, as estruturas/tecidos vegetais apresentaram aumento de espessura por alongamento celular.Glycine max (L. Merril leaves, infected by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts, were evaluated with the aim of determining in vivo the anatomical modifications in different leaf structures and of identifying probable defense mechanisms. Leaves from the 181 soybean cultivar originated from the fifth node were inoculated with the fungus and treated with different plant extracts, water and alcohol at 70%. For comparison, the anatomy of the healthy and infected leaves was analyzed and the leaf structures were measured. In the infected leaf, there was destruction of the epidermis and lacunar parenchyma, apparent trichome proliferation and denser cuticle, especially on the abaxial surface. There were also phenolic compounds in ruptured epidermis cells, due to mycelium growth. In the infected leaves treated with Azadirachta indica, Maytenus

  19. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  20. Determination of the Water Requirements of Garlic (Alium Sativum L. and Its Relationship With the Crop's Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Eduardo Castro Franco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of garlic (Allium sativum L., there is not enough information available about the water requirements for garlic crop in the country. The present study is to identify the crop water requirements for each phenological stage and set a watering schedule according to environmental conditions offered in Tunja-Boyacá. This research was conducted during the first half of 2013, on the farm called “La Maria", which is located in the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. The assessment of the phenological stages in garlic was developed through a stratified sampling design and a destructive sampling design, which were carried out every 7 days after transplant. The value of Kc was determined through the FAO-56 methodology, in which the method was used to find the crop evapotranspiration. In order to establish crop water use, two lysimeters of 1 m3 of capacity were installed. The result of ETo was obtained through the weather station data, these data were analyzed with the Penman-Monteith equation, using the Cropwat software. Three phenological stages for growing garlic (Allium sativum L. were established, from the transplant to the harvest. These stages were: vegetative Growth and development, Bulb initiation and Maturation. Kc values for each phenological stage were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.68 respectively.

  1. Fusarium proliferatum isolated from garlic in Spain: identification, toxigenic potential and pathogenicity on related Allium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel PALMERO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum has been reported on garlic in the Northwest USA, Spain and Serbia, causing water-soaked tan-colored lesions on cloves. In this work, Fusarium proliferatum was isolated from 300 symptomatic garlic bulbs. Morphological identification of Fusarium was confirmed using species-specific PCR assays and EF-1α sequencing. Confirmation of pathogenicity was conducted with eighteen isolates. Six randomly selected F. proliferatum isolates from garlic were tested for specific pathogenicity and screened for fusaric acid production. Additionally, pathogenicity of each F. proliferatum isolate was tested on healthy seedlings of onion (Allium cepa, leek (A. porrum, scallions (A. fistulosum, chives (A. schoenoprasum and garlic (A. sativum. A disease severity index (DSI was calculated as the mean severity on three plants of each species with four test replicates. Symptoms on onion and garlic plants were observed three weeks after inoculation. All isolates tested produced symptoms on all varieties inoculated. Inoculation of F. proliferatum isolates from diseased garlic onto other Allium species provided new information on host range and pathogenicity. The results demonstrated differences in susceptibility with respect to host species and cultivar. The F. proliferatum isolates tested all produced fusaric acid (FA; correlations between FA production and isolate pathogenicity are discussed. Additionally, all isolates showed the presence of the FUM1 gene suggesting the ability of Spanish isolates to produce fumonisins.

  2. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  3. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion ( Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic ( Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum maju s of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  4. Selectable antibiotic resistance marker gene-free transgenic rice harbouring the garlic leaf lectin gene exhibits resistance to sap-sucking planthoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Subhadipa; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Mondal, Hossain A; Das, Sampa

    2010-03-01

    Rice, the major food crop of world is severely affected by homopteran sucking pests. We introduced coding sequence of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin, ASAL, in rice cultivar IR64 to develop sustainable resistance against sap-sucking planthoppers as well as eliminated the selectable antibiotic-resistant marker gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) exploiting cre/lox site-specific recombination system. An expression vector was constructed containing the coding sequence of ASAL, a potent controlling agent against green leafhoppers (GLH, Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). The selectable marker (hpt) gene cassette was cloned within two lox sites of the same vector. Alongside, another vector was developed with chimeric cre recombinase gene cassette. Reciprocal crosses were performed between three single-copy T(0) plants with ASAL- lox-hpt-lox T-DNA and three single-copy T(0) plants with cre-bar T-DNA. Marker gene excisions were detected in T(1) hybrids through hygromycin sensitivity assay. Molecular analysis of T(1) plants exhibited 27.4% recombination efficiency. T(2) progenies of L03C04(1) hybrid parent showed 25% cre negative ASAL-expressing plants. Northern blot, western blot and ELISA showed significant level of ASAL expression in five marker-free T(2) progeny plants. In planta bioassay of GLH and BPH performed on these T(2) progenies exhibited radical reduction in survivability and fecundity compared with the untransformed control plants.

  5. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del) and sniper. 1000EC (2,3 ... man and animals.1 It is estimated that 80% of the popula- ..... evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test ...

  6. Potential of white garlic powder ( Allium sativum L.) to modify in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing doses of garlic powder (GaP) on in vitro fermentation characteristics. Two successive 24-hour incubations were run, and gas production was measured at the end of each incubation period. Liquid samplings for each dose were reserved to determine ammonia ...

  7. Determination of radioinduced delay in DNA synthesis in two-garlic-clones cells (Allium Sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Lezcano, A.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1989-01-01

    To contribute to tech improvement of the use of ionizing radiations as an auxiliary tool in the fitoimprovement, dose-effect curves for the 'Martinez' and 'Sancti Spiritus-3' clones were stablished by using as effect the delay induced by radiations in DNA synthesis determined by the 'Martinez' clone which induces a delay of 50% in reference to the control is approximately 11 Gy, while the dose value for the 'Sancti Spiritus-3' clone is 18 Gy, thus the 'Martinez' clones has a higher sensitivity to radiations than the other clone, therefore it coincides with what we found for these clones other indexes are used as radiosensitivity criteria

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (allium sativum L.) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and meristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (author)

  9. Alliinase and cysteine synthase transcription in developing garlic (Allium sativum L.) over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrová, Katarina; Svoboda, Pavel; Milella, Luigi; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2018-06-15

    Garlic is a valuable source of healthy compounds, including secondary metabolites rich in sulphur such as cysteine sulphoxides (CSOs). Here, we present new qRT-PCR assays analysing the transcription of two genes encoding key enzymes in CSO biosynthetic pathways (cysteine synthase and alliinase) in developing garlic. We also identified a set of genes (ACT I, GAPDH, and TUB) to use as transcription normalisation controls. We showed that the (normalised) transcription of both enzymes was highest during sprouting and decreased significantly in fully developed leaves, which are the major CSO-producing organs. Transcriptional activity further declined at the end of the growing season. Different cultivars show similar sulphur metabolism gene expression when European garlics were compared to Chinese and American genotypes. The qRT-PCR assays presented are also suitable for investigating the effects of agricultural practices on CSO formation in garlic to satisfy consumer demands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cardio protective role of garlic (Allium Sativum) against oxidative stress induced by gamma radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Azab, KH.SH.; And Soliman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. The need to identify agents with a potential for preventing such damage has assumed great importance. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of raw garlic homogenate on cardiac endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes. Plasma lipid profile was also determined. Three different dosage levels (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 20 days were evaluated. The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) resulted in significant increase in cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS) along with reduction in cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities 1, 2 and 4 weeks following radiation exposure. These changes were associated with subendocardial loss of muscles and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells surrounded by edema. Depletion of cardiac endogenous antioxidants and rise in TEARS were significantly less in the garlic treated rats. Also, histological examination of cardiac tissue showed less damage. Garlic treatment significantly diminished the radiation induced increase in the plasma content of triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Significant amelioration was also observed in the plasma content of high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to irradiated rats. Among the three garlic treated groups, 250 mg/kg group showed the best protection in terms of biochemical and histopathological evidences. It could be concluded that the intake dose plays an important role on endogenous antioxidants and cytoprotective effects on the heart

  11. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19±1 0 C and 42±2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author)

  12. Storage behavior of an early garlic (Allium sativum L.) subject to gamma-ray radioinhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Curzio, O.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Garlic bulbs of an early cultivar (Rosado Paraguayo) were irradiated with a dose of 50 Gy of Co-60 gamma rays at 30 days after harvest. Experimental lots were stored up to 300 days in a commercial warehouse (6-32 degrees C; R.H. 40-50%). The treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of both marketable bulbs and cloves without affecting organoleptic properties. The results show that both the raw/fresh market for this early cultivar and the garlic processing industry would profit from the radioinhibition process

  13. Inhibitory effect of alliin from Allium sativum on the glycation of superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Shehwaz; Younus, Hina

    2017-10-01

    Inhibition of glycation is an important approach for alleviating diabetic complications. Alliin, the most abundant sulphur compound in garlic has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activity. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting its antiglycating activity. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alliin on glucose and methyglyoxal (MG)-induced glycation of an important antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD). Glycation of SOD resulted in a decrease in enzyme activity, fragmentation/cross-linking, reduced cross-reactivity with anti-SOD antibodies, both tertiary and secondary structural changes, and formation of AGEs and fibrils. Alliin offered protection against glucose or MG induced glycation of SOD. The antiglycating potential of alliin appears to be comparable with that of quercetin which is reported to be a potent natural inhibitor of glycation. Alliin has a good antiglycating effect and hence is expected to have therapeutic potential in the prevention of glycation-mediated diabetic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of irradiation on the volatile compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.; Liu, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of 0.15 kGy gamma irradiation on the content of volatile compounds in garlic bulbs during storage at room temperature were evaluated. The content of diallyl disulphide decreased immediately after irradiation. However, at the end of 8-month storage both irradiated and unirradiated samples showed a significant increase in diallyl disulphide

  15. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  16. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) using SSR, EST and AFLP markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm from the center of origin/diversity is important for the breeding and fingerprinting crop plants. In this study we utilized both dominant and co-dominant markers for the characterization of garlic samples from diverse geographic origins to assess the relative utility of these markers to id...

  18. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  19. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Iram

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs

  1. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L. bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuinan Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C and longer photoperiod (14 h treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA, which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C–14 h and 25°C/18°C–14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb formation under 20°C–14 h conditions, while the conditions of 25°C–14 h are critical for the bolting and bulbing of cv. G064.

  2. Establecimiento de un protocolo in vitro para el cultivo del ajo (Allium sativum en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Brenes-Madríz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del ajo en Costa Rica tiende a desaparecer, debido a la importación de esta hortaliza desde China y Taiwán y a la pérdida de calidad y vigor de la semilla, lo que ha provocado una reducción del área de siembra en el país. Para la investigación que se presenta en este artículo se utilizaron ajos cultivados en la zona de Llano Grande, Cartago, que pertenecen a pequeños agricultores que siembran con semilla heredada de generación en generación. Se evaluaron cuatro desinfecciones con hipoclorito de sodio a diferentes concentraciones y tiempos de exposición, además de cuatro medios de cultivo M&S (1962, con diferentes reguladores de crecimiento. La mayor sobrevivencia para el establecimiento in vitro se obtuvo lavando los bulbillos con agua y jabón y pasándolos después a una solución de Zetaran® y Agri-mycim® 5 g/l de cada uno por 45 minutos. Luego se realizó una segunda desinfección con hipoclorito de sodio al 3,5% p/v por 20 minutos en una cámara de flujo laminar y se realizaron tres lavados con agua bidestilada estéril. El medio de cultivo que presentó los mejores resultados fue el Murashige y Skoog (1962, complementado con 1mg/L de 2-isopenteniladenina (2ip y 2,5 mg/L de ácido indolacético (AIA. La tasa de sobrevivencia de los explantes oscila alrededor del 28,7% y se obtuvo un promedio de 1,6 brotes por explante, lo que se considera una tasa de brotación muy baja.

  3. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum in Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2, confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet.

  4. Establecimiento de plántulas in vitro de clones de ajo peruano (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy López Quintero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el establecimiento in vitro de dos clones de ajo peruano mediante el uso de procesos estandarizados de desinfección e introducción in vitro de meristemos de ajo de clones nacionales. Se validó el uso de hipocloritode calcio (1 g.L-1 e hipoclorito de sodio (0.1% como desinfectantes, permitiendo la eliminación total de los microorganismos presentes en los explantes yuna viabilidad del 66.3 y 64.5% en los clones P-007A y P-007B. El establecimiento in vitro de las plántulas se realizó en medio de cultivo MS con 0,5 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalen acético (ANA y 0,64 mg.L-1 de 2-Isopentil adenina(2ip, donde el clon P-007A desarrollo plántulas de 15mm con 2.52 hojas, mientras en el clon P-007B las plántulas tenían 13.6mm con 2.16 hojas. Las plántulas establecidas de ajo de los clones peruanos lograron los parámetros de desarrollo indicados para la etapa de establecimiento de la especie.

  5. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cd. High amounts of Cd were mainly accumulated in the vacuoles and nucleoli of cortical cells in differentiat- ing and ... The bulbs were germinated, and grown in 3 containers ..... Greger M 1999 Metal availability and bioconcentration in plants ...

  6. Heavy metal uptake and stress responses of hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2011), s. 289-295 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Heavy metal s * Uptake * Garlic Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2011

  7. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Karin Ried, Peter Fakler National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic's BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO, which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Keywords: garlic, S-allylcysteine, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, nitric oxide (NO, redox signaling, hypertension

  8. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum SEBAGAI ADITIF TERHADAP PENAMPILAN PRODUKSI AYAM PEDAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Frita Nuningtyas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Lapang Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Brawijaya, Desa Sumber Sekar Kecamatan Dau, Kabupaten Malang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan tepung bawang putih sebagai aditif pakan terhadap penampilan produksi ayam pedaging yang diukur melalui beberapa variable, yaitu: konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan (PBB, konversi pakan dan Income Over Feed Cost (IOFC. Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah DOC ayam pedaging strain Lohman Platinum yang diproduksi oleh PT. Multibreeder Adirama Indonesia Sidoarjo tbk., sebanyak 80 ekor yang tidak dibedakan jenis kelaminya dengan bobot badan awal rata-rata 47,85 ± 3,17 g/ekor dipelihara selama 35 hari. Koefisien keragaman (KK 7,89%. Pakan yang digunakan adalah jagung, bekatul, konsentrat dan tepung bawang putih. Pemberian pakan dan minum secara ad-libitum. Perlakuan yang diberikan adalah penambahan tepung bawang putih pada pakan dengan tingkat penggunaan P0 = pakan basal, P1 = pakan basal + tepung bawang putih 0,02%, P2 = pakan basal + tepung bawang putih 0,04%, P3 = pakan basal + tepung bawang putih 0,06%,dan P4= pakan basal + tepung bawang putih 0,08%. Data yang diperoleh diolah dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (ANOVA dari rancangan Acak Lengkap, dengan menggunakan 5 perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan. Perbedaan yang nyata pada perlakuan dilakukan dengan Uji Jarak Berganda Duncan’s. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan tepung bawang putih pada pakan memberikan pengaruh tidak nyata terhadap konsumsi pakan akan tetapi memberikan pengaruh berbeda sangat nyata (P < 0,01 terhadap pertambahan bobot badan (PBB, konversi pakan dan IOFC. Dimana PBB terbaik pada P2 yaitu: 1519,16 g/ekor, konversi pakan terendah pada P2 yaitu: 1,74 dan IOFC terbaik pada P2 yaitu: Rp. 10146,7 per ekor. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa dengan penambahan tepung bawang putih dalam pakan pada level 0,04% memberikan hasil yang paling baik terhadap penampilan produksi ayam pedaging.   Kata Kunci: Ayam Pedaging, Tepung Bawang Putih, Penampilan Produksi

  9. The Use of Garlic (Allium sativum as a Growth Promoter in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Dikel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging use of antibiotics and medicaments has resulted in chemical residue and resistant pathogens in cured fish. Chemical residue not only pollutes the environment, but also threatens consumer’s health. On the contrary, garlic as a well-known natural antibiotic that causes no environmental or physical side effects has shown to be effective for the treatment of many diseases in humans and animals. In aquaculture applications, garlic promotes growth, improves the immune system, stimulates appetite, and reinforces the control of fungal and bacterial pathogens. This review emphasis on the application of garlic in promotes of fish growth and the expectations of using garlic arrangements in aquaculture.

