transportation for state roads , and railroad companies for railroad bridges. If a bridge is the subject of repeated allisions, an accident involving a moving... ingenious way of attempting to tackle the problem on a watershed scale. Industries have a significant impact on the watershed. One of those, farming, has
Copping, Andrea [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Breithaupt, Stephen [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Whiting, Jonathan [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Grear, Molly [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Tagestad, Jerry [Coastal Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle Washington USA; Shelton, Gregory [Shelton International, Seattle Washington USA
Offshore wind energy development is planned for areas off the Atlantic coast. Many of the planned wind development areas fall within traditional commercial vessel routes. In order to mitigate possible hazards to ships and to wind turbines, it is important to understand the potential for increased risk to commercial shipping from the presence of wind farms. Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, historical shipping routes between ports in the Atlantic were identified, from Maine to the Florida Straits. The AIS data were also used as inputs to a numerical model that can simulate cargo, tanker and tug/towing vessel movement along typical routes. The model was used to recreate present day vessel movement, as well as to simulate future routing that may be required to avoid wind farms. By comparing the present and future routing of vessels, a risk analysis was carried out to determine the increased marginal risk of vessel collisions, groundings, and allisions with stationary objects, due to the presence of wind farms. The outcome of the analysis showed little increase in vessel collisions or allisions, and a decrease in groundings as more vessels were forced seaward by the wind farms.
Sudhendar, H.; Grabowski, Martha
Safe navigation in restricted waters continues to be a perennial concern for ship owners, operators, navigators, and citizens. The Nieuw Amsterdam, a cruise ship which ran aground in Southeast Alaska in August 1994; the Royal Majesty, another cruise ship which ran aground 10 miles east of Nantucket Island in June 1995; and the Regent Star, which caught fire in Prince William Sound, Alaska on 22 July, 1995, are just a few of the recent incidents which remind us of the importance of safe navigation in restricted waters. Clearly, the Braer, the World Prodigy, and the Exxon Valdez provide other examples of the importance of safe navigation in close waters. Fire, collision, allisions and groundings can result if vessels navigating in such waters stray.
Lemkau, K. L.; Peacock, E. E.; Nelson, R. K.; Ventura, G. T.; Kovecses, J.; Reddy, C. M.
With increasing energy demand and rising prices, the use of cheaper and more pollutant-rich heavy fuel oil is expected to continue to increase. To date, the fate of these fuels in the environment has been rare, especially on a short-term basis (less than one month after the spill). On November 7, 2007 the M/V Cosco Busan struck the Bay Bridge in San Francisco, USA. Two port tanks containing fuel were ruptured in the allision resulting in the release of approximately 54,000 gallons of No. 6 fuel oil. To investigate the fate of the spill oiled, samples were collected from five impacted shorelines in and around the Bay Area weeks to months after the spill. Samples were analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS). Additionally, several samples were examined in greater detail by two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC). The effects of biodegradation, evaporation, water- washing, and photolysis were all observed. Although the extent of weathering was site specific, the most weathered were collected in an exposed location outside San Francisco Bay. Biodegradation was more frequently observed in samples that were collected from mid to low tide. These results provide new insights into the behavior of an understudied but important contaminant in the coastal ocean.