WorldWideScience

Sample records for allication reference efsa-gmo-cz-2005-27

  1. Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Dora M; Madero E E; Amezquita E

    2001-01-01

    Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils

  2. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  3. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  4. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  5. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  6. Soil crusting regulator characteristics of some allic humid tropical soils from Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Dora M; Madero E E; Amezquita E

    2001-01-01

    It was collected soil samples within 5 cm of the surface from Amazonia soils in Caqueta (Macagual); Orinoquia in Meta (Carimagua), Casanare (Matazul) and Vichada (La Primavera); and in Andean region in Cauca (San Isidro) and Valle (CIAT, Palmira). In each of those sites, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) has many experiments to know the impact of land husbandry, leguminous associations and rotations and mulches on natural system. After evaluating weighed particle size, sand particle size, soil organic matter, iron, aluminum and silicon oxides, and fertility, it could cluster in three groups according to those characteristics and their importance in governing soil hazard crusting: la Primavera and Carimagua (high organic matter, oxides and fine sand but low in clay); Matazul and Macagual (low in organic matter, oxides and clay but variable sand values); and San Isidro (the greatest in Al 2 O 3 concentrations, high in Fe 2 O 3 clay and fine sand but the poorest in soil organic matter). Soil organic matter contents were significantly associated with the kind of management

  7. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  8. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  9. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  10. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  11. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  12. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  13. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  14. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  15. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  16. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  17. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  18. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  19. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  20. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  1. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  2. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  3. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  4. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  5. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  6. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  7. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  8. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  9. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  10. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  11. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  12. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  13. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  14. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  15. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  16. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  17. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  18. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  19. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  20. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  1. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  2. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  3. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  4. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  5. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  6. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  7. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  8. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  9. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  10. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  11. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  12. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  13. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  14. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  15. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  16. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  17. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  18. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  19. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  20. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  1. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  2. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  3. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  4. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  5. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  6. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  7. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  8. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  9. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  10. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  11. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  12. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  13. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  14. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  15. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  16. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  17. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  18. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  19. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  20. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  1. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  2. Areva - 2016 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 36,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva

  3. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  4. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  5. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  6. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  7. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  8. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  9. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  10. Uranium tailings reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  11. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  12. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: PURA syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TJ, Vreeburg M, Rouhl RPW, Stevens SJC, Stegmann APA, Schieving J, Pfundt R, van Dijk K, Smeets ... article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  14. Areva - 2014 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 44,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Person responsible; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - information on holdings; appendix: Report of the Chairman of the Board of Directors on governance, internal control procedures and risk management, Statutory Auditors' report, Corporate social

  15. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  16. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  17. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  18. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  19. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  20. Moving Reference to the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

  1. Reference vectors in economic choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.

  2. "In Your Face" Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1999-01-01

    Discusses changes in library reference service that have occurred with growing Internet use. Topics include the human factor that is still needed; the nature of reference questions; the goal of user self-sufficiency; the invisible nature of much of librarians' work; and providing real-time, interactive point-of-need service to remote users. (LRW)

  3. Technostress and the Reference Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmith, John

    1992-01-01

    Defines "technostress" as the stress experienced by reference librarians who must constantly deal with the demands of new information technology and the changes they produce in the work place. Discussion includes suggested ways in which both organizations and individuals can work to reduce stress. (27 references) (LAE)

  4. Reference Services: A Handmaid's Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clare

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems in library reference services focuses on the influence of gender roles. A historical overview of gender roles in the development of American librarianship is presented that highlights stereotyped views of and attitudes toward women, which the author suggests still have influences on librarianship today. (17 references) (LRW)

  5. References

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Achinstein, P. 1983. The Nature of Explanation (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Adler, J.E. 1997. ‘Lying, Deceiving, or Falsely Implicating’, The Journal of Philosophy, 94: 435–52. Adler, J.E. 2002. Belief’s Own Ethics (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). Alicke, M.D., J. Buckingham, E. Zell, & T. Davis. 2008. ‘Culpable Control and Counterfactual Reasoning in the Psychology of Blame’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34: 1371–78, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/014616720832159...

  6. References

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Aldridge, H., Kenway, P. and Born, T. (2015), ‘What Happened to Poverty Under the Coalition’. New Policy Institute. Armour, R. (2014) ‘Charity Shops Buck Trend’, http://thirdforcenews.org.uk,24 March 2014. Beatty, C. and Fothergill, S. (2016), The Uneven Impact of Welfare Reform. The Financial Losses to Places and People, Centre for Regional and Social Economic Research and Sheffield Hallam University, https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/welfare-reform-2016_1.pdf Belfi...

  7. References

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2005) The Ethics of Identity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ______ (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, Norton, New York. Clarke, Charles (2006) ‛Global Citizens and Quality International Education: Enlarging the Role of the Commonwealth’. Speech delivered to the Royal Commonwealth Society, 15 November, 2006, London. Estlund, Cynthia (2003) Working Together: How Workplace Bonds Strengthen a Diverse Democracy, Oxford University Press, New...

  8. References:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain drain”'. Globalization and Health 2006, 2:12 doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-2-12. 3. Zijlstra, E., Broadhead, R. 2007. The College of Medicine in the. Republic of Malawi: towards sustainable staff development, Human. Resources for Health 2007, ...

  9. Japanese reference man 1988, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical properties and other characteristics of the human body is one of the basic data for estimating dose equivalent and calculating Annual Limit on Intake of radionuclides. The exact mass weight of organs and tissues are measured from about 1000 autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults and physical properties are obtained from recent Japanese Government publications. Japanese (Asian) Reference Man is completed by establishing the Normal Japanese, harmonizing with Caucasian Reference Man and coinciding with the ICRP Reference Man Task Group members concept. (author)

  10. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235 U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7 Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9 Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu0 2 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  11. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  12. TclTk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The Tcl/Tk combination is increasingly popular because it lets you produce sophisticated graphical interfaces with a few easy commands, develop and change scripts quickly, and conveniently tie together existing utilities or programming libraries. The Tcl/Tk Pocket Reference,a handy reference guide to the basic Tcl language elements, Tcl and Tk commands, and Tk widgets, is a companion volume to Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell.

  13. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  14. The citation with reference and the citation as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Cunha Perrone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio objetiva estabelecer paralelos entre a citação acadêmica e a citação utilizada como referência, para a produção das obras ou projetos de arquitetura. O artigo discute o uso de figuras paradigmáticas ou significativas, transladadas ou amalgamadas nas obras de arquitetura, a partir do entendimento da citação como dado argumentativo e qualitativo. Investiga algumas de suas assimetrias e congruências em sua utilização na linguagem escrita, como transcrição direta ou como fonte interpretativa, reelaborada e incorporada como argumento em outro texto. Pondera que no ensinar, estudar e fazer arquitetura é preciso saber citar com referência, para poder citar como referência.

  15. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  16. Reference Librarian in Digital Environment:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Sohili

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The information explosion of the latter half of the twentieth century, gave rise to online databases and various information media that gradually impacted on the very physical environment of the library. It transformed the librarians’ role. Reference librarians are no exception. The present study aims to investigate the need or lack of need to reference librarians within the digital domains based on the views expressed by LIS authorities in Iran. It would attempt further, to identify the qualities required for such librarian should a need for her/his expressed. The research, while descriptive in nature, was based on analyzing the results obtained by the checklist devised by the authors. LIS Specialist sample was composed of 57 people who filled the checklist. Findings show that there is a significance between employing ICT and need for a reference librarian. LIS experts in Iran believe that introduction of ICT, especially Internet and the WWW not only didn’t decrease the need for such librarians, but has caused the reference librarian to attain a more important and better status than before. Findings further demonstrated that while Iran is not a signatory to the international copyright conventions, the Iranian reference librarians are fully committed to observing author’s copyright and intellectual rights and frown on using software crackers.

  17. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  18. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  19. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    largely unchanged during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum and were within non-pregnant reference intervals. However, levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, and IX increased markedly. Protein S activity decreased substantially, while free protein S decreased slightly and total......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  20. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  1. rf reference line for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  2. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  3. Sizewell 'B' PWR reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The reference design for a PWR power station to be constructed as Sizewell 'B' is presented in 3 volumes containing 14 chapters and in a volume of drawings. The report describes the proposed design and provides the basis upon which the safety case and the Pre-Construction Safety Report have been prepared. The station is based on a 3425MWt Westinghouse PWR providing steam to two turbine generators each of 600 MW. The layout and many of the systems are based on the SNUPPS design for Callaway which has been chosen as the US reference plant for the project. (U.K.)

  4. Electrical engineering a pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Walter, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This essential reference offers you a well-organized resource for accessing the basic electrical engineering knowledge you need for your work. Whether you're an experienced engineer who appreciates an occasional refresher in key areas, or a student preparing to enter the field, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference provides quick and easy access to fundamental principles and their applications. You also find an extensive collection of time-saving equations that help simplify your daily projects.Supported with more than 500 diagrams and figures, 60 tables, and an extensive index, this uniq

  5. Perl/Tk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lidie, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The Perl/Tk Pocket Reference is a companion volume to Learning Perl/Tk, an O'Reilly Animal Guide. Learning Perl/Tk is a tutorial for Perl/Tk, the extension to Perl for creating graphical user interfaces. With Tk, Perl programs can be window-based rather than command-line based, with buttons, entry fields, listboxes, menus, scrollbars, balloons, tables, dialogs, and more. And Perl/Tk programs run on UNIX and Windows-based computers. This small book is a handy reference guide geared toward the advanced Perl/Tk programmer. Novice Perl/Tk programmers will find that its compact size gives th

  6. rf reference line for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  7. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  8. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  9. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  10. Referent Communication in Chronic Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorowitz, David A.; Cohen, Bertram D.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty chronic schizophrenics (15 process and 15 reactive) and 15 normal control speakers described colors displayed in three-chip sets containing a referent and two nonreferent colors. Concludes that poor communication accuracy in long-term schizophrenics results from failure to include a self-editing stage as a part of the communication process.…

  11. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  12. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  13. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  14. Verification of SAP reference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van B.F.; Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Benatallah, B.; Casati, F.

    2005-01-01

    To configure a process-aware information system (e.g., a workflow system, an ERP system), a business model needs to be transformed into an executable process model. Due to similarities in these transformations for different companies, databases with reference models, such as ARIS for MySAP, have

  15. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  16. Expertise and Intuitions about Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Machery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many philosophers hold that experts’ semantic intuitions are more reliable and provide better evidence than lay people’s intuitions—a thesis commonly called “the Expertise Defense.” Focusing on the intuitions about the reference of proper names, this article critically assesses the Expertise Defense.

  17. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  18. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  19. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  20. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  1. Collective Management of Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library reference department. The planning process, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…

  2. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  3. Quick Reference for Financial Reporting

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    Quick Reference – Financial Reporting. 6. Complete FR3 - Payment Receipts, Foreign Exchange and Other Income Forms: a. Enter in Section 3A – Payment Receipt Form all payments received from IDRC. b. Use the Cash Exchange Form if the funds received from IDRC are held in a currency other than the project working ...

  4. Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1978-08-01

    The use of the Nuclear Structure References file by the Nuclear Data Project at ORNL is described. Much of the report concerns format information of interest only to those preparing input to the system or otherwise needing detailed knowledge of its internal structure. 17 figures

  5. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  6. Hot Experimental Facility reference flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a useful set of background information of HEF flowsheets, although many changes have been made in the past three years. The HEF reference flowsheet is a modified high-acid PUREX flowsheet capable of operating in the coprocessing mode or with full partitioning of U and Pu. Adequate decontamination factors are provided to purify high-burnup, fast breeder-reactor fuels to levels required for recycle back to a fuel fabrication facility. Product streams are mixed U-Pu oxide and uranium oxide. No contaminated liquid wastes are intentionally discharged to the environment. All wastes are solidified and packaged for appropriate disposal. Acid and water are recovered for internal recycle. Excess water is treated and discharged from the plant stack. Several changes have been made in the reference flowsheet since that time, and these are noted briefly

  7. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  8. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  9. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  10. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  11. Hanford Waste Mineralogy Reference Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  12. Tv & video engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, K G

    1991-01-01

    TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unatten

  13. Energy policy: selected references. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwrick-Piercy, E [comp.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is based on material held in the UK Department of Energy Library. Energy-related documents published between 1973 and 1980 are emphasized in the 260 references listed. The bibliography is organized under the major headings of United Kingdom, Irish Republic, World, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and Middle East. For continuing information on energy policy, 5 useful periodicals are listed.

  14. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  15. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  16. The citation with reference and the citation as a reference

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Antonio Cunha Perrone

    2011-01-01

    O ensaio objetiva estabelecer paralelos entre a citação acadêmica e a citação utilizada como referência, para a produção das obras ou projetos de arquitetura. O artigo discute o uso de figuras paradigmáticas ou significativas, transladadas ou amalgamadas nas obras de arquitetura, a partir do entendimento da citação como dado argumentativo e qualitativo. Investiga algumas de suas assimetrias e congruências em sua utilização na linguagem escrita, como transcrição direta ou como fonte interpreta...

  17. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  18. Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Kreines, David

    2003-01-01

    If you work with Oracle, then you don't need to be told that the data dictionary is large and complex, and grows larger with each new Oracle release. It's one of the basic elements of the Oracle database you interact with regularly, but the sheer number of tables and views makes it difficult to remember which view you need, much less the name of the specific column. Want to make it simpler? The Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference puts all the information you need right at your fingertips. Its handy and compact format lets you locate the table and view you need effortlessly without stoppin

  19. Dynamic HTML The Definitive Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Packed with information on the latest web specifications and browser features, this new edition is your ultimate one-stop resource for HTML, XHTML, CSS, Document Object Model (DOM), and JavaScript development. Here is the comprehensive reference for designers of Rich Internet Applications who need to operate in all modern browsers, including Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2, Safari, and Opera. With this book, you can instantly see browser support for the latest standards-based technologies, including CSS Level 3, DOM Level 3, Web Forms 2.0, XMLHttpRequest for AJAX applications, JavaScript 1.7

  20. Energy reference forecast for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Michael; Lutz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has commissioned three reputed institutions to prepare an energy reference forecast as well as a target scenario up to the year 2050. The results of this survey evidence a substantial need for political action if the goals of the Federal Government's energy concept are to be achieved as planned. In view of the wide range of interests among the players involved as well as the complexity of the demands facing the political leadership from diverse areas of life it appears unlikely that the targets laid down in the energy concept can be realised.

  1. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  2. VERA: Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan; Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    . To prepare for this is a complex task, in fact all business, management and planning views, and related subject areas and activities, may be involved. In order to deal with this complexity in a systematic way and secure global understanding Globemen has developed a Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture......Globalisation, outsourcing and customisation are main challenges of today not least for one-of-a-kind producers. A crucial competitive factor will be the ability rapidly to form customer focused virtual enterprises comprised of competencies from different partners by taking full advantage of ICT...

  3. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  4. JavaScript Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    1998-01-01

    JavaScript is a powerful, object-based scripting language that can be embedded directly in HTML pages. It allows you to create dynamic, interactive Web-based applications that run completely within a Web browser -- JavaScript is the language of choice for developing Dynamic HTML (DHTML) content. JavaScript can be integrated effectively with CGI and Java to produce sophisticated Web applications, although, in many cases, JavaScript eliminates the need for complex CGI scripts and Java applets altogether. The JavaScript Pocket Reference is a companion volume to JavaScript: The Definitive Guide

  5. Reference design for LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A reference design for the 32-GeV LAMPF II proton accelerator is proposed. This design consists of a 30-Hz rapid-cycling synchrotron with a dc stretcher. A superiodicity 5 design with dispersion-free straight sections is suggested for both machines. Beam-dynamics calculations are partially complete and rf requirements are given. Apertures are calculated for 2 x 10 13 protons per pulse (100 μA average current). No significant problems are observed at any time in the cycle in a longitudinal beam-dynamics simulation including space charge

  6. AREVA 2009 reference document; AREVA document de reference 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and

  7. Areva reference document 2007; Areva document de reference 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance.

  8. Areva, reference document 2006; Areva, document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance.

  9. Areva reference document 2007; Areva document de reference 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of

  10. Areva, reference document 2006; Areva, document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance.

  11. Nuclear science references coding manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1996-08-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices

  12. Nuclear structure references coding manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Structure References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file, are outlined. The structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major topics for which [KEYWORDS] are prepared are ennumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of [KEYNO ], generation of [SELECTRS] and linkage characteristics are also given. A brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors submitting articles to Journals which require Keyword abstracts should follow the illustrations. The scope of the literature covered at NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc. is discussed. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc. is given

  13. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  14. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  15. Multipass Steering: A Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a reference implementation of a protocol to compute corrections that bring all beams in one of the CEBAF linear accelerators (linac) to axis, including, with a larger tolerance, the lowest energy pass using measured beam trajectory data. This method relies on linear optics as representation of the system; we treat beamline perturbations as magnetic field errors localized to regions between cryomodules, providing the same transverse momentum kick to each beam. We produce a vector of measured beam position data with which we left-multiply the pseudo-inverse of a coefficient array, A, that describes the transport of the beam through the linac using parameters that include the magnetic offsets of the quadrupole magnets, the instrumental offsets of the BPMs, and the beam initial conditions. This process is repeated using a reduced array to produce values that can be applied to the available correcting magnets and beam initial conditions. We show that this method is effective in steering the beam to a straight axis along the linac by using our values in elegant, the accelerator simulation program, on a model of the linac in question. The algorithms in this reference implementation provide a tool for systematic diagnosis and cataloging of perturbations in the beam line. Supported by Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University, NSF, DOE.

  16. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  17. An overview of digital reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Hemnani, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Digital reference service is an emerging trend of traditional reference service. Easily accessible digital reference service has become one of the hallmark of the library and information services. The paper highlights how new visage of traditional reference service is developing as a natural solution to keep pace with comprehensive technological environment. It discusses about the basic concepts, elements of digital reference service and give in detail modes, the advantages, limitations, and...

  18. New Concepts in Digital Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2009-01-01

    Let us start with a simple scenario: a man asks a woman 'how high is Mount Everest?' The woman replies '29,029 feet'. Nothing could be simpler. Now let us suppose that rather than standing in a room, or sitting on a bus, the man is at his desk and the woman is 300 miles away with the conversation taking place using e-mail. Still simple? Certainly - it happens every day. So why all the bother about digital (virtual, electronic, chat, etc.) reference? If the man is a pilot flying over Mount Everest, the answer matters. If you are a lawyer going to court, the identity of the woman is very importa

  19. The Micropaleontological Reference Centers Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Micropaleontological Reference Centers (MRCscomprise large microfossil slide collections prepared from core samples obtained through the Deep Sea Drilling Project(DSDP and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP. The MRCs have been maintained for three decades, largely as a volunteer effort by a global network of curators at more than a dozen institutions (Fig.1, Table 1. They were originallyintended to provide a permanent micropaleontological archive for the DSDP; however, as their geographic and stratigraphic coverage has increased they have become increasingly valuable for research and teaching. This article describes the MRCs and their current usage, identifi es the need to maintain and improve the accuracy of the microfossil taxonomy upon which most DSDP and ODP geochronologyis based, and cites the potential for the future use of the MRCs by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP.

  20. Teaching Ethos of Reference Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the teaching ethos of professors who are recognized for their good practice as trainers. The aim of our study is to analyze the influences of such professors’ professional constitution, as well as the explicit and/or tacit teaching knowledge they mobilize in their teaching practices. Based on Shulman, Gauthier, Tardif and Polanyi, we conducted interviews with three professors described by their students as reference. They were also observed in their classes, in the context of an undergraduate program in pedagogy at a public university. Data show similarities between the practices of the investigated professors, as well as a consistent description of their didactics, which is marked by intellective, moral, emotional and behavioral features.

  1. Benchmarking reference services: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J G; Buchanan, H S

    1995-01-01

    Benchmarking is based on the common sense idea that someone else, either inside or outside of libraries, has found a better way of doing certain things and that your own library's performance can be improved by finding out how others do things and adopting the best practices you find. Benchmarking is one of the tools used for achieving continuous improvement in Total Quality Management (TQM) programs. Although benchmarking can be done on an informal basis, TQM puts considerable emphasis on formal data collection and performance measurement. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to evaluate process performance. This article introduces the general concept of benchmarking, linking it whenever possible to reference services in health sciences libraries. Data collection instruments that have potential application in benchmarking studies are discussed and the need to develop common measurement tools to facilitate benchmarking is emphasized.

  2. SNAP operating system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III.

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories

  3. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  4. A reference aerosol for a radon reference chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Annette; Keyser, Uwe

    1996-02-01

    The measurement of radon and radon progenies and the calibration of their detection systems require the production and measurement of aerosols well-defined in size and concentration. In the German radon reference chamber, because of its unique chemical and physical properties, carnauba wax is used to produce standard aerosols. The aerosol size spectra are measured on-line by an aerosol measurement system in the range of 10 nm to 1 μm aerodynamic diameter. The experimental set-ups for the study of adsorption of radioactive ions on aerosols as function of their size and concentration will be described, the results presented and further adaptations for an aerosol jet introduced (for example, for the measurement of short-lived neutron-rich isotopes). Data on the dependence of aerosol radius, ion concentration and element selectivity is collected by using a 252Cf-sf source. The fission products of this source range widely in elements, isotopes and charges. Adsorption and the transport of radioactive ions on aerosols have therefore been studied for various ions for the first time, simultaneously with the aerosol size on-line spectrometry.

  5. A reference aerosol for a radon reference chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keyser, U. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-01-11

    The measurement of radon and radon progenies and the calibration of their detection systems require the production and measurement of aerosols well-defined in size and concentration. In the German radon reference chamber, because of its unique chemical and physical properties, carnauba wax is used to produce standard aerosols. The aerosol size spectra are measured on-line by an aerosol measurement system in the range of 10 nm to 1 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter. The experimental set-ups for the study of adsorption of radioactive ions on aerosols as function of their size and concentration are described, the results presented and further adaptations for an aerosol jet introduced (for example, for the measurement of short-lived neutron-rich isotopes). Data on the dependence of aerosol radius, ion concentration and element selectivity is collected by using a {sup 252}Cf-sf source. The fission products of this source range widely in elements, isotopes and charges. Adsorption and the transport of radioactive ions on aerosols have therefore been studied for various ions for the first time, simultaneously with the aerosol size on-line spectrometry. (orig.).

  6. [The National Reference Centres and Reference Laboratories. Importance and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, G; Ammon, A

    2005-09-01

    Since 1995, the German Federal Ministry for Health and Social Security funds National Reference Centres (NRC) for the laboratory surveillance of important pathogens and syndromes. Which pathogens or syndromes are selected to be covered by a NRC depends on their epidemiological relevance, the special diagnostic tools, problems with antimicrobial resistance and necessary infection control measures. Currently, there are 15 NRC, which are appointed for a period of 3 years (currently from January 2005 through December 2007). Towards the end of their appointment all NRC are evaluated by a group of specialists. The assessment of their achievements is guided by a catalogue of tasks for the NRC. In addition to the NRC, a total of 50 laboratories are appointed which provide specialist expertise for additional pathogens in order to have a broad range of pathogens for which specialist laboratories are available. Their predominant task is to give advice and support for special diagnostic problems. Both NRC and the specialist laboratories are important parts of the network for infectious disease epidemiology.