  10. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  11. Carbohydrates Components of Some Italian Local Landraces: Garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lisciani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the most widespread and ancient medicinal plants. Its health benefits are due to its chemical components, and among these is carbohydrate, whose characteristics have been so far little investigated. The aim of this study is to typify the various components of carbohydrate (starch, individual sugars, fructans, and total dietary fibre in four commonly consumed “Italian local landraces”: Bianco Piacentino, Rosso di Castelliri, Rosso di Sulmona, Rosso di Proceno, which are grown in two different geographical areas—Viterbo and Alvito—under the same agronomic conditions. This study will also evaluate how genotype and the cultivation area can affect the profile of the carbohydrate components of these landrace strains. Regarding unavailable carbohydrates, all of the varieties showed appreciable contents of fructans, the most representative component, which ranged from 45.8 to 54.4 g/100 g d.w. In contrast, total dietary fibre values varied from 9.1 to 13.1 g/100 g d.w. in Rosso di Castelliri and Bianco Piacentino, respectively, which are both grown in Viterbo. As for starch, only some traces were found, while the amount of total sugars ranged between 2.12 and 3.27 g/100 g d.w., with higher levels of sucrose. Our findings could provide important information that may be adopted to enhance and promote the quality of some local Italian garlic landraces through highlighting the influence that the cultivar and the environmental conditions can have on carbohydrates components.

  12. Effecacy of Diffrent Herbicides on Weed Control of Garlic (Allium Sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of diffrent herbicides on weeds and garlic in a randomized complete-block design with 12 treatments and three replications, at Siahdasht, Farooj, Khorasan, Iran. Treatments were included rates of 4, 8, 12 and 16 kg.ha-1 Chlorthal-dimethyl (Dacthal, rates of 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 5 lit.ha-1 Oxyfluorfen (Goal, rates of 1, 2, 3 and 6 lit.ha-1 Ioxynil (Totril, and a plot which was hand weeded at the beginning of growing season. Results of three stages sampling showed that weed response to type and amount of herbicide which was significantly (p

  13. Evaluation of some garlic (Allium Sativum L.) mutants resistant to white rot disease by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulsi, I.; Al-Safadi, B.; Mir ali, N.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2002-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to evaluate genetic diversity among eight garlic mutants resistant to white rot disease (Sclerotium cepivorum) and two controls. Twelve of 13 synthetic random primers were found to identify polymorphism in amplification products. Mutants characterised with moderate resistance to white rot were closely related to the control using cluster and correlation analyses. On the other hand, highly resistant mutants were quite distant from the control with low correlation coefficients. The banding patterns produced by primer OPB-15 (GGAAGGGTGTT) with highly resistant mutants may be used as genetic markers for early selection of resistant plants. (author)

  14. Enhancement of the neuroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus mycelium co-cultivated with Allium sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong Ki; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enriched with garlic extract (HGE) on rat pheochromocytoma nerve cells (PC12). The survival rates of the PC12 nerve cells and the neurite-bearing cells after the addition of HGE were estimated as 3.5 × 10(3) viable cells/ml and 2.3 × 10(3) viable cells/ml, respectively, which were 50% and 30% higher, respectively, compared with the untreated group. For the in vivo ischemia experiments, after treatment with the HGE extract, the hippocampal CA1 region was more strongly stained (>20%) than the control group, and the HGE extract also promoted higher staining levels than HFB, HM and HGEF, and even the garlic extract. This result indicates that HGE must have neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, HGE greatly decreased p21 gene expression to approximately 70% of the control and decreased p21 gene expression to even lower levels compared with HM, HGEF and the garlic extract. This work suggests that a synergistic effect of the H. erinaceus mycelium and the garlic extract (mainly allicin) exist because the amount of allicin in HGE (5.81 µg/ml) was lower than the garlic extract itself (6.89 µg/ml).

  15. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies.

  16. Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    In order to gain first insight into candidate Maillard reaction products formed upon thermal processing of garlic, mixtures of glucose and S-allyl-l-cysteine, the major sulfur-containing amino acid in garlic, were low-moisture heated, and nine major reaction products were isolated. LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and CD spectroscopy led to their identification as acortatarin A (1), pollenopyrroside A (2), epi-acortatarin A (3), xylapyrroside A (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbalde-hyde (5), 3-(allylthio)-2-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid (6), (4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (7), (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-[(4R)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]propanoic acid (8), and (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl)propanoic acid (9). Among the Maillard reaction products identified, compounds 5-9 have not previously been published. The thermal generation of the literature known spiroalkaloids 1-4 is reported for the first time. Sensory analysis revealed a bitter taste with thresholds between 0.5 and 785 μmol/kg for 1-5 and 7-9. Compound 6 did not show any intrinsic taste (water) but exhibited a strong mouthfullness (kokumi) enhancing activity above 186 μmol/kg. LC-MS/MS analysis showed 1-9 to be generated upon pan-frying of garlic with the highest concentration of 793.7 μmol/kg found for 6, thus exceeding its kokumi threshold by a factor of 4 and giving evidence for its potential taste modulation activity in processed garlic preparations.

  17. Collection and Morphological Characterization of some Native Allium Species of Khorassan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amirhasan hossini

    2017-08-01

    genotypes were significantly different in their morphological characteristics. Some of the traits like scape length, leaf colour, flower diameter and length and width of perianth were more diverse among the species and consequently were considered as the most discriminating traits whereas some qualitative traits like perianth segment form, ovary form and perianth tip form remain uniform amongst the species. There are number of studies indicating the existence of high genetic diversity in phenotypic characteristics of some species of Allium like garlic, onion and shallot .The traits having the higher coefficient of variance bring the opportunity for the wider range of selection. Correlation analysis revealed the significant correlations among some of the studied traits. High positive correlation observed among leaf length with scape length, scape diameter with perianth length, leaf width with scape diameter and scape diameter with flower diameter. In garlic, similar positive correlation was reported on leaf length and width with scape length. Considering the quantitative traits, various parameters like environmental conditions are also effective in correlation between traits along with the corresponding genetic controlling. Factor analysis is used to identify the most important factors involving in discriminating among the species and genotypes. Based on the results, the 42 morphological characters were classified into five main factors which could justify 91.62% of total variance. Characters like inflorescence diameter, scape diameter, flower form, pedicel length, filament length and ovary and style length were placed in the first factor and expressed 30.03% of the variation. The second factor that could explain 24.9% of variation was included scape form and length, leaf length and pedicel colour. The selected discriminating traits of this study were similar to the ones of Allium roseum which had been earlier introduced by Zammuri et al (2009. The first two factors

  18. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  19. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The onion (Allium cepa L. R2R3-MYB gene MYB1 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Schwinn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulb colour is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales. The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red, flavonols (pale yellow and chalcones (bright yellow. Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterised in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1 or flavonol (SG7, MYB29 production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5. MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressd and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (A. sativum L. plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  1. Synergistic antiosteoporotic effect of Lepidium Sativum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates (BP) therapy is a vital option to reduce the risk of bone fracture in people who suffer from osteoporosis. Yet, bisphosphonate have displayed several side effects. Lepidium sativum (LS) seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine to ...

  2. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii , Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that combat oxidative damage in biological entities. An antioxidant achieves this by slowing or preventing the oxidation process that can damage cells in the body. It does this by getting oxidized itself in place of the cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of four herbs viz. Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii, Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica which have frequent use in Indian cuisine. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts have shown significant amount reducing power. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum had significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.21± 0.3 mg/L and 0.176 ± 0.008 mg/L respectively. The aqueous leaf extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L showed low scavenging activity. Among all the leaf extracts, the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica has exhibited significantly high NO radical scavenging activity (80% with IC50 value of 0.11 ± 0.17 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples have showed significantly high superoxide radical scavenging activity. The activity was maximum for the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica, IC50 value is 4.36 ± 0.41 mg/L. anti lipid peroxide activities were very high ( 90 % for aqueous leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum (IC50 = 0.064 ± 0.85 mg/L and Centella asiatica (IC50 = 0.066 ± 0.9mg/L at a concentration of 0.16 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples were found to contain large amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exhibited high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These in vitro assays indicate that these plant extracts are significant source of natural antioxidants which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Ozougwu, J. C.1* and ... Key words: Allium cepa, paracetamol, hepatoprotective effects, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate ...... function tests to different stages of chronic liver diseases in HCV .... activity of alcoholic and aqueous extacts of Allium cepa linn.

  4. Impact of the allium genomes on plant breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the structures and characteristics of the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes have played significant roles in the genetic improvement of Allium crops. In this chapter I reflect upon the practical use of this genomic information for genetic improvement of the Alliums....

  5. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum—A. cepa monosomic addition lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium’s defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance. PMID:28800607

  6. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  7. Coriandrum sativum mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their biological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, N.; Aravindhan, V.; Ruckmani, K.; Vetha Potheher, I.

    2018-05-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by percolated green synthesis method using Coriandrum sativum leaf, root, seed and stem extracts and reported its antibacterial activity. The synthesized Ag NPs were confirmed by UV–visible Spectroscopy, Powder x-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analyzes. The Maximum absorbance observed around 400–450 nm reveal the characteristic absorbance of Ag NPs. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis shows the stability of synthesized NPs with average size varying from 35 to 53 nm and also zeta potential stability varying from ‑20 to ‑30 mV. The cubic structure, crystalline nature and purity of the material was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum shows the presence of various functional groups in the resultant material. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) image shows the surface morphology of the synthesized NPs and the Energy Dispersive x-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of silver metal ions. The Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram -ve) bacteria. Numerous studies have been made previously in our field of study but optimization has not been carried out by both extract (different parts like leaf, root, seed and stem) and without addition of any external source such as chemicals, heat etc.

  8. The Effects of Some Botanical Insecticides and Pymetrozine on Life Table Parameters of Silver Leaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Barati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of extracts of two medicinalplant species: Allium sativum (Linn and Calotropis procera (Aiton, and a formulation containingazadirachtin on life table parameters of silver leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci biotypeB (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, grown on greenhouse tomato plants. Theeffects were compared to that of pymetrozine, a synthetic insecticide. Bioassays were carriedout in a greenhouse under controlled conditions of 27 ± 2°C, R.H. of 55 ± 5% and 16:8h (L:D photo period.All treatments significantly affected the survivorship and fertility of SLW female adults,reducing the net reproduction rate, mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase ofthis insect.The net reproductive rate [R0] values for the populations treated with garlic extract,milkweed extract, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, control for extracts (ethanol + distilled waterand control for pesticides (distilled water were 23.58, 19.32, 10.78, 8.23, 49.66, 57.55; theintrinsic rate of increases [rm] were 0.134, 0.139, 0.110, 0.090, 0.177, 0.178; the mean generationtimes [T] were 23.49, 21.23, 21.66, 23.50, 22.06, 22.69; the doubling times [DT] were 5.14,4.95, 6.27, 7.56, 3.91, 3.87, and the finite rates of increase [λ] were 1.144, 1.149, 1.116, 1.094, 1.193,1.195, respectively. Azadirachtin had the highest effect on the life table parameters of SLW.Our findings indicated that, although herbal extracts were not effective as much asthe chemical insecticides, they can be effective in pest control. Therefore, they are suitablechoices for replacing chemical insecticides and for alternative use with azadirachtin inSLW IPM program.

  9. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  10. Different patterns of vein loading of exogenous [14C]sucrose in leaves of pisum sativum and coleus blumei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgeon, R.; Wimmers, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Vein loading of exogenous [ 14 C]sucrose was studied using short uptake and wash periods to distinguish between direct loading into veins and loading via mesophyll tissue. Mature leaf tissue of Pisum sativum L. cv Little Marvel, or Coleus blumei Benth. cv Candidum, was abraded and leaf discs were floated on [ 14 C]sucrose solution for 1 or 2 minutes. Discs were then washed for 1 to 30 min either at room temperature or in the cold and were frozen, lyophilized, and autoradiographed. In P. sativum, veins were clearly labeled after 1 minute uptake and 1 minute wash periods. Autoradiographic images did not change appreciably with longer times of uptake or wash. Vein loading was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. These results indicate that uptake of exogenous sucrose occurs directly into the veins in this species. When C. blumei leaf discs were floated on [ 14 C]sucrose for 2 minutes and washed in the cold, the mesophyll was labeled but little, if any, minor vein loading occurred. When discs were labeled for 2 minutes and washed at room temperature, label was transferred from the mesophyll to the veins within minutes. These results indicate that there may be different patterns of phloem loading of photosynthetically derived sucrose in these two species

  11. The CRC orthologue from Pisum sativum shows conserved functions in carpel morphogenesis and vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquin, Chloé; Primo, Amparo; Martínez-Fernández, Irene; Huet-Trujillo, Estefanía; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a member of the YABBY family of transcription factors involved in carpel morphogenesis, floral determinacy and nectary specification in arabidopsis. CRC orthologues have been functionally characterized across angiosperms, revealing additional roles in leaf vascular development and carpel identity specification in Poaceae. These studies support an ancestral role of CRC orthologues in carpel development, while roles in vascular development and nectary specification appear to be derived. This study aimed to expand research on CRC functional conservation to the legume family in order to better understand the evolutionary history of CRC orthologues in angiosperms. CRC orthologues from Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula were identified. RNA in situ hybridization experiments determined the corresponding expression patterns throughout flower development. The phenotypic effects of reduced CRC activity were investigated in P. sativum using virus-induced gene silencing. CRC orthologues from P. sativum and M. truncatula showed similar expression patterns, mainly restricted to carpels and nectaries. However, these expression patterns differed from those of other core eudicots, most importantly in a lack of abaxial expression in the carpel and in atypical expression associated with the medial vein of the ovary. CRC downregulation in pea caused defects in carpel fusion and style/stigma development, both typically associated with CRC function in eudicots, but also affected vascular development in the carpel. The data support the conserved roles of CRC orthologues in carpel fusion, style/stigma development and nectary development. In addition, an intriguing new aspect of CRC function in legumes was the unexpected role in vascular development, which could be shared by other species from widely diverged clades within the angiosperms, suggesting that this role could be ancestral rather than derived, as so far generally accepted. © The Author 2014. Published by

  12. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    textile effluent was 4.5 times more toxic than the paint effluent. ... Key words: Genotoxicity, paint, textile, industrial effluents, Allium cepa, mutation, pollution, chromosomal .... concentration of a chemical producing 50% of the total effect).

  13. Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Activity of Allium cepa. L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology. Kaduna ... Phytochemical analysis of Allium cepa L. ethanolic extract revealed the presence of. Saponins, Tanins, flavonoids and alkaloids while steroids were not detected.

  14. The effects of γ-ray irradiation on the cellular and subcellular structures of apical meristem in garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yufang; Qian Dongmei; Bian Qijun; Ying Tiejin

    1993-01-01

    Electronic microscopic study revealed that 2 ∼ 30 krads of γ-ray irradiation to garlic and onion could cause various damages to cellular and subcellular structures of the shoot apical meristem. Among the various oganelles, the vacuoles showed the highest radio-sensitivity while mitochondria and nucleus seemed to be most resistant to irradiation. The irradiated cells did not show any visible structural damages until the dormancy ended, suggesting that metabolism played an important role in the structural damages. The study also suggested that even after the irradiation which caused intensive subcellular structural damages, the tissues could survive. However, the potency of mitosis in the apex was lost, resulting in the inhibition of sprouting

  15. Sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa L.) by gamma irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    With the aim of verifying the possibilities and circumstances of sprout inhibition and storage life extension of onion and garlic by gamma irradiation, onion bulbs of variety Valenciana Sintetica 14 and garlic bulbs of a coloured locally grown variety were subjected to irradiation with 3 Krad of 60 Co gamma rays. The dose rate was 2440 rad/min; the irradiation conditions warranted a Dsub(max)/Dsub(min) ratio of 1.25. The irradiated bulbs and control samples of non-irradiated bulbs were investigated for a period of 270 to 330 days. Weight loss, external and internal sprouting, signs of decay, and the percentage of commercial bulbs were observed with the following results. Weight loss was found to be less in irradiated bulbs than in controls - 22% against 40% for onion and 33% against 65% for garlic. The dose of gamma radiation employed was proved to be sufficient for sprout inhibition in both species and for partial inhibition of decay and softening. The aroma of garlic was not impaired by irradiation. For both products, gamma irradiation was found to prolong the period of commercial utilizability

  16. Production of inulinase by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) peels in solid state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyachamy, M; Khelawan, K; Pillay, D; Permaul, K; Singh, S

    2007-10-01

    To access inulinase production by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli using the submerged and solid state cultivation (SSC) methods. Various carbon sources, inulin-rich solid substrates and pure synthetic inulin were tested for their efficiency in inulinase induction. The highest inulinase production (17.42 IU ml(-1)) in submerged cultures of X. campestris was observed with inulin as a carbon source with an initial pH, temperature and agitation of 7.0, 37 degrees C and 150 rev min(-1) respectively. Among the various substrates, garlic peels (117 IU gds(-1)) and onion peels (101 IU gds(-1)) were found to be the best for inulinase production. The inulinase production level of X. campestris was 6.7-fold higher in garlic and 5.8-fold in onion, under optimized SSC conditions compared with the submerged culture. This is the first report on inulinase production from garlic and onion peels by X. campestris using SSC. SSC is an efficient method for inulinase production by X. campestris for commercial applications.

  17. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  18. Effects of dietary mixture of garlic (Allium sativum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and probiotics on immune responses and caecal counts in young laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Kim, M J; Park, S H; Lee, S B; Wang, T; Jung, U S; Im, J; Kim, E J; Lee, K W; Lee, H G

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a combined mixture of phytogenic extracts (garlic and coriander) and probiotics on growth performance and immune responses in laying hens based on the results of in vitro studies to screen for immunomodulatory potency of each ingredient. Several parameters of immunomodulatory potency were estimated using lamina propria leucocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat intestinal mucosa tissue. Results show that the combined mixture enhanced LPLs proliferation, increased LPL-mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumour cells, and decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in LPLs. For in vivo study, laying hens (n = 50/each diet group) were fed with control diet, a diet containing antibiotics (0.01% per kg feed) or the combined mixture (0.02% per kg feed) for 21 days. The dietary combined mixture improved egg production (p < 0.05) but not growth performance and carcass traits. Interestingly, the patterns of suppressing plasma IFN-γ productions during inflammation by LPS injection and decreasing caecal E. coli counts in the combined mixture group were comparable to those in the antibiotics group. Taken together, our results suggested that the 0.02% of combined mixture of phytogenic extracts and probiotics as ingredients has potential immunomodulatory effects in laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great r...

  20. Genetic Diversity and Taxonomic Studies of Allium Akaka and A. Elburzense Native to Iran Using Morphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Sajad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Allium species (A. akaka S.G. Gmelin and A. elburzense W. native to Iran are used locally as the fresh vegetables and in medical therapy. They are not cultivated, but are collected from the wild, thus, will soon be threatened with extinction. In this study, the diversity of 15 wild accessions (4 accessions of A. elburzense endemic of Iran and 11 accessions of A. akaka collected from the north-western part of Iran were evaluated with the use of 16 qualitative and 16 quantitative characteristics. The morphological characters with high heritability included leaf length, flower number in umbel, inflorescence diameter, leaf dry weight, bulb fresh weight, weight of 100 seeds, seed length and seed length/width. Results of the principal component analysis indicated that 92.52% of the observed variability was explained by the first six components. The first two components explained about 64.74% of the total observed variability. The first and third hierarchical cluster analysis included all accessions of A. akaka. The accessions of A. elburzense, except one, were placed in a separate cluster. These morphological descriptors can successfully apply for evaluating morphological diversity of Allium wild accessions and can help in horticultural usage.

  1. Screening for resistance to the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) in Allium cepa and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Wietsma, W.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2000-01-01

    The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) is the most important pest in tropical Allium cultivations. All shallot ( Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum) cultivars are susceptible to this pest. Therefore accessions from three wild Allium species, namely A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. fistulosum L. and

  2. Utilização do alho (Allium sativum L.) como promotor de crescimento de frangos de corte Utilization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as growth promoter of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo de Freitas; José Brandão Fonseca; Rita da Trindade Ribeiro Nobre Soares; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Paulo Rubens Soares

    2001-01-01

    Três experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do alho na alimentação de frangos de corte, como promotor de crescimento. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 480 pintos de corte, sexados, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com oito repetições (quatro de machos e quatro de fêmeas), com dez aves cada uma. Os tratamentos foram: ração basal com milho, farelo de soja e fosfato bicálcio (RB1); RB1 + 0,2% de alho; RB1 + 0,4% de alho, RB1 + 0,6% de alho; RB1 + 0,001% de ...

  3. Utilização do alho (Allium sativum L. como promotor de crescimento de frangos de corte Utilization of garlic (Allium sativum L. as growth promoter of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo de Freitas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Três experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do alho na alimentação de frangos de corte, como promotor de crescimento. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 480 pintos de corte, sexados, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com oito repetições (quatro de machos e quatro de fêmeas, com dez aves cada uma. Os tratamentos foram: ração basal com milho, farelo de soja e fosfato bicálcio (RB1; RB1 + 0,2% de alho; RB1 + 0,4% de alho, RB1 + 0,6% de alho; RB1 + 0,001% de lincomicina e RB1 + 0,0025% de bacitracina de zinco. No segundo experimento, utilizaram-se 240 pintos de corte, sexados, distribuídos em três tratamentos com oito repetições (quatro de machos e quatro de fêmeas com dez aves cada uma. Os tratamentos foram ração basal com milho, farelo de soja e farinha de carne e ossos (RB2; RB2 + 0,2% de alho e RB2 + 0,4% de alho. No terceiro experimento, foram utilizadas 120 pintos de corte (fêmeas, criadas até aos 42 dias de idade, distribuídos em três tratamentos como descrito para o segundo experimento. Em todos os experimentos, foram avaliados consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. No primeiro e segundo experimentos, avaliou-se também o peso de intestino delgado. Em nenhum dos três experimentos, foram observados efeitos significativos dos tratamentos sobre as características avaliadas. As aves apresentaram desempenho normal, sugerindo que as condições nas quais foram desenvolvidas os experimentos não foram adequadas para obter respostas, devido à utilização de promotores de crescimento.Three experiments were carried out to evaluate garlic in broilers diets as growth promoter. In the first experiment 480 one day old chicks, sexed, were distributed in six treatments with eight replicates (four with males and four with females, with ten birds each. The treatments were: basal diet with corn , soybean meal and dicalcium phosphaate (RB1, RB1 + 0.2% garlic; RB1 + 0.4%garlic; RB1 + 0.6%garlic, RB1 + 0.01% lincomicin and RB1 + 0.0025% zinc bacitracin. In the second experiment 240 one day old chicks were distributed in three treatments with eight replicates (four with males and four with females, and ten birds each. The treatments were: basal diet with corn, soybean meal and bone and meat meal (RB2, RB2 + 0.2% garlic and RB2 + 0.4%garlic. In the third experiment 120 females broilers were used, raised up to 42 days of age, distributed in three treatments, as described for the second experiment. In all experiments feed intake, weight gain and feed convertion rate were evaluated. In the first and second experiments small intestine weight was also evaluated. There were no significant effects of tratments on the evaluated charactheristics in the three experiments. The birds presented normal performance, suggesting that the conditions they were raised were not suitable to get response due the utilization of growth promotors.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la actividad meristematica de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; Aparicio, C

    1979-07-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs.

  5. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES FOTOPERÍODOS NA BULBIFICAÇÃO DE DOIS CULTIVARES DE ALHO (Allium sativum L. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PHOTOPERIODS IN THE BULBING OF TWO GARLIC (Allium sativum L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monnerat

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este experimento foi realizado com duas variedades de alho, Amarante e Centenário, em condições de casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de fotoperíodos de 9, 12, 15 horas e natural, sobre a bulbificação dessa hortaliça. Plantas submetidas a fotoperíodos de 12 e 15 horas receberam 9 horas de luz natural e complementação com luz incandescente, com intensidade luminosa de 180 lux, aproximadamente. Observou-se que fotoperíodos mais longos antecipam o início de bulbificação, reduzindo o ciclo da cultura, em ambos os cultivares. O aumento do comprimento do dia promoveu decréscimo no peso dos bulbos na ocasião da colheita como resultado da redução do estágio de crescimento dos bulbos. A ocorrência de bulbificação em todos os tratamentos indica que o fotoperíodo crítico é inferior a 9 horas, em ambos os cultivares.

    This experiment was carried out with two garlic varieties, Amarante and Centenário, under greenhouse conditions in order to verify the effect of the photoperiod of 9, 12, 15 hours, and natural, on the bulbing of that vegetable. Plants exposed to photoperiod of 12 and 15 hours, received 9 hours of sunlight followed by incandescent light (180 lux, aproximately. Results show that long-day treatments hasten the bulb formation with reduction of the culture cycle, in both varieties. The increase of day-length caused decrease of bulb weight at the time of harvesting, as result of the shortening of the bulb’s growth stage. The occurrence of bulbing in all treatments indicated that the critical photoperiod is lower than 9 hours, in both varieties.

  6. Estudio de los genes allinasa y quitinasa en el ajo costarricense (Allium sativum L. Study of the genes alliinase and chitinase in materials of costarican garlic (Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Barboza Rojas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del ajo en Costa Rica se ha visto afectado por la calidad y cantidad de semillas almacenadas. La producción de los bulbos también se ve deteriorada por las enfermedades. Sin embargo, este cultivo es apetecido por su sabor, considerado superior al del ajo importado de China. La pungencia del ajo está dada en parte por la acción de la enzima allinasa. Además, la resistencia a ciertos hongos patógenos está influenciada por la actividad de la enzima quitinasa. En el presente estudio se analizaron los genes que codifican para ambas enzimas, utilizando plántulas in vitro obtenidas a partir de materiales de las zonas de Llano Grande, Santa Ana, Miramar, San Ramón y de ajo importado de China. Se compararon y estudiaron las secuencias de ADN utilizando estos genes, con el fin de encontrar diferencias que permitieran la caracterización de distintos materiales. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron la presencia de distintas copias del gen allinasa. El gen de la quitinasa presentó una secuencia muy conservada en todos los materiales analizados. Se encontraron dos intrones altamente conservados en el germoplasma costarricense y el material de referencia asiático. Se concluyó que el ajo costarricense es muy similar al asiático. Y se presenta el primer informe de la existencia de intrones en la quitinasa del ajo.Garlic production in Costa Rica has been affected by the quality and quantity of the harvested seeds. Bulb production has also been deteriorated by diseases. However, this crop is preferred for its flavor, considered superior to the one imported from China. Pungency of garlic is partially due to the action of the alliinase enzyme. Furthermore, the resistance to certain pathogenic fungi is influenced by the chitinase enzyme activity. The encoding genes for both enzymes were analyzed in this study, by using in vitro plantlets obtained from local materials from Llano Grande, Santa Ana, Miramar and San Ramon zones and garlic imported from China. By using these genes, DNA sequences were compared and studied in order to find differences that allow the characterization of various materials. The results showed the presence of different alliinase gene copies. The chitinase gene presented a highly conserved sequence in all materials tested. Two highly conserved introns were found in the Costa Rican germplasm and the Asian reference material. It was concluded that Costa Rican garlic is very similar to the Asian. Also, the first report of the existence of introns in the chitinase of garlic is presented here.

  7. Investigation of coriander germination (Coriandrum sativum L.

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    Aćimović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriander seed yield (Coriandrum sativum L. depends of many factors during vegetation period, and also depend of seed quality. Coriander fruit (Coriandri fructus which is used like spice and in medicinal purpose, and also in food and pharmacy, in the same time is and seed material. Because of that, it is very important to take care about its quality. In this paper is analyzed seed material obtained from field experiments village Mošorin, in 2011, and investigated was conducted in harvest year, and one year later. In harvest year, germination energy in average was 38,21%, and total germination 72,75%. After one year, germination energy was statistically significant smaller - 16,50%, as like total germination which was 67,42%.

  8. Integrated transcriptome catalogue and organ-specific profiling of gene expression in fertile garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Rina; Faigenboim, Adi; Shemesh Mayer, Einat; Ben Michael, Tomer; Gershberg, Chen; Kimhi, Sagie; Esquira, Itzhak; Rohkin Shalom, Sarit; Eshel, Dani; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Sherman, Amir

    2015-01-22

    Garlic is cultivated and consumed worldwide as a popular condiment and green vegetable with medicinal and neutraceutical properties. Garlic cultivars do not produce seeds, and therefore, this plant has not been the subject of either classical breeding or genetic studies. However, recent achievements in fertility restoration in a number of genotypes have led to flowering and seed production, thus enabling genetic studies and breeding in garlic. A transcriptome catalogue of fertile garlic was produced from multiplexed gene libraries, using RNA collected from various plant organs, including inflorescences and flowers. Over 32 million 250-bp paired-end reads were assembled into an extensive transcriptome of 240,000 contigs. An abundant transcriptome assembled separately from 102,000 highly expressed contigs was annotated and analyzed for gene ontology and metabolic pathways. Organ-specific analysis showed significant variation of gene expression between plant organs, with the highest number of specific reads in inflorescences and flowers. Analysis of the enriched biological processes and molecular functions revealed characteristic patterns for stress response, flower development and photosynthetic activity. Orthologues of key flowering genes were differentially expressed, not only in reproductive tissues, but also in leaves and bulbs, suggesting their role in flower-signal transduction and the bulbing process. More than 100 variants and isoforms of enzymes involved in organosulfur metabolism were differentially expressed and had organ-specific patterns. In addition to plant genes, viral RNA of at least four garlic viruses was detected, mostly in the roots and cloves, whereas only 1-4% of the reads were found in the foliage leaves. The de novo transcriptome of fertile garlic represents a new resource for research and breeding of this important crop, as well as for the development of effective molecular markers for useful traits, including fertility and seed production, resistance to pests and neutraceutical characteristics.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation and ethyl methane sulphonate on flavour formation in garlic (Allium sativum L. ) cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malpathak, N.P.; David, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    In callus cultures both gamma irradiation and EMS treatments produced stimul ation of flavour formation at lower as well as at higher dosages. Different results were obtained when the plantlets differentiated from both the treatments were analysed. There was a gradual increase in flavour formation with increasing dosages, which declined at a higher dosages. Cytological observations showed an increase in polyploidy with increasing dosages. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Detection of yellow dwarf virus onion (OYDV) and garlic common latent virus (GCLV) in Costa Rican garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Watson, Anny Vannesa; Chacon Cerdas, Randall; Zuniga Vega, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Viral diseases have been responsible for significant losses in crop yield of garlic in the world. Costa Rican material Garlic has been analyzed to determine the incidence of : onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), the leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), shallot latent virus (SLV) and garlic common latent virus (GLCV). The DAS-ELISA technique has been used for status native plant material. Bulbs field apparently normal (N), normal with yellow tunic (TA) and deformed (D) and normal field sheets (N), symptomatic (S) and possible presence of viral vectors (VT) were used. Vitroplants product have analyzed the introduction of apices of 1,0 and 0,5 cm in length teeth from normal (N) and yellow tunic (TA). The 33% of the bulbs GCLV field were analyzed for positive (TA), whereas OYDV was detected 100% appearance regardless. 100% of the plantlets have presented without infection of GCLV, the OYDV only those introduced in apices of 1,0 cm from bulbs with yellow robes have shown without effect. GCLV is determined for 100% of the samples for both batches OYDV bulb formation in vitro and in only 50%. In the Costa Rican garlic has concluded that are present the viruses of GCLV and OYDV, with a high incidence on local material and differential infection according to the organ analyzed. Various methodologies combined are recommended together with the apexes vitro cultivation, for more effective viral clearance and thus increase the value and boost the local seed crop. (author) [es

  11. UPLC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of compositional changes for organosulfur compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Park, So-Lim; Lee, Sanghee; Lee, So-Young; Ko, Sungho; Yoo, Miyoung

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) for the quantification of 11 organosulfur compounds and analysis of their compositional changes in garlic during fermentation using 3 different microbe strains. The calibration curves of all 11 analytes exhibited good linearity (R⩾0.995), and the mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were greater than 81.63% with relative standard deviations of less than 12.79%. Investigation of the compositional changes revealed that the γ-glutamyl peptides content in fermented blanched garlic reduced, whereas the content of the compounds in biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteines from γ-glutamyl peptides increased significantly. Our results also indicated that starter cultures can be used selectively in the production of fermented garlic to increase the amounts of the desired organosulfur compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of 15N fertilizer in field-lysimeters sown with garlic (Allium sativum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the distribution of residual 15 N and its uptake by a foxtail millet crop grown in field lysimeters following a previous garlic crop fertilized with either 15 N-urea or 15 N-ammonium sulphate. Garlic apparently removed more N from the lysimeters treated with urea-N than from those treated with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Fertilizer-N in the lysimeters was similar (ca. 32% of original) following millet harvest. About 16 per cent of both fertilizers in the lysimeters was removed by the millet. (orig.)