  7. EDF group - Reference Document 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. With an installed capacity of 130.8 GW (123.9 GW in Europe), it contributes to the supply of energy and services to more than 40 million customers throughout the world (with approximately 36.7 million customers in Europe, more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. In 2005, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 51,051 million, net income (Group share) of euros 3,242 million, and it achieved earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,010 million. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2005. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business Overview, Organizational Structure, Property, Plants and Equipment, Operating and Financial Review, Capital Resources, Research and Development, Patents and Licences, Trend Information, Financial Prospects, Administrative, Management, and Supervisory Bodies and Senior Management, Remuneration and Benefits, Board Practices, Employees/Human Resources, Major Shareholders, Related Party Transactions, Financial Information Concerning the Company's Assets and Liabilities, Financial Position and Profits and Losses, Material Contracts, Information on Holdings etc

  8. EDF group - Reference Document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, active in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading and network management. The leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, with a portfolio of 38.5 million European customers and a generation fleet which is unique in the world. It intends to play a major role in the global revival of nuclear and is increasingly active in the gas chain. The Group has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. Given its R and D capability, its track record and expertise in nuclear, fossil-fired and hydro generation and in renewable energies, together with its energy eco-efficiency offers, EDF is well placed to deliver competitive solutions to reconcile sustainable economic growth and climate preservation. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, human resources, shareholders, etc. The document includes the 2008 half-year financial report and consolidated financial statements, and the report drafted by the Statutory Auditors

  9. EDF group - Reference Document 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. With an installed capacity of 125,4 GW, it contributes to the supply of energy and services to more than 42 million customers throughout the world (with approximately 36 million customers in Europe, more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. In 2004, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 46,928 million, net income (Group share) of euros 1,341 million, and it achieved earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 12,127 million. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2004. It contains information about: the Group activities, capital, relations with Gaz de France utility, strategy, industrial environment, history, activity in France, international activity, transverse activities and functions, disputes, arbitration and risk factors, Property, Plants and Equipment, Operating and Financial Review, Administrative, Management, and Supervisory Bodies and Senior Management, Remuneration and Benefits, recent trends and perspectives

  10. Sensitivity of annual and seasonal reference crop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scheduling and water resources management. Ref- ... time, and refers to evapotranspiration rate from a reference ... variable per unit increase in independent variable. Sensitivity ...... Pereira L S 2007 Relating water productivity and crop.

  11. Development of a reference liquid scintillation cocktail

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyn Gaardt, WM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A reference system that would allow national laboratories to compare their activity measurements of non-gamma-emitting radionuclides at any time is currently being developed. The system requires a non-commercial reference-liquid scintillation...

  12. [Errors in Peruvian medical journals references].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2009-01-01

    References are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of references found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers references selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated reference information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the references, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). References error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of references in the editorial process as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. references, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.

  13. Selected Reference Books of 1970-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1971-01-01

    A continuation of the semiannual series, this list presents a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. It is not intended to be well balanced or comprehensive. (34 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Reference Structures: Stagnation, Progress, and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the current state of reference structures in online public access catalogs (OPACs) in a framework defined by stagnation, progress, and future challenges. Outlines six areas for reference structure development. Twenty figures provide illustrations. (AEF)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glutaric acidemia type 1 in patients of Lumbee heritage from North Carolina. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 May; ... 825-8. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its ...

  16. EDF group - Reference Document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and holds strong positions in the other three principal European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy) making it one of the leading electricity groups in Europe, and a recognized actor in the gas market. With an installed capacity of 123.7 GW in Europe (128.2 GW worldwide) it holds, among the major European energy specialists, the largest production fleet and the one emitting the least CO 2 , owing to the share of nuclear technology and hydropower in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and associated services to more than 37.8 million customers throughout the world and in Europe (more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between France and the international markets, and between deregulated and regulated operations. In 2006, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 58,932 million, net income (Group share) of euros 5,605 million, and it achieved earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,930 million. From July 1, 2007, the EDF group will carry out its trading activities in a European energy market fully open to competition. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2006. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business overview, Organizational structure, Property, plants and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Trend information, Financial forecasts or estimates, Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management, Remuneration and benefits, Board practices, Employees/Human resources, Major shareholders, Related party transactions, Financial information

  17. Project X: Accelerator Reference Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Stephen D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-20

    applications of muon spin rotation techniques provide sensitive probes of the magnetic structure of materials. Goal: Provide MW-class proton beams at 1 GeV, coupled with novel targets required to support a broad range of materials science and energy applications. Platform for Evolution to Future Frontier Facilities: A high-intensity proton source will strengthen and modernize the Fermilab injector complex, providing a robust platform upon which to build future frontier facilities. The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider are examples that would provide world-leading capabilities at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers for many decades to come. Goal: Provide a straightforward upgrade path for a 4 MW, low-duty-factor source of protons at energies between 5 and 15 GeV. These four elements are expected to form the basis of the Mission Need statement required for the Department of Energy (DOE) Critical Decision 0 (CD-0), and represent the fundamental design criteria for Project X. The following chapters present the Reference Design for the Project X accelerator facility. The Reference Design is based on a continuous wave (CW) superconducting (SC) linac providing up to 1 and 3 MW of beam power at 1 and 3 GeV respectively. A pulsed linac provides acceleration of roughly 4% of the beam delivered from the CW linac to the 8 GeV injection energy of the existing Recycler/Main Injector complex. Upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector support a factor of three increase, beyond current capabilities, in proton beam power at 60 to 120 GeV. The Reference Design represents a facility that will be unique in the world with unmatched capabilities for the delivery of very high beam power, with flexible beam formats, to multiple users at multiple energies. The utilization of linacs within the Project X facility enables capabilities beyond what is achievable with circular accelerators. It is anticipated that the final configuration and operating parameters of the complex will be further refined through

  18. Inertial reference frames and gravitational forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santavy, I.

    1981-01-01

    The connection between different definitions of inertial, i.e. fundamental, reference frames and the corresponding characterisation of gravitational fields by gravitational forces are considered from the point of view of their possible interpretation in university introductory courses. The introduction of a special class of reference frames, denoted 'mixed reference frames' is proposed and discussed. (author)

  19. ASTM reference radiologic digital image standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysnewski, R.; Wysnewski, D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM Reference Radiographs have been essential in defining industry's material defect grade levels for many years. ASTM Reference Radiographs are used extensively as even the American Society for Metals Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control Metals Handbook, Volume 11, eighth edition refers to ASTM Standard Reference Radiographs. The recently published E 1648 Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds is a prime example of the on-going need for these references. To date, 14 Standard Reference Radiographs have been published to characterize material defects. Standard Reference Radiographs do not adequately address film-less radiologic methods. There are differences in mediums to content with. On a computer CRT defect indications appear differently when compared to indications viewed in a radiograph on a view box. Industry that uses non-film radiologic methods of inspection can be burdened with additional time and money developing internal standard reference radiologic images. These references may be deemed necessary for grading levels of product defects. Because there are no ASTM Standard Reference Radiologic data files for addressing this need in the industry, the authors of this paper suggested implementing a method for their creation under ASTM supervision. ASTM can assure continuity to those users making the transition from analog radiographic images to digital image data by swiftly addressing the requirements for reference digital image standards. The current status and possible future activities regarding a method to create digital data files is presented in this paper summary

  20. COMAR - database for certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klich, H.; Caliste, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    With more than 130 producers of reference materials (RM) throughout the world, it is often difficult to find the best reference material for a specific application. The computer database COMAR has been developed to aid chemists in finding the needed reference material. (orig.)

  1. 32 CFR 634.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 634.2 Section 634.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.2 References. Required and related publications along with prescribed and reference...

  2. Factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...

  3. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and

  4. EDF group - Reference Document 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated energy company with a presence in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, supply and energy trading. It is France's leading electricity operator and has a strong position in the three other main European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy), making it one of Europe's leading electrical players as well as a recognized player in the gas industry. With worldwide installed power capacity totaling 136.3 GW as of December 31, 2009 (134.0 GW in Europe) and global energy generation of 618.5 TWh, it has the largest generating capacity of all the major European energy corporations with the lowest level of CO 2 emissions due to the significant proportion of nuclear and hydroelectric power in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies gas, electricity, and associated services to more than 37.9 million customer accounts worldwide (including approximately 27.7 million in France). The EDF group's businesses reflect its adoption of a model aimed at finding the best balance between French and international activities, competitive and regulated operations and based on an upstream-downstream integration. In 2009, the Group's consolidated revenues were euros 66.3 billion, the net income (Group share) was euros 3.9 billion, and earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization was euros 17.5 billion. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2009. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business, Organizational structure, Property plant and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Information on trends, Financial outlook, Administrative, management, and supervisory bodies and senior management, Compensation and benefits, Functioning of the administration and management bodies, Employees/Human resources

  5. Recent references May through August 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1992-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Listed are Key Numbers and Keywords, a reaction index, and references and secondary sources for the data

  6. User satisfaction with referrals at a collaborative virtual reference service Virtual reference services, Reference services, Referrals, User satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Kwon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnaires submitted by the service users. Both sets of data were collected from an electronic archive of a southeastern state public library system that has participated in 24/7 Reference of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS. Results. Referrals in the collaborative chat reference service comprised approximately 30% of the total transactions. Circulation-related questions were the most often referred among all question types, possibly because of the inability of 'outside' librarians to access patron accounts. Most importantly, user satisfaction with referrals was found to be significantly lower than that of completed answers. Conclusion. The findings of this study addressed the importance of distinguishing two types of referrals: the expert research referrals conducive to collaborative virtual reference services; and the re-directional local referrals that increase unnecessary question traffic, thereby being detrimental to effective use of collaborative reference. Continuing efforts to conceptualize referrals in multiple dimensions are anticipated to fully grasp complex phenomena underlying referrals.

  7. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    the construction of two test reference years of Greenland used in the work of establishing new energy frame for the coming building code of Greenland. The first test reference year is constructed using measurements of climatic parameters from the town Nuuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. The second...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...... temperature, global radiation, relative humidity and mean wind speed. To construct the test reference years a program called REFYEAR was developed in MatLab. REFYEAR automatically constructs the test reference year using an input file containing the climatic measurements. The two constructed test reference...

  8. Testing the causal theory of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaneschi, Filippo; Vignolo, Massimiliano; Di Paola, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names. A secondary but interesting result is that the semantic domain affects reference assignment: while with people proper names speakers tend to assign the semantic reference, with geographical proper names they are prompted to assign the speaker's reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1313). It was quickly recognized that much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases of illicit trafficking. For example, what specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained: in stock, scrap or waste? Was the amount seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The combination of scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as 'nuclear forensics', which has become an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. This publication is based on a document entitled Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution (UCLR-TR-202675). The document is unique in that it brings together, for the first time, a concise but comprehensive description of the various tools and procedures of nuclear forensic investigations that was earlier available only in different areas of the scientific literature. It also has the merit of incorporating experience accumulated over the past decade by law enforcement agencies and nuclear forensics laboratories confronted with cases of illicit events involving nuclear or other radioactive material

  10. Reference costs for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO 2 ) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO 2 emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation methods

  11. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  12. Writing more informative letters of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-05-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess "intangibles" that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference.

  13. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter...

  14. Construction of Chinese reference female phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yinxiangzi; Liu Lixing; Xia Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Voxel-based Chinese Reference female Phantom (VCRP-woman) is developed from an individual female phantom which was based on high resolution cross-sectional color photographs. An in-house C ++ program was developed to adjust the phantom. Finally, a reference female phantom with have the same height, weighte and similar organs masses with the Chinese reference adult female data. The adjusted phantom is then imported to MCNPX to calculate the organs absorbed dose and effective dose conversion coefficients. Results are compared between VCRP-woman and the ICRP adult reference female phantom. (authors)

  15. S. R. Ranganathan's Theory of Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Manoj M.

    A study of S. R. Ranganathan's theory of reference service is undertaken by using an historical methodology. It was evident from the literature review that Ranganathan had established that reference service was the most important work and served as the hub of all library practices. There were six factors that were repeatedly considered by…

  16. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  17. Technology: Trigger for Change in Reference Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Clark N.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the influence of technological developments on social change focuses on the effects of information technology on academic reference librarianship. Highlights include reference skills; electronic resources; microcomputer technology; online catalogs; interaction and communication with users; the need to teach information skills; and…

  18. ‘Sampling the reference set’ revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van E.E.M.; Linssen, H.N.; Overdijk, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The confidence level of an inference table is defined as a weighted truth probability of the inference when sampling the reference set. The reference set is recognized by conditioning on the values of maximal partially ancillary statistics. In the sampling experiment values of incidental parameters

  19. Writing references and using citation management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  20. On Learning to Write Those **** References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how difficult it is for psychology college students to learn to write multiple disciplines of references. It is hard for students to understand why all details have to be written in the right order and the right type-style--depending upon which reference system is used. In this article, the author proposes…

  1. THE CONCEPT OF REFERENCE CONDITION, REVISITED ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘reference condition’’ is often used to describe the standard or benchmark against which current condition is compared. If assessments are to be conducted consistently, then a common understanding of the definitions and complications of reference condition is necessary. A 2006 paper (Stoddard et al., 2006, Ecological Applications 16:1267-1276) made an early attempt at codifying the reference condition concept; in this presentation we will revisit the points raised in that paper (and others) and examine how our thinking has changed in a little over 10 years.Among the issues to be discussed: (1) the “moving target” created when reference site data are used to set thresholds in large scale assessments; (2) natural vs. human disturbance and their effects on reference site distributions; (3) circularity and the use of biological data to assist in reference site identification; (4) using site-scale (in-stream or in-lake) measurements vs. landscape-level human activity to identify reference conditions. Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘reference condition’’ is often use

  2. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 6. Enter detailed budget notes for each line item. Use the “add new row “ button if more rows are needed. (Refer to page 7 on user guider for more information on budget notes). 7. On the “indirect cost” sheet, enter a fixed percentage or amount(s) a. For fixed ...

  3. Lazy reference counting for the Microgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.; Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Scholz, S.-B.

    2012-01-01

    This papers revisits non-deferred reference counting, a common technique to ensure that potentially shared large heap objects can be reused safely when they are both input and output to computations. Traditionally, thread-safe reference counting exploit implicit memory-based communication of counter

  4. Patron Preference in Reference Service Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Linda

    1980-01-01

    Behavior of patrons choosing between a person sitting at a counter and one sitting at a desk at each of two reference points was observed at the reference department during remodeling at the M. D. Anderson Library of the University of Houston. Results showed a statistically relevant preference for the counter. (Author/JD)

  5. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  6. Network interconnections: an architectural reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butscher, B.; Lenzini, L.; Morling, R.; Vissers, C.A.; Popescu-Zeletin, R.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Heger, D.; Krueger, G.; Spaniol, O.; Zorn, W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in understanding the different approaches in interconnecting networks of different technologies is the lack of reference to a general model. The paper develops the rationales for a reference model of network interconnection and focuses on the architectural implications for

  7. Reference Sources: Little Known to Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    RQ, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article lists seventy-eight reference sources, and is divided into the following four sections: (1) Useful But Little-Known Reference Tools by John Fetros, (2) The Statesman's Year-Book by James Becker, (3) Single Volume Scientific Encyclopedias by Jack Clarke and (4) Ten Basic Sources of Business and Economic Statistics by James Woy. (MF)

  8. Uncertainty in Reference and Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanScoy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Uncertainty is understood as an important component of the information seeking process, but it has not been explored as a component of reference and information service. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the practitioner perspective of reference and information service for eight academic research…

  9. Automation and Job Satisfaction among Reference Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of job satisfaction and the level of job performance focuses on the effect of automation on job satisfaction among reference librarians. The influence of stress is discussed, a job strain model is explained, and examples of how to design a job to reduce the stress caused by automation are given. (12 references) (LRW)

  10. Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the design and analysis of a predictor-based model reference adaptive control. Stable adaptive laws are derived using Lyapunov framework. The proposed architecture is compared with the now classical model reference adaptive control. A simulation example is presented in which numerical evidence indicates that the proposed controller yields improved transient characteristics.

  11. Comparing Theories of Reference-Dependent Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-01-01

    Preferences are influenced by the presence or absence of salient choice options, known as reference points. This behavioral tendency is traditionally attributed to the loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity assumptions of prospect theory. In contrast, some psychological research suggests that reference dependence is caused by attentional biases…

  12. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  13. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  14. What Determines the Response: Test or Reference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukova, S. V.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The stability of sensory memory has been studied by presenting a reference stimulus, a delay, and a test stimulus. As has been pointed out by Lages and Treisman (1998 Vision Research 38 557-572), the usual measure of performance depends only on the effect of test variations on the responses. The Weber fraction characterizing performance is more properly called the test stimulus Weber fraction. We measure the relative contribution of the test and reference to the response by the ratio of the test Weber fraction to the reference Weber fraction. The stimuli were two dark lines on a bright background. Seven reference separations, varying from 9.5 to 16.7 arc min, were intermixed in each run. Interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 50, 200 and 2000 msec and intertrial intervals (ITI) of 500 and 2500 msec were investigated. When the ISI was short (50 or 200 msec), for both ITIs, responses were determined equally by the test and reference. For the long ISI (2000 msec), the reference stimulus contributed less. However, only for the 500 msec ITI (and not for all observers) was the contribution of the reference stimulus negligible, as Treisman's criterion setting theory might suggest.

  15. Fast tracking ICT infrastructure requirements and design, based on Enterprise Reference Architecture and matching Reference Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernus, Peter; Baltrusch, Rob; Vesterager, Johan

    2002-01-01

    The Globemen Consortium has developed the virtual enterprise reference architecture and methodology (VERAM), based on GERAM and developed reference models for virtual enterprise management and joint mission delivery. The planned virtual enterprise capability includes the areas of sales...

  16. Python pocket reference, version 2.4

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Python is optimized for quality, productivity, portability, and integration. Hundreds of thousands of Python developers around the world rely on Python for general-purpose tasks, Internet scripting, systems programming, user interfaces, and product customization. Available on all major computing platforms, including commercial versions of Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X, Python is portable, powerful and remarkable easy to use. With its convenient, quick-reference format, Python Pocket Reference, 3rd Edition is the perfect on-the-job reference. More importantly, it's now been refreshed

  17. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  18. Physical meaning of the optical reference geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    I show that contrary to a popular misconception the optical reference geometry, introduced a few years ago as a formally possible metric of a 3-space corresponding to a static spacetime, is quite satisfactory also from the physical point of view. The optical reference geometry has a clear physical meaning, as it may be constructed experimentally by measuring light round travel time between static observers. Distances and directions in the optical reference geometry are more strongly connected to experiment than distances and directions in the widely used directly projected metric (discussed e.g. in Landau and Lifshitz textbook. In addition, the optical reference geometry is more natural and convenient than the directly projected one in application to dynamics. In the optical geometry dynamical behaviour of matter is described by concepts and formulae identical to those well known in Newtonian dynamics on a given two dimensional (curved) surface. (author). 22 refs

  19. Selected Reference Books of 1998-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of selected reference books published between 1998 and 1999 under subject headings for biography, journalism, mythology, languages and literature, architecture and city planning, political science, economics, history, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  20. challenges with reference citations among postgraduate students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-12-30

    Dec 30, 2012 ... Students tend to rely on books, lecturers or librarians for assistance ... were not able to identify the citation format they used; they could not cite references for books and journal ... are Vancouver, Harvard, American Psychologi-.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: branchiootorenal/branchiootic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... branchiootorenal spectrum disorders). "Branchio-" refers to the second branchial arch, which is a structure in the developing ... BOR/BO syndrome, abnormal development of the second branchial arch can result in the formation of masses ...

  2. Medicare Referring Provider (DMEPOS) Data CY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released a new dataset, the Referring Provider Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies...

  3. 32 CFR 507.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM Introduction § 507.2 References. Related publications are listed in paragraphs (a..., Tabards and Automobile Plates. (f) AFR 900-3, Department of the Air Force Seal, Organizational Emblems...

  4. Registration document 2005; Document de reference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  5. Global Reference Tables for Management Information Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardize code structures and code usage of SSA...

  6. National Drug File - Reference Terminology API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA). NDF-RT is an...

  7. Studies on phytoplankton with reference to dinoflagellates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.

    Bibliography Publications Appendices Statement As required under the University ordinance 0.19.8 (vi), I state that the present thesis titled ³Studies on phytoplankton with reference to dinoflagellates´ is my original contribution...

  8. Climate Reference Network Hourly02 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  9. Global Reference Tables for Production Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardized code structures and code usage of SSA...

  10. Printed circuit board designer's reference basics

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Chris

    2003-01-01

    PCB design instruction and reference manual, all in one book, with in- depth explanation of the processes and tools used in modern PCB design Standards, formulas, definitions, and procedures, plus software to tie it all together.

  11. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  12. Reference Device-Assisted Adaptive Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Location fingerprinting suffers in dynamic environments and needs recalibration from time to time to maintain system performance. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for location fingerprinting. Based on real-time received signal strength indicator (RSSI samples measured by a group of reference devices, the approach applies a modified Universal Kriging (UK interpolant to estimate adaptive temporal and environmental radio maps. The modified UK can take the spatial distribution characteristics of RSSI into account. In addition, the issue of device heterogeneity caused by multiple reference devices is further addressed. To compensate the measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices, differential RSSI metric is employed. Extensive experiments were conducted in an indoor field and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach not only adapts to dynamic environments and the situation of changing APs’ positions, but it is also robust toward measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices.

  13. Climate Reference Network Daily01 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  14. Mercury's Reference Frames After the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, A.; Oberst, J.; Preusker, F.; Burmeister, S.; Steinbrügge, G.; Hussmann, H.

    2018-05-01

    We provide an overview of Mercury's reference frames based on MESSENGER observations. We discuss the dynamical, the principal-axes, the ellipsoid, as well as the cartographic frame, which was adopted for MESSENGER data products.

  15. Selected Reference Books of 1969-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this list is to present a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. It is neither well balanced nor comprehensive. (Author/NH)

  16. 16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... parentheses for convenience and information only. ...

  17. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant hypocalcemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individuals have features of a kidney disorder called Bartter syndrome in addition to hypocalcemia. These features can include ... sometimes referred to as autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome or Bartter syndrome type V. There are two ...

  19. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  20. A report on reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In connection with the reference Japanese man for evaluation of accurate exposure doses considering the various characteristics, survey data of organs etc. weights and dimensions are given: renal glands, brains, kidneys, liver, lungs, womb, thyroid glands, gallbladder, stomach. (Mori, K.)

  1. Quantum communication, reference frames, and gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enk, S. J. van

    2006-01-01

    We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model

  2. Reliability of reference distances used in photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Kaya, Demet; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2010-07-01

    To determine the reliability of the reference distances used for photogrammetric assessment. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with mean ages of 22.97 +/- 2.98 years. Five lateral and four frontal parameters were measured directly on the subjects' faces. For photogrammetric assessment, two reference distances for the profile view and three reference distances for the frontal view were established. Standardized photographs were taken and all the parameters that had been measured directly on the face were measured on the photographs. The reliability of the reference distances was checked by comparing direct and indirect values of the parameters obtained from the subjects' faces and photographs. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bland-Altman analyses were used for statistical assessment. For profile measurements, the indirect values measured were statistically different from the direct values except for Sn-Sto in male subjects and Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in female subjects. The indirect values of Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto were reliable in both sexes. The poorest results were obtained in the indirect values of the N-Sn parameter for female subjects and the Sn-Me parameter for male subjects according to the Sa-Sba reference distance. For frontal measurements, the indirect values were statistically different from the direct values in both sexes except for one in male subjects. The indirect values measured were not statistically different from the direct values for Go-Go. The indirect values of Ch-Ch were reliable in male subjects. The poorest results were obtained according to the P-P reference distance. For profile assessment, the T-Ex reference distance was reliable for Prn-Sn and Sn-Sto in both sexes. For frontal assessment, Ex-Ex and En-En reference distances were reliable for Ch-Ch in male subjects.