  13. A Protocol for Rapid, Measurable Plant Tissue Culture Using Stem Disc Meristem Micropropagation of Garlic ("Allium Sativum L.")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Gerry; Jones, Meriel

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the mass propagation of plants. Problems with existing techniques, such as slow growth and contamination, have restricted the practical work in plant tissue culture carried out in schools. The new protocol using garlic meristematic stem discs explained in this article addresses many of…

  14. The effect of oral administration of Allium sativum extracts on lead nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Arti; Kansal, Leena

    2010-03-01

    Lead is a common environmental occupational toxic metal, known to have indirect oxidative effects. Considering the antioxidant properties of garlic, this study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of garlic extracts in terms of normalization of altered hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters, and depletion of inorganic lead burden in blood, kidney and brain tissues. Chronic lead nitrate ingestion showed a significant decline in total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte and monocyte content, while neutrophil content increased in lead nitrate treated group. Pb(NO(3))(2) exposure elicited a significant escalation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and depletion in reduced glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase and catalase in kidney and brain. Activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase augmented significantly in kidney and brain of lead exposed mice. Lead nitrate treatment decreased protein content while cholesterol and lead burden increased significantly. A decrease in viability of macrophage, phagocytic index, immunoglobulin level and plaque count were the salient features observed in lead exposed animals. However, oral administration of garlic extracts to Pb(NO(3))(2) treated groups attenuated the deranged parameters to some extent. This indicates that garlic can be a protective regimen for lead toxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up with a comprehensive conclusion. PMID:23998014

  16. The Usage of Garlic Extract (Allium sativum to Cure Pangasius Fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Infected by Aeromonas hydrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Muslim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know effectivity of the garlic extract to cure Pangasius catfish that infected by A. hidrophylla bacteria. This research was done on February to April 2007, at Aquaculture Laboratory FP UNSRI. This research used Completely Randomised Design (CRD with five treatments and three replications. The concentration of the garlic extract that used were 0 % (control, 0.2 %, 0.4 %, 0.6 %, 0.8 %. The parameters inspected include SR of fish that infected; SR of fish had been treatment, Relative Percent Survival (RPS, clinical symptom and water quality. The highest survival rate percentage is treatments A4 (0.8 % with average value 66.66 %. The best concentration of garlic extract that can heal the fish until ≥ 50 % (RPS value from totally sample of fish were treatments A4 (0.8 %, A3 (0.6 %, and A2 (0.4 %. The clinical symptom after cure and care as long as fourteen days indicated in control (without garlic extract has been found hard damage bodies organ and the mortality fish effect, but in treatments A1 (0.2 %, A2 (0.4 %, A3 (0.6 %, and A4 (0.8 % recover after submerged with garlic extract. The water quality parameters during experiment in each treatments such as temperature was 27 - 29 oC, pH 6-6.5, Dissolved Oxygen 5.24 - 6.87 mg/l, and Ammonia 0.09 - 0.46 mg/l. Keywords: garlic extract, pangasius fish, A. hydrophylla bacteria   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektivitas ekstrak bawang putih untuk mengobati penyakit bakterial pada ikan patin yang disebabkan A. hidrophylla. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari - April  2007, di Laboratorium Budidaya Perairan, FP UNSRI. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap,  5 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan.  Konsentrasi ekstrak bawang putih yang digunakan adalah  0 % (kontrol, 0,2 %, 0,4 %, 0,6 %, 0,8 %.  Parameter yang diamati meliputi SR ikan yang terinfeksi, SR ikan setelah diberi perlakuan, RPS, gejala klinis serta kualitas air. Persentase SR tertinggi pada perlakuan A4  (0,8 % sebesar 66,66 %. Konsentrasi ekstrak bawang putih yang dapat menyembuhkan ikan sampai ≥ 50 % (nilai RPS dari jumlah total ikan berturut-turut adalah perlakuan A4 (0,8 %, A3 (0,6 %, dan A2 (0,4 %.  Gejala klinis setelah pengobatan dan pemeliharaan selama 14 hari menunjukkan pada perlakuan kontrol (tanpa ekstrak bawang putih terdapat kerusakan organ tubuh paling parah dan menyebabkan ikan mati, sedangkan pada perlakuan A1   (0,2 %, A2 (0,4 %, A3 ( 0,6 %, dan A4 (0,8 %, gejala klinis pada tubuh ikan berangsur sembuh setelah direndam dengan ekstrak bawang putih. Parameter kualitas air selama pemeliharaan pada masing-masing perlakuan yaitu suhu (27-29oC, pH (6-6,5, O2 terlarut (5,24-6,87 mg/l dan amonia (0,09-0,46 mg/l. Kata kunci : ekstrak bawang putih,  ikan patin, bakteri A . hydrophylla.  

  17. Phloem-specific expression of the lectin gene from Allium sativum confers resistance to the sap-sucker Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Vani, Kalasamudramu; Kaul, Tanushri; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-05-01

    Rice production is severely hampered by insect pests. Garlic lectin gene (ASAL) holds great promise in conferring protection against chewing (lepidopteran) and sap-sucking (homopteran) insect pests. We have developed transgenic rice lines resistant to sap-sucking brown hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) by ectopic expression of ASAL in their phloem tissues. Molecular analyses of T0 lines confirmed stable integration of transgene. T1 lines (NP 1-2, 4-3, 11-6 & 17-7) showed active transcription and translation of ASAL transgene. ELISA revealed ASAL expression was as high as 0.95% of total soluble protein. Insect bioassays on T2 homozygous lines (NP 18 & 32) revealed significant reduction (~74-83%) in survival rate, development and fecundity of brown hoppers in comparison to wild type. Transgenics exhibited enhanced resistance (1-2 score) against brown hoppers, minimal plant damage and no growth penalty or phenotypic abnormalities.

  18. The Effect of Drought Stress and Plant Density on Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Akbari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is the most important growth limiting factor for crop production. Sugar accumulation under drought stress strengthens and stabilizes cell membranes and maintains the water absorption and turgid property. Under stress conditions, proline will also maintain the turgor pressure and decreased the damages caused to plant membrane. Although proline concentrations may have undesirable effects on plant growth, because of deflecting photosynthetic resources to the processes that are not involved in plant growth. Chloroplasts and its pigments are also affected by drought stress. Density is one of the factors that has a significant impact on plant growth. Garlic is one of the edible plants which has generated considerable interest throughout human history because of its pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of drought stress and plant density on some biochemical and physiological treats of two garlic ecotypes and determining the more resistant ecotype. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in 2011-2012 in a farm land at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design in three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation regimes (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC that were assigned as the main plot and the factorial combination of 3 levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants. m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud made up the sub-plots. The water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 crop water requirements instruction. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate evapotranspiration. To calculate the content of soluble sugar, proline and leaves pigment, the samples were collected in a random way from the youngest fully expended leaves one month before the final harvest. Relative water content was estimated by measuring dry weight, fresh weight and turgor weight. All calculations were performed with the help of the SAS and MSTATC soft wares. The statistical significances of mean values were assessed by analysing of variance and LSD tests at P

  19. Distribution of /sup 15/N fertilizer in field-lysimeters sown with garlic (Allium sativum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, M.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Ciencas Agrarias)

    1982-01-01

    We examined the distribution of residual /sup 15/N and its uptake by a foxtail millet crop grown in field lysimeters following a previous garlic crop fertilized with either /sup 15/N-urea or /sup 15/N-ammonium sulphate. Garlic apparently removed more N from the lysimeters treated with urea-N than from those treated with (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Fertilizer-N in the lysimeters was similar (ca. 32% of original) following millet harvest. About 16 per cent of both fertilizers in the lysimeters was removed by the millet.

  20. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies. PMID:26029231

  1. Molecular characterization of a distinct monopartite begomovirus associated with betasatellites and alphasatellites infecting Pisum sativum in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M S; Pudashini, B J; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2017-04-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) plants exhibiting leaf distortion, yellowing, stunted growth and reduction in leaf size from Rampur, Nepal were shown to be infected by a begomovirus in association with betasatellites and alphasatellites. The begomovirus associated with the disease showed only low levels of nucleotide sequence identity (characterized begomoviruses. This finding indicates that the pea samples were infected with an as yet undescribed begomovirus for which the name Pea leaf distortion virus (PLDV) is proposed. Two species of betasatellite were identified in association with PLDV. One group of sequences had high (>78%) nucleotide sequence identity to isolates of Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB), and the second group had less than 78% to all other betasatellite sequences. This showed PLDV to be associated with either LuLDB or a previously undescribed betasatellite for which the name Pea leaf distortion betasatellite is proposed. Two types of alphasatellites were identified in the PLDV-infected pea plants. The first type showed high levels of sequence identity to Ageratum yellow vein alphasatellite, and the second type showed high levels of identity to isolates of Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. These are the first begomovirus, betasatellites and alphasatellites isolated from pea.

  2. Non-photosynthetic mechanisms of growth reduction in pea (Pisum sativum L.) exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Mepsted, R.; Wellburn, A.R.; Paul, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Pisum sativum cv. Guido grown under controlled environment conditions was exposed to either low or high UV-B radiation (2·2 or 9·9 kJ m –2 d –1 plant-weighted UV-B, respectively). Low or high UV-B was maintained throughout growth (LL and HH treatments, respectively) or plants were transferred between treatments when 22 d old (giving LH and HL treatments). High UV-B significantly reduced plant dry weight and significantly altered plant morphology. The growth and morphology of plants transferred from low to high UV-B were little affected, when compared with those of LL plants. By contrast, plants moved from high to low UV-B showed marked increases in growth when compared with HH plants. This contrast between HL and LH appeared to be related to the effect of UV-B on plant development. Exposure to high UV-B throughout development consistently reduced leaf areas. In fully expanded leaves there was no significant UV-B effect on cell area and reduced leaf area could be attributed to reduced cell number, suggesting effects on leaf primordia. Further reductions in the leaf area of younger leaves were the result of the slower development rate of plants grown at high UV-B, which also resulted in significant reductions in leaf number. (author)

  3. Influence of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L. essential oils on the growth of some yeasts and moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from spices, as natural antimicrobial agents, attract particular attention due to their possible role in food protection from microorganisms, and their nontoxicity, in contrast to the synthetic preservatives. In this work, inhibitory effect of Allium ampeloprasum and two onions (Allium cepa, Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar, essential oils in different concentrations (1, 4, 7 and 10% on three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula sp. and three moulds (Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium griseofulvum and Eurotium amstelodami was investigated. All three essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. cerevisiae in concentration of only 1%. Among onions, Kupusinski jabučar essential oil had stronger influence to C. tropicalis, while Allium ampeloprasum essential oil did not show any influence on this yeast. Rhodotorula sp. was influenced only by Allium ampeloprasum essential oil. The strongest inhibitory effect on A. tamarii showed Kupusinski jabučar (57% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%, while on P. griseofulvum, the strongest influence showed Allium ampeloprasum essential oil (78.3% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%. Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar essential oils, in concentrations of 7 and 10% respectively, completely inhibited the growth of E. amstelodami.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  5. Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

    2011-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.

  6. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Allium chinense bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Pin Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Allium chinense is a medicinal plant and nutritional food commonly used in Eastern Asia. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity (scavenging of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical, total phenol content, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity and constituents of various extracts from A. chinense. Moreover, we also studied the in vivo hypolipidemic effects of extracts on high-fat-diet Wistar rats. Ethanol extracts from A. chinense showed notable antioxidant activity, and its high-dose essential-oil extract both significantly reduced serum and hepatic total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels and increased serum high-density lipoprotein levels in high-fat-diet Wistar rats compared with those observed following treatment with the control drug probucol. Additionally, visceral fat in high-fat-diet Wistar rats was reduced. Furthermore, groups with high doses of essential-oil and residue extracts showed protective effects associated with histopathological liver alteration. These results suggested that A. chinense is a valuable plant worthy of further investigation as a potential dietary supplement or botanical drug.

  7. Methylmercury as a mitosis disturbing agent. [Allium cepa; Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1969-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the genetic effects of mercurials. These investigations included both cytological and genetical analyses. One of the main purposes of the investigations was to establish the lowest dose of the mercurials, which was genetically active. For the cytological work root tips cells of Allium cepa were used, while the genetical analyses were preformed on Drosophila melanogaster. The cytological tests on Allium included methyl mercury hydroxide, methyl mercury dicyandiamide, phenyl mercury hydroxide, and methoxyethylmercury chloride. The pesticide Panogen was also tested. The results from these studies are summarized.

  8. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  9. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  10. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver damage due to paracetamol hepatotoxicity is a major health challenge worldwide. It is against this background that this study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of the increasing dosage of Allium cepa methanolic extracts on paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rats. Fifty-four (54) adult male albino ...

  12. Verkorting van de kweekcyclus bij ui (Allium cepa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, van J.

    1970-01-01

    With an annual production of about 250 000 to 300 000 tons, onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most important outdoor vegetable crop in the Netherlands. The greater part, namely 70 to 80 %, has to be exported, and is meeting increasing competition. For this reason and in connection with changed growing

  13. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium ... The use of plant root tips, particularly those of A. cepa and Vicia faba, as a bioassay test system for the genotoxicity of pesticides has shown extremely ..... the long run, even below the recommended dose.

  14. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium cepa. Primary roots of A. cepa were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) of ethion solutions for different duration of time. The result revealed that increase in the concentration and duration of treatment ...

  15. A revision of the genus Allium L. (Liliaceae) in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde-Duyfjes, de B.E.E.

    1976-01-01

    The present revision deals with the morphology, taxonomy, and geography of Allium, indigenous or cultivated, on the continent of Africa. Many data on ecology, anatomy, and other botanical disciplines, either compiled from the herbarium labels, from observations in the

  16. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts ofCupressus lusitanica and threeEucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisanework N.; Michelsen, Anders

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf ex...

  17. Effects of long-term reduced tillage on weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivated under conditions of conventional (CT, reduced (RT and herbicide tillage (HT. It demonstrated the highest weed density per m2 in plots with the herbicide (HT and reduced (RT systems and significantly lower weed infestation in plots cultivated in the conventional system (CT. In addition, more weeds occurred at the third leaf stage (13/14 in BBCH scale than at the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH of pea. The highest biomass was produced by weeds in the herbicide system (HT, a lower one – in the reduced system (RT, and the lowest one – in the conventional system (CT. The air-dry weight of weeds depended also on pea development stage. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the air-dry weight of weeds was significantly higher than at the third leaf stage (13/14 BBCH. The tillage system was also observed to influence the species composition of weeds. This trait was also affected by the period of weed infestation assessment. At the third leaf stage of pea (13/14 BBCH, there occurred 26 weed species, including 24 annual ones. The most abundant species included: Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Med., Matricaria inodora L., Thlaspi arvense L., and Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the pea crop was colonized by 24 weed species, including 3 perennial ones. At this stage the predominant species included: Avena fatua L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Papaver rhoeas L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.B., Matricaria inodora L., and Galeopsis tetrahit L.

  18. Ultraviolet-B radiation causes tendril coiling in Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosché, M.; Strid, A.

    2000-01-01

    Low dose UV-B radiation (UV-B BE,300 = 0.1 W m -2 ), but neither UV-A radiation, ozone and NaCl stress, nor wounding, caused tendril coiling in Pisum sativum. This coiling occurred with both attached and detached tendrils and can be used as a specific UV-B stress marker in pea

  19. The Effect of Coriander Sativum Seeds on Performance in Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) as diet ingredient on the ... coriander seed, the antibiotic, the 4% and the 0.5% coriander seed. ... of this, aromatic plants and essential oils extracted from these plants have ..... Effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on performance of broilers after.

  20. The effect of flurprimidol on Allium rosenbachianum Reg. forced in pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Laskowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flurprimidol on Allium rosenbachianum (Reg. flowering and forcing period was studied. Bulbs of 18-20 cm circumference were used in the experiment. Two methods of retardant application were used: bulbs soaking before planting and triple spraying of plants during the vegetation period (in the stage of leaf rosette, open leaves and in the phase of green, ‘sitting’ bud. Flurprimidol was used in the following doses: 15 mg ∙dm -3 , 30 mg ∙dm -3 , 45 mg ∙dm -3 and control (plants treated with distilled water. Bulbs were planted into pots on the 20 th of October and ‘wet cooled’ for 14 weeks in the temperature of 9°C. During forcing in a greenhouse, morphological features of plants were observed. It was noted that flurprimidol may be effectively used for suppressing A. rosenbachianum forced in a greenhouse as a pot plant. Flurprimidol used in concentration of 45 mg ∙dm -3 significantly inhibited growth of shoots and length of flower pedicels and leaves and increased number of flowers in inflorescences at the same time. Soaking bulbs of A. rosenbachianumin flurprimidol solution before planting shortened forcing period by 4 days.

  1. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Cichorium intybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, B.; Mathieu, A.-S.; Van den Ende, W.; Vergauwen, R.; Périlleux, C.; Javaux, M.; Lutts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a cash crop cultivated for inulin production in Western Europe. This plant can be exposed to severe water stress during the last 3 months of its 6-month growing period. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a progressive decline in water availability on plant growth, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism and to determine its impact on inulin production. Water stress drastically decreased fresh and dry root weight, leaf number, total leaf area, and stomatal conductance. Stressed plants, however, increased their water-use efficiency and leaf soluble sugar concentration, decreased the shoot-to-root ratio and lowered their osmotic potential. Despite a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, the photosynthesis light phase remained unaffected under water stress. Water stress increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity in the leaves but not in the roots. Water stress inhibited sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1 fructosyltransferase after 19 weeks of culture and slightly increased fructan 1-exohydrolase activity. The root inulin concentration, expressed on a dry-weight basis, and the mean degree of polymerization of the inulin chain remained unaffected by water stress. Root chicory displayed resistance to water stress, but that resistance was obtained at the expense of growth, which in turn led to a significant decrease in inulin production. PMID:22577185

  2. Virus-induced plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 silencing inhibits plant water transport of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juanjuan; Ye, Guoliang; Qian, Zhengjiang; Ye, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to facilitate water transport across cell membranes, but the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport, particularly in plants other than Arabidopsis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique was employed to suppress the expression of a specific plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 of Pea plants (Pisum sativum), and subsequent effects of the gene suppression on root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), leaf hydraulic conductivity (K leaf ), root cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp rc ), and leaf cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp lc ) were investigated, using hydroponically grown Pea plants. Compared with control plants, VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants displayed a significant suppression of PsPIP2;1 in both roots and leaves, while the expression of other four PIP isoforms (PsPIP1;1, PsPIP1;2, PsPIP2;2, and PsPIP2;3) that were simultaneously monitored were not altered. As a consequence, significant declines in water transport of VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants were observed at both organ and cell levels, i.e., as compared to control plants, Lp r and K leaf were reduced by 29 %, and Lp rc and Lp lc were reduced by 20 and 29 %, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PsPIP2;1 alone contributes substantially to root and leaf water transport in Pea plants, and highlight VIGS a useful tool for investigating the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport.

  3. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and

  4. Characterization of a 65 kDa NIF in the nuclear matrix of the monocot Allium cepa that interacts with nuclear spectrin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Munive, Clara; Blumenthal, Sonal S D; de la Espina, Susana Moreno Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells have a well organized nucleus and nuclear matrix, but lack orthologues of the main structural components of the metazoan nuclear matrix. Although data is limited, most plant nuclear structural proteins are coiled-coil proteins, such as the NIFs (nuclear intermediate filaments) in Pisum sativum that cross-react with anti-intermediate filament and anti-lamin antibodies, form filaments 6-12 nm in diameter in vitro, and may play the role of lamins. We have investigated the conservation and features of NIFs in a monocot species, Allium cepa, and compared them with onion lamin-like proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the pea 65 kDa NIF were used in 1D and 2D Western blots, ICM (imunofluorescence confocal microscopy) and IEM (immunoelectron microscopy). Their presence in the nuclear matrix was analysed by differential extraction of nuclei, and their association with structural spectrin-like proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in ICM. NIF is a conserved structural component of the nucleus and its matrix in monocots with Mr and pI values similar to those of pea 65 kDa NIF, which localized to the nuclear envelope, perichromatin domains and foci, and to the nuclear matrix, interacting directly with structural nuclear spectrin-like proteins. Its similarities with some of the proteins described as onion lamin-like proteins suggest that they are highly related or perhaps the same proteins.

  5. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Lepidium sativum germination to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in soil(s) artificially and historically contaminated with mixtures of PAR The level of germination of L. sativum decreased with increasing...

  6. The effects of boron on improving aluminium tolerance in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the role of boron (BO33- on improving tolerance of coriander plant (Coriandrum sativum L. subjected to different concentrations of aluminum (Al3+ was evaluated. In this regard, an experiment was implemented with seven different concentrations of aluminum including: 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 mg/L Al3+ and three concentrations of boron including: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L BO33- with the control treatment. The experiment was concluded based on completely randomized design with three replications. Seeds of coriander were germinated in germinator and seedlings were grown in Hogland´s solution with different boron and aluminium concentrations. Results showed that different levels of Al3+, decreased dry weight, leaf area, length of shoot and root, amount of chlorophyll and aluminium, while proline concentration and Al3+accumulation increased. Nearly, in all concentrations of Al3+, plant height, dry weight and chlorophyll content promoted with increasing boron concentrations, but proline concentration was decreased. It could be concluded that application of boron along with Al3+, might have proved plant growth and neutralized effects of Al toxicity.

  7. Effect of 2 MHz ultrasound irradiation on Pisum sativum roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.W.; Voorhees, S.M.; Carstensen, E.L.; Kaufman, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of 2 MHz ultrasound at intensity levels from 2.5 to 22 W/cm 2 on the growth rate and mitotic index of Pisum sativum roots was studied. The ultrasound produced an immediate reduction in the growth rate on the first postexposure day, followed by a gradual recovery to the control value. Ultrasound reduced the root meristem mitotic index. Intensity- and time-dependent relations were found for the growth rate and mitotic index reductions

  8. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  9. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  10. The effect of gamma ray on growth and anatomy structure of garlic leaf (A. sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiyarsih, S.; Aliudin

    1990-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in Experimental Garden Banaran, East Java. This experiment used Complete Randomized Design with 10 replications and 7 treatments as followed: garlic seeds were radiated by gamma Co 60, with dosage 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 krad. The result of this experiment showed that radiated treatment of gamma Co 60 ray decreased growth percentage, plants became dwarf, root growth was short, and dosage 10 and 12 krad resulted in rotten root. Also radiation of gamma Co 60 decreased number of stomata and diameter of trachea became smaller

  11. Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible. In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an efficient agroinfection system by converting the two RNA genomes of the virus into binary expression vectors for Agrobacterium transformation. Results By vacuum infiltration (0.08 Mpa, 1 min) of germinating pea seeds with 2-3 cm roots with Agrobacteria carrying the binary vectors, expression of the gene for Green Fluorescent Protein as marker and the gene for the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was obtained in 80% of the infiltrated developing seedlings. Maximal production of the recombinant proteins was achieved 12-15 days after infiltration. Conclusions Compared to the leaf injection method vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds is highly efficient allowing large scale production of plants transiently expressing recombinant proteins. The production cycle of plants for harvesting the recombinant protein was shortened from 30 days for leaf injection to 15 days by applying vacuum infiltration. The synthesized aFGF was purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and its mitogenic activity on NIH 3T3 cells confirmed to be similar to a commercial product. PMID:21548923

  12. Effect of Aqueous Allium Cepa Extract from Red Onion on Aluminum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: This study examined the protective effect of Allium cepa extract from red onion on aluminum – ... permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any .... water, air dried, and 200 g was then blended. The.

  13. Nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in wild populations of Allium ampeloprasum, a valuable underutilized vegetable

    OpenAIRE

    García-Herrera, P.; Morales, Patricia; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Sánchez-Mata, María Cortes; Cámara Hurtado, Montaña; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Pardo de Santayana, Manuel; Molina, María; Tardío, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Wild Allium species with a long tradition of use, such as Allium ampeloprasum L. could provide interesting bioactive compounds to current diet. The nutrient and bioactive compound content of this wild vegetable has been scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide a detailed chemical quantification of nutrients, hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the edible parts of wild leek, as well as data about plant production and availability ...

  14. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture.

  16. Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential against H2O2-Radical-Mediated DNA Damage and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used in medicoculturally diverse countries around the world, where it is a part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract has been previously reported as an efficient antioxidant in vitro. Hence, the genotoxic effects of P. longifolia leaf were investigated by using plasmid relation, comet, and Allium cepa assay. In the presence of  ∙OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. In the plasmid relation and comet assay, the P. longifolia leaf extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. The abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges, and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at the interphase. The results of Allium cepa assay confirmed that the methanol extracts of P. longifolia exerted no significant genotoxic or mitodepressive effects at 100 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that P. longifolia leaf extract has a beneficial effect against oxidative DNA damage. This experiment is the first report for the protective effect of P. longifolia on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Additionally in acute oral toxicity study, female rats were treated at 5000 mg/kg body weight of P. longifolia leaf extract and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. P. longifolia leaf extract did not produce any treatment-related toxic effects in rats.

  17. Effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on vegetative indices and essential oil content of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aghhavani Shajari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of single and combined application of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of vegetative part of coriander, (Coriandrum sativum L.. The experiment was carried out as split plot in time based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications and 12 treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments included: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae, (2 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp., (3 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (4 cow manure, (5 vermicompost, (6 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (7 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (8 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (9 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (10 biosulfur + cow manure, (11 biosulfur + vermicompost and (12 control. Vegetative parts of coriander were cut at 5% of flowering stage in two dates (19 May and 5 June. Results showed that the highest plant height (28 cm and lateral branches (5.2 were obtained in combined application of biosulfur with cow manure treatment. The highest fresh and dry leaf weight, fresh and dry matter yield and stem dry matter weight were obtained in single application of chemical fertilizer. Single application of biosulfur increased leaf/stem ratio. The highest essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were observed in cow manure treatment (0.2% and 1753 g.ha-1, respectively. The maximum leaf/stem ratio were observed in the first cutting, while the highest lateral branches, stem fresh and dry matter yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were obtained in second cut. Overall, results of this study showed that the plant vegetative yield increased by using chemical fertilizer, while essential oil percentage and essential oil yield of coriander were improved by using organic and biological fertilizers.

  18. Effect of Fluoride and Bentonite on Biochemical Aspects of Oxidative Stress in Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Śnioszek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is regarded as one of the strongest oxidants, which causes oxidative changes in cells of living organisms. It may both increase the content of reactive oxygen species and inhibit the activity of antioxidative enzyme. In recent years, many researchers successfully used the properties of clay minerals in the sorption of fluoride ion from water. This raises the question of the possibility of limiting the effect of fluorine on the negative changes in plants by adding bentonite to soil. A two-year pot experiment was carried out in the Greenhouse of West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, on loamy sand and sandy loam. Each sample of soil was mixed with three different concentrations of bentonite – 1, 5, 10% of dry weight (DW of the soil and then treated with 30 mmol of F- per 1 kg of dry weight of the soil in a form of NaF solution. A control series was prepared for each soil, to which no additives were added. The medium prepared in such way was transferred to plastic pots (3 kg each and seeded with 16 pea seeds of Pisum sativum. In three phases of pea development (4 leaves unfolded, flowering and development of fruit, fresh leaf samples were collected and the concentrations of ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, total flavonoids and total polyphenols were measured. Sodium fluoride introduced to the soil changed the level of antioxidant parameters in the plant, which may suggest that fluoride is involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress. Bentonite in a dosage of 10% reduced the toxic effects of fluoride on the oxidative balance and morphological changes in the plant, which was observed especially for loamy sand, naturally poor in clay minerals.

  19. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  20. the effects of Garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on taste responses and relative organ weights in albino rats. Graded dietary ... Allium sativum commonly known as garlic is a specie in the onion ..... nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

  1. In vitro micropropagation of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubomski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on micropropagation of Allium schoenoprasum embraced shoot formation from cultured shoot tips, shoot multiplication, root formations, and cold storage of rooted plants. All explants were cultured on modified Murashige-Skoog medium. Surface disinfection of shoots derived from stock plants was not necessary to obtain no infection culture. The highest shoot multiplication was obtained on medium with 20 g l-1 sucrose and 1.0 mg 1-1 6-benzylo-arninopurine (BA. Root formation was observed in both indoleacetic acid (IAA and indolebutyric acid (IBA. Rooted plants were successfully kept in cold storage (5°C ± 1°C darkness. Only 20% of plants died after 6 months of storage.

  2. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  3. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Applications of Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium Chemistry. (Z)-Butanethial S-Oxide and 1-Butenyl Thiosulfinates and Their S-(E)-1-Butenylcysteine S-Oxide Precursor from Allium siculum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubec, R.; Cody, R.B.; Dane, A.J.; Musah, R.A.; Schraml, Jan; Vattekkatte, A.; Block, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2010), s. 1121-1128 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720706 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE-0744578 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : allium siculum * nectaroscordum * allium cepa Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2010

  5. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  6. Microwave drying characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarimeseli, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    Effect of microwave power output on effective moisture diffusivity, colour parameters and rehydration characteristics of coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) was investigated by using a microwave drier. Within the range of microwave power values, 180-360 W, effective moisture diffusivities were found to be 6.3 x 10 -11 -2.19 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and the result could successfully be presented with the model suggested by Midilli et al. No significant differences in the colour parameters were obtained between the fresh and dried samples and the changes in their values were not dependent on the power outputs of the microwave drier. The highest rehydration capacity was recorded for the samples dried at 180 W and lowest at 900 W.

  7. Microwave drying characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarimeseli, Ayse [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inonu University, 44069 Malatya (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Effect of microwave power output on effective moisture diffusivity, colour parameters and rehydration characteristics of coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) was investigated by using a microwave drier. Within the range of microwave power values, 180-360 W, effective moisture diffusivities were found to be 6.3 x 10{sup -11}-2.19 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s and the result could successfully be presented with the model suggested by Midilli et al. No significant differences in the colour parameters were obtained between the fresh and dried samples and the changes in their values were not dependent on the power outputs of the microwave drier. The highest rehydration capacity was recorded for the samples dried at 180 W and lowest at 900 W. (author)

  8. The root systems of onion and Allium fistulosum in the context of organic farming: a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, de P.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Allium cepa , Allium roylei , Japanese bunching onion, introgression breeding, organic agriculture, linkage map, AFLP, QTL analysis, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, in vitro multiplication

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases.

  10. 2688-IJBCS-Article-Iboukoum Fidèle Lawn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Excessive harvesting of organs of plants for medicinal purposes is a threat factor on phytodiversity. ... 75 species don't benefit from any ..... d'étude (Aframomum melegueta, Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Cannabis sativa.,.