  3. A structural SVM approach for reference parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X; Thoma, George R

    2011-06-09

    Automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references is essential to the affordable creation of large citation databases. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can also provide valuable information for extracting other bibliographic data. Therefore, parsing individual reference to extract author, title, journal, year, etc. is sometimes a necessary preprocessing step in building citation-indexing systems. The regular structure in references enables us to consider reference parsing a sequence learning problem and to study structural Support Vector Machine (structural SVM), a newly developed structured learning algorithm on parsing references. In this study, we implemented structural SVM and used two types of contextual features to compare structural SVM with conventional SVM. Both methods achieve above 98% token classification accuracy and above 95% overall chunk-level accuracy for reference parsing. We also compared SVM and structural SVM to Conditional Random Field (CRF). The experimental results show that structural SVM and CRF achieve similar accuracies at token- and chunk-levels. When only basic observation features are used for each token, structural SVM achieves higher performance compared to SVM since it utilizes the contextual label features. However, when the contextual observation features from neighboring tokens are combined, SVM performance improves greatly, and is close to that of structural SVM after adding the second order contextual observation features. The comparison of these two methods with CRF using the same set of binary features show that both structural SVM and CRF perform better than SVM, indicating their stronger sequence learning ability in reference parsing.

  4. Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake

    OpenAIRE

    Haxton, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    This submission includes the overview, science timeline, reference design, WBS, and mine status sections of the Homestake collaboration's Reference Design Project Book. The Project Book describes the specific plan for converting the Homestake Gold Mine into a facility for physics, earth science, and engineering. The proposed developments on the 7400- and 4850-ft levels are presented, along with the plans for adapting Homestake's existing infrastructure for science. The plan differs substantia...

  5. Reference materials for microanalytical nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Injuk, Jasna; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium)

    1994-07-01

    This paper discusses some issues concerning reference materials required for microanalysis including physical and chemical properties of the sample matrix and homogeneity of the chemical composition. It gives some examples of the mst common standards used. Further the paper gives background information about the Micro- and Trace Analysis Center of the University of Antwerp, Belgium and discusses recent results of the Center in microanalysis of reference materials.

  6. Quantum bit commitment with misaligned reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, Aram; Oliveira, Roberto; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2006-01-01

    Suppose that Alice and Bob define their coordinate axes differently, and the change of reference frame between them is given by a probability distribution μ over SO(3). We show that this uncertainty of reference frame is of no use for bit commitment when μ is uniformly distributed over a (sub)group of SO(3), but other choices of μ can give rise to a partially or even arbitrarily secure bit commitment

  7. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  8. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  9. A new birthweight reference in Guangzhou, southern China, and its comparison with the global reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Rong; Xia, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M; Feng, Qiong; Schooling, C Mary; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-12-01

    To formulate a new birthweight reference for different gestational ages in Guangzhou, southern China, and compare it with the currently used reference in China and the global reference. All singleton live births of more than 26 weeks' gestational age recorded in the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 (n=510 837) were retrospectively included in the study. In addition, the study sample was supplemented by all singleton live births (n=3538) at gestational ages 26-33 weeks from 2007 and 2008. We used Gaussian mixture models and robust regression to exclude outliers of birth weight and then applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) to generate smoothed percentile curves separately for gender and parity. Of infants defined as small for gestational age (SGA) in the new reference, 15.3-47.7% (depending on gestational age) were considered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) by the currently used reference of China. Of the infants defined as SGA by the new reference, 9.2% with gestational ages 34-36 weeks and 14.3% with 37-41 weeks were considered AGA by the global reference. At the 50th centile line, the new reference curve was similar to that of the global reference for gestational ages 26-33 weeks and above the global reference for 34-40 weeks. The new birthweight reference based on birthweight data for neonates in Guangzhou, China, differs from the reference currently used in China and the global reference, and appears to be more relevant to the local population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  11. Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes additional advice to national or local authorities and the clinical community on the application of diagnostic reference levels as a practical tool to manage radiation doses to patients in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A survey was made of the various approaches that have been taken by authoritative bodies to establish diagnostic reference levels for medical imaging tasks. There are a variety of ways to implement the idea of diagnostic reference levels, depending on the medical imaging task of interest, the national or local state of practice and the national or local preferences for technical implementation. The existing International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance is reviewed, the survey information is summarized, a set of unifying principles is espoused and a statement of additional advice that has been proposed to ICRP Committee 3 is presented. The proposed advice would meet a need for a unifying set of principles to provide a framework for diagnostic reference levels but would allow flexibility in their selection and use. While some illustrative examples are given, the proposed advice does not specify the specific quantities to be used, the numerical values to be set for the quantities or the technical details of how national or local authorities should implement diagnostic reference levels. (author)

  12. Delusions of reference: a new theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startup, Mike; Bucci, Sandra; Langdon, Robyn

    2009-03-01

    Although delusions of reference are one of the most common psychotic symptoms, they have been the focus of little research, possibly because they have been considered to be integral to persecutory delusions. Evidence has now emerged that there are two kinds of delusion of reference. One of these, referential delusions of communication, which involves beliefs that others are communicating in subtle, nonverbal ways, is the focus of this paper. We present a new model designed to account for the four crucial aspects of the phenomenology of these delusions: (1) that neutral stimuli are experienced as having personal significance; (2) that the neutral stimuli are experienced as communicating a message nonverbally; (3) that the content of the message concerns the self; (4) that the experience of a self-referent communication is believed rather than being dismissed as implausible. We used PsycINFO and Scopus, using the term "delusion* of reference", to search for publications with a bearing on our model. The amount of research we found that was designed to test aspects of this model is small but other published research appears to provide some support for its various steps. Much of this research was not explicitly intended to provide an account of delusions of reference but its relevance nevertheless seems clear. There is preliminary support for the plausibility of our model but much additional research is needed. We conclude by summarising what we consider to be the main desiderata.

  13. A 'Global Reference' Comparator for Biosimilar Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher J; Woollett, Gillian R

    2017-08-01

    Major drug regulators have indicated in guidance their flexibility to accept some development data for biosimilars generated with reference product versions licensed outside their own jurisdictions, but most authorities require new bridging studies between these versions and the versions of them licensed locally. The costs of these studies are not trivial in absolute terms and, due to the multiplier effect of required repetition by each biosimilar sponsor, their collective costs are substantial. Yet versions of biologics licensed in different jurisdictions usually share the same development data, and any manufacturing changes between versions have been justified by a rigorous comparability process. The fact that a biosimilar is usually expected to be licensed in multiple jurisdictions, in each case as similar to the local reference product, confirms that minor analytical differences between versions of reference biologics are typically inconsequential for clinical outcomes and licensing. A greatly simplified basis for selecting a reference comparator, that does not require conducting new bridging studies, is proposed and justified based on the shared data of the reference product versions as well as the proof offered where biosimilars have already been approved. The relevance of this proposal to the interchangeability designation available in the US is discussed.

  14. An overview of REARA reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to keep fast reactors as an option for an eventual future utilization in Brazil, the Advanced Studies Institute (IEAv) is coordinating a research project (called REARA, from the Portuguese REAtores RApidos (Fast Reactors)) which aims to establish a basic know-how in important aspects of fast reactor technology. A reference design for the primary circuit of a 60 MWt experimental fast reactor has been completed. Fuel pin dimensions and other data were taken mostly from PRISM and EBR-II and were used for calculations which lead to a general core configuration. The reference design is presently being used for testing our calculational tools, for checking different methodologies for core calculations, etc. The REARA reference design is presented, with emphasis in the main results and also in the contribution given by the project team in areas such as neutronics, thermohydraulics, etc. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Preparation and certification of a reference uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-06-01

    The CEA Analysis Coordination has produced a reference uranium metal of guaranteed minimum uranium content. The metal was purified by electro-refining in fused salt baths and the dendrites obtained were cast in the form of an ingot by electron bombardment. The ingot was rolled and cut into pieces of mass between 0.5 g and 1.5 g, and each piece conditioned in a glass ampoule under primary vacuum. The total number of reference samples is about 4500. The uranium content was inferred from the impurity concentration determined by spark mass spectrometry and atomic or molecular adsorption spectrophotometry and from the gas concentration determined by specific methods. A certificate of guarantee gives instructions for the use of these reference samples [fr

  16. Reference change values and power functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Canadell, Natàlia; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Jensen, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Repeated samplings and measurements in the monitoring of patients to look for changes are common clinical problems. The "reference change value", calculated as zp x [2 x (CVI2 + CVA2)](1/2), where zp is the z-statistic and CVI and CVA are within-subject and analytical coefficients of variation......, respectively, has been used to detect whether a measured difference between measurements is statistically significant. However, a reference change value only detects the probability of false-positives (type I error), and for this reason, a model to calculate the risk of missing significant changes in serial...... difference is the same as the calculated reference change value, then it will be detected in only 50% of situations....

  17. 2001 – 2010 Danish Design Reference Year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet Wang, Peter; Scharling, Mikael; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian

    This report presents the Danish Design Reference Year based on observed data from 2001 – 2010. In various sectors - i.e. building and construction, energy, etc. - the climate and weather usually plays a part in a given project. The Danish Design Reference Year dataset is a collection of data series...... for eleven specific parameters, that each represents a typical year in Denmark. The uses of the dataset may vary from simulations to statistical analysis, graphical overviews etc. The Danish land areas have been sectionalized into five to six climatological zones depending on the parameter, each...... characterized by distinct diurnal and yearly variations. The dataset consists of observed data from one station located within and representing each zone. In addition to the complete Danish Design Reference Year dataset, a subset specifically selected to be used for energy performance calculations for obtaining...

  18. Reference model for apparel product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Moretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a reference model for the implementation of the process of product development (PDP for apparel. The tool was developed through an interactive process of comparison between theoretical. Managers in companies and professionals working in this market can utilize the reference model as a source for the organization and improvement of the PDP for apparel and the universities as a reference source for systematized teaching of this process. This model represents the first comprehensive attempt to develop an instrument at a detailed level (macro phases, phases, activities, inputs and outputs at each stage and at the gates to systematize the PDP process for fashion products and to consider its particularities.

  19. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  20. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  1. SharePoint 2010 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers on SharePoint 2010 administration-in an instant If you're a SharePoint administrator and are looking for fast, accurate, easy-to-understand answers and solutions, then this reference is for you. Thumb tabs, secondary and tertiary tables of contents, and special heading treatments ensure quick and easy ways to find practical solutions on the spot. In addition, quick-reference tables, lists, and step-by-step instruction provide even more helpful information on the day-to-day administration of Microsoft's newest collaboration solution.Features invaluable answers and solutio

  2. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...... with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz’ method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it goes...

  3. Reference nuclear data for space technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Holden, N.E.; Pearlstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Specialized bibliographic searches, data compilations, and data evaluations help the basic and applied research scientist in his work. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) collates and analyzes nuclear physics information, and is concerned with the timely production and revision of reference nuclear data. A frequently revised reference data base in computerized form has the advantage of large quantities of data available without publication delays. The information normally handled by coordinated efforts of NNDC consists of neutron, charged-particle, nuclear structure, radioactive decay, and photonuclear data. 2 figures

  4. The self-referred mammography patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, H.E.; Jackson, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the demographics, knowledge, and attitudes of women who refer themselves for screening mammography with those who undergo mammography on the advice of their physicians. Four hundred eighty-five consecutive mammography patients (437 doctor preferred [DR], 48 self-referred [SR]) completed a survey during their mammography appointment. The sample population contained a wide range of socioeconomic groups. While similar in age, race, and employment status to DR patients, SR patients were significantly more likely to have a family income of more than 30,000 per year, be college graduates, and report that they were in good or excellent health

  5. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  6. Microsoft Windows Server 2012 administration instant reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers for common Windows Server questions Serving as a perfect companion to all Windows Server books, this reference provides you with quick and easily searchable solutions to day-to-day challenges of Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. Using helpful design features such as thumb tabs, tables of contents, and special heading treatments, this resource boasts a smooth and seamless approach to finding information. Plus, quick-reference tables and lists provide additional on-the-spot answers. Covers such key topics as server roles and functionality, u

  7. A Reference Framework for Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Considering the diversity of methods and tools offered to concurrent engineering, the aspects playing important roles in the concurrent engineering c ontext have been pinpointed as being four core elements which are Activity, Meth od, Object and Information. Based on these four elements, a reference framework called AMOI is proposed to be the guideline for the systematic concurrent produc t design. Using the AMOI reference framework, concurrent product development sys tem can be structured into four function models (including the activity model, m ethod model, object model and information model) which are interconnected with e ach other.

  8. Reference in human and non-human primate communication: What does it take to refer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Christine; Gruber, Thibaud

    2016-07-01

    The concept of functional reference has been used to isolate potentially referential vocal signals in animal communication. However, its relatedness to the phenomenon of reference in human language has recently been brought into question. While some researchers have suggested abandoning the concept of functional reference altogether, others advocate a revision of its definition to include contextual cues that play a role in signal production and perception. Empirical and theoretical work on functional reference has also put much emphasis on how the receiver understands the referential signal. However, reference, as defined in the linguistic literature, is an action of the producer, and therefore, any definition describing reference in non-human animals must also focus on the producer. To successfully determine whether a signal is used to refer, we suggest an approach from the field of pragmatics, taking a closer look at specific situations of signal production, specifically at the factors that influence the production of a signal by an individual. We define the concept of signaller's reference to identify intentional acts of reference produced by a signaller independently of the communicative modality, and illustrate it with a case study of the hoo vocalizations produced by wild chimpanzees during travel. This novel framework introduces an intentional approach to referentiality. It may therefore permit a closer comparison of human and non-human animal referential behaviour and underlying cognitive processes, allowing us to identify what may have emerged solely in the human lineage.

  9. Reference Value Advisor: a new freeware set of macroinstructions to calculate reference intervals with Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    International recommendations for determination of reference intervals have been recently updated, especially for small reference sample groups, and use of the robust method and Box-Cox transformation is now recommended. Unfortunately, these methods are not included in most software programs used for data analysis by clinical laboratories. We have created a set of macroinstructions, named Reference Value Advisor, for use in Microsoft Excel to calculate reference limits applying different methods. For any series of data, Reference Value Advisor calculates reference limits (with 90% confidence intervals [CI]) using a nonparametric method when n≥40 and by parametric and robust methods from native and Box-Cox transformed values; tests normality of distributions using the Anderson-Darling test and outliers using Tukey and Dixon-Reed tests; displays the distribution of values in dot plots and histograms and constructs Q-Q plots for visual inspection of normality; and provides minimal guidelines in the form of comments based on international recommendations. The critical steps in determination of reference intervals are correct selection of as many reference individuals as possible and analysis of specimens in controlled preanalytical and analytical conditions. Computing tools cannot compensate for flaws in selection and size of the reference sample group and handling and analysis of samples. However, if those steps are performed properly, Reference Value Advisor, available as freeware at http://www.biostat.envt.fr/spip/spip.php?article63, permits rapid assessment and comparison of results calculated using different methods, including currently unavailable methods. This allows for selection of the most appropriate method, especially as the program provides the CI of limits. It should be useful in veterinary clinical pathology when only small reference sample groups are available. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, J.A.; Driessen, P.M.; Nachtergaele, F.O.; Spaargaren, O.C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) officially adopted the world reference base for soil resources (WRB) as the Union's system for soil correlation. The structure, concepts, and definitions of the WRB are strongly influenced by the FAO-UNESCO legend of the soil map of the world

  11. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions

  12. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  13. Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Antonio de Sant'Ana

    2011-01-01

    In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos 2 θ by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the α-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

  14. Canadian Reference Sources 1980--A Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Dorothy E.

    1981-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of 52 reference sources and 24 new editions and supplements, excluding annuals. Topics include science and technology, art, history, university courses, regional information, native languages, museums, law, geography, Canadian culture, dissertations, sports, antiques, botany, and a variety of directories. (CHC)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use disorder can cause major health, social, and economic problems, and can endanger affected individuals and others ... Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424857/ Citation on PubMed Zhu EC, Soundy TJ, ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Disease InfoSearch: Deafness Harvard Medical School Center for Hereditary Deafness Hereditary Hearing ... Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1434/ Citation on ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  17. Shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water requirement for crops in resource limited areas is challenging, yet worsened by the common assumption that all crop varieties within a species have similar water requirements. The objective of the study was to indirectly determine crop evapotranspiration of soybean varieties, using reference ...

  18. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1980-09-12

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  19. Connecting VLBI and Gaia Celestial Reference Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, Zinovy, E-mail: malkin@gao.spb.ru [Department of Radio Astronomy Research, The Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Astronomy and Cosmic Geodesy Department, Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-12

    The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered. The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparison and the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) and the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3), obtained from VLBI observations. Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System) at micro-arcsecond level accuracy. Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial task due to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands. In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF–ICRF link is presented. Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF–ICRF link accuracy are discussed. The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20{sup m} rather than to 18{sup m} as currently planned for the GCRF–ICRF link. In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.

  20. Practical reference - radiation standards in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    In developing a policy that will require licensees to calibrate their radiation dose measuring devices and trace such calibrations to approved reference standards, the AECB has consulted recognized experts. This document presents the experts' reports and recommendations which will be considered in finalizing the policy

  1. Temporal Reference, Attentional Modulation, and Crossmodal Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqi Wan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Crossmodal assimilation effect refers to the prominent phenomenon by which ensemble mean extracted from a sequence of task-irrelevant distractor events, such as auditory intervals, assimilates/biases the perception (such as visual interval of the subsequent task-relevant target events in another sensory modality. In current experiments, using visual Ternus display, we examined the roles of temporal reference, materialized as the time information accumulated before the onset of target event, as well as the attentional modulation in crossmodal temporal interaction. Specifically, we examined how the global time interval, the mean auditory inter-intervals and the last interval in the auditory sequence assimilate and bias the subsequent percept of visual Ternus motion (element motion vs. group motion. We demonstrated that both the ensemble (geometric mean and the last interval in the auditory sequence contribute to bias the percept of visual motion. Longer mean (or last interval elicited more reports of group motion, whereas the shorter mean (or last auditory intervals gave rise to more dominant percept of element motion. Importantly, observers have shown dynamic adaptation to the temporal reference of crossmodal assimilation: when the target visual Ternus stimuli were separated by a long gap interval after the preceding sound sequence, the assimilation effect by ensemble mean was reduced. Our findings suggested that crossmodal assimilation relies on a suitable temporal reference on adaptation level, and revealed a general temporal perceptual grouping principle underlying complex audio-visual interactions in everyday dynamic situations.

  2. Organizational Learning Supported by Reference Architecture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardello, Marco; Møller, Charles; Gøtze, John

    2017-01-01

    of an emerging technical standard specific for the manufacturing industry. Global manufacturing experts consider the Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 (RAMI4.0) as one of the corner stones for the implementation of Industry 4.0. The instantiation contributed to organizational learning in the laboratory...

  3. Certified reference materials for organic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QianChuanfan

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses the requirements for certified reference materials (CRMs) to be used in measurements of residues of pesticides in food and environmental samples. It deals with the types of CRMs, matrix selection, sample preparation and representativeness. It also discusses CRM validity period and gives some examples of CRM preparation

  4. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Language, meaning, sense and reference: Matthew's passion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language, meaning, sense and reference: Matthew's passion narrative and Psalm 22. The passion narrative of Jesus as told by Matthew is a verbal enunciation which finds its place next to other passion narratives in which the narrator lets the protagonist use the words of the '1' person of Psalm 22 and in which the narrator ...

  6. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlledmultiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base

  7. Organizational Storytelling among Academic Reference Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Aguirre, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the roles of organizational stories among librarians who work at the reference desk. Twenty librarians employed in four academic institutions were interviewed. Most of the organizational stories shared among the participants and their colleagues were rich in tacit knowledge and can be classified according to four main roles:…

  8. 30 CFR 301.1 - Cross reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within the jurisdiction of administrative law judges and the Interior Board of Surface Mining and... Resources BOARD OF SURFACE MINING AND RECLAMATION APPEALS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES UNDER SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT OF 1977 § 301.1 Cross reference. For special rules applicable...

  9. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  10. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study w...

  11. Lifetime of the internal reference oxygen sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2013-01-01

    The internal reference oxygen sensor (IROS) based on a binary mixture of metal and its stoichiometric oxide is subject to leaks that result in consumption of the binary mixture. An IROS loses the functionality when the binary mixture is exhausted. Among the possible leak sources the electronic leak...

  12. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost…

  13. Production and certification of reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de S.; Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Hespanhol, Emilio Carlos B.; Martins, Elaine Arantes J.

    1996-01-01

    The reference materials used in analytical chemistry permit us to evaluate correctly the analytical producers as well as experimental set up. U 3 O 8 was produced at IPEN to be used as a secondary standard. We present the first results on U 3 O 8 and discuss the method, preparation, and characterization of that oxide. (author)

  14. Errors in the SAP reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dongen, van B.F.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The SAP Reference Model is a set of information models that is utilized to guide the configuration of SAP systems. A big part of these models are business process models represented in the Eventdriven Process Chains (EPC) notation. These EPC models provide a easy to comprehend overview of SAP

  15. Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinovy Malkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered.The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparisonand the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical it Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRFand the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3, obtained from VLBI observations.Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System at micro-arcsecond level accuracy.Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial taskdue to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands.In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented.Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed.The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20$^m$ rather than to 18$^m$ as currently plannedfor the GCRF--ICRF link.In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.

  16. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2007-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular pocket guide provides quick-reference information that will help you use Oracle's PL/SQL language, including the newest Oracle Database 11g features. A companion to Steven Feuerstein and Bill Pribyl's bestselling Oracle PL/SQL Programming, this concise guide boils down the most vital PL/SQL information into an accessible summary

  17. On Translators' Cultural Frame of Functionist Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyi

    2009-01-01

    A deep cognition with translators' cultural frame of functionist reference can help instructors and teachers adjust and extend patterns and schemes of translation and generate the optimal classroom conditions for acquisition of the target language. The author of the paper, in the perspectives of motivational, cognitive and communicative…

  18. Subject Reference Lists Produced by Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-chih Chen

    1968-08-01

    Full Text Available A system developed to produce fourteen subject reference lists by IBM 360/75 is described in detail. The computerized system has many advantages over conventional manual procedures. The feedback from students and other users is discussed, and some analysis of cost is included.

  19. Reference Electrodes Based on Solid Amalgams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Novotný, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2004), s. 238-241 ISSN 1040-0397 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : solid amalgam * reference electrode * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2004

  20. Immune reactivity of candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Aalbers, Marja; Fötisch, Kay; de Heer, Pleuni; Notten, Silla; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Immune reactivity is a key issue in the evaluation of the quality of recombinant allergens as potential reference materials. Within the frame of the CREATE project, the immune reactivity of the natural and recombinant versions of the major allergens of birch pollen (Bet v 1), grass pollen (Phl p 1

  1. A Reference Genome for US Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of reference genomes for rice has served as means for understanding the allelic diversity and genetic structure of a cereal grain that feeds half of the world. It has long been understood that Oryza sativa diverged into two major sub-populations Indica and Japonica, over 400 K years ...

  2. Reference Lists for HECE Occupational Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The annotated bibliography contains citations to appropriate reference books, pamphlets and audiovisual materials for the following 17 occupations: art and craft aide, bridal consultant, child care aide, clothing assistant, companion to the elderly, consumer aide, dietetic aide, fabric coordinator, fashion coordinator, floral designer, food…

  3. The Computerized Reference Department: Buying the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Harry M.; Kok, Victoria T.