  11. Low-temperature conditioning of "seed" cloves enhances the expression of phenolic metabolism related genes and anthocyanin content in 'Coreano' garlic (Allium sativum) during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Zavala-Gutiérrez, Karla G; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2013-11-06

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves accelerated the development of the crop cycle, decreased plant growth, and increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in the outer scale leaves of the bulbs at harvest time, leading to 3-fold content increase compared with those conditioned at room temperature. Cold conditioning of "seed" cloves also altered the anthocyanin profile during bulb development and at harvest. Two new anthocyanins are reported for the first time in garlic. The high phenolics and anthocyanin contents in bulbs of plants generated from "seed" cloves conditioned at 5 °C for 5 weeks were preceded by overexpression of some putative genes of the phenolic metabolism [6-fold for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and anthocyanin synthesis [1-fold for UDP-sugar:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT)] compared with those conditioned at room temperature.

  12. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  13. Effects of commercial doses of γ-irradiation on DVI (Dormancy overcoming Visual Index) of red garlic clove (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.N.; Mujica, M.B.; Orioli, G.A.; Croci, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The growth inhibitor effect of commercial doses of gamma rays was analyzed on the DVI evolution during garlic post-harvest storage. The DVI behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated samples was identical throughout the rest period (90 d.p.h.) and the beginning of sprouting (120 d.p.h.). At 180 d.p.h. non-irradiated samples showed a sharp increase of DVI, reaching the maximum value at 240 d.p.h. At the same time irradiated samples only showed a slight index increase, hardly reaching 60%. These results are discussed in relation to the use of DVI as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment on garlic bulbs. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  14. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  15. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Lori; Arunachalam, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. → Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. → Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. → The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. → Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 ± 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for a very long period (more than a year) and retained their bactericidal potential.

  16. Aqueous extract of Allium sativum L bulbs offer nephroprotection by attenuating vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 expression in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, T M; Rajkumar, R; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the nephroprotective effect of garlic and elucidate the mechanism by which it prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats, diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (1 g/L) were supplemented in the treatment groups. Histopathological examination using H&E, PAS staining and the immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) expression were performed on kidney sections at the end of 12 weeks. Significant change in both, the urine and serum biochemistry confirmed kidney damage in diabetic animals which was further confirmed by the histological changes such as mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, glycosuria and proteinuria. However, the diabetic animals treated with garlic extract showed a significant change in urine and serum biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to that of diabetic rats. Further, the garlic supplemented diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of VEGF and ERK-1 compared to diabetic rats, attenuating mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Thus, garlic extract rendered nephroprotection in diabetic rats.

  17. Evaluation of Two Mycorrhiza Species and Nitroxin on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in an Ecological Agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    P Rezvani Moghaddam; M. B Amiri; A Norozian; H. R Ehyaee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maintenance of soil fertility is one of the most important issues affecting the sustainability of food production. The application of ecological inputs such as mycorrhiza and biofertilizers are one of those approaches which are needed to maintain soil fertility Biofetilizers include different types of free living organisms that convert unavailable nutrients to available forms and enhance root development and better seed germination. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...

  18. Duodenum Histomorphology and Performance as Influenced by Dietary Suplementation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Garlic (Allium sativum) and its Combinations as a Feed Additives in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanti, Sri; -, Zuprizal; Yuwanta, Tri; -, Supadmo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric water extract, garlic and combination turmeric and garlic as a feed additive in the broiler diet on performance, and duodenum histomorphology. Affectivity of treatments was assessed by addition of phytobiotic (control, 015% zinc bacitracin, 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE, 2.5% TGE) which were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications. The variables measured were duodenum histomorphology (villi height, villi surfac...

  19. Application of Spent Mushroom Compost and Mycorrhiza on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in the Low Input Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    P rezvani moghaddam; H.R Ehyaee; M.B Amiri

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the effect of exogenous organic amendments on soil properties and plant growth characteristics has received renewed attention. Although the utilization of mineral fertilizers could be viewed as the best solution in terms of plant productivity, this approach is often inefficient in the long-term in tropical ecosystems due to the limited ability of low-activity clay soils to retain nutrients. Intensive use of agrochemicals in agricultural systems is also known ...

  1. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  2. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  3. Evaluation of Thiobacillus Bacteria and Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum at Different Levels of Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parvin Hejazi rad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Most researchers believe that good management and proper use of biofertilizers are the ways for preparation of better nutritional conditions for the medicinal plant. Garlic is one of the most important medicinal crops. Allicin is the main active ingredient in this plant. Biofertilizers contain beneficial soil microorganisms or the metabolic products. Mycorrhizal symbiosis improves the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Mycorrhizae increase crop resistance to pathogens, nutrient and water uptake, also reduce the negative effects of environmental stress and improve the quality of their host plants. Adding sulfur to the soil to improve the nutritional status of the plant by the release of nutrients will be effective when that the oxidation of sulfur in the soil is significant. For sulfur uptake by the plant, it is necessary that this element convert to sulfate by soil microorganisms. If elemental sulfur distribute in the soil and mix with the organic material, conversion of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms be faster in wet conditions. Materials and methods The experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012. Treatments were included control plot, mycorrhizal inoculation (M, Thiobacillus (T, M + T, 75 kg sulfur per hectare (75S, 75S + M, 75S + T, 75S + M + T, 150 kg sulfur per hectare (150S, 150S + M, 150S + T, 150S + M + T. Each plot consisted of four rows with a spacing of 40 cm and row length of 10 m. In treatments with 75 and 150 kg sulfur per hectare, 48 and 96 g of sulfur were used, respectively. Thiobacillus at the recommended dose was added to the soil a week before planting. Percent of fungal colonization obtained with Gridline Intersect Method. HPLC method was used to extract allicin content. Data were analyzed with the MSTAT-C software; the means were compared with LSD test at the 5% level of probability. Results and discussion The results showed that tuber dry weight increased significantly at 75s and 1505 in combination with Thiobacillus and mycorrhiza. Also the effects of 150S and150S + M, 150S + T were significant on tuber dry weight. The highest tuber dry weight was obtained in combination of 150S with Thiobacillus and mycorrhiza. The effect of 75s was not significant on tuber dry weight but application of 150S increased significantly dry tuber weight (about 50% over the control plots. Adding Thiobacillus to sulfur treatments (75s and 1505 had a significant effect on tuber dry weight and increased about 38 and 72 percent compared to the control, respectively. Chlorophylla content increased significantly in all treatments compare to the control. While the effects of 150S + M, 150S + T, 150S + M + T were significant on chlorophyllb. The effects of 75S, 75S + M, 75S + T, 75S + M + T, 150S, 150S + M, 150S + T and 150S + M + T were significant on carotenoid. Allicin yield increased significantly in all treatments except mycorrhiza compared to the control. Application of 150 kg sulfur per hectare +Thiobacillus+mycorrhizas increased essential oil yield up to 3 times compare to the control. As a result the essential oil yield increased significantly in treatments of 75 and 150 kg sulfur per hectare compared to the control. Conclusion Tuber dry weight increased significantly with sulfur application in combination with Thiobacillus and mycorrhiza. Chlorophylla content increased significantly in all treatments. Allicin yield increased significantly in all treatments except mycorrhiza. Application of sulfur, increased essential oil yield.

  4. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a potential antidote for cadmium and lead intoxication: cadmium and lead distribution and analysis in different mice organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massadeh, A M; Al-Safi, S A; Momani, I F; Alomary, A A; Jaradat, Q M; AlKofahi, A S

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and distribution of Pb and Cd in different mice organs including liver, kidney, spleen, heart and blood were evaluated after treatment with different aqueous concentrations of garlic (12.5-100 mg/l). Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for analysis of Pb and Cd in these organs. Treatment of Cd-Pb exposed mice with garlic (12.5-100 mg/l) reduced Pb concentrations by 44.65, 42.61, 38.4, 47.56, and 66.62% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. Moreover, garlic reduced Cd levels by 72.5, 87.7, 92.6, 95.6, and 71.7% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. The suppressed immune responses in mice pretreated with Cd-Pb mixture were reversed by 48.85, 55.82, 81.4 and 90.7 in the presence of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml of garlic extract.

  5. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do alho (Allium sativum L. através da combinação de herbicidas residuais com glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.T. Mascarenhas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Em solo aluvião eutrófico de textura argilosa com 3,14% de matéria orgânica foram estudados os efeitos de herbicidas aplicadas em pré -emergência, quatro dias após o plantio, combinados com glyphosate aplicado em pós-emergência, 10 dias antes do preparo do solo. As plantas daninhas predominantes foram: Cyperus rotundus L.; Ageratum conysoides L.; Bidens pilosa L.; Cynodon dactylon (Li Pers., Emilia sagitata D.C. e Sonchus oleraceus L. Os herbicidas e as doses utilizadas foram: prometryne 2,00 e 0,96 kg do ingrediente ativo (i.a./ha; diuron 2,00 e 0,80 kg i.a./ha; nitralin 1,00 kg i.a./ha, fluorodifen 3,00 kg i.a./ha; linuron 2,00 kg i.a./ha; chloroxuron 4,00 kg i.a./ha; glyphosate 2,00 kg i.a./ha e bifenox 1,68 kg i.a./ha e as combinações destes herbicidas, nas mesmas doses, com o glyphosate (2,00 kg i.a./ha, mais uma testemunha capinada e outra sem capina. Prometryne, diuron, fluorodifen, chloroxuron, linuron e bifenox combinados com o glyphosate, nas doses empregadas foram eficientes no controle das plantas daninhas, não sendo fitotóxicos ao alho.The effects of pre-emergence herbicides applied four days after planting date, associated with glyphosate, which was applied post-emergence 10 days before plowing, were studied on a clay eutrophic alluvial soil with 3,14% organic matter. The predomina nt weeds were: Cyperus rotundus L.; Ageratum conysoides L.; Bidens pilosa L.; Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., Emilia sagitata D.C. and Sonchus oleraceus L. The following herbicides and doses were used: prometryne 2,00 and 0,96 kg active ingredient (a.i./ha; diuron 2,00 and 0,80 kg a.i./ha; nitralin 1.00 kg a.i./ha; fluorodifen 3,00 kg a.i./ha; linuron 2,00 kg a.i./ha; chloroxuron 4,00 kg a.i./ha; glyphosate 2.00 kg a.i./ha; bifenox 1,68 kg a.i./ha, and all combinations between these herbicides with the same dose of glyphosate (2,00 kg a.i./ha. Two more treatments were added: an uncultivated and a manualy cultivated one. Prometryne, diuron, fluorodifen, chloroxuron, linuron and bifenox associated with glyphosate showed ef ficient control of weeds withot any visual toxic effect on garlic plants.

  6. Effects of commercial doses of {gamma}-irradiation on DVI (Dormancy overcoming Visual Index) of red garlic clove (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.N.; Mujica, M.B.; Orioli, G.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Agronomia; Croci, C.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1995-12-31

    The growth inhibitor effect of commercial doses of gamma rays was analyzed on the DVI evolution during garlic post-harvest storage. The DVI behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated samples was identical throughout the rest period (90 d.p.h.) and the beginning of sprouting (120 d.p.h.). At 180 d.p.h. non-irradiated samples showed a sharp increase of DVI, reaching the maximum value at 240 d.p.h. At the same time irradiated samples only showed a slight index increase, hardly reaching 60%. These results are discussed in relation to the use of DVI as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment on garlic bulbs. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs.

  7. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L. induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in a plastic tunnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Xiao

    Full Text Available A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and manganese (Mn in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  8. Soluções de alho (Allium sativum L. no controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais em bovinos jovens da raça Holandesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.C. Parra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito da atividade anti-helmíntica do alho suplementado, foram utilizadas 24 bezerras e novilhas da raça Holandesa, naturalmente infectadas. As soluções foram preparadas triturando-se o alho, (50%, mais água ou álcool 92º, (50%, administrando-se oralmente aos animais. Os tratamentos (T foram constituídos pelo grupo controle negativo (T1; extrato alcoólico de alho a 60g e 120g/100Kg de peso vivo (T2 e (T3; extrato aquoso de alho a 60 e 120g/100kg de peso vivo (T4 e (T5; e o grupo controle positivo com albendazol a 10% (T6. Os tratamentos fitoterápicos foram repetidos a cada 14 dias, caso a infecção fosse superior a 400 ovos por grama de fezes (OPG. A técnica de coprocultura quantitativa e qualitativa foi empregada para avaliar a eficácia anti-helmíntica dos tratamentos. Foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos controle e tratados para OPG e na porcentagem relativa de larvas infectantes e desenvolvimento larval. O uso das soluções de alho demonstrou controle parcial de nematódeos gastrintestinais.

  9. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  10. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for a very long period (more than a year) and retained their bactericidal potential.

  11. Effect of water stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of drought stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. this experiment was conducted on split plot based on a randomized completely block design with 3 replications in Torbat-e Heydariyeh University, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments were drought stress (in three levels no stress: control and irrigation in 60 and 30 percentage of FC as main plots and harvesting times (in 3 levels consist of: before flowering, flowering and after flowering as sub plots. Results showed that drought stress and harvesting stages had significant affected on leaf number, height, number of stem, wet and dry weight of plant, SPAD, proline content, carbohydrate content, essential oil yield and percentage and components of essential oil of coriander. Increasing water stress decreased yield and its components while enhanced proline and carbohydrate contents. Maximum of essential oil and its main components (linalool, alpha pentene, gamma terpinene, geranial acetate and camphor were in low stress that had significant difference with other stress treatments. Delaying in harvest enhanced yield and its components and essential oil percentage. Proline content had no significant difference between flowering and after flowering stages. Therefore, we can suggest low stress of water and harvest at after flowering stage to get maximum of yield.

  12. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The most common isolated fungi were Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Macrophomina ... known to affect the plant growth directly by producing ..... Evaluation of bacterial epiphytes isolated from avocado leaf and fruit surfaces ...

  13. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  14. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  15. Analysis of Chromosome Number in Some Allium and Silene Wild Species with Ornamental Use

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia DRAGHIA; Elena Liliana CHELARIU; Culiţă SÎRBU; Maria BRÂNZĂ; Cristina SANDU MICULSCHI

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the number of somatic chromosomes in plant species with ornamental value, in Romanian indigenous flora, Allium (A. flavum L., A. saxatile Bieb.) and Silene (S. compacta Fischer., S. supina M.Bieb.). The biological material was identified and harvested in the South-Eastern part of Dobrogea (Tulcea and Constanţa counties), area in the South-Eastern part of Romania, situated between the Danube and the Black Sea. Individuals from two populations of Allium flavum and All...

  16. Effective onion leaf fleck management and variability of storage pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasiukevičiūtė Neringa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis spp. cause several diseases in Allium crops and depending on meteorological conditions economic losses can exceed 50%. Forecasting models improve plant protection and sometimes reduce consumption of fungicides, because applications are made precisely during the favourable periods for disease development. Our aim was to evaluate the iMETOS®sm B. cinerea forecasting model as an effective onion leaf fleck management system and estimate the variability of onion bulb pathogens during storage. Assessment of forecasting model data showed that favourable conditions for leaf fleck development arise in July, but greatly depend on that year’s meteorological conditions. During an experimental year the first sprayings with fungicides were applied as forecasted from the model, which resulted in application 19, 6 and 23 days earlier than conventional treatment application times. In 2012-2014 iMETOS®sm treatment yield increased by 3.51 t ha-1, 3.87 t ha-1 and3.40 t ha-1 relative to the control. During storage most frequent injuries were fungal (44% and bacterial (41%, followed by insects (7% and physiological (9%. The highest prevalence of injuries was detected after 2 months of storage.