    1985-01-01

    Basis for systematic computerization of academic research library's reference, collection development, and collection management functions emphasizes productivity enhancement for librarians and support staff. Use of microcomputer and university's mainframe computer to develop applications of database management systems, electronic spreadsheets,…

  4. 15 CFR 2008.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2008.1 Section 2008.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  5. Selected Reference Books of 1971-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eugene P.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this annotated list is to present a selection of recent scholarly and foreign works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. The citations are listed under the following headings: guide, bibliography, encyclopedias, dictionaries, newspapers, dissertations, biography, genealogy, literature, education, sociology,…

  6. Interactions: A Study of Office Reference Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lederer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study was to analyze the data from a referencestatistics-gathering mechanism at Colorado State University (CSU Libraries. It aimedprimarily to better understand patron behaviours, particularly in an academic librarywith no reference desk.Methods – The researchers examined data from 2007 to 2010 of College LiaisonLibrarians’ consultations with patrons. Data were analyzed by various criteria,including patron type, contact method, and time spent with the patron. Theinformation was examined in the aggregate, meaning all librarians combined, andthen specifically from the Liberal Arts and Business subject areas.Results – The researchers found that the number of librarian reference consultationsis substantial. Referrals to librarians from CSU’s Morgan Library’s one public servicedesk have declined over time. The researchers also found that graduate students arethe primary patrons and email is the preferred contact method overall.Conclusion – The researchers found that interactions with patrons in librarians’ offices – either in person or virtually – remain substantial even without a traditional reference desk. The data suggest that librarians’ efforts at marketing themselves to departments, colleges, and patrons have been successful. This study will be of value to reference, subject specialist, and public service librarians, and library administrators as they consider ways to quantify their work, not only for administrative purposes, but in order to follow trends and provide services and staffing accordingly.

  7. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  8. Microfabricated Reference Electrodes and their Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, there has been an increasing trend towards miniaturization of both biological and chemical sensors and their integration with miniaturized sample pre-processing and analysis systems. These miniaturized lab-on-chip devices have several functional advantages including low cost, their ability to analyze smaller samples, faster analysis time, suitability for automation, and increased reliability and repeatability. Electrical based sensing methods that transduce biological or chemical signals into the electrical domain are a dominant part of the lab-on-chip devices. A vital part of any electrochemical sensing system is the reference electrode, which is a probe that is capable of measuring the potential on the solution side of an electrochemical interface. Research on miniaturization of this crucial component and analysis of the parameters that affect its performance, stability and lifetime, is sparse. In this paper, we present the basic electrochemistry and thermodynamics of these reference electrodes and illustrate the uses of reference electrodes in electrochemical and biological measurements. Different electrochemical systems that are used as reference electrodes will be presented, and an overview of some contemporary advances in electrode miniaturization and their performance will be provided.

  9. Evaluation of Reference Services--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, Pali U.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the inherent deficiencies in reference service as provided is critical to providing effective, high quality service. Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, as well as a combination of both, are being used to evaluate these services. The identification of appropriate research methodology is critical to an effective…

  10. A Functional Reference Architecture for Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Aggregators are considered to be a key enabling technology for harvesting power system services from distributed energy resources (DER). As a precondition for more widespread use of aggregators in power systems, methods for comparing and validating aggregator designs must be established. This paper...... proposes a functional reference architecture for aggregators to address this requirement....

  11. Using Instant Messaging for Online Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries are using co-browsing chat products to provide reference services to their patrons, whilst their patrons are online and using the internet. The concept of such an online service is highly desirable, but many libraries are concerned that they will never be able to afford such a system. This may have changed: Instant Messaging (IM)…

  12. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online

  13. Effectiveness of Reference Services in Providing Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after spending lots of money due to some reason and the other. .... services include various forms of current awareness and selective dissemination of ... the users. Personal attention is at the very heart of the reference desk, and the goal of the.

  14. Xyce parallel electronic simulator : reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Ting; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Santarelli, Keith R.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Warrender, Christina E.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2011-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. It is targeted specifically to run on large-scale parallel computing platforms but also runs well on a variety of architectures including single processor workstations. It also aims to support a variety of devices and models specific to Sandia needs. This document is intended to complement the Xyce Users Guide. It contains comprehensive, detailed information about a number of topics pertinent to the usage of Xyce. Included in this document is a netlist reference for the input-file commands and elements supported within Xyce; a command line reference, which describes the available command line arguments for Xyce; and quick-references for users of other circuit codes, such as Orcad's PSpice and Sandia's ChileSPICE.

  15. Design/CPN. A Reference Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen et. al, Kurt

    /CPN WWW pages. To speed up the access to the Design/CPN manuals we recommend to keep a local copy - which may be shared by all users in your organisation. In this way you do not need to go via our WWW server each time you need to look in a manual. For some of the largest manuals, we also supply files......Note: The manuals are available as PDF files . There are two sets of manuals - one for the Unix platform and another for the Mac platform. Each set of manual consists of: Tutorial (for the Design/CPN editor and simulator) Reference Manual (for the Design/CPN editor and simulator) Programmer......'s Manual (with Design/OA functions and Charts) Occurrence Graph Manual (integrated tutorial and reference manual) OE/OS Graph Manual (integrated tutorial and reference manual) Other Manuals (e.g. a short overview of CPN ML).   The Tutorial, Reference Manual and Programmer's Manual are made for Design...

  16. Reference document 2001. A (AREVA) for.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This reference document 2001, on the group Areva, provides data and information on the Areva emerges, overview of operations, sustainable development policy, research and development programs, nuclear power activities (front-end, reactors and services back-end divisions), components (connectors division and STMicroelectronics, human resources, share data and financial information (financial report 2001, financial report first-half 2002). (A.L.B.)

  17. Common Frame of Reference & social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) in terms of social justice. It concludes the DCFR has all the characteristics of a typical European compromise. Ideological and esthetical purists will certainly be disappointed. In this respect, it has much in common with the

  18. Reference Dose Rates for Fluoroscopy Guided Interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleijns, J.; Broerse, J.J.; Hummel, W.A.; Schalij, M.J.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Teeuwisse, W.; Zoetelief, J.

    1998-01-01

    The wide diversity of fluoroscopy guided interventions which have become available in recent years has improved patient care. They are being performed in increasing numbers, particularly at departments of cardiology and radiology. Some procedures are very complex and require extended fluoroscopy times, i.e. longer than 30 min, and radiation exposure of patient and medical staff is in some cases rather high. The occurrence of radiation-induced skin injuries on patients has shown that radiation protection for fluoroscopy guided interventions should not only be focused on stochastic effects, i.e. tumour induction and hereditary risks, but also on potential deterministic effects. Reference dose levels are introduced by the Council of the European Communities as an instrument to achieve optimisation of radiation protection in radiology. Reference levels in conventional diagnostic radiology are usually expressed as entrance skin dose or dose-area product. It is not possible to define a standard procedure for complex interventions due to the large inter-patient variations with regard to the complexity of specific interventional procedures. Consequently, it is not realistic to establish a reference skin dose or dose-area product for complex fluoroscopy guided interventions. As an alternative, reference values for fluoroscopy guided interventions can be expressed as the entrance dose rates on a homogeneous phantom and on the image intensifier. A protocol has been developed and applied during a nationwide survey of fluoroscopic dose rate during catheter ablations. From this survey reference entrance dose rates of respectively 30 mGy.min -1 on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with a thickness of 21 cm, and of 0.8 μGy.s -1 on the image intensifier have been derived. (author)

  19. Using the Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program (WOREP) to Improve Training and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Eric; Rimland, Emily

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a service quality study conducted in the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program survey was selected as a valid, standardized instrument. We present our results, highlighting the impact on reference training. A second survey a year later demonstrated that focusing on…

  20. The University of Texas at Arlington's Virtual Reference Service: An Evaluation by the Reference Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebier, Katherine D.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Texas at Arlington's Library began using an online chat reference in 2002. The service, called Collaborative Digital Reference Service, later became "Ask a Librarian." Slightly over one year later, the library joined the University of Texas System's "Ask a Librarian" service. Both services are powered by…

  1. Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Reneman; W.P. Krijnen; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; K.W. Douma; Remko Soer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Muscle force is important for daily life and sports and can be measured with a handheld dynamometer. Reference values are employed to quantify a subject’s muscle force. It is not unambiguous whether reference values can be generalized to other populations. Objectives in this study were;

  2. Biological and environmental reference materials in CENAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvizu-Torres, R; Perez-Castorena, A; Salas-Tellez, J A; Mitani-Nakanishi, Y

    2001-06-01

    Since 1994, when the NIST/NOAA Quality Assurance Program in Chemical Measurements was discussed in Queretaro, CENAM, the National Measurement Institute (NMI) of Mexico, has become involved in the development of reference materials. In the field of biological and environmental reference materials, in particular, the NORAMET collaboration program with NIST and NRC, and the North-American Environmental Cooperation signed among three free-trade treaty organizations, have greatly helped the development of the materials metrology program in the newly established CENAM. This paper describes some particularly significant efforts of CENAM in the development of biological and environmental reference materials, on the basis of inter-comparison studies organized with local and governmental environmental agencies of Mexico. In the field of water pollution CENAM has developed a practical proficiency testing (PT) scheme for field laboratories, as a part of registration by local government in the metropolitan area, according to the Mexican Ecological Regulation. The results from these eight PTs in the last 5 years have demonstrated that this scheme has helped ensure the reliability of analytical capability of more than 50 field laboratories in three states, Mexico, D.F., and the States of Mexico and Queretaro. Similar experience has been obtained for more than 70 service units of stack emission measurements in the three states in 1998 and 1999, as a result of the design of a PT scheme for reference gas mixtures. This PT scheme has been accomplished successfully by 30 analytical laboratories who provide monitoring services and perform research on toxic substances (Hg, methylmercury, PCB, etc.) in Mexico. To support these activities, reference samples have been produced through the NIST SRMs, and efforts have been made to increase CENAM's capability in the preparation of primary reference materials in spectrometric solutions and gas mixtures. Collaboration among NMIs has also

  3. Dietary reference values for vitamin K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin K to comprise both phylloquinone and menaquinones. The Panel considers that none...... of the biomarkers of vitamin K intake or status is suitable by itself to derive DRVs for vitamin K. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin K intake were also considered but data could not be used to establish DRVs. The Panel considers that average requirements and population reference intakes...... for vitamin K cannot be derived for adults, infants and children, and therefore sets adequate intakes (AIs). The Panel considers that available evidence on occurrence, absorption, function and content in the body or organs of menaquinones is insufficient, and, therefore, sets AIs for phylloquinone only...

  4. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  5. Reference List About Implicit and Unconscious Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence; Wiedemann, Cecilie Dam

    to publications accessible through the CBS library website and/or specifications of where and how to access each publication. In addition, as part of this effort and in line with the task list of the Council for Diversity and Inclusion, the report “Gender and Leadership Practices at Copenhagen Business School......The compilation of this reference list is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Council for Diversity and Inclusion at Copenhagen Business School (CBS). This reference list is the first in a series of efforts initiated by this Council to develop an academic resource pool......, everyday human thought and activity” (Hardin and Banaji, 2013, pp. 13-14). Research also indicates that it is possible to implement procedures and strategic actions that help reduce implicit biases (Devine, Forscher, Austin, & Cox, 2012). Although extensive, this list does not include all existing academic...

  6. Prospect theory, reference points, and health decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Schwartz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In preventative health decisions, such as the decision to undergo an invasive screening test or treatment, people may be deterred from selecting the test because its perceived disutility relative to not testing is greater than the utility associated with prevention of possible disease. The prospect theory editing operation, by which a decision maker's reference point is determined, can have important effects on the disutility of the test. On the basis of the prospect theory value function, this paper develops two approaches to reducing disutility by directing the decision maker's attention to either (actual past or (expected future losses that result in shifted reference points. After providing a graphical description of the approaches and a mathematical proof of the direction of their effect on judgment, we briefly illustrate the potential value of these approaches with examples from qualitative research on prostate cancer treatment decisions.

  7. Development studies of captopril certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the studies performed with the candidate Certified Reference Material (CRM of captopril, the first CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in Brazil, including determination of impurities (organic, inorganic and volatiles, homogeneity testing, short- and long-term stability studies, calculation of captopril content using the mass balance approach, and estimation of the associated measurement uncertainty.Este artigo descreve os estudos realizados com o candidato a Material de Referência Certificado (MRC de captopril, primeiro MRC de fármacos no Brasil, incluindo a determinação de impurezas (orgânicas, inorgânicas e voláteis, testes de homogeneidade, testes de estabilidade de curta e longa duração, cálculo do teor de captopril por balanço de massa e estimativa da incerteza de medição associada ao valor certificado.

  8. Establishing diagnostic reference levels in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bana, Remy Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Medical application of radiation has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine. The need of the service seems to increase since the invention of digital radiology as a new technology that promises greater accuracy while minimizing patient dose. However, it is not exempted in the harmonization of doses delivered to the patient undergoing same radiologic examination in different institutions either regional or nationwide. The objective of this project was to review the establishment of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in digital radiology at National level with the aim to reduce patient dose while maintaining appropriate image quality. A general discussion on digital radiology has been presented focusing on the optimization of patient dose as well as dosimetric quantities used for the establishment of DRLs. Recommendations have been provided for Rwanda to initiate steps to establish National Diagnostic Reference Levels for common procedures in digital radiology. (au)

  9. Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Shock waves in multiphase flows refers to a rich variety of phenomena of interest to physicists, chemists, and fluid dynamicists, as well as mechanical, biomedical and aeronautical engineers. This volume treats shock and expansion waves in (bullet) complex, bubbly liquids (L van Wijngaarden, Y Tomita, V Kedrinskii) and (bullet) cryogenic liquids (M Murakami) and examines the relationship of shock waves with (bullet) phase transitions (A Guha, CF Delale, G Schnerr, MEH van Dongen) (bullet) induced phase transitions (GEA Meier) as well as their interaction with (bullet) solid foams, textiles, porous and granular media (B Skews, DMJ Smeulders, MEH van Dongen, V Golub, O Mirova) All chapters are self-contained, so they can be read independently, although they are of course thematically interrelated. Taken together, they offer a timely reference on shock waves in multiphase flows, including new viewpoints and burgeoning developments. The book will appeal to beginners as well as professional scientists and engineer...

  10. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2004-01-01

    While it's good to have a book with all the answers--like your trusty copy of Oracle PL/SQL Programming-- how often do you need all the answers? More likely, you just need a reminder, a quick answer to a problem you're up against. For these times, nothing's handier than the new edition of the Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference by PL/SQL experts Stephen Feuerstein, Bill Pribyl, and Chip Dawes. Newly updated for Oracle10g, this little book is always at the ready for the quick problem solving you need. The 3rd edition of this popular mini-reference boils down the most vital information fr

  11. Second reference calculation for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branstetter, L.J.

    1985-03-01

    Results of the second reference calculation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project using the dynamic relaxation finite element code SANCHO are presented. This reference calculation is intended to predict the response of a typical panel of excavated rooms designed for storage of nonheat-producing nuclear waste. Results are presented that include relevant deformations, relative clay seam displacements, and stress and strain profiles. This calculation is a particular solution obtained by a computer code, which has proven analytic capabilities when compared with other structural finite element codes. It is hoped that the results presented here will be useful in providing scoping values for defining experiments and for developing instrumentation. It is also hoped that the calculation will be useful as part of an exercise in developing a methodology for performing important design calculations by more than one analyst using more than one computer code, and for defining internal Quality Assurance (QA) procedures for such calculations. 27 refs., 15 figs

  12. An Internet of Things Generic Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Riaz, Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2013-01-01

    Internet of things Network is a future application of Internet. This network has three major basic blocks as business process or Application, core network or internetwork and peripheral network as Things or objects. The assembly has the basic intention of connecting all physical and virtual things......, and keeping track of all these things for monitoring and controlling some information. IoT architecture is studied from software architecture, overall system architecture and network architecture point of view. Paper puts forward the requirements of software architecture along with, its component...... and deployment diagram, process and interface diagram at abstract level. Paper proposes the abstract generic IoT reference and concrete abstract generic IoT reference architectures. Network architecture is also put up as a state of the art. Paper shortly gives overviews of protocols used for IoT. Some...

  13. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book is the second of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation and high-velocity impact and penetration events. Of the four extensive chapters in this volume, the first two describe the reactive behavior of condensed phase explosives, - Condensed-Phase Explosives: Shock Initiation and Detonation Phenomena (SA Sheffield and R Engelke) - First Principles Molecular Simulations of Energetic Materials at High-Pressures (F Zhang, S Alavi, and TK Woo), and the remaining two discuss the inert, mechanical response of solid materials. - Combined Compression and Shear Plane Waves (ZP Tang and JB Aidun), and - Dynamic Fragmentation of Solids (D Grady). All chapters are each self-contained, and can be read independently of each other. They offer a timely reference, for beginners as well as professional scientists and engineers, on the foundations of detonation phenomen...

  14. The ''reference costs'' of the electrical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This study objective is to give an aid for the investments choice in the field of electricity production and for national choices in the field of long-dated production. Important evolutions appeared since the last exercise ''reference costs'' of 1993. Electricity production costs, presented in this study, are actualized economic costs. They consider the following production facilities: nuclear, pulverized coal with fumes processing, circulating fluidized bed, combustion turbines, cogeneration and wind turbines. (A.L.B.)

  15. Inspiring the generations: the Knitting Reference Library

    OpenAIRE

    Newington, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The Knitting Reference Library (KRL) is part of the University of Southampton Library, and is located at Winchester School of Art, a campus of the University. The KRL was launched at the first In the loop conference in 2008 and is founded on the bibliographic collections of Richard Rutt, Montse Stanley and Jane Waller. Each collector possessed a serious passion for knitting, their individual approaches are illustrated through the resources they collected and established as an essential part o...

  16. Nitrogen-15 reference book: medicine and biosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1983-04-01

    A comprehensive bibliography on the application of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in medicine, animal nutrition and physiology, biosciences, and related disciplines is presented. The literature pertaining to this paper covers the period from 1977 to 1981. The references are completed by an index of all authors and a subject index with special emphasis to the used organisms, labelled compounds, and tracer techniques, respectively. (author)

  17. Bibliography for finite elements. [2200 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, J R [comp.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography cites almost all of the significant papers on advances in the mathematical theory of finite elements. Reported are applications in aeronautical, civil, mechanical, nautical and nuclear engineering. Such topics as classical analysis, functional analysis, approximation theory, fluids, and diffusion are covered. Over 2200 references to publications up to the end of 1974 are included. Publications are listed alphabetically by author and also by keywords. In addition, finite element packages are listed.

  18. Justification: How to get referring physicians involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedios, D.

    2011-01-01

    Barriers to involvement of clinicians in the process of justification include an already overloaded knowledge base, lack of time, inconsistent guidance and disproportionate patient expectations. Strategies to improve referring physicians' input include education, use of imaging referral guidelines, clinical audit and regulation. This article discusses and reviews evidence for approaches to encourage greater participation in justification by clinicians. Approaches are best summarised by 'Awareness, appropriateness and audit'. (authors)

  19. Lorentz Transformation from Symmetry of Reference Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petre, M.; Dima, M.; Dima, A.; Petre, C.; Precup, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Lorentz Transformation is traditionally derived requiring the Principle of Relativity and light-speed universality. While the latter can be relaxed, the Principle of Relativity is seen as core to the transformation. The present letter relaxes both statements to the weaker, Symmetry of Reference Principle. Thus the resulting Lorentz transformation and its consequences (time dilatation, length contraction) are, in turn, effects of how we manage space and time.

  20. Frames of reference in spatial language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Anna; Li, Peggy

    2016-08-01

    Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms. Children interpreted ambiguous spatial terms as having environment-based meanings akin to north and south, and they readily learned and generalized north-south meanings. These studies provide the first direct evidence that children invoke geocentric representations in spatial language acquisition. However, the studies leave unanswered how children ultimately acquire "left" and "right." In Part II, with three more experiments, we investigated why children struggle to master body-based frame-of-reference words. Children successfully learned "left" and "right" when the novel words were systematically introduced on their own bodies and extended these words to novel (intrinsic and relative) uses; however, they had difficulty learning to talk about the left and right sides of a doll. This difficulty was paralleled in identifying the left and right sides of the doll in a non-linguistic memory task. In contrast, children had no difficulties learning to label the front and back sides of a doll. These studies begin to paint a detailed account of the acquisition of spatial terms in English, and provide insights into the origins of diverse spatial reference frames in the world's languages. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reference Ellipsoid and Geoid in Chronometric Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.

    2016-02-01

    Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height). We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it in chronometric

  2. Photovoltaic self-consumption: reference activity sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote the use of photovoltaic energy in self-consumption, Enerplan, the French association of solar energy professionals, has edited a set of reference sheets comprising the main technical and economic data of recent installations (cold generation facility, water treatment plant, farm, commercial and public buildings), in various French regions: description of the installation, project owner testimony, technical characteristics of the site, expected results, economic data, production/consumption results

  3. Reference ellipsoid and geoid in chronometric geodesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M Kopeikin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height. We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it

  4. Reference Ellipsoid and Geoid in Chronometric Geodesy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M., E-mail: kopeikins@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Department of Physical Geodesy and Remote Sensing, Siberian State University of Geosystems and Technologies, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-25

    Chronometric geodesy applies general relativity to study the problem of the shape of celestial bodies including the earth, and their gravitational field. The present paper discusses the relativistic problem of construction of a background geometric manifold that is used for describing a reference ellipsoid, geoid, the normal gravity field of the earth and for calculating geoid's undulation (height). We choose the perfect fluid with an ellipsoidal mass distribution uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of matter generating the geometry of the background manifold through the Einstein equations. We formulate the post-Newtonian hydrodynamic equations of the rotating fluid to find out the set of algebraic equations defining the equipotential surface of the gravity field. In order to solve these equations we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing the interior gravitational potentials in terms of elementary functions depending on the parameters defining the shape of the body and the mass distribution. We employ the coordinate freedom of the equations to choose these parameters to make the shape of the rotating fluid configuration to be an ellipsoid of rotation. We derive expressions of the post-Newtonian mass and angular momentum of the rotating fluid as functions of the rotational velocity and the parameters of the ellipsoid including its bare density, eccentricity and semi-major axes. We formulate the post-Newtonian Pizzetti and Clairaut theorems that are used in geodesy to connect the parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the polar and equatorial values of force of gravity. We expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations characterizing the reference ellipsoid into the Taylor series with respect to the eccentricity of the ellipsoid, and discuss the small-eccentricity approximation. Finally, we introduce the concept of relativistic geoid and its undulation with respect to the reference ellipsoid, and discuss how to calculate it in

  5. Risk Assessment References: Documented Literature Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    concepts specified in ISO /IEC 27001 and is designed to assist the satisfactory implementation of information security based on a risk management approach...Knowledge of the concepts, models, processes and terminologies described in ISO /IEC 27001 and ISO /IEC 27002 is important for a complete...Standardization ( ISO ). • Section 2.2: national standards for Canada and Australia/New Zealand. Note: Though most of the references in this section are

  6. AQCS 1989 - Intercomparison runs reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) programme provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Agency) is to assist laboratories engaged in the analysis of nuclear, environmental, biological, and materials of marine origin for radionuclide, major, minor and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes using atomic and nuclear analytical techniques, to check the quality of their work. Reference Materials available are listed by origin and by analyte giving referenced values and confidence intervals. Only materials, which have one or more properties sufficiently well established from statistical evaluation of previous interlaboratory comparison studies are included. Existing Reference Materials may be updated for previously referenced constituents or properties according to the results of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs) in these fields or according to recently published literature values. They are supplied with a reference sheet stating relevant parameters and properties of the material and can be used as secondary standards for quality control assurance within a laboratory, for checking analytical methods and/or instrumentation or for training purposes. 4 tabs

  7. Reference dosimetry for CT in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.; Wall, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    Computed tomography is firmly established as a major source of population exposure from diagnostic x-ray examinations and thus a particular focus for radiological protection initiatives. The concept of reference doses is widely recognised as a useful and practical tool for promoting improvements in the optimisation of protection for patients undergoing radiological examinations. National diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have already been successfully applied in the UK for some conventional x-ray examinations within a framework for advice on patient protection. This approach is being extended to include CT, utilising the robust methodology for reference dosimetry that has been developed by the European Commission (EC) for the particular conditions of exposure in CT. This is based on the dosimetric concepts of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI w ) per slice in serial scanning or per rotation in helical scanning, and dose-length product (DLP) per complete examination. Notwithstanding some initial values proposed by the EC, specific national DRLs for CT practice in the UK will be established on the basis of widescale national survey data. (author)

  8. Reference samples for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1974-01-01

    A revised list of reference samples of interest to geoscientists has been extended to include samples for the agronomist, the archaeologist and the environmentalist. In addition to the source from which standard samples may be obtained, references or pertinent notes for some samples are included. The number of rock reference samples is now almost adequate, and the variety of ore samples will soon be sufficient. There are very few samples for microprobe work. Oil shales will become more important because of the outlook for world petroleum resources. The dryland equivalent of a submarine basalt might be useful in studies of sea-floor spreading and of the geochemistry of basalts. The Na- and K-feldspars of BCS (British Chemical Standards-Bureau of Analysed Samples), NBS (National Bureau of Standards), and ANRT (Association Kationale de la Recherche Technique) could serve as trace-element standards if such data were available. Similarly, the present NBS flint and plastic clays, as well as their predecessors, might be useful for archaeological pottery studies. The International Decade for Ocean Exploration may stimulate the preparation of ocean-water standards for trace elements or pollutants and a standard for manganese nodules. ?? 1974.