  17. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  18. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  19. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso

    2014-01-30

    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Hydroponic Phytoremediation of Nickel by Coriander (Coriandrum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Tagharobiyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses are one of the most important factors of agricultural products reduction in the world. The influence of different concentrations of nickel nitrate (0, 100, 200 and 500 μM in Hoagland’s solution on dry matter, catalase enzyme, flavonoids, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase Enzyme, MDA and accumulation of Ni were studied in coriander (Coriandrum sativum plants. Treatment with Ni led to significant increase in flavonoids, hydrogen peroxide, MDA and other aldehyde. Exposure of coriander plant to Ni altered catalase enzymes, leading to significant decrease in their contents. In both shoots and roots of coriander plants, significant decrease in dry matter was observed. Ni accumulation increased significantly in shoots and roots. Ni increased in the roots more than the shoots. According to a more accumulation of Ni in the roots, the expansion of plants root can help to better adaptability with the toxicity of metals. It may be used as an indicator to illustrate the differences between plant species.

  1. CYTOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY NITRATE OF LEAD ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT ALLIUM CEPA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvica Padureanu

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of nitrate of lead upon the mitotic division of Allium cepa L. The treatment with nitrate of lead has determined the lessening of the mitotic index and the chromosomial mutations. Also nitrate of lead determined in little proportion cells autopoliploid. The experiment prowed that nitrate of lead, known as a polluting agent has a mutagenic potential on the plants.

  2. Testing the utility of matK and ITS DNA regions for discrimination of Allium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Allium L. has been mainly based on the nucleotide sequences of ITS region. In 2009 matK and rbcL were accepted as a two-locus DNA barcode to classify plant species by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group. MatK region has been ...

  3. Clinical hypoglycemic effects of allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells and characterized by defect in insulin secretion. Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Allium cepa in patients with type 1 diabetic patients. Results: In the ...

  4. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Allium cepa L.: the production of transgenic onions and shallots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Kik, C.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development

  6. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  7. In vitro Anti-mycobacteria Sensitivity and Kill-kinetics of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium ascalonicum L. (Shallot) was one of the herbs repeatedly identified from the result of our ethnobotanical survey for the treatment of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria diseases. It has been reported to show inhibitory potentials against several pathogens. This plant is also known to form part of the diet of ...

  8. Abnormal mitosis in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was aimed to find mitotic abnormalities as cytological evidence induced by the dye in root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) grown in different concentrations: 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% (weight per volume) prepared in distilled water in separate treatment schedules for 24 and 48 h. Mitotic aberrations ...

  9. Effect of Planting Methods on Maturity and Yield of Onion (Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: onion, planting method, sets, transplantings, direct seeding, bulb yield. .... The central four rows of each plot were harvested and ... Means with lower case letters represent values for planting methods effects and means with upper .... Acta Hort. 84: 27-32. Brewster, J.L. 2002. Onions and other vegetable Alliums.

  10. Penentuan Nilai Ld50 Ekstrak Etanol Bawang Bombay (Allium Cepa L.) Pada Mencit Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia, Nofria Rizki

    2017-01-01

    131501110 LD50 (Lethal Dose50) merupakan salah satu parameter yang dapat menentukan derajat toksisitas suatu bahan. Uji toksisitas ini mengevaluasi besarnya dosis yang dapat menimbulkan efek toksik dan kematian pada hewan uji. Bawang bombay (Allium cepa L.) memiliki khasiat sebagaiantibakteri, antioksidan, antimutagenik, dan antiinflamasi. Tujuandaripenelitianiniadalahuntuk menentukan nilai LD50dariekstraketanolbawang bombaypadamencitjantan. Penelitianinimerupakanpenelitianeksperimental...

  11. Genetic analyses of bolting in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Samantha; Revanna, Roopashree; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Wright, Kathryn; Thomson, Susan; Moya, Leire; Lee, Robyn; Macknight, Richard; McCallum, John

    2014-03-01

    We present the first evidence for a QTL conditioning an adaptive trait in bulb onion, and the first linkage and population genetics analyses of candidate genes involved in photoperiod and vernalization physiology. Economic production of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) requires adaptation to photoperiod and temperature such that a bulb is formed in the first year and a flowering umbel in the second. 'Bolting', or premature flowering before bulb maturation, is an undesirable trait strongly selected against by breeders during adaptation of germplasm. To identify genome regions associated with adaptive traits we conducted linkage mapping and population genetic analyses of candidate genes, and QTL analysis of bolting using a low-density linkage map. We performed tagged amplicon sequencing of ten candidate genes, including the FT-like gene family, in eight diverse populations to identify polymorphisms and seek evidence of differentiation. Low nucleotide diversity and negative estimates of Tajima's D were observed for most genes, consistent with purifying selection. Significant population differentiation was observed only in AcFT2 and AcSOC1. Selective genotyping in a large 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150' F2 family revealed genome regions on chromosomes 1, 3 and 6 associated (LOD > 3) with bolting. Validation genotyping of two F2 families grown in two environments confirmed that a QTL on chromosome 1, which we designate AcBlt1, consistently conditions bolting susceptibility in this cross. The chromosome 3 region, which coincides with a functionally characterised acid invertase, was not associated with bolting in other environments, but showed significant association with bulb sucrose content in this and other mapping pedigrees. These putative QTL and candidate genes were placed on the onion map, enabling future comparative studies of adaptive traits.

  12. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS OF THE GENUS ALLIUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Romanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection based on interspecific hybridization of fundamentally new plant forms with a unique combination of genetic material allows expanding the scope of genotypic and phenotypic variability. In this work the comparative analysis of plants of interspecific hybrids of genus Allium L. from various inbred descendants of combinations of crossing of species A. cepa х A. vavilovii and A. cepa х A. fistulosum on selection traits is carried out.Forms were identified: by mass of the bulb more than 100 g; with contrasting coloration of dry cover scales bulbs; by the index of the shape of the bulb; on the resistance to peronosporosis of plants of the first year of vegetation and seed plants; by the number of arrows; height of the arrow; on seed production with a sufficiently high percentage of fertile plants. Plants of interspecific hybrids of onions formed bulbs weighing from 20 to 120 g, with white, golden-yellow, dark golden-yellow, brownish and dark purple color of dry covering scales of a bulb. Plants of interspecific hybrids of onions were flat and round-flat shape of the bulb with the frequency of symptoms ranging from 6.9 to 93.3% and from 11.7 to 93.3%. In a phytopathological evaluation of interspecific hybrids of onions the first year of vegetation identified plants with resistance to downy mildew is from 0 to 4.0 points. Was studied the frequency of occurrence of plants in the progenies weight, colour, bulb type, number, height of the seedstalk, seed productivity and resistance to downy mildew. The increase of genetic diversity in onion plants obtained on the basis of interspecific hybridization, backcrossing and inbreeding is shown.

  13. Composition of the essential oil constituents from leaves and stems of Korean Coriandrum sativum and their immunotoxicity activity on the Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Naik, Poornanand Madhava; Nagella, Praveen

    2012-02-01

    The leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of C. sativum leaves and stems. Thirty-nine components representing 99.62% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are cyclododecanol (23.11%), tetradecanal (17.86%), 2-dodecenal (9.93%), 1-decanol (7.24%), 13-tetradecenal (6.85%), 1-dodecanol (6.54%), dodecanal (5.16%), 1-undecanol (2.28%), and decanal (2.33%). Thirty-eight components representing 98.46% of the total oil were identified from the stems of the coriander. The major components are phytol (61.86%), 15-methyltricyclo[6.5.2(13,14),0(7,15)]-pentadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13-heptene (7.01%), dodecanal (3.18%), and 1-dodecanol (2.47%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC₅₀ value of 26.93 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 37.69 ppm and the stem oil has toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC₅₀ value of 29.39 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 39.95 ppm. Also, the above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils.

  14. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.; Thomas, Ludivine; Shaw, Martin L.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan D.; Leung, Susanna; Cumming, Mathew; McManus, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential

  15. Applications of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. (Z)-butanethial S-oxide and 1-butenyl thiosulfinates and their S-(E)-1-butenylcysteine S-oxide precursor from Allium siculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A; Schraml, Jan; Vattekkatte, Abith; Block, Eric

    2010-01-27

    Lachrymatory (Z)-butanethial S-oxide along with several 1-butenyl thiosulfinates was detected by DART mass spectrometry upon cutting Allium siculum , a popular ornamental Allium species used in some cultures as a spice. (Z)-Butanethial S-oxide isolated from the plant was shown to be identical to a synthetic sample. Its likely precursor, (R(S),R(C),E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine S-oxide (homoisoalliin), was isolated from homogenates of A. siculum, and a closely related species Allium tripedale , and fully characterized. Through use of LC-MS, a series of related gamma-glutamyl derivatives were tentatively identified in A. siculum and A. tripedale homogenates, including gamma-glutamyl-(E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine and its S-oxide, gamma-glutamyl-S-butylcysteine and its S-oxide, and gamma-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and its S-oxide. Because compounds containing the 1-butenyl group have not been previously identified in genus Allium species, this work extends the range of known Allium sulfur compounds. The general applicability of DART mass spectrometry in identifying naturally occurring, thermally fragile thial S-oxides and thiosulfinates is illustrated with onion, Allium cepa , as well as a plant from a different genus, Petiveria alliacea .

  16. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  17. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis) Ciferri

    OpenAIRE

    Satyabrata Nanda; Subodh Kumar Chand; Purander Mandal; Pradyumna Tripathy; Raj Kumar Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ?CBT-Ac77? and cultivar ?Arka Kalyan? were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation...

  18. Geometric leaf placement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, J D; Temple, S W P; Clements, R W; Lawrence, G P; Mayles, H M O; Mayles, W P M

    2004-01-01

    Geometric leaf placement strategies for multileaf collimators (MLCs) typically involve the expansion of the beam's-eye-view contour of a target by a uniform MLC margin, followed by movement of the leaves until some point on each leaf end touches the expanded contour. Film-based dose-distribution measurements have been made to determine appropriate MLC margins-characterized through an index d 90 -for multileaves set using one particular strategy to straight lines lying at various angles to the direction of leaf travel. Simple trigonometric relationships exist between different geometric leaf placement strategies and are used to generalize the results of the film work into d 90 values for several different strategies. Measured d 90 values vary both with angle and leaf placement strategy. A model has been derived that explains and describes quite well the observed variations of d 90 with angle. The d 90 angular variations of the strategies studied differ substantially, and geometric and dosimetric reasoning suggests that the best strategy is the one with the least angular variation. Using this criterion, the best straightforwardly implementable strategy studied is a 'touch circle' approach for which semicircles are imagined to be inscribed within leaf ends, the leaves being moved until the semicircles just touch the expanded target outline

  19. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  20. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  1. Effects of steam distillation on extraction, composition, and functional properties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual plant commonly used as fresh green herb, spice, or for its essential oil. A newly-developed process combined steam distillation and mechanical pressing to recover the essential oil and edible oil, respectively, from dehulled coriander seeds. The c...

  2. Antioxidative response of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka

    2017-09-25

    In this study, Lepidium sativum L. was used in repeated phytoextraction processes to remove Hg from contaminated soil, assisted by combined use of compost and iodide (KI). L. sativum L. is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and has been used in environmental tests. Its short vegetation period and ability to accumulate heavy metals make it suitable for use in repeated phytoextraction. The antioxidant enzymatic system of the plant (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) was analysed, to understand the effects of increasing Hg accumulation and translocation. Phytoextraction was repeated six times to decrease Hg contamination in soil, and the efficiency of each step was assessed. The results indicate that L. sativum L. is able to take up and accumulate Hg from contaminated soil. A corresponding increase in enzymatic antioxidants shows that the plant defence system is activated in response to Hg stress. Using compost and KI increases total Hg accumulation and translocation to the above-ground parts of L. sativum L. Repeating the process decreases Hg contamination in pot experiments in all variants of the process. The combined use of compost and KI during repeated phytoextraction increases the efficiency of Hg removal from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...

  4. Volatiles from Coriandrum sativum: comparation of in vitro and ex vitro grown plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Dias, I.; Sousa, Maria João; Figueiredo, A. Cristina; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, Luís G.

    2010-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (coriander) is commonly used, raw or cooked, in Portuguese Gastronomy. Coriander is also used in traditional medicine as a carminative and as a digestive aid. The fruits essential oil is used in food flavouring and in perfumery and is also responsible for the digestive and stimulant effect as well as for fungicide and bactericidal activity.

  5. CONTROL OF Alternaria porri (E11) CIF. AND TOXIC EFFECT OF CAPTAFOL SPRAYING IN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) CONTROLE DE Alternaria porri (E11) Cif. E EFEITO FITOTÓXICO DE CAPTAFOL EM PULVERIZAÇÃO NA CULTURA DO ALHO (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro; Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to verify the effect of the different concentrations of the captafol fungicide (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g.i.a./100 l of water), in the control of Alternaria porri (E11) Cif. and their toxic effects on plants, in two cultivars of garlic (Lavinia and Centenário). The results show that, for the cultivars tested, the fungicide, in the concentrations utilized, didn’t control the pat...

  6. CONTROL OF Alternaria porri (E11 CIF. AND TOXIC EFFECT OF CAPTAFOL SPRAYING IN GARLIC (Allium sativum L. CONTROLE DE Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. E EFEITO FITOTÓXICO DE CAPTAFOL EM PULVERIZAÇÃO NA CULTURA DO ALHO (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the present work was to verify the effect of the different concentrations of the captafol fungicide (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g.i.a./100 l of water, in the control of Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. and their toxic effects on plants, in two cultivars of garlic (Lavinia and Centenário. The results show that, for the cultivars tested, the fungicide, in the concentrations utilized, didn’t control the pathogen, and it didn’t show fitotoxicity.

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do Captafol no controle de Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. na cultura do alho, e seus efeitos fitotóxicos nesta A1iácea, foi instalado um experimento nas dependências da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas utilizando-se as cultivares Lavinia e Centenário, submetidas a pulverizações com o fungicida nas seguintes concentrações: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 gramas do princípio ativo por 100 litros de água. Os resultados indicam que, para as duas cultivares utilizadas, o Captafol não controlou o patógeno, nem se mostrou fitotóxico.

  7. Adaptación de Cultivares de Ajo Morado y Blanco (Allium sativum L. en Acatlán, Guerrero, México. Adaptación de Cultivares de Ajo Morado y Blanco (Allium sativum L. en Acatlán, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrén Cevallos Ruiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En el estado de Guerrero, México, el ajo se cultiva en la región Centro, en los municipios de Chilapa y Zitlala, donde los productores acostumbran sembrar el genotipo criollo adaptado a las condiciones climáticas de la región. El objetivo fue estudiar la adaptación del cultivo del ajo de los tipos morado y blanco a la región Centro de Guerrero por su rendimiento y calidad, ya sea para el mercado nacional o el de exportación. La investigación se llevó a cabo durante el ciclo otoño-invierno 2000-2001 en la comunidad de Acatlán, municipio de Chilapa de Álvarez, Guerrero. Se evaluaron 13 materiales de ajo, bajo un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones; se hizo la separación de medias por medio de la prueba de Tukey P In the state of Guerrero, Mexico, garlic is cultivated in the Central region, at Chilapa and Zitlala municipalities, where the growers cultivate Criollo Regional genotype adapted to the climatic conditions of the region. The object of this investigation was to study the adaptability of the cultivars of the purple and the white garlic in Guerrero’s central region, considering both their yield and quality for the domestic and/or export markets. Research work was conducted during the 2000- 2001 fall-winter cycle, in Acatlan, municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero. Thirteen garlic cultivars were evaluated using completely randomized blocks design, with four repetitions. Mean separation using Tukey test P

  8. Phyto-metals screening of selected anti-diabetic herbs and infused concoctions

    OpenAIRE

    Olanrewaju O. Olujimi; Olusegun N. Onifade; Adeleke T. Towolawi; Temilade F. Akinhanmi; Adeniyi A. Afolabi; Kabir A. Olanite

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the levels of some selected heavy metals in both the selected anti-diabetic herbal plants and infused concoctions for diabetes treatment. Methods: Ten anti-diabetic plant samples: pawpaw leaves (Carica papaya), bitter melon leaves (Momordica charantia), holy basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), African red pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), negro pepper grain (Xylopia aethi...