  9. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  10. A Reference Architecture for Space Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Hughes, J. Steven; Ramirez, Paul M.; Berrios, Daniel C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a reference architecture for space information management systems that elegantly overcomes the rigid design of common information systems in many domains. The reference architecture consists of a set of flexible, reusable, independent models and software components that function in unison, but remain separately managed entities. The main guiding principle of the reference architecture is to separate the various models of information (e.g., data, metadata, etc.) from implemented system code, allowing each to evolve independently. System modularity, systems interoperability, and dynamic evolution of information system components are the primary benefits of the design of the architecture. The architecture requires the use of information models that are substantially more advanced than those used by the vast majority of information systems. These models are more expressive and can be more easily modularized, distributed and maintained than simpler models e.g., configuration files and data dictionaries. Our current work focuses on formalizing the architecture within a CCSDS Green Book and evaluating the architecture within the context of the C3I initiative.

  11. 15 CFR 230.3 - New Standard Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS General Information § 230.3 New Standard Reference Materials. When new SRM's... scientific and trade journals. ...

  12. Doing the work of reference practical tips for excelling as a reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Become more versatile, competent, and resourceful with these practical suggestions!Becoming a first-class reference librarian demands proficiency in a wide range of skills. Doing the Work of Reference offers sound advice for the full spectrum of your responsibilities. Though many aspects of a reference librarian's work are changing with astonishing speed, the classic principles in this volume will never go out of date. This comprehensive volume begins with hints for orienting yourself to a new job and concludes with ideas for serving the profession. On the way, Doing the Wo

  13. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  14. Reference values for methacholine reactivity (SAPALDIA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perruchoud André

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of airway responsiveness in a general population of non-smokers without respiratory symptoms has not been established, limiting its use in clinical and epidemiological practice. We derived reference equations depending on individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, baseline lung function for relevant percentiles of the methacholine two-point dose-response slope. Methods In a reference sample of 1567 adults of the SAPALDIA cross-sectional survey (1991, defined by excluding subjects with respiratory conditions, responsiveness during methacholine challenge was quantified by calculating the two-point dose-response slope (O'Connor. Weighted L1-regression was used to estimate reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope. Results Reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope were estimated using a model of the form a + b* Age + c* FEV1 + d* (FEV12 , where FEV1 corresponds to the pre-test (or baseline level of FEV1. For the central half of the FEV1 distribution, we used a quadratic model to describe the dependence of methacholine slope on baseline FEV1. For the first and last quartiles of FEV1, a linear relation with FEV1 was assumed (i.e., d was set to 0. Sex was not a predictor term in this model. A negative linear association with slope was found for age. We provide an Excel file allowing calculation of the percentile of methacholine slope of a subject after introducing age – pre-test FEV1 – and results of methacholine challenge of the subject. Conclusion The present study provides equations for four relevant percentiles of methacholine two-point slope depending on age and baseline FEV1 as basic predictors in an adult reference population of non-obstructive and non-atopic persons. These equations may help clinicians and epidemiologists to better characterize individual or population airway responsiveness.

  15. Providing quality reference services at a special library

    OpenAIRE

    Semertzaki, Eva

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the traditional vs. modern reference service and with the reference interview and its value. It analyzes new channels of communication: the virtual reference service. It explores the advantages and disadvantages of face-to-face vs. virtual reference and touches issues of user education, information literacy, user satisfaction and evaluation of reference services. Finally, it highlights the competencies of the reference librarian.

  16. Metaphorical Singular Reference. The Role of Enriched Composition in Reference Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bezuidenhout

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that, in the course of interpreting a metaphorical utterance, both literal and metaphorical interpretations of the utterance are available to the interpreter, although there may be disagreement about the order in which these interpretations are accessed. I call this the dual availability assumption. I argue that it does not apply in cases of metaphorical singular reference. These are cases in which proper names, complex demonstratives or definite descriptions are used metaphorically; e.g., ‘That festering sore must go’, referring to a derelict house. We are forced to give up dual availability in these cases because a process of predicate transfer happens in the restriction clauses of such metaphorically used definite phrases (DPs, so that a denotation-less definite concept is never constructed. A process of enriched composition yields only a metaphorical referent/denotation. I compare cases of metaphorical reference both to cases of metonymic reference and to uses of epithets of the ‘That N of an N’ form. Reflection on the former is helpful in getting clear about the kind of property transfer involved in referential metaphors. Such transfer happens directly at the level of properties and is not mediated via a correspondence between objects, as is the case with metonymic reference. Reflection on epithets such as ‘that festering sore of a house’ is helpful since these are a sort of intermediate case between cases of literal and metaphorical reference. They provide support for my claim that in cases of metaphorical reference there is only a single referent (the metaphorical one. Moreover, constraints on the use of these epithets suggest that referential metaphors are similarly constrained. In particular, I argue that referential metaphors can only be used when the implicit category restriction (e.g., house in the case of the example ‘That festering sore must go’ is highly salient, and that the evaluative

  17. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Ma, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Wiggans, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S

    2016-06-01

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 4800 cows, (4) about 1250 Danish bulls, 1150 US bulls and 4800 Danish cows. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction model was used to predict breeding values. De-regressed proofs were used as response variables. In the validation on bulls for eight traits, the joint DK-US bull reference population led to higher reliability of genomic prediction than the DK bull reference population for six traits, but not for fertility and longevity. Averaged over the eight traits, the gain was 3 percentage points. In the validation on cows for six traits (fertility and longevity were not available), the gain from inclusion of US bull in reference population was 6.6 percentage points in average over the six traits, and the gain from inclusion of cows was 8.2 percentage points. However, the gains from cows and US bulls were not accumulative. The total gain of including both US bulls and Danish cows was 10.5 percentage points. The results indicate that sharing reference

  18. Dosimetric verification for radiotherapy quality audit under reference and non-reference conditions in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Yu Ningle; Yang Chunyong; Du Xiang; Chen Wei; Luo Suming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the methodology for auditing dosimetric parameters in reference and non-reference conditions with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Methods: Under reference and non-reference conditions, the established TLD methods were used to observe the absorbed dose variations with depth, SSD, field size and 45 wedges for 10 photon beams at 5 hospitals. Dosimetric parameters, including doses at D_m_a_x points in axis, on 5 electron beams of 9 MeV were measured. The measurement results were compared between the TLDs and plane parallel ionization chambers. Results: For 6 MV photon beams, the relative deviation of between finger ionization chamber method and TLD chips was in the range of -1.7% to 5.4% under on-axis non-reference conditions, and -6.3% to -0.6% under off-axis non-reference conditions, respectively, all within the range of ≤ ±7% as required by the IAEA. The relative deviation between plane parallel chamber and TLD method was -2.3% to 3.7%, within ±5% as required by the IAEA. Conclusions: It is convenient and feasible to use TLD method for quality audits of dosimetric parameters in radiotherapy. (authors)

  19. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  20. AQCS 1990. Intercomparison runs, reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) programme provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Agency) is to assist laboratories engaged in the analysis of nuclear, environmental, biological, and materials of marine origin for radionuclide, major, minor and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes using atomic and nuclear analytical techniques, to check the quality of their work. Such a control is necessary since results of analytical activities may be the basis upon which economic, administrative, medical or legal decisions are taken; they must, therefore, be documented to be sufficiently reliable. The Agency has instituted the AQCS-programme which for 1990 will involve distributing samples for Intercomparison Runs and Reference Materials in a way similar to that of previous years. The Agency's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) programme provides mainly three types of materials: materials which can be used in analytical laboratories working in the fields of nuclear technology and isotope hydrology. These include uranium ore Reference Materials and other substances of interest for nuclear fuel technology as well as stable isotope Reference Materials for mass spectrometric determination of isotope ratios in natural waters; materials with known content of uranium, thorium and/or transuranium elements or fission products for the determination of environmental radioactivity or control of nuclear safety; materials for use in the determination of stable trace elements in environmental, biomedical and marine research. Radiochemical methods such as neutron activation or isotope dilution analysis are often used in the determination of such trace elements and constitute an important contribution of nuclear techniques to applied science. Tabs

  1. The reference individual of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The 70-kg open-quotes standard manclose quotes representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2 2 on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group's work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23 3 . Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  2. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; Amann, John; Amirikas, Ramila; An, Qi; Anami, Shozo; Ananthanarayan, B.; Anderson, Terry; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Anerella, Michael; Anfimov, Nikolai; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Antipov, Sergei; Antoine, Claire; Aoki, Mayumi; Aoza, Atsushi; Aplin, Steve; Appleby, Rob; Arai, Yasuo; Araki, Sakae; Arkan, Tug; Arnold, Ned; Arnold, Ray; Arnowitt, Richard; Artru, Xavier; Arya, Kunal; Aryshev, Alexander; Asakawa, Eri; Asiri, Fred; Asner, David; Atac, Muzaffer; Atoian, Grigor; Attié, David; Augustin, Jean-Eudes; Augustine, David B.; Ayres, Bradley; Aziz, Tariq; Baars, Derek; Badaud, Frederique; Baddams, Nigel; Bagger, Jonathan; Bai, Sha; Bailey, David; Bailey, Ian R.; Baker, David; Balalykin, Nikolai I.; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Ball, Markus; Ball, Maurice; Ballestrero, Alessandro; Ballin, Jamie; Baltay, Charles; Bambade, Philip; Ban, Syuichi; Band, Henry; Bane, Karl; Banerjee, Bakul; Barbanotti, Serena; Barbareschi, Daniele; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Desmond P.; Barbi, Mauricio; Bardin, Dmitri Y.; Barish, Barry; Barklow, Timothy L.; Barlow, Roger; Barnes, Virgil E.; Barone, Maura; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Basu, Rahul; Battaglia, Marco; Batygin, Yuri; Baudot, Jerome; Baur, Ulrich; Elwyn Baynham, D.; Beard, Carl; Bebek, Chris; Bechtle, Philip; Becker, Ulrich J.; Bedeschi, Franco; Bedjidian, Marc; Behera, Prafulla; Bellantoni, Leo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Paul; Bentson, Lynn D.; Benyamna, Mustapha; Bergauer, Thomas; Berger, Edmond; Bergholz, Matthias; Beri, Suman; Berndt, Martin; Bernreuther, Werner; Bertolini, Alessandro; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Beteille, Andre; Bettoni, Simona; Beyer, Michael; Bhandari, R.K.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Bhuyan, Ruchika; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Biagini, Marica; Bialowons, Wilhelm; Biebel, Otmar; Bieler, Thomas; Bierwagen, John; Birch, Alison; Bisset, Mike; Biswal, S.S.; Blackmore, Victoria; Blair, Grahame; Blanchard, Guillaume; Blazey, Gerald; Blue, Andrew; Blümlein, Johannes; Boffo, Christian; Bohn, Courtlandt; Boiko, V.I.; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondarchuk, Eduard N.; Boni, Roberto; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boogert, Stewart; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Borras, Kerstin; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bosco, Alessio; Bosio, Carlo; Bosland, Pierre; Bosotti, Angelo; Boudry, Vincent; Boumediene, Djamel-Eddine; Bouquet, Bernard; Bourov, Serguei; Bowden, Gordon; Bower, Gary; Boyarski, Adam; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bozzi, Concezio; Brachmann, Axel; Bradshaw, Tom W.; Brandt, Andrew; Brasser, Hans Peter; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James E.; Breidenbach, Martin; Bricker, Steve; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brodsky, Stanley; Brooksby, Craig; Broome, Timothy A.; Brown, David; Brown, David; Brownell, James H.; Bruchon, Mélanie; Brueck, Heiner; Brummitt, Amanda J.; Brun, Nicole; Buchholz, Peter; Budagov, Yulian A.; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Bulyak, Eugene; Bungau, Adriana; Bürger, Jochen; Burke, Dan; Burkhart, Craig; Burrows, Philip; Burt, Graeme; Burton, David; Büsser, Karsten; Butler, John; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buzulutskov, Alexei; Cabruja, Enric; Caccia, Massimo; Cai, Yunhai; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caliier, Stephane; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cao, Jun-Jie; Cao, J.S.; Capatina, Ofelia; Cappellini, Chiara; Carcagno, Ruben; Carena, Marcela; Carloganu, Cristina; Carosi, Roberto; Stephen Carr, F.; Carrion, Francisco; Carter, Harry F.; Carter, John; Carwardine, John; Cassel, Richard; Cassell, Ronald; Cavallari, Giorgio; Cavallo, Emanuela; Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chandez, Frederic; Charles, Matthew; Chase, Brian; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chauveau, Jacques; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chehab, Robert; Chel, Stéphane; Chelkov, Georgy; Chen, Chiping; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Huai Bi; Chen, Jia Er; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chevallier, M.; Chi, Yun Long; Chickering, William; Cho, Gi-Chol; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jong Bum; Choi, Seong Youl; Choi, Young-Il; Choudhary, Brajesh; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rai Choudhury, S.; Christian, David; Christian, Glenn; Christophe, Grojean; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Church, Mike; Ciborowski, Jacek; Cihangir, Selcuk; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clarke, Christine; Clarke, Don G.; Clarke, James A.; Clements, Elizabeth; Coca, Cornelia; Coe, Paul; Cogan, John; Colas, Paul; Collard, Caroline; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Comerma, Albert; Compton, Chris; Constance, Ben; Conway, John; Cook, Ed; Cooke, Peter; Cooper, William; Corcoran, Sean; Cornat, Rémi; Corner, Laura; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Clay Corvin, W.; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cowan, Ray; Crawford, Curtis; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Crittenden, James A.; Cussans, David; Cvach, Jaroslav; da Silva, Wilfrid; Dabiri Khah, Hamid; Dabrowski, Anne; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dadoun, Olivier; Dai, Jian Ping; Dainton, John; Daly, Colin; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daram, Sarojini; Datta, Anindya; Dauncey, Paul; David, Jacques; Davier, Michel; Davies, Ken P.; Dawson, Sally; De Boer, Wim; De Curtis, Stefania; De Groot, Nicolo; de la Taille, Christophe; de Lira, Antonio; De Roeck, Albert; de Sangro, Riccardo; De Santis,Stefano; Deacon, Laurence; Deandrea, Aldo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Delebecque, Pierre; Delerue, Nicholas; Delferriere, Olivier; Demarteau, Marcel; Deng, Zhi; Denisov, Yu.N.; Densham, Christopher J.; Desch, Klaus; Deshpande, Nilendra; Devanz, Guillaume; Devetak, Erik; Dexter, Amos; Di benedetto, Vito; Diéguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dinh, Nguyen Dinh; Dixit, Madhu; Dixit, Sudhir; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dollan, Ralph; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Dorfan, Jonathan; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doucas, George; Downing, Robert; Doyle, Eric; Doziere, Guy; Drago, Alessandro; Dragt, Alex; Drake, Gary; Drásal, Zbynek; Dreiner, Herbert; Drell, Persis; Driouichi, Chafik; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drugakov, Vladimir; Du, Shuxian; Dugan, Gerald; Duginov, Viktor; Dulinski, Wojciech; Dulucq, Frederic; Dutta, Sukanta; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Dychkant, Alexandre; Dzahini, Daniel; Eckerlin, Guenter; Edwards, Helen; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrlichman, Michael; Ehrlichmann, Heiko; Eigen, Gerald; Elagin, Andrey; Elementi, Luciano; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John; Ellwood, George; Elsen, Eckhard; Emery, Louis; Enami, Kazuhiro; Endo, Kuninori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Eozénou, Fabien; Erbacher, Robin; Erickson, Roger; Oleg Eyser, K.; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fang, Shou Xian; Fant, Karen; Fasso, Alberto; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Fehlberg, John; Feld, Lutz; Feng, Jonathan L.; Ferguson, John; Fernandez-Garcia, Marcos; Luis Fernandez-Hernando, J.; Fiala, Pavel; Fieguth, Ted; Finch, Alexander; Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Peter; Eugene Fisk, H.; Fitton, Mike D.; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleury, Julien; Flood, Kevin; Foley, Mike; Ford, Richard; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Francis, Kurt; Frey, Ariane; Frey, Raymond; Friedsam, Horst; Frisch, Josef; Frishman, Anatoli; Fuerst, Joel; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Funk, Warren; Furletova, Julia; Furukawa, Kazuro; Furuta, Fumio; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gadow, Karsten; Gaede, Frank; Gaglione, Renaud; Gai, Wei; Gajewski, Jan; Galik, Richard; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gannaway, Fred; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yuanning; Garbincius, Peter; Garcia-Tabares, Luis; Garren, Lynn; Garrido, Luís; Garutti, Erika; Garvey, Terry; Garwin, Edward; Gascón, David; Gastal, Martin; Gatto, Corrado; Gatto, Raoul; Gay, Pascal; Ge, Lixin; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geiser, Achim; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Gibbons, Lawrence; Giganon, Arnaud; Gillespie, Allan; Gillman, Tony; Ginzburg, Ilya; Giomataris, Ioannis; Giunta, Michele; Gladkikh, Peter; Gluza, Janusz; Godbole, Rohini; Godfrey, Stephen; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goldstein, Joel; Gollin, George D.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Goodrick, Maurice; Gornushkin, Yuri; Gostkin, Mikhail; Gottschalk, Erik; Goudket, Philippe; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gournaris, Filimon; Graciani, Ricardo; Graf, Norman; Grah, Christian; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grandjean, Damien; Grannis, Paul; Grassellino, Anna; Graugés, Eugeni; Gray, Stephen; Green, Michael; Greenhalgh, Justin; Greenshaw, Timothy; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald; Grimes, Mark; Grimm, Terry; Gris, Philippe; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groll, Marius; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Grondin, Denis; Groom, Donald; Gross, Eilam; Grunewald, Martin; Grupen, Claus; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gu, Jun; Gu, Yun-Ting; Guchait, Monoranjan; Guiducci, Susanna; Guler, Ali Murat; Guler, Hayg; Gulmez, Erhan; Gunion, John; Guo, Zhi Yu; Gurtu, Atul; Ha, Huy Bang; Haas, Tobias; Haase, Andy; Haba, Naoyuki; Haber, Howard; Haensel, Stephan; Hagge, Lars; Hagura, Hiroyuki; Hajdu, Csaba; Haller, Gunther; Haller, Johannes; Hallermann, Lea; Halyo, Valerie; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Hammond, Larry; Han, Liang; Han, Tao; Hand, Louis; Handu, Virender K.; Hano, Hitoshi; Hansen, Christian; Hansen, Jørn Dines; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hara, Kazufumi; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Hartung, Walter; Hast, Carsten; Hauptman, John; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Chris; Hawkings, Richard; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hazumi, Masashi; He, An; He, Hong Jian; Hearty, Christopher; Heath, Helen; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heifets, Samuel; Heinemeyer, Sven; Heini, Sebastien; Helebrant, Christian; Helms, Richard; Heltsley, Brian; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hermel, Richard; Herms, Atilà; Herten, Gregor; Hesselbach, Stefan; Heuer, Rolf-Dieter; Heusch, Clemens A.; Hewett, Joanne; Higashi, Norio; Higashi, Takatoshi; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshiyasu; Hildreth, Michael D.; Hiller, Karlheinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen James; Himel, Thomas; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hioki, Zenro; Hirano, Koichiro; Hirose, Tachishige; Hisamatsu, Hiromi; Hisano, Junji; Hlaing, Chit Thu; Hock, Kai Meng; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hohlfeld, Mark; Honda, Yousuke; Hong, Juho; Hong, Tae Min; Honma, Hiroyuki; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hosoyama, Kenji; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Mi; Hou, Wei-Shu; Howell, David; Hronek, Maxine; Hsiung, Yee B.; Hu, Bo; Hu, Tao; Huang, Jung-Yun; Huang, Tong Ming; Huang, Wen Hui; Huedem, Emil; Huggard, Peter; Hugonie, Cyril; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huitu, Katri; Hwang, Youngseok; Idzik, Marek; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Ignatov, Fedor; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ilicheva, Tatiana; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Incagli, Marco; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Hitoshi; Inoue, Youichi; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioakeimidi, Katerina; Ishihara, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Issakov, Vladimir; Ito, Kazutoshi; Ivanov, V.V.; Ivanov, Valentin; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Iwasaki, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Jackson, David; Jackson, Frank; Jacobsen, Bob; Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Jamison, Steven; Janssen, Matthias Enno; Jaramillo-Echeverria, Richard; Jauffret, Clement; Jawale, Suresh B.; Jeans, Daniel; Jedziniak, Ron; Jeffery, Ben; Jehanno, Didier; Jenner, Leo J.; Jensen, Chris; Jensen, David R.; Jiang, Hairong; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jimbo, Masato; Jin, Shan; Keith Jobe, R.; Johnson, Anthony; Johnson, Erik; Johnson, Matt; Johnston, Michael; Joireman, Paul; Jokic, Stevan; Jones, James; Jones, Roger M.; Jongewaard, Erik; Jönsson, Leif; Joshi, Gopal; Joshi, Satish C.; Jung, Jin-Young; Junk, Thomas; Juste, Aurelio; Kado, Marumi; Kadyk, John; Käfer, Daniela; Kako, Eiji; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kalinin, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamitani, Takuya; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kamiya, Yukihide; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Kananov, Sergey; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kang, Wen; Kanjial, D.; Kapusta, Frédéric; Karataev, Pavel; Karchin, Paul E.; Karlen, Dean; Karyotakis, Yannis; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kasley, Paul; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Kato, Takashi; Kato, Yukihiro; Katzy, Judith; Kaukher, Alexander; Kaur, Manjit; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kazakov, Sergei; Kekelidze, V.D.; Keller, Lewis; Kelley, Michael; Kelly, Marc; Kelly, Michael; Kennedy, Kurt; Kephart, Robert; Keung, Justin; Khainovski, Oleg; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Khare, Prashant; Khovansky, Nikolai; Kiesling, Christian; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kilian, Wolfgang; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Chui; Kim, Jonghoon; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Peter; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Sun Kee; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Youngim; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimmitt, Maurice; Kirby, Robert; Kircher, François; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittel, Olaf; Klanner, Robert; Klebaner, Arkadiy L.; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klinkby, Esben; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Marc; Kneisel, Peter; Ko, In Soo; Ko, Kwok; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Kobel, Michael; Koch, Manuel; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, Uli; Kohrs, Robert; Kojima, Yuuji; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolodziej, Karol; Kolomensky, Yury G.; Komamiya, Sachio; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korbel, Volker; Koscielniak, Shane; Kostromin, Sergey; Kowalewski, Robert; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krasnykh, Anatoly; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Krawczyk, Maria; James Krebs, H.; Krempetz, Kurt; Kribs, Graham; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Kriske, Richard; Kronfeld, Andreas; Kroseberg, Jürgen; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruecker, Dirk; Krüger, Hans; Krumpa, Nicholas A.; Krumshtein, Zinovii; Kuang, Yu Ping; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Vic; Kudoh, Noboru; Kulis, Szymon; Kumada, Masayuki; Kumar, Abhay; Kume, Tatsuya; Kundu, Anirban; Kurevlev, German; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kush, Pradeep K.; Kutschke, Robert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Kvasnicka, Peter; Kwon, Youngjoon; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lackey, Sharon; Lackowski, Thomas W.; Lafaye, Remi; Lafferty, George; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lal, Shankar; Laloum, Maurice; Lam, Briant; Lancaster, Mark; Lander, Richard; Lange, Wolfgang; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Langeveld, Willem; Larbalestier, David; Larsen, Ray; Lastovicka, Tomas; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana; Latina, Andrea; Latour, Emmanuel; Laurent, Lisa; Le, Ba Nam; Le, Duc Ninh; Le Diberder, Francois; Dû, Patrick Le; Lebbolo, Hervé; Lebrun, Paul; Lecoq, Jacques; Lee, Sung-Won; Lehner, Frank; Leibfritz, Jerry; Lenkszus, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Lewandowski, Jim; Leyh, Greg; Li, Cheng; Li, Chong Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Jin; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Wei Ming; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yuanjing; Li, Yulan; Li, Zenghai; Li, Zhong Quan; Liang, Jian Tao; Liao, Yi; Lilje, Lutz; Guilherme Lima, J.; Lintern, Andrew J.; Lipton, Ronald; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Chun; Liu, Jian Fei; Liu, Ke Xin; Liu, Li Qiang; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Sheng Guang; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Wanming; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lockyer, Nigel; Logan, Heather E.; Logatchev, Pavel V.; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lohse, Thomas; Lola, Smaragda; Lopez-Virto, Amparo; Loveridge, Peter; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lu, Changguo; Lu, Gong-Lu; Lu, Wen Hui; Lubatti, Henry; Lucotte, Arnaud; Lundberg, Björn; Lundin, Tracy; Luo, Mingxing; Luong, Michel; Luth, Vera; Lutz, Benjamin; Lutz, Pierre; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Lykken, Joseph; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Li; Ma, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Wen-Gan; Macfarlane, David; Maciel, Arthur; MacLeod, Allan; MacNair, David; Mader, Wolfgang; Magill, Stephen; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Maiheu, Bino; Maity, Manas; Majchrzak, Millicent; Majumder, Gobinda; Makarov, Roman; Makowski, Dariusz; Malaescu, Bogdan; Mallik, C.; Mallik, Usha; Malton, Stephen; Malyshev, Oleg B.; Malysheva, Larisa I.; Mammosser, John; Mamta; Mamuzic, Judita; Manen, Samuel; Manghisoni, Massimo; Manly, Steven; Marcellini, Fabio; Marcisovsky, Michal; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Marks, Steve; Marone, Andrew; Marti, Felix; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Victoria; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Martinez, Manel; Martinez-Rivero, Celso; Martsch, Dennis; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Maruyama, Takashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Mathez, Hervé; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Mättig, Peter; Mattison, Thomas; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mawatari, Kentarou; Mazzacane, Anna; McBride, Patricia; McCormick, Douglas; McCormick, Jeremy; McDonald, Kirk T.; McGee, Mike; McIntosh, Peter; McKee, Bobby; McPherson, Robert A.; Meidlinger, Mandi; Meier, Karlheinz; Mele, Barbara; Meller, Bob; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Mendez, Hector; Mercer, Adam; Merkin, Mikhail; Meshkov, I.N.; Messner, Robert; Metcalfe, Jessica; Meyer, Chris; Meyer, Hendrik; Meyer, Joachim; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Michelato, Paolo; Michizono, Shinichiro; Mihalcea, Daniel; Mihara, Satoshi; Mihara, Takanori; Mikami, Yoshinari; Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.; Milardi, Catia; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Miller, Roger J.; Milstene, Caroline; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Minashvili, Irakli; Miquel, Ramon; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitaroff, Winfried; Mitchell, Chad; Miura, Takako; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Moenig, Klaus; Moffeit, Kenneth; Mokhov, Nikolai; Molloy, Stephen; Monaco, Laura; Monasterio, Paul R.; Montanari, Alessandro; Moon, Sung Ik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora de Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Federic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Morin, Laurent; Morisseau, François; Morita, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Youhei; Morita, Yuichi; Morozov, Nikolai; Morozumi, Yuichi; Morse, William; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Moultaka, Gilbert; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Alex; Mueller, Wolfgang; Muennich, Astrid; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Müller, Thomas; Munro, Morrison; Murayama, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nagano, Ai; Naito, Takashi; Nakai, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakamura, Tomoya; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Nakao, Katsumi; Nakao, Noriaki; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nam, Sang; Namito, Yoshihito; Namkung, Won; Nantista, Chris; Napoly, Olivier; Narain, Meenakshi; Naroska, Beate; Nauenberg, Uriel; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nelson, Charles; Nelson, Janice; Nelson, Timothy; Nemecek, Stanislav; Neubauer, Michael; Neuffer, David; Newman, Myriam Q.; Nezhevenko, Oleg; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nguyen, Anh Ky; Nguyen, Minh; Van Nguyen Thi,Hong; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niehoff, Jim; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nitoh, Osamu; Noguchi, Shuichi; Nomerotski, Andrei; Noonan, John; Norbeck, Edward; Nosochkov, Yuri; Notz, Dieter; Nowak, Grazyna; Nowak, Hannelies; Noy, Matthew; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nyffeler, Andreas; Nygren, David; Oddone, Piermaria; O'Dell, Joseph; Oh, Jong-Seok; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Ohlerich, Martin; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Norihito; Oide, Katsunobu; Okada, Nobuchika; Okada, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Takahiro; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Okumi, Shoji; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliver, William; Olivier, Bob; Olsen, James; Olsen, Jeff; Olsen, Stephen; Olshevsky, A.G.; Olsson, Jan; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Onengut, Gulsen; Ono, Hiroaki; Onoprienko, Dmitry; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Will; Orimoto, Toyoko J.; Oriunno, Marco; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oroku, Masahiro; Orr, Lynne H.; Orr, Robert S.; Oshea, Val; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Österman, Lennart; Ostiguy, Francois; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottewell, Brian; Ouyang, Qun; Padamsee, Hasan; Padilla, Cristobal; Pagani, Carlo; Palmer, Mark A.; Pam, Wei Min; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Pandit, V.S.; Pandita, P.N.; Pandurovic, Mila; Pankov, Alexander; Panzeri, Nicola; Papandreou, Zisis; Paparella, Rocco; Para, Adam; Park, Hwanbae; Parker, Brett; Parkes, Chris; Parma, Vittorio; Parsa, Zohreh; Parsons, Justin; Partridge, Richard; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Pásztor, Gabriella; Paterson, Ewan; Patrick, Jim; Patteri, Piero; Ritchie Patterson, J.; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paver, Nello; Pavlicek, Vince; Pawlik, Bogdan; Payet, Jacques; Pchalek, Norbert; Pedersen, John; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Pelka, Jerzy; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellett, David; Peng, G.X.; Penn, Gregory; Penzo, Aldo; Perry, Colin; Peskin, Michael; Peters, Franz; Petersen, Troels Christian; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Thomas; Petterson, Maureen; Pfeffer, Howard; Pfund, Phil; Phelps, Alan; Van Phi, Quang; Phillips, Jonathan; Phinney, Nan; Piccolo, Marcello; Piemontese, Livio; Pierini, Paolo; Thomas Piggott, W.; Pike, Gary; Pillet, Nicolas; Jayawardena, Talini Pinto; Piot, Phillippe; Pitts, Kevin; Pivi, Mauro; Plate, Dave; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poehler, Michael; Poelker, Matthew; Poffenberger, Paul; Pogorelsky, Igor; Poirier, Freddy; Poling, Ronald; Poole, Mike; Popescu, Sorina; Popielarski, John; Pöschl, Roman; Postranecky, Martin; Potukochi, Prakash N.; Prast, Julie; Prat, Serge; Preger, Miro; Prepost, Richard; Price, Michael; Proch, Dieter; Puntambekar, Avinash; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Quadt, Arnulf; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Radeka, Veljko; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Ramberg, Erik; Ranjan, Kirti; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Alessandro; Ratti, Lodovico; Raubenheimer, Tor; Raux, Ludovic; Ravindran, V.; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Re, Valerio; Rease, Bill; Reece, Charles E.; Regler, Meinhard; Rehlich, Kay; Reichel, Ina; Reichold, Armin; Reid, John; Reid, Ron; Reidy, James; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repond, Jose; Resta-Lopez, Javier; Reuen, Lars; Ribnik, Jacob; Rice, Tyler; Richard, François; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riles, Keith; Riley, Daniel; Rimbault, Cécile; Rindani, Saurabh; Rinolfi, Louis; Risigo, Fabio; Riu, Imma; Rizhikov, Dmitri; Rizzo, Thomas; Rochford, James H.; Rodriguez, Ponciano; Roeben, Martin; Rolandi, Gigi; Roodman, Aaron; Rosenberg, Eli; Roser, Robert; Ross, Marc; Rossel, François; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Rougé, André; Rowe, Allan; Roy, Amit; Roy, Sendhunil B.; Roy, Sourov; Royer, Laurent; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Rubin, David; Ruehl, Ingo; Jimeno, Alberto Ruiz; Ruland, Robert; Rusnak, Brian; Ryu, Sun-Young; Sabbi, Gian Luca; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadygov, Ziraddin Y; Saeki, Takayuki; Sagan, David; Sahni, Vinod C.; Saini, Arun; Saito, Kenji; Saito, Kiwamu; Sajot, Gerard; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Salata, Zen; Salih, Sabah; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Samson, Joergen; Sanami, Toshiya; Levi Sanchez, Allister; Sands, William; Santic, John; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sapronov, Andrey; Sarkar, Utpal; Sasao, Noboru; Satoh, Kotaro; Sauli, Fabio; Saunders, Claude; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Saxton, Laura; Schäfer, Oliver; Schälicke, Andreas; Schade, Peter; Schaetzel, Sebastien; Scheitrum, Glenn; Schibler, Emilie; Schindler, Rafe; Schlösser, Markus; Schlueter, Ross D.; Schmid, Peter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroeder, Henning; Peter Schüler, K.; Schulte, Daniel; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumann, Steffen; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Scott, Duncan J.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Sally; Seidman, David; Sekmen, Sezen; Seletskiy, Sergei; Senaha, Eibun; Senanayake, Rohan; Sendai, Hiroshi; Sertore, Daniele; Seryi, Andrei; Settles, Ronald; Sever, Ramazan; Shales, Nicholas; Shao, Ming; Shelkov, G.A.; Shepard, Ken; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Sheppard, John C.; Shi, Cai Tu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shim, Yeo-Jeong; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Yuuki; Shimogawa, Tetsushi; Shin, Seunghwan; Shioden, Masaomi; Shipsey, Ian; Shirkov, Grigori; Shishido, Toshio; Shivpuri, Ram K.; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Shulga, Sergey; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Shuvalov, Sergey; Si, Zongguo; Siddiqui, Azher Majid; Siegrist, James; Simon, Claire; Simrock, Stefan; Sinev, Nikolai; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Pitamber; Singh, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Singini, Monito; Sinha, Anil K.; Sinha, Nita; Sinha, Rahul; Sinram, Klaus; Sissakian, A.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skrinsky, Alexander; Slater, Mark; Slominski, Wojciech; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smith, A J Stewart; Smith, Alex; Smith, Brian J.; Smith, Jeff; Smith, Jonathan; Smith, Steve; Smith, Susan; Smith, Tonee; Neville Snodgrass, W.; Sobloher, Blanka; Sohn, Young-Uk; Solidum, Ruelson; Solyak, Nikolai; Son, Dongchul; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sopczak, Andre; Soskov, V.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Speziali, Valeria; Spira, Michael; Sprehn, Daryl; Sridhar, K.; Srivastava, Asutosh; St. Lorant, Steve; Stahl, Achim; Stanek, Richard P.; Stanitzki, Marcel; Stanley, Jacob; Stefanov, Konstantin; Stein, Werner; Steiner, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert; Stern, Amir; Sternberg, Matt; Stockinger, Dominik; Stockton, Mark; Stoeck, Holger; Strachan, John; Strakhovenko, V.; Strauss, Michael; Striganov, Sergei I.; Strologas, John; Strom, David; Strube, Jan; Stupakov, Gennady; Su, Dong; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suehiro, Toru; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Suh, Jun Suhk; Sukovic, Goran; Sun, Hong; Sun, Stephen; Sun, Werner; Sun, Yi; Sun, Yipeng; Suszycki, Leszek; Sutcliffe, Peter; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuto; Suzuki, Chihiro; Suzuki, Shiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Swent, Richard; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swinson, Christina; Syresin, Evgeny; Szleper, Michal; Tadday, Alexander; Takahashi, Rika; Takahashi, Tohru; Takano, Mikio; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Takeda, Seishi; Takenaka, Tateru; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Masami; Tang, Chuan Xiang; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tantawi, Sami; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tartaglia, Michael A.; Tassielli, Giovanni Francesco; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tavian, Laurent; Tawara, Hiroko; Taylor, Geoffrey; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Telnov, Valery; Tenenbaum, Peter; Teodorescu, Eliza; Terashima, Akio; Terracciano, Giuseppina; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Teubner, Thomas; Teuscher, Richard; Theilacker, Jay; Thomson, Mark; Tice, Jeff; Tigner, Maury; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim; Toge, Nobukazu; Tokareva, N.A.; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomovic, Savo; Tompkins, John; Tonutti, Manfred; Topkar, Anita; Toprek, Dragan; Toral, Fernando; Torrence, Eric; Traversi, Gianluca; Trimpl, Marcel; Mani Tripathi, S.; Trischuk, William; Trodden, Mark; Trubnikov, G.V.; Tschirhart, Robert; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi; Tsunemi, Akira; Tucker, Robin; Turchetta, Renato; Tyndel, Mike; Uekusa, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Kenji; Umemori, Kensei; Ummenhofer, Martin; Underwood, David; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Urban, Jeremy; Uriot, Didier; Urner, David; Ushakov, Andrei; Usher, Tracy; Uzunyan, Sergey; Vachon, Brigitte; Valerio, Linda; Valin, Isabelle; Valishev, Alex; Vamra, Raghava; Van der Graaf, Harry; Van Kooten, Rick; Van Zandbergen, Gary; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Variola, Alessandro; Varner, Gary; Velasco, Mayda; Velte, Ulrich; Velthuis, Jaap; Vempati, Sundir K.; Venturini, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri; Vila, Ivan; Vincent, Pascal; Virey, Jean-Marc; Visentin, Bernard; Viti, Michele; Vo, Thanh Cuong; Vogel, Adrian; Vogt, Harald; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vos, Marcel; Votava, Margaret; Vrba, Vaclav; Wackeroth, Doreen; Wagner, Albrecht; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Wagner, Stephen; Wake, Masayoshi; Walczak, Roman; Walker, Nicholas J.; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallon, Samuel; Walsh, Roberval; Walston, Sean; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walz, Dieter; Wang, Chao En; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Faya; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Juwen; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Lei; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Xiaolian; Wang, Xue-Lei; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Ward, Bennie; Ward, David; Warmbein, Barbara; Warner, David W.; Warren, Matthew; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Isamu; Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichi; Watson, Nigel; Wattimena, Nanda; Wayne, Mitchell; Weber, Marc; Weerts, Harry; Weiglein, Georg; Weiland, Thomas; Weinzierl, Stefan; Weise, Hans; Weisend, John; Wendt, Manfred; Wendt, Oliver; Wenzel, Hans; Wenzel, William A.; Wermes, Norbert; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wesseln, Steve; Wester, William; White, Andy; White, Glen R.; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilksen, Tim; Willis, William; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wilson, Robert; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wirth, Brian D.; Wolbers, Stephen A.; Wolff, Dan; Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.; Woods, Michael; Woodward, Michael L.; Woolliscroft, Timothy; Worm, Steven; Wormser, Guy; Wright, Dennis; Wright, Douglas; Wu, Andy; Wu, Tao; Wu, Yue Liang; Xella, Stefania; Xia, Guoxing; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Xiao, Liling; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xiong, Lian You; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jing; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yamada, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoto; Yamamoto, Richard; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hideki; Yan, Wenbiao; Yang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Zhenwei; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yazgan, Efe; Yeh, G.P.; Yilmaz, Hakan; Yock, Philip; Yoda, Hakutaro; Yoh, John; Yokoya, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; York, Richard C.; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Young, Andrew; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Changzheng; Yue, Chong-Xing; Yue, Jun Hui; Zacek, Josef; Zagorodnov, Igor; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zalikhanov, Boris; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zerwas, Dirk; Zerwas, Peter; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Bao Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhige; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Ziping; Zhao, Haiwen; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Ming Hua; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Tong Xian; Zhao, Zhen Tang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Shou Hua; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zhukov, Valery; Zimmermann, Frank; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zisman, Michael S.; Zomer, Fabian; Zong, Zhang Guo; Zorba, Osman; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2007-01-01

    This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

  3. Atomic Reference Data for Electronic Structure Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Kotochigova, S; Shirley, E L

    We have generated data for atomic electronic structure calculations, to provide a standard reference for results of specified accuracy under commonly used approximations. Results are presented here for total energies and orbital energy eigenvalues for all atoms from H to U, at microHartree accuracy in the total energy, as computed in the local-density approximation (LDA) the local-spin-density approximation (LSD); the relativistic local-density approximation (RLDA); and scalar-relativistic local-density approximation (ScRLDA).

  4. OWL references in ORM conceptual modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Jiri; Belunek, Roman; Hunka, Frantisek

    2017-07-01

    Object Role Modelling methodology is the fact-based type of conceptual modelling. The aim of the paper is to emphasize a close connection to OWL documents and its possible mutual cooperation. The definition of entities or domain values is an indispensable part of the conceptual schema design procedure defined by the ORM methodology. Many of these entities are already defined in OWL documents. Therefore, it is not necessary to declare entities again, whereas it is possible to utilize references from OWL documents during modelling of information systems.

  5. AQCS intercomparison runs, reference materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Services programme provided by the IAEA is to assist laboratories engaged in the analysis of nuclear, environmental, biological, and materials of marine origin for radionuclide, major, minor and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes using atomic and nuclear analytical techniques, to check the quality of their work. The determination of accuracy requires special procedures such as analysis to be carried out by as many different and independent methods, analysts and techniques as possible, control analysis with reference materials and participation in interlaboratory comparison studies. This document gives details of the specimens and samples which the IAEA intends to distribute in 1991. Tabs

  6. New Danish reference values for spirometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis; Mortensen, Jann

    2013-01-01

    years of age or older with adequate lung function. Results:  We used sex-stratified multiple linear regression analysis to find prediction formulas for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1) ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1) /FVC adjusted for age and height. The cutoff value of normal lung......Introduction:  International recommendations state that reference values for lung function should derive from cross-sectional studies of healthy nonsmokers and be renewed from time to time because of cohort effect and newer, more accurate, technical equipment. In 1986, the Danish Lung Society...

  7. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  8. Tight Reference Frame–Independent Quantum Teleportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Verdon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a tight scheme for teleporting a quantum state between two parties whose reference frames are misaligned by an action of a finite symmetry group. Unlike previously proposed schemes, ours requires no additional tokens or data to be passed between the participants; the same amount of classical information is transferred as for ordinary quantum teleportation, and the Hilbert space of the entangled resource is of the same size. In the terminology of Peres and Scudo, our protocol relies on classical communication of unspeakable information.

  9. Reference Neutron Radiographs of Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Reference neutron radiographs of nuclear reactor fuel were produced by the Euraton Neutron Radiography Working Group and published in 1984 by the Reidel Publishing Company. In this collection a classification is given of the various neutron radiographic findings, that can occur in different parts...... of pelletized, annular and vibro-conpacted nuclear fuel pins. Those parts of the pins are shown where changes of appearance differ from those for the parts as fabricated. Also radiographs of those as fabricated parts are included. The collection contains 158 neutron radiographs, reproduced on photographic paper...

  10. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... of the text? The last option would make good sense. The SL text is written for an audience who knows the language and hence is expected to be more or less familiar with the culture. Therefore the author may not need to be as explicit as he or she would be if writing for an audience not so familiar...

  11. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... of the text? The last option would make good sense. The SL text is written for an audience who knows the language and hence is expected to be more or less familiar with the culture. Therefore the author may not need to be as explicit as he or she would be if writing for an audience not so familiar...

  12. Generalized frame of reference with null congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarese, G.; Antonelli, R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper derives the main properties of a generalized frame of reference with a null congruence (light flux), by means of adapted non-holonomic techniques; then it studies the geometry of the space-time in terms of non-orthogonal projection: longitudinal and transverse covariant derivatives and corresponding commutation formulae, decomposition of the Riemann and gravitational tensors, lie derivatives of the Ricci rotation coefficients, transverse Bianchi identity. Application to the (absolute and relative) light flux: kinematical characteristics and screen, Sachs theorems etc. are also given

  13. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  14. The biomass theme 1 project: Reference biospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2000-01-01

    The long-term safety of a facility for the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste would principally depend upon a combination of engineered and natural barriers which would ensure that the radioactivity was prevented from reaching the biosphere. To assess radiological safety over extended timescales requires the construction of 'assessment biospheres'. A possibility is the development of 'Reference Biospheres', a series of stylised, internationally-agreed assessment biospheres that could be used to support post-closure assessments in a wide variety of situations. Current activities in this subject area are described. (author)

  15. Energy reference forecast for 2014; Energiereferenzprognose 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, Michael [Prognos AG, Basel (Switzerland). Energie, Infrastruktur; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst. (EWI); Lutz, Christian [GWS mbH, Osnabrueck (Germany). Energie und Klima

    2014-10-15

    The German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has commissioned three reputed institutions to prepare an energy reference forecast as well as a target scenario up to the year 2050. The results of this survey evidence a substantial need for political action if the goals of the Federal Government's energy concept are to be achieved as planned. In view of the wide range of interests among the players involved as well as the complexity of the demands facing the political leadership from diverse areas of life it appears unlikely that the targets laid down in the energy concept can be realised.