  9. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus, cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense, ortiga (Urtica urens, manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla, caléndula (Calendula officinalis, yerbabuena (Menta viridis, ajo (Allium sativum y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum, preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l, fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete aplicaciones (52, 60, 68, 76,84, 92 y 100 días después del trasplante, incluyendo un testigo químico Ridomil (metalaxil + mancozeb (2 g/l y el testigo absoluto; se evaluaron la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor, y el número y el peso de bulbos cosechados. El ANOVA mostró que de las siete aplicaciones realizadas, la última presentó efectos estadísticos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor. El extracto de manzanilla superó al Ridomil en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor sin diferencias estadísticas entre sí, y fue significativamente mejor al observado con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, caléndula y el testigo; el extracto de manzanilla superó al testigo químico en el número y peso de bulbos de cebolla sin presentar diferencias estadísticas, y fue significativamente mejor al obtenido con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, ortiga, caléndula, yerbabuena, clavo y el testigo absoluto. El extracto de manzanilla es una alternativa ecológica que se debe tener en cuenta en el manejo integrado de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in Pisum sativum by magnetic field, x-rays and urea and their restitution in sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, H.K.; Dave, Neelima

    1975-01-01

    Several workers (D' Amato 1948, Bowen and Wilson 1954, Von Rosen 1957) have induced chromosomal aberrations in roots of Pisum sativum L. Present paper embodies after effect of three independent treatments and their restitution in sucrose. (auth.)

  11. INFLUENCE OF NOSTOC VAUCHER EX BORNET ET FLAHAULT STRAINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PISUM SATIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Ye. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the positive impact of cultures cyanobacteria genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault on growth and development of higher plants as an example Pisum sativum L. All the Nostoc species have a positive effect on the viability, germination energy, and biometric characteristics of Pisum sativum. The greatest positive influence was registered for N. entophytum Born. et. Flah. and N. linckia (Roth Bornetet Flahault f. linckia.

  12. Effects of bromine on mitosis in root-tips of Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chury, J; Slouka, V

    1949-01-01

    The root-tips of Allium cepa, 1.5-2 cm. long, were exposed to pure bromine vapor for five minutes. The root-tips were then washed for ten minutes in water, and kept in fresh-water at a temperature of 20-24/sup 0/C. Squash preparations were made and stained according to the method of Darlington and La Cour. Bromine acting for five minutes on the root-tips of Allium has a specific effect on the cell nucleus in the resting stage. The effects induced are shown thirty-six hours after treatment by spindle abnormalities in metaphase and anaphase, and result in polyploidy in a large number of cells. Bromine produces chromosome and chromatid fragmentation; the latter may be followed by reunion. The effect of the bromine is cumulative and depends on the time which elapses between treatment and fixation. The cytological effects induced by bromine strongly suggest that it is another specific mutafacient chemical.

  13. Isolation of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives from the Bulbs of Allium tripedale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Chehri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allium genus with 750 species is the most diverse genus in the Amaryllidaceae family. Historically, Allium species have been used as medicinal plants, especially for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and considered as valuable sources of phytonutrients. Phytochemical investigation of Allium tripedale, locally called “Anashq,” which is an edible plant of the “Zagros” region (west of Iran was conducted in the present study. Materials and Methods: Air-dried bulbs of the plant were extracted in a four-step extraction method with increasing polarity using hexane, chloroform, chloroform–methanol (9:1, and methanol. Chloroform-methanol (9:1 extract was fractionated by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on a RP-18 column using a linear gradient solvent system of H2O to MeOH. Phenolic-rich fractions were subjected to the final isolation and purification of the constituents by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Structure elucidation of the compounds was performed through comprehensive methods including 1D-and 2D-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Results: Two cinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from the bulbs of A. tripedale; using spectroscopic methods, their chemical structures were determined as 6,7-dimethoxy N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (1 and N-trans-feruloyltyramine (2. Conclusion: Cinnamic acid derivatives are pharmacologically active phenolic compounds, which have been isolated from different Allium species. Isolation of these compounds from A. tripedale is reported for the first time in this study and could be used as a chemical basis for explanation of the plant biological and pharmacological activities.

  14. Effects of polyamines and polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors on mitotic activity of Allium cepa root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Meral; Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Tufekci, M A

    2008-03-01

    The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and PA biosynthetic inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), cyclohexilamine (CHA), methylglioxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were investigated in the root meristems of Allium cepa L. The reduction of mitotic index and the induction of chromosomal aberrations such as bridges, stickiness, c-mitotic anaphases, micronuclei, endoredupliction by PAs and PA biosynthetic inhibitors were observed and these were used as evidence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.

  15. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  16. Hypersensitivity of Allium cepa seedling roots to X-rays for production of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Takayoshi; Hanmoto, Hidehiro; Fujishige, Ikuko; Inoue, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Tetsuo; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Yonezawa, Yoshihiko.

    1995-01-01

    Seedling roots of onion (Allium cepa) were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. Following irradiation, the roots were incubated at 23-25degC for 24 hr, i.e., approximate time for one mitotic cycle, and then fixed, stained and macerated in a 7:3 mixture of acetic dahlia (prepared by dissolving a 0.5 g sample of dahlia violet into 100 ml of 30% acetate) and 1 N HCl for 10-15 min. Terminal 1-2 mm of the root tips were squashed on slides, one root each, and microscopically inspected for the presence of more than one nucleus in the cells. The additional nuclei, which were smaller than the normal, were scored as micronuclei. The frequency of micronuclei increased with dose over the control level (∼0.2x10 -3 ) to a high level of 140x10 -3 at 1 Gy. The frequency recorded at 1 Gy was about two fold higher as compared with the frequency reported by Evans et al. (1959) for micronuclei induced by γ-rays at a comparable dose in the root tip cells of Vica faba seedlings, probably reflecting relatively higher DNA content per cell in Allium somatic cells. We thus may conclude that root-tip meristematic cells of Allium seedlings are hypersensitive to the induction of micronuclei by X-rays. The Allium micronucleus assay may be useful as a system not only for quantitating chromosome damage by low-level radiation but also for detecting environmental mutagens. (author)

  17. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent ligh...

  18. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Anaeigoudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1 vehicle, (2 PTZ (90 mg/kg, (3 water fraction (WF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, (4 n-butanol fraction (NBF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, and (5 ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg. Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p< 0.01. In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p< 0.001. Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (pConclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.

  19. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs.

  20. Allium -test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras’kin, S A; Dikareva, N S

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium -test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium -test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. (paper)

  1. Can Genotoxic Effect be Model Dependent in Allium Test?-An Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Singh Rathore

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity of peracetic acid (PAA has been assessed in two models (protocols of Allium cepa conducting two sets of experiments to know whether the results would be model dependent. One experiment was set as per Fiskesjo's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were grown in five concentrations of peracetic acid (0.039, 0.078, 0.156, 0.312 and 0.625 ppm in tap water. Another experiment was set as per Rank and Nielson's model in which Allium cepa bulbs were first grown in tap water for 24 hours and were then further grown in the same concentrations of peracetic acid as in earlier model. Genotoxic effects of peracetic acid were assessed in both models using usual parameters i.e. shape, colour and length of root tips, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Magnitude of effect differed significantly in both models. More severe genotoxic effects could be seen in Fiskesjo's model. It is suggested that root primordial cells were in G0 state in Fiskesjo's model, which presumably lacked their defense system, hence were more prone to peracetic acid toxicity. Mitotically dividing root cells in Rank and Nielsen's model were equipped with antioxidant system and were more resistant to peracetic acid

  2. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras'kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  3. Phytotoxicity of pesticides mancozeb and chlorpyrifos: correlation with the antioxidative defence system in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Firdos; Verma, Sonam; Kamal, Aisha; Srivastava, Alka

    2018-02-01

    Pesticides are a group of chemical substances which are widely used to improve agricultural production. However, these substances could be persistent in soil and water, accumulative in sediment or bio-accumulative in biota depending on their solubility, leading to different types of environmental pollution. The present study was done to assess the impact of pesticides-mancozeb and chlorpyrifos, via morphological and physiological parameters using Allium cepa test system. Phytotoxic effects of pesticides were examined via germination percentage, survival percentage, root and shoot length, root shoot length ratio, seedling vigor index, percentage of phytotoxicity and tolerance index. Oxidative stress on Allium seedlings caused by pesticides was also assessed by investigating the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Correlation was worked out between morphological parameters and antioxidative enzymes to bring out the alliance between them. Mancozeb and chlorpyrifos concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the activity of antioxidative enzymes and negatively correlated with morphological parameters. Significant positive correlation between various morphological parameters showed their interdependency. However, negative correlation was obtained between activity of antioxidative enzymes and morphological parameters. The enzymes however, showed positive correlation with each other. Based on our result we can conclude that all morphological parameters were adversely affected by the two pesticides as reflected by phytotoxicity in Allium . Their negative correlation with activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates that upregulation of antioxidative enzymes is not sufficient to overcome the toxic effect, thereby signifying the threat being caused by the regular use of these pesticides.

  4. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  5. Leaf-IT: An Android application for measuring leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Julian; Pillar, Giso; Kreft, Holger

    2017-11-01

    The use of plant functional traits has become increasingly popular in ecological studies because plant functional traits help to understand key ecological processes in plant species and communities. This also includes changes in diversity, inter- and intraspecific interactions, and relationships of species at different spatiotemporal scales. Leaf traits are among the most important traits as they describe key dimensions of a plant's life history strategy. Further, leaf area is a key parameter with relevance for other traits such as specific leaf area, which in turn correlates with leaf chemical composition, photosynthetic rate, leaf longevity, and carbon investment. Measuring leaf area usually involves the use of scanners and commercial software and can be difficult under field conditions. We present Leaf-IT, a new smartphone application for measuring leaf area and other trait-related areas. Leaf-IT is free, designed for scientific purposes, and runs on Android 4 or higher. We tested the precision and accuracy using objects with standardized area and compared the area measurements of real leaves with the well-established, commercial software WinFOLIA using the Altman-Bland method. Area measurements of standardized objects show that Leaf-IT measures area with high accuracy and precision. Area measurements with Leaf-IT of real leaves are comparable to those of WinFOLIA. Leaf-IT is an easy-to-use application running on a wide range of smartphones. That increases the portability and use of Leaf-IT and makes it possible to measure leaf area under field conditions typical for remote locations. Its high accuracy and precision are similar to WinFOLIA. Currently, its main limitation is margin detection of damaged leaves or complex leaf morphologies.

  6. Effect of Allium flavum L. and Allium melanantherum Panč. Extracts on Oxidative DNA Damage and Antioxidative Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić-Ćulafić, Dragana; Nikolić, Biljana; Simin, Nataša; Jasnić, Nebojša; Četojević-Simin, Dragana; Krstić, Maja; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena

    2016-03-01

    Allium flavum L. and Allium melanantherum Panč. are wild growing plants used in traditional diet in Balkan region. While chemical composition and some biological activities of A. flavum have been reported, A. melanantherum, as an endemic in the Balkan Peninsula, has never been comprehensively examined. After chemical characterization of A. melanantherum, we examined the protective effect of methanol extracts of both species against t-butyl hydro-peroxide (t-BOOH)-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis. The bacterial reverse mutation assay was performed on Escherichia coli WP2 oxyR strain. DNA damage was monitored in human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) with alkaline comet assay. Obtained results indicated that extracts reduced t-BOOH-induced DNA damage up to 70 and 72% for A. flavum and A. melanantherum extract, respectively, and showed no effect on t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis. Since the results indicated modulatory effect on cell-mediated antioxidative defense, the effect of extracts on total protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) amounts and activities were monitored. Both extracts increased total protein content, while the increase of enzyme amount and activity was obtained only with A. melanantherum extract and restricted to CAT. The activity of CuZnSOD family was not affected, while SOD1 and SOD2 amounts were significantly decreased, indicating potential involvement of extracellular CuZnSOD. Obtained results strongly support the traditional use of A. flavum and A. melanantherum in nutrition and recommend them for further study.

  7. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation.

  8. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate in the germination of Pisum sativum and its effect on germinated seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Subinoy; Kumar, Mousumi; Haque, Smaranya; Kundu, Debajyoti

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds a...

  10. Chlorophyll mutation in field Pea (Pisum Sativum L.) that causes white stem in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    A white stem pea mutant recovered after exposing seeds of P. sativum cv Auralia to gamma-irradiation. The mutant has shown to have single-gene recessive inheritance, characterized morphologically and for seed productivity. New mutant 1/240 had similar phenotype to previously named mutants white stem and alts (albina-terminalis) but no allelism tests were performed between the new and the previously reported mutants. The mutation in line 1/240 may be useful as a genetic marker. (authors)

  11. Anti-Stress and Anti-Amnesic Effects of Coriandrum sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 105.28 ± 13.74 and 135.32 ± 12.54 μg/kg/24 h at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, in a dose-dependent fashion without affecting the normal levels in control groups. The amnesic deficits (acquisition, retention and recovery) induced by scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p.) in rats was reversed by C. sativum dose dependently.

  12. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  13. Photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted Hg phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate metabolic answer of Lepidium sativum L. on Hg, compost, and citric acid during assisted phytoextraction. The chlorophyll a and b contents, total carotenoids, and activity of peroxidase were determined in plants exposed to Hg and soil amendments. Hg accumulation in plant shoots was also investigated. The pot experiments were provided in soil artificially contaminated by Hg and/or supplemented with compost and citric acid. Hg concentration in plant shoots and soil substrates was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) method after acid mineralization. The plant photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods. The study shows that L. sativum L. accumulated Hg in its aerial tissues. An increase in Hg accumulation was noticed when soil was supplemented with compost and citric acid. Increasing Hg concentration in plant shoots was correlated with enhanced activation of peroxidase activity and changes in total carotenoid concentration. Combined use of compost and citric acid also decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents in plant leaves. Presented study reveals that L. sativum L. is capable of tolerating Hg and its use during phytoextraction assisted by combined use of compost and citric acid lead to decreasing soil contamination by Hg.

  14. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Lucia; Souza, Lucéia Fátima; Alloisio, Susanna; Cornara, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-30

    The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum , linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity.

  15. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jaya; Muhammad, BushraTaj; Thapa, Pratiksha; Shrestha, Bhupal Govinda

    2017-02-08

    There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. We observed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides in the plant extract and the plant showed moderate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. The IC 50 values of Allium wallichii in different cancer cell lines are 69.69 μg/ml for Prostate cancer (PC3) cell line, 55.29 μg/ml for Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cell line and 46.51 μg/ml for cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line as compared to Doxorubicin (0.85 μg/ml). The cell viability assay using FACS showed that the IC 50 value of Allium wallichii for Burkitt's lymphoma (B-Lymphoma) cell line was 3.817 ± 1.99 mg/ml. Allium wallichii can be an important candidate to be used as an anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Allium wallichii is highly recommended as the crude extract itself showed promising cytotoxicity.

  16. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  17. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Simková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-08-01

    Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. (13)C abundance (δ(13)C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci-SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant f...

  19. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria vanuatuensis, a New Record from Allium Plants in Korea and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei Jia; Deng, Jian Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2014-12-01

    Alternaria from different Allium plants was characterized by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on sequences of the β-tubulin (BT2b), the Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1), and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes and phylogenetic data analysis, isolates were divided into two groups. The two groups were identical to representative isolates of A. porri (EGS48-147) and A. vanuatuensis (EGS45-018). The conidial characteristics and pathogenicity of A. vanuatuensis also well supported the molecular characteristics. This is the first record of A. vanuatuensis E. G. Simmons & C. F. Hill from Korea and China.

  20. Experimental investigation on energy and exergy analysis of coriander (Coriadrum sativum L.) leaves drying in natural convection solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with thin layer drying characteristics of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves in a natural convection solar dryer. The Coriandrum sativum L. leaves were dried from a moisture content of 88% (w.b.) to 4.5% (w.b.) in 7.5 hours. The obtained drying data were fitted to eight different drying kinetics models. Of these, the model suggested by Midilli et al. [20] had the best fit with the drying behavior of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves. In addition, the thermodynamic behaviour of a solar dryer was evaluated. The energy efficiency during the study varied from 7.81 to 37.93%. The exergy efficiency of the drying process ranged between 55.35 and 79.39%. (author)