  16. Postural adaptation of the spatial reference frames to microgravity: back to the egocentric reference frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to test how gravitational information would affect the choice of stable reference frame used to control posture and voluntary movement, we have analysed the forearm stabilisation during sit to stand movement under microgravity condition obtained during parabolic flights. In this study, we hypothesised that in response to the transient loss of graviceptive information, the postural adaptation might involve the use of several strategies of segmental stabilisation, depending on the subject's perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field. More precisely, we expected a continuum of postural strategies across subjects with 1 at one extreme the maintaining of an egocentric reference frame and 2 at the other the re-activation of childhood strategies consisting in adopting an egocentric reference frame. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To check this point, a forearm stabilisation task combined with a sit to stand movement was performed with eyes closed by 11 subjects during parabolic flight campaigns. Kinematic data were collected during 1-g and 0-g periods. The postural adaptation to microgravity's constraint may be described as a continuum of strategies ranging from the use of an exo- to an egocentric reference frame for segmental stabilisation. At one extremity, the subjects used systematically an exocentric frame to control each of their body segments independently, as under normogravity conditions. At the other, the segmental stabilisation strategies consist in systematically adopting an egocentric reference frame to control their forearm's stabilisation. A strong correlation between the mode of segmental stabilisation used and the perceptual typology (dependence--independence with respect to the visual field of the subjects was reported. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show different subjects' typologies from those that use the forearm orientation in a mainly exocentric reference frame to

  17. The generation and management of references with the Online Mechanism for References - MORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proxério Manoel Felisberto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The scientific production and the development of academic papers have their own formalities. In this paper, is sought seek from these formalities for the ones that refers to the way of granting merits to the authors of the works used in the theoretical basis, through quotations and references. The goal is to help users of libraries to generate and manage references using a web tool developed for this purpose. There are many applications, in desktop and web platforms, that could be used to do this task. However, some of them require the payment of an expensive license to be fully functional. Others offers free versions, but they are very limited and often do not generate references specified by ABNT. There are others that do not store the generate references for later use. In order to fill this gap, the Online Mechanism for References (MORE was developed and made available to the general public in the web. Even so, the fast technological advances combined with a high number of users demanded an update to the application, done recently. It is important to state that all the work was developed exclusively with proven and free to use technologies. Initially, sought up identified the main tools available to generate and manage references and which free technologies could be used to build interactive web applications. This paper briefly describes the reengineering process that MORE was submitted, its new structure, new requirements met and its expanded portfolio of features. Finally, the results achieved after the reengineering are compared to indicators of its previous version.

  18. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Tremblay, G.; Davis, T.; Busch, G.; McElroy, R.; Neumann, J.; Urrutia, T.; Krumpe, M.; Scharwächter, J.; Powell, M.; Perez-Torres, M.; The CARS Team

    2017-09-01

    The role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the evolution of galaxies remains a mystery. The energy released by these accreting supermassive black holes can vastly exceed the entire binding energy of their host galaxies, yet it remains unclear how this energy is dissipated throughout the galaxy, and how that might couple to the galaxy's evolution. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) is a multi-wavelength survey of a representative sample of luminous Type I AGN at redshifts 0.01 connection. These AGN are more luminous than very nearby AGN but are still close enough for spatially resolved mapping at sub-kpc scales with various state- of-the art facilities and instruments, such as VLT-MUSE, ALMA, JVLA, Chandra, SOFIA, and many more. In this article we showcase the power of CARS with examples of a multi-phase AGN outflow, diverse views on star formation activity and a unique changing-look AGN. CARS will provide an essential low-redshift reference sample for ongoing and forthcoming AGN surveys at high redshift.

  19. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  20. Automation of Precise Time Reference Stations (PTRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, P. J.

    1985-04-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory is presently engaged in a program of automating precise time stations (PTS) and precise time reference stations (PTBS) by using a versatile mini-computer controlled data acquisition system (DAS). The data acquisition system is configured to monitor locally available PTTI signals such as LORAN-C, OMEGA, and/or the Global Positioning System. In addition, the DAS performs local standard intercomparison. Computer telephone communications provide automatic data transfer to the Naval Observatory. Subsequently, after analysis of the data, results and information can be sent back to the precise time reference station to provide automatic control of remote station timing. The DAS configuration is designed around state of the art standard industrial high reliability modules. The system integration and software are standardized but allow considerable flexibility to satisfy special local requirements such as stability measurements, performance evaluation and printing of messages and certificates. The DAS operates completely independently and may be queried or controlled at any time with a computer or terminal device (control is protected for use by authorized personnel only). Such DAS equipped PTS are operational in Hawaii, California, Texas and Florida.

  1. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical atomic phase reference and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, L; Cornell, E H; Abdelrahmann, A

    2017-08-06

    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10 -20 As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, Δ Φ / Φ total  ≤ 10 -20 , that could make an important impact in gravity wave science.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Optical atomic phase reference and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, L.; Cornell, E. H.; Abdelrahmann, A.

    2017-06-01

    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10-20. As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, ΔΦ/Φtotal ≤ 10-20, that could make an important impact in gravity wave science. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  4. A bibliography of references to avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sonoma S.

    1979-01-01

    Mrs. Wilson has made a genuine effort to include in this bibliography every significant reference to avian cholera since Louis Pasteur's articles appeared in 1880, although she recognizes the likelihood that a few have been overlooked. New listings have been added throughout 1978, but comprehensive coverage of the literature cannot be claimed beyond June of that year.Textbook accounts, because they are generally summaries of work published elsewhere, are excluded. Papers dealing primarily with the biology of Pasteurella multocida, as opposed to the disease it induces in birds, are also excluded, unless they report information of diagnostic usefulness. Short abstracts are not included unless the journals in which they are published are more widely available than those in which the complete articles appear or they are English summaries of foreign language articles.In compiling this bibliography, Mrs. Wilson has made extensive use of Biological Abstracts, the Pesticide Documentation Bulletin, and printouts generated by Bibliographic Retrieval Services, Inc. The "Literature Cited" sections of textbooks and journal articles pertinent to the subject were sources of many additional references. Regardless of the origin of the citation, its accuracy was confirmed by comparison with the original publication, except in those few instances (marked with an asterisk) when the journal was not on the shelves of the libraries accessible to us.The author will be grateful to users of the bibliography who point out errors or omissions.Wayne I. JensenMicrobiologist In Charge

  5. Electrothermal frequency references in standard CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kashmiri, S Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    This book describes an alternative method of accurate on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS IC processes. This method exploits the thermal-diffusivity of silicon, the rate at which heat diffuses through a silicon substrate.  This is the first book describing thermal-diffusivity-based frequency references, including the complete theoretical methodology supported by practical realizations that prove the feasibility of the method.  Coverage also includes several circuit and system-level solutions for the analog electronic circuit design challenges faced.   ·         Surveys the state-of-the-art in all-silicon frequency references; ·         Examines the thermal properties of silicon as a solution for the challenge of on-chip accurate frequency generation; ·         Uses simplified modeling approaches that allow an electronics engineer easily to simulate the electrothermal elements; ·         Follows a top-down methodology in circuit design, in which system-level des...

  6. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  7. The value of new genome references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Kim C; Richards, Stephen; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2017-09-15

    Genomic information has become a ubiquitous and almost essential aspect of biological research. Over the last 10-15 years, the cost of generating sequence data from DNA or RNA samples has dramatically declined and our ability to interpret those data increased just as remarkably. Although it is still possible for biologists to conduct interesting and valuable research on species for which genomic data are not available, the impact of having access to a high quality whole genome reference assembly for a given species is nothing short of transformational. Research on a species for which we have no DNA or RNA sequence data is restricted in fundamental ways. In contrast, even access to an initial draft quality genome (see below for definitions) opens a wide range of opportunities that are simply not available without that reference genome assembly. Although a complete discussion of the impact of genome sequencing and assembly is beyond the scope of this short paper, the goal of this review is to summarize the most common and highest impact contributions that whole genome sequencing and assembly has had on comparative and evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  9. Reference Model 2: "Rev 0" Rotor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  10. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  11. Blending the Trends: A Holistic Approach to Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    The growing trends of tiered reference, roving librarians, and virtual reference offer academic libraries several options for providing the most effective reference service. Increased enrollment at community colleges has prompted a reconsideration of how librarians can balance reference, teaching, and faculty responsibilities. This article…

  12. Valores de referência para carboxiemoglobina Reference values for carboxyhemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa P. B. de Siqueira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os valores de referência de indicadores biológicos são utilizados como parâmetros para interpretação de resultados de valores obtidos em indivíduos expostos ocupacionalmente aos agentes químicos. O Grupo Brasileiro para Estabelecimento dos Valores de Referência tem se dedicado a estas determinações objetivando estabelecer valores de referência para os diferentes bioindicadores em diversas regiões do País. Determinaram-se os valores de referência para a carboxiemoglobina (COHb no Sul de Minas Gerais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A COHb foi analisada pelo método espectrofométrico, otimizado no laboratório de análises toxicológicas. Em todas as amostras também foram realizadas análises de alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos para atestar o estado de saúde da população, constituída de 200 voluntários não-fumantes e não-expostos, por motivo profissional, ao monóxido de carbono. Cada indivíduo respondeu um questionário para levantamento de dados relevantes à interpretação dos resultados. Os valores de referência foram expressos em termos da média ± desvio-padrão, intervalo de confiança 95% e valor de referência superior. A distribuição estatística dos resultados obtidos foi realizada para possibilitar sua comparação com grupos de trabalhadores, preferentemente à avaliação individual. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O valor médio ± desvio-padrão para a carboxiemoglobina foi de 1,0 % ± 0,75; o intervalo de confiança 95%, entre 0,9 e 1,1 % e o valor de referência superior, de 2,5%. Através do teste t de Student (p INTRODUCTION: The reference values (RV of biological indicators are used in the interpretation of the results of such indicators in individuals occupationally exposed to chemical agents. The Brazilian Group for the Establishment of Reference Values has worked on these definitions for the purpose of establishing RVs for several bioindicators in various regions of the country. In

  13. The PIP-II Reference Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri, [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-06-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is a high-intensity proton facility being developed to support a world-leading neutrino program over the next two decades at Fermilab. PIP-II is an integral part of the U.S. Intensity Frontier Roadmap as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 [1]. As an immediate goal PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing a beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of LBNF [1,2] operations. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term concept for a sustained campaign of upgrades and improvements to achieve multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab. PIP-II is based on three major thrusts. They are (1) the recently completed upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector (MI) for the NOvA experiment, (2) the Proton Improvement Plan [3] currently underway, and (3) the Project X Reference Design [4]. Note that: The Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) consolidates a set of improvements to the existing Linac, Booster, and Main Injector (MI) aimed at supporting 15 Hz Booster beam operation. In combination, the NOvA upgrades and PIP create a capability of delivering 700 kW beam power from the Main Injector at 120 GeV; The scope of the Project X Reference Design Report was aimed well beyond PIP. It described a complete concept for a multi-MW proton facility that could support a broad particle physics program based on neutrino, kaon, muon, and nucleon experiments [5,6]. The Project X conceptual design has evolved over a number of years, incorporating continuous input on physics research goals and advances in the underlying technology development programs [7,8,9]. PIP-II, to high degree, inherits these goals as the goals for future developments and upgrades. This document (PIP-II Reference Design Report) describes an initial step in the development of the Fermilab accelerating complex. The plan described in this Report balances the far-term goals of the Laboratory

  14. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  15. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  16. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  17. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 3 - Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Phinney, Nan; Walker, Nicholas J.; Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; Amann, John; Amirikas, Ramila; An, Qi; Anami, Shozo; Ananthanarayan, B.; Anderson, Terry; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Anerella, Michael; Anfimov, Nikolai; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Antipov, Sergei; Antoine, Claire; Aoki, Mayumi; Aoza, Atsushi; Aplin, Steve; Appleby, Rob; Arai, Yasuo; Araki, Sakae; Arkan, Tug; Arnold, Ned; Arnold, Ray; Arnowitt, Richard; Artru, Xavier; Arya, Kunal; Aryshev, Alexander; Asakawa, Eri; Asiri, Fred; Asner, David; Atac, Muzaffer; Atoian, Grigor; Attié, David; Augustin, Jean-Eudes; Augustine, David B.; Ayres, Bradley; Aziz, Tariq; Baars, Derek; Badaud, Frederique; Baddams, Nigel; Bagger, Jonathan; Bai, Sha; Bailey, David; Bailey, Ian R.; Baker, David; Balalykin, Nikolai I.; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Ball, Markus; Ball, Maurice; Ballestrero, Alessandro; Ballin, Jamie; Baltay, Charles; Bambade, Philip; Ban, Syuichi; Band, Henry; Bane, Karl; Banerjee, Bakul; Barbanotti, Serena; Barbareschi, Daniele; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Desmond P.; Barbi, Mauricio; Bardin, Dmitri Y.; Barish, Barry; Barklow, Timothy L.; Barlow, Roger; Barnes, Virgil E.; Barone, Maura; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Basu, Rahul; Battaglia, Marco; Batygin, Yuri; Baudot, Jerome; Baur, Ulrich; Elwyn Baynham, D.; Beard, Carl; Bebek, Chris; Bechtle, Philip; Becker, Ulrich J.; Bedeschi, Franco; Bedjidian, Marc; Behera, Prafulla; Behnke, Ties; Bellantoni, Leo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Paul; Bentson, Lynn D.; Benyamna, Mustapha; Bergauer, Thomas; Berger, Edmond; Bergholz, Matthias; Beri, Suman; Berndt, Martin; Bernreuther, Werner; Bertolini, Alessandro; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Beteille, Andre; Bettoni, Simona; Beyer, Michael; Bhandari, R.K.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Bhuyan, Ruchika; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Biagini, Marica; Bialowons, Wilhelm; Biebel, Otmar; Bieler, Thomas; Bierwagen, John; Birch, Alison; Bisset, Mike; Biswal, S.S.; Blackmore, Victoria; Blair, Grahame; Blanchard, Guillaume; Blazey, Gerald; Blue, Andrew; Blümlein, Johannes; Boffo, Christian; Bohn, Courtlandt; Boiko, V.I.; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondarchuk, Eduard N.; Boni, Roberto; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boogert, Stewart; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Borras, Kerstin; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bosco, Alessio; Bosio, Carlo; Bosland, Pierre; Bosotti, Angelo; Boudry, Vincent; Boumediene, Djamel-Eddine; Bouquet, Bernard; Bourov, Serguei; Bowden, Gordon; Bower, Gary; Boyarski, Adam; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bozzi, Concezio; Brachmann, Axel; Bradshaw, Tom W.; Brandt, Andrew; Brasser, Hans Peter; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James E.; Breidenbach, Martin; Bricker, Steve; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brodsky, Stanley; Brooksby, Craig; Broome, Timothy A.; Brown, David; Brown, David; Brownell, James H.; Bruchon, Mélanie; Brueck, Heiner; Brummitt, Amanda J.; Brun, Nicole; Buchholz, Peter; Budagov, Yulian A.; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Bulyak, Eugene; Bungau, Adriana; Bürger, Jochen; Burke, Dan; Burkhart, Craig; Burrows, Philip; Burt, Graeme; Burton, David; Büsser, Karsten; Butler, John; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buzulutskov, Alexei; Cabruja, Enric; Caccia, Massimo; Cai, Yunhai; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caliier, Stephane; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cao, Jun-Jie; Cao, J.S.; Capatina, Ofelia; Cappellini, Chiara; Carcagno, Ruben; Carena, Marcela; Carloganu, Cristina; Carosi, Roberto; Stephen Carr, F.; Carrion, Francisco; Carter, Harry F.; Carter, John; Carwardine, John; Cassel, Richard; Cassell, Ronald; Cavallari, Giorgio; Cavallo, Emanuela; Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chandez, Frederic; Charles, Matthew; Chase, Brian; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chauveau, Jacques; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chehab, Robert; Chel, Stéphane; Chelkov, Georgy; Chen, Chiping; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Huai Bi; Chen, Jia Er; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chevallier, M.; Chi, Yun Long; Chickering, William; Cho, Gi-Chol; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jong Bum; Choi, Seong Youl; Choi, Young-Il; Choudhary, Brajesh; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rai Choudhury, S.; Christian, David; Christian, Glenn; Christophe, Grojean; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Church, Mike; Ciborowski, Jacek; Cihangir, Selcuk; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clarke, Christine; Clarke, Don G.; Clarke, James A.; Clements, Elizabeth; Coca, Cornelia; Coe, Paul; Cogan, John; Colas, Paul; Collard, Caroline; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Comerma, Albert; Compton, Chris; Constance, Ben; Conway, John; Cook, Ed; Cooke, Peter; Cooper, William; Corcoran, Sean; Cornat, Rémi; Corner, Laura; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Clay Corvin, W.; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cowan, Ray; Crawford, Curtis; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Crittenden, James A.; Cussans, David; Cvach, Jaroslav; da Silva, Wilfrid; Dabiri Khah, Hamid; Dabrowski, Anne; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dadoun, Olivier; Dai, Jian Ping; Dainton, John; Daly, Colin; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daram, Sarojini; Datta, Anindya; Dauncey, Paul; David, Jacques; Davier, Michel; Davies, Ken P.; Dawson, Sally; De Boer, Wim; De Curtis, Stefania; De Groot, Nicolo; de la Taille, Christophe; de Lira, Antonio; De Roeck, Albert; de Sangro, Riccardo; De Santis,Stefano; Deacon, Laurence; Deandrea, Aldo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Delebecque, Pierre; Delerue, Nicholas; Delferriere, Olivier; Demarteau, Marcel; Deng, Zhi; Denisov, Yu.N.; Densham, Christopher J.; Desch, Klaus; Deshpande, Nilendra; Devanz, Guillaume; Devetak, Erik; Dexter, Amos; Di benedetto, Vito; Diéguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dinh, Nguyen Dinh; Dixit, Madhu; Dixit, Sudhir; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dollan, Ralph; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Dorfan, Jonathan; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doucas, George; Downing, Robert; Doyle, Eric; Doziere, Guy; Drago, Alessandro; Dragt, Alex; Drake, Gary; Drásal, Zbynek; Dreiner, Herbert; Drell, Persis; Driouichi, Chafik; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drugakov, Vladimir; Du, Shuxian; Dugan, Gerald; Duginov, Viktor; Dulinski, Wojciech; Dulucq, Frederic; Dutta, Sukanta; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Dychkant, Alexandre; Dzahini, Daniel; Eckerlin, Guenter; Edwards, Helen; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrlichman, Michael; Ehrlichmann, Heiko; Eigen, Gerald; Elagin, Andrey; Elementi, Luciano; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John; Ellwood, George; Elsen, Eckhard; Emery, Louis; Enami, Kazuhiro; Endo, Kuninori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Eozénou, Fabien; Erbacher, Robin; Erickson, Roger; Oleg Eyser, K.; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fang, Shou Xian; Fant, Karen; Fasso, Alberto; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Fehlberg, John; Feld, Lutz; Feng, Jonathan L.; Ferguson, John; Fernandez-Garcia, Marcos; Luis Fernandez-Hernando, J.; Fiala, Pavel; Fieguth, Ted; Finch, Alexander; Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Peter; Eugene Fisk, H.; Fitton, Mike D.; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleury, Julien; Flood, Kevin; Foley, Mike; Ford, Richard; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Francis, Kurt; Frey, Ariane; Frey, Raymond; Friedsam, Horst; Frisch, Josef; Frishman, Anatoli; Fuerst, Joel; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Funk, Warren; Furletova, Julia; Furukawa, Kazuro; Furuta, Fumio; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gadow, Karsten; Gaede, Frank; Gaglione, Renaud; Gai, Wei; Gajewski, Jan; Galik, Richard; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gannaway, Fred; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yuanning; Garbincius, Peter; Garcia-Tabares, Luis; Garren, Lynn; Garrido, Luís; Garutti, Erika; Garvey, Terry; Garwin, Edward; Gascón, David; Gastal, Martin; Gatto, Corrado; Gatto, Raoul; Gay, Pascal; Ge, Lixin; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geiser, Achim; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Gibbons, Lawrence; Giganon, Arnaud; Gillespie, Allan; Gillman, Tony; Ginzburg, Ilya; Giomataris, Ioannis; Giunta, Michele; Gladkikh, Peter; Gluza, Janusz; Godbole, Rohini; Godfrey, Stephen; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goldstein, Joel; Gollin, George D.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Goodrick, Maurice; Gornushkin, Yuri; Gostkin, Mikhail; Gottschalk, Erik; Goudket, Philippe; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gournaris, Filimon; Graciani, Ricardo; Graf, Norman; Grah, Christian; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grandjean, Damien; Grannis, Paul; Grassellino, Anna; Graugés, Eugeni; Gray, Stephen; Green, Michael; Greenhalgh, Justin; Greenshaw, Timothy; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald; Grimes, Mark; Grimm, Terry; Gris, Philippe; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groll, Marius; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Grondin, Denis; Groom, Donald; Gross, Eilam; Grunewald, Martin; Grupen, Claus; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gu, Jun; Gu, Yun-Ting; Guchait, Monoranjan; Guiducci, Susanna; Guler, Ali Murat; Guler, Hayg; Gulmez, Erhan; Gunion, John; Guo, Zhi Yu; Gurtu, Atul; Ha, Huy Bang; Haas, Tobias; Haase, Andy; Haba, Naoyuki; Haber, Howard; Haensel, Stephan; Hagge, Lars; Hagura, Hiroyuki; Hajdu, Csaba; Haller, Gunther; Haller, Johannes; Hallermann, Lea; Halyo, Valerie; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Hammond, Larry; Han, Liang; Han, Tao; Hand, Louis; Handu, Virender K.; Hano, Hitoshi; Hansen, Christian; Hansen, Jørn Dines; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hara, Kazufumi; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Hartung, Walter; Hast, Carsten; Hauptman, John; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Chris; Hawkings, Richard; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hazumi, Masashi; He, An; He, Hong Jian; Hearty, Christopher; Heath, Helen; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heifets, Samuel; Heinemeyer, Sven; Heini, Sebastien; Helebrant, Christian; Helms, Richard; Heltsley, Brian; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hermel, Richard; Herms, Atilà; Herten, Gregor; Hesselbach, Stefan; Heuer, Rolf-Dieter; Heusch, Clemens A.; Hewett, Joanne; Higashi, Norio; Higashi, Takatoshi; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshiyasu; Hildreth, Michael D.; Hiller, Karlheinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen James; Himel, Thomas; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hioki, Zenro; Hirano, Koichiro; Hirose, Tachishige; Hisamatsu, Hiromi; Hisano, Junji; Hlaing, Chit Thu; Hock, Kai Meng; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hohlfeld, Mark; Honda, Yousuke; Hong, Juho; Hong, Tae Min; Honma, Hiroyuki; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hosoyama, Kenji; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Mi; Hou, Wei-Shu; Howell, David; Hronek, Maxine; Hsiung, Yee B.; Hu, Bo; Hu, Tao; Huang, Jung-Yun; Huang, Tong Ming; Huang, Wen Hui; Huedem, Emil; Huggard, Peter; Hugonie, Cyril; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huitu, Katri; Hwang, Youngseok; Idzik, Marek; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Ignatov, Fedor; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ilicheva, Tatiana; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Incagli, Marco; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Hitoshi; Inoue, Youichi; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioakeimidi, Katerina; Ishihara, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Issakov, Vladimir; Ito, Kazutoshi; Ivanov, V.V.; Ivanov, Valentin; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Iwasaki, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Jackson, David; Jackson, Frank; Jacobsen, Bob; Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Jamison, Steven; Janssen, Matthias Enno; Jaramillo-Echeverria, Richard; Jaros, John; Jauffret, Clement; Jawale, Suresh B.; Jeans, Daniel; Jedziniak, Ron; Jeffery, Ben; Jehanno, Didier; Jenner, Leo J.; Jensen, Chris; Jensen, David R.; Jiang, Hairong; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jimbo, Masato; Jin, Shan; Keith Jobe, R.; Johnson, Anthony; Johnson, Erik; Johnson, Matt; Johnston, Michael; Joireman, Paul; Jokic, Stevan; Jones, James; Jones, Roger M.; Jongewaard, Erik; Jönsson, Leif; Joshi, Gopal; Joshi, Satish C.; Jung, Jin-Young; Junk, Thomas; Juste, Aurelio; Kado, Marumi; Kadyk, John; Käfer, Daniela; Kako, Eiji; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kalinin, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamitani, Takuya; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kamiya, Yukihide; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Kananov, Sergey; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kang, Wen; Kanjial, D.; Kapusta, Frédéric; Karataev, Pavel; Karchin, Paul E.; Karlen, Dean; Karyotakis, Yannis; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kasley, Paul; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Kato, Takashi; Kato, Yukihiro; Katzy, Judith; Kaukher, Alexander; Kaur, Manjit; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kazakov, Sergei; Kekelidze, V.D.; Keller, Lewis; Kelley, Michael; Kelly, Marc; Kelly, Michael; Kennedy, Kurt; Kephart, Robert; Keung, Justin; Khainovski, Oleg; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Khare, Prashant; Khovansky, Nikolai; Kiesling, Christian; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kilian, Wolfgang; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Chui; Kim, Jonghoon; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Peter; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Sun Kee; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Youngim; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimmitt, Maurice; Kirby, Robert; Kircher, François; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittel, Olaf; Klanner, Robert; Klebaner, Arkadiy L.; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klinkby, Esben; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Marc; Kneisel, Peter; Ko, In Soo; Ko, Kwok; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Kobel, Michael; Koch, Manuel; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, Uli; Kohrs, Robert; Kojima, Yuuji; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolodziej, Karol; Kolomensky, Yury G.; Komamiya, Sachio; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korbel, Volker; Koscielniak, Shane; Kostromin, Sergey; Kowalewski, Robert; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krasnykh, Anatoly; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Krawczyk, Maria; James Krebs, H.; Krempetz, Kurt; Kribs, Graham; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Kriske, Richard; Kronfeld, Andreas; Kroseberg, Jürgen; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruecker, Dirk; Krüger, Hans; Krumpa, Nicholas A.; Krumshtein, Zinovii; Kuang, Yu Ping; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Vic; Kudoh, Noboru; Kulis, Szymon; Kumada, Masayuki; Kumar, Abhay; Kume, Tatsuya; Kundu, Anirban; Kurevlev, German; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kush, Pradeep K.; Kutschke, Robert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Kvasnicka, Peter; Kwon, Youngjoon; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lackey, Sharon; Lackowski, Thomas W.; Lafaye, Remi; Lafferty, George; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lal, Shankar; Laloum, Maurice; Lam, Briant; Lancaster, Mark; Lander, Richard; Lange, Wolfgang; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Langeveld, Willem; Larbalestier, David; Larsen, Ray; Lastovicka, Tomas; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana; Latina, Andrea; Latour, Emmanuel; Laurent, Lisa; Le, Ba Nam; Le, Duc Ninh; Le Diberder, Francois; Dû, Patrick Le; Lebbolo, Hervé; Lebrun, Paul; Lecoq, Jacques; Lee, Sung-Won; Lehner, Frank; Leibfritz, Jerry; Lenkszus, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Lewandowski, Jim; Leyh, Greg; Li, Cheng; Li, Chong Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Jin; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Wei Ming; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yuanjing; Li, Yulan; Li, Zenghai; Li, Zhong Quan; Liang, Jian Tao; Liao, Yi; Lilje, Lutz; Guilherme Lima, J.; Lintern, Andrew J.; Lipton, Ronald; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Chun; Liu, Jian Fei; Liu, Ke Xin; Liu, Li Qiang; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Sheng Guang; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Wanming; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lockyer, Nigel; Logan, Heather E.; Logatchev, Pavel V.; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lohse, Thomas; Lola, Smaragda; Lopez-Virto, Amparo; Loveridge, Peter; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lu, Changguo; Lu, Gong-Lu; Lu, Wen Hui; Lubatti, Henry; Lucotte, Arnaud; Lundberg, Björn; Lundin, Tracy; Luo, Mingxing; Luong, Michel; Luth, Vera; Lutz, Benjamin; Lutz, Pierre; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Lykken, Joseph; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Li; Ma, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Wen-Gan; Macfarlane, David; Maciel, Arthur; MacLeod, Allan; MacNair, David; Mader, Wolfgang; Magill, Stephen; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Maiheu, Bino; Maity, Manas; Majchrzak, Millicent; Majumder, Gobinda; Makarov, Roman; Makowski, Dariusz; Malaescu, Bogdan; Mallik, C.; Mallik, Usha; Malton, Stephen; Malyshev, Oleg B.; Malysheva, Larisa I.; Mammosser, John; Mamta; Mamuzic, Judita; Manen, Samuel; Manghisoni, Massimo; Manly, Steven; Marcellini, Fabio; Marcisovsky, Michal; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Marks, Steve; Marone, Andrew; Marti, Felix; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Victoria; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Martinez, Manel; Martinez-Rivero, Celso; Martsch, Dennis; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Maruyama, Takashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Mathez, Hervé; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Mättig, Peter; Mattison, Thomas; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mawatari, Kentarou; Mazzacane, Anna; McBride, Patricia; McCormick, Douglas; McCormick, Jeremy; McDonald, Kirk T.; McGee, Mike; McIntosh, Peter; McKee, Bobby; McPherson, Robert A.; Meidlinger, Mandi; Meier, Karlheinz; Mele, Barbara; Meller, Bob; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Mendez, Hector; Mercer, Adam; Merkin, Mikhail; Meshkov, I.N.; Messner, Robert; Metcalfe, Jessica; Meyer, Chris; Meyer, Hendrik; Meyer, Joachim; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Michelato, Paolo; Michizono, Shinichiro; Mihalcea, Daniel; Mihara, Satoshi; Mihara, Takanori; Mikami, Yoshinari; Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.; Milardi, Catia; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Miller, Roger J.; Milstene, Caroline; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Minashvili, Irakli; Miquel, Ramon; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitaroff, Winfried; Mitchell, Chad; Miura, Takako; Miyamoto, Akiya; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Moenig, Klaus; Moffeit, Kenneth; Mokhov, Nikolai; Molloy, Stephen; Monaco, Laura; Monasterio, Paul R.; Montanari, Alessandro; Moon, Sung Ik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora de Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Federic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Morin, Laurent; Morisseau, François; Morita, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Youhei; Morita, Yuichi; Morozov, Nikolai; Morozumi, Yuichi; Morse, William; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Moultaka, Gilbert; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Alex; Mueller, Wolfgang; Muennich, Astrid; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Müller, Thomas; Munro, Morrison; Murayama, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nagano, Ai; Naito, Takashi; Nakai, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakamura, Tomoya; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Nakao, Katsumi; Nakao, Noriaki; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nam, Sang; Namito, Yoshihito; Namkung, Won; Nantista, Chris; Napoly, Olivier; Narain, Meenakshi; Naroska, Beate; Nauenberg, Uriel; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nelson, Charles; Nelson, Janice; Nelson, Timothy; Nemecek, Stanislav; Neubauer, Michael; Neuffer, David; Newman, Myriam Q.; Nezhevenko, Oleg; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nguyen, Anh Ky; Nguyen, Minh; Van Nguyen Thi,Hong; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niehoff, Jim; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nitoh, Osamu; Noguchi, Shuichi; Nomerotski, Andrei; Noonan, John; Norbeck, Edward; Nosochkov, Yuri; Notz, Dieter; Nowak, Grazyna; Nowak, Hannelies; Noy, Matthew; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nyffeler, Andreas; Nygren, David; Oddone, Piermaria; O'Dell, Joseph; Oh, Jong-Seok; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Ohlerich, Martin; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Norihito; Oide, Katsunobu; Okada, Nobuchika; Okada, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Takahiro; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Okumi, Shoji; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliver, William; Olivier, Bob; Olsen, James; Olsen, Jeff; Olsen, Stephen; Olshevsky, A.G.; Olsson, Jan; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Onengut, Gulsen; Ono, Hiroaki; Onoprienko, Dmitry; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Will; Orimoto, Toyoko J.; Oriunno, Marco; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oroku, Masahiro; Orr, Lynne H.; Orr, Robert S.; Oshea, Val; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Österman, Lennart; Ostiguy, Francois; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottewell, Brian; Ouyang, Qun; Padamsee, Hasan; Padilla, Cristobal; Pagani, Carlo; Palmer, Mark A.; Pam, Wei Min; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Pandit, V.S.; Pandita, P.N.; Pandurovic, Mila; Pankov, Alexander; Panzeri, Nicola; Papandreou, Zisis; Paparella, Rocco; Para, Adam; Park, Hwanbae; Parker, Brett; Parkes, Chris; Parma, Vittorio; Parsa, Zohreh; Parsons, Justin; Partridge, Richard; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Pásztor, Gabriella; Paterson, Ewan; Patrick, Jim; Patteri, Piero; Ritchie Patterson, J.; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paver, Nello; Pavlicek, Vince; Pawlik, Bogdan; Payet, Jacques; Pchalek, Norbert; Pedersen, John; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Pelka, Jerzy; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellett, David; Peng, G.X.; Penn, Gregory; Penzo, Aldo; Perry, Colin; Peskin, Michael; Peters, Franz; Petersen, Troels Christian; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Thomas; Petterson, Maureen; Pfeffer, Howard; Pfund, Phil; Phelps, Alan; Van Phi, Quang; Phillips, Jonathan; Piccolo, Marcello; Piemontese, Livio; Pierini, Paolo; Thomas Piggott, W.; Pike, Gary; Pillet, Nicolas; Jayawardena, Talini Pinto; Piot, Phillippe; Pitts, Kevin; Pivi, Mauro; Plate, Dave; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poehler, Michael; Poelker, Matthew; Poffenberger, Paul; Pogorelsky, Igor; Poirier, Freddy; Poling, Ronald; Poole, Mike; Popescu, Sorina; Popielarski, John; Pöschl, Roman; Postranecky, Martin; Potukochi, Prakash N.; Prast, Julie; Prat, Serge; Preger, Miro; Prepost, Richard; Price, Michael; Proch, Dieter; Puntambekar, Avinash; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Quadt, Arnulf; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Radeka, Veljko; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Ramberg, Erik; Ranjan, Kirti; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Alessandro; Ratti, Lodovico; Raubenheimer, Tor; Raux, Ludovic; Ravindran, V.; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Re, Valerio; Rease, Bill; Reece, Charles E.; Regler, Meinhard; Rehlich, Kay; Reichel, Ina; Reichold, Armin; Reid, John; Reid, Ron; Reidy, James; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repond, Jose; Resta-Lopez, Javier; Reuen, Lars; Ribnik, Jacob; Rice, Tyler; Richard, François; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riles, Keith; Riley, Daniel; Rimbault, Cécile; Rindani, Saurabh; Rinolfi, Louis; Risigo, Fabio; Riu, Imma; Rizhikov, Dmitri; Rizzo, Thomas; Rochford, James H.; Rodriguez, Ponciano; Roeben, Martin; Rolandi, Gigi; Roodman, Aaron; Rosenberg, Eli; Roser, Robert; Ross, Marc; Rossel, François; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Rougé, André; Rowe, Allan; Roy, Amit; Roy, Sendhunil B.; Roy, Sourov; Royer, Laurent; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Rubin, David; Ruehl, Ingo; Jimeno, Alberto Ruiz; Ruland, Robert; Rusnak, Brian; Ryu, Sun-Young; Sabbi, Gian Luca; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadygov, Ziraddin Y; Saeki, Takayuki; Sagan, David; Sahni, Vinod C.; Saini, Arun; Saito, Kenji; Saito, Kiwamu; Sajot, Gerard; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Salata, Zen; Salih, Sabah; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Samson, Joergen; Sanami, Toshiya; Levi Sanchez, Allister; Sands, William; Santic, John; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sapronov, Andrey; Sarkar, Utpal; Sasao, Noboru; Satoh, Kotaro; Sauli, Fabio; Saunders, Claude; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Saxton, Laura; Schäfer, Oliver; Schälicke, Andreas; Schade, Peter; Schaetzel, Sebastien; Scheitrum, Glenn; Schibler, Emilie; Schindler, Rafe; Schlösser, Markus; Schlueter, Ross D.; Schmid, Peter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroeder, Henning; Peter Schüler, K.; Schulte, Daniel; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumann, Steffen; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Scott, Duncan J.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Sally; Seidman, David; Sekmen, Sezen; Seletskiy, Sergei; Senaha, Eibun; Senanayake, Rohan; Sendai, Hiroshi; Sertore, Daniele; Seryi, Andrei; Settles, Ronald; Sever, Ramazan; Shales, Nicholas; Shao, Ming; Shelkov, G.A.; Shepard, Ken; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Sheppard, John C.; Shi, Cai Tu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shim, Yeo-Jeong; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Yuuki; Shimogawa, Tetsushi; Shin, Seunghwan; Shioden, Masaomi; Shipsey, Ian; Shirkov, Grigori; Shishido, Toshio; Shivpuri, Ram K.; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Shulga, Sergey; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Shuvalov, Sergey; Si, Zongguo; Siddiqui, Azher Majid; Siegrist, James; Simon, Claire; Simrock, Stefan; Sinev, Nikolai; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Pitamber; Singh, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Singini, Monito; Sinha, Anil K.; Sinha, Nita; Sinha, Rahul; Sinram, Klaus; Sissakian, A.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skrinsky, Alexander; Slater, Mark; Slominski, Wojciech; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smith, A J Stewart; Smith, Alex; Smith, Brian J.; Smith, Jeff; Smith, Jonathan; Smith, Steve; Smith, Susan; Smith, Tonee; Neville Snodgrass, W.; Sobloher, Blanka; Sohn, Young-Uk; Solidum, Ruelson; Solyak, Nikolai; Son, Dongchul; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sopczak, Andre; Soskov, V.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Speziali, Valeria; Spira, Michael; Sprehn, Daryl; Sridhar, K.; Srivastava, Asutosh; St. Lorant, Steve; Stahl, Achim; Stanek, Richard P.; Stanitzki, Marcel; Stanley, Jacob; Stefanov, Konstantin; Stein, Werner; Steiner, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert; Stern, Amir; Sternberg, Matt; Stockinger, Dominik; Stockton, Mark; Stoeck, Holger; Strachan, John; Strakhovenko, V.; Strauss, Michael; Striganov, Sergei I.; Strologas, John; Strom, David; Strube, Jan; Stupakov, Gennady; Su, Dong; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suehiro, Toru; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Suh, Jun Suhk; Sukovic, Goran; Sun, Hong; Sun, Stephen; Sun, Werner; Sun, Yi; Sun, Yipeng; Suszycki, Leszek; Sutcliffe, Peter; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuto; Suzuki, Chihiro; Suzuki, Shiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Swent, Richard; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swinson, Christina; Syresin, Evgeny; Szleper, Michal; Tadday, Alexander; Takahashi, Rika; Takahashi, Tohru; Takano, Mikio; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Takeda, Seishi; Takenaka, Tateru; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Masami; Tang, Chuan Xiang; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tantawi, Sami; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tartaglia, Michael A.; Tassielli, Giovanni Francesco; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tavian, Laurent; Tawara, Hiroko; Taylor, Geoffrey; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Telnov, Valery; Tenenbaum, Peter; Teodorescu, Eliza; Terashima, Akio; Terracciano, Giuseppina; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Teubner, Thomas; Teuscher, Richard; Theilacker, Jay; Thomson, Mark; Tice, Jeff; Tigner, Maury; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim; Tokareva, N.A.; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomovic, Savo; Tompkins, John; Tonutti, Manfred; Topkar, Anita; Toprek, Dragan; Toral, Fernando; Torrence, Eric; Traversi, Gianluca; Trimpl, Marcel; Mani Tripathi, S.; Trischuk, William; Trodden, Mark; Trubnikov, G.V.; Tschirhart, Robert; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi; Tsunemi, Akira; Tucker, Robin; Turchetta, Renato; Tyndel, Mike; Uekusa, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Kenji; Umemori, Kensei; Ummenhofer, Martin; Underwood, David; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Urban, Jeremy; Uriot, Didier; Urner, David; Ushakov, Andrei; Usher, Tracy; Uzunyan, Sergey; Vachon, Brigitte; Valerio, Linda; Valin, Isabelle; Valishev, Alex; Vamra, Raghava; Van der Graaf, Harry; Van Kooten, Rick; Van Zandbergen, Gary; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Variola, Alessandro; Varner, Gary; Velasco, Mayda; Velte, Ulrich; Velthuis, Jaap; Vempati, Sundir K.; Venturini, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri; Vila, Ivan; Vincent, Pascal; Virey, Jean-Marc; Visentin, Bernard; Viti, Michele; Vo, Thanh Cuong; Vogel, Adrian; Vogt, Harald; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vos, Marcel; Votava, Margaret; Vrba, Vaclav; Wackeroth, Doreen; Wagner, Albrecht; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Wagner, Stephen; Wake, Masayoshi; Walczak, Roman; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallon, Samuel; Walsh, Roberval; Walston, Sean; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walz, Dieter; Wang, Chao En; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Faya; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Juwen; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Lei; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Xiaolian; Wang, Xue-Lei; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Ward, Bennie; Ward, David; Warmbein, Barbara; Warner, David W.; Warren, Matthew; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Isamu; Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichi; Watson, Nigel; Wattimena, Nanda; Wayne, Mitchell; Weber, Marc; Weerts, Harry; Weiglein, Georg; Weiland, Thomas; Weinzierl, Stefan; Weise, Hans; Weisend, John; Wendt, Manfred; Wendt, Oliver; Wenzel, Hans; Wenzel, William A.; Wermes, Norbert; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wesseln, Steve; Wester, William; White, Andy; White, Glen R.; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilksen, Tim; Willis, William; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wilson, Robert; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wirth, Brian D.; Wolbers, Stephen A.; Wolff, Dan; Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.; Woods, Michael; Woodward, Michael L.; Woolliscroft, Timothy; Worm, Steven; Wormser, Guy; Wright, Dennis; Wright, Douglas; Wu, Andy; Wu, Tao; Wu, Yue Liang; Xella, Stefania; Xia, Guoxing; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Xiao, Liling; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xiong, Lian You; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jing; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yamada, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoto; Yamamoto, Richard; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hideki; Yan, Wenbiao; Yang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Zhenwei; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yazgan, Efe; Yeh, G.P.; Yilmaz, Hakan; Yock, Philip; Yoda, Hakutaro; Yoh, John; Yokoya, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; York, Richard C.; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Young, Andrew; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Changzheng; Yue, Chong-Xing; Yue, Jun Hui; Zacek, Josef; Zagorodnov, Igor; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zalikhanov, Boris; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zerwas, Dirk; Zerwas, Peter; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Bao Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhige; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Ziping; Zhao, Haiwen; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Ming Hua; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Tong Xian; Zhao, Zhen Tang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Shou Hua; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zhukov, Valery; Zimmermann, Frank; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zisman, Michael S.; Zomer, Fabian; Zong, Zhang Guo; Zorba, Osman; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 200-500 GeV center-of-mass high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider, based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) accelerating cavities. The ILC has a total footprint of about 31 km and is designed for a peak luminosity of 2x10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The complex includes a polarized electron source, an undulator-based positron source, two 6.7 km circumference damping rings, two-stage bunch compressors, two 11 km long main linacs and a 4.5 km long beam delivery system. This report is Volume III (Accelerator) of the four volume Reference Design Report, which describes the design and cost of the ILC.

  18. Strategies for building reference standards for autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSheldon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Producing robust, certified, traceable reference material for autoantibody testing is a vital element in maintaining the validity of results that are generated in the daily clinical laboratory routine. This is a huge challenge because of the high number of variables involved in the detection and measurement of the autoantibodies. The production of such materials is time consuming and needs rigorous attention to detail; this is best achieved by an overarching independent body who will oversee the process in a not for profit manner.Much effort has been made to build international standards for quantitative and qualitative assays based on monoclonal antibodies, obtained from affinity purification and plasmapheresis. The big challenge is to respect individual differences in immune response to the same antigen. A promising ongoing initiative is the construction of pools with monospecific samples from different individuals.

  19. Organizational Learning Supported by Reference Architecture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardello, Marco; Møller, Charles; Gøtze, John

    2017-01-01

    The wave of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is bringing a new vision of the manufacturing industry. In manufacturing, one of the buzzwords of the moment is “Smart production”. Smart production involves manufacturing equipment with many sensors that can generate and transmit large...... amounts of data. These data and information from manufacturing operations are however not shared in the organization. Therefore the organization is not using them to learn and improve their operations. To address this problem, the authors implemented in an Industry 4.0 laboratory an instance...... of an emerging technical standard specific for the manufacturing industry. Global manufacturing experts consider the Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 (RAMI4.0) as one of the corner stones for the implementation of Industry 4.0. The instantiation contributed to organizational learning in the laboratory...

  20. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  1. STUDENT, REFERENCE THE INSPECTORATE OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castán Esteban

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presenting a reflection on the work of the Inspectorate of Education from 1990 until LOGSE currently focusing on three aspects: A critical analysis of the low prestige of the Education Inspectorate and poor contribution to the quality of the system education to be centered in the administration and counseling, and have forgotten or delegate aspects of the evaluation. Secondly raise the central reference Inspectorate of Education should not be the focus and organization, but must be the student. And so it should be changed with the inspector's professional profile and increase its presence in the classroom. His training and selection has to be focused on teaching, methodology and subject areas, which is the dimension that most affects the quality of teaching.

  2. Reference dosimeter system of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-01-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit. (Author)

  3. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  4. Integration of Reference Frames Using VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chopo; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has the unique potential to integrate the terrestrial and celestial reference frames through simultaneous estimation of positions and velocities of approx. 40 active VLBI stations and a similar number of stations/sites with sufficient historical data, the position and position stability of approx. 150 well-observed extragalactic radio sources and another approx. 500 sources distributed fairly uniformly on the sky, and the time series of the five parameters that specify the relative orientation of the two frames. The full realization of this potential is limited by a number of factors including the temporal and spatial distribution of the stations, uneven distribution of observations over the sources and the sky, variations in source structure, modeling of the solid/fluid Earth and troposphere, logistical restrictions on the daily observing network size, and differing strategies for optimizing analysis for TRF, for CRF and for EOP. The current status of separately optimized and integrated VLBI analysis will be discussed.

  5. Reference dosimeter system of the iaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-09-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit.

  6. WYLBUR reference manual. [For interactive text editing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, R.F.; Messina, P.C.; Peavler, J.M.; Schustack, S.; Starai, T.

    1977-04-01

    WYLBUR is a system for manipulating various kinds of text, such as computer programs, manuscripts, letters, forms, articles, or reports. Its on-line interactive text-editing capabilities allow the user to create, change, and correct text, and to search and display it. WYLBUR also has facilities for job submission and retrieval from remote terminals that make it possible for a user to inquire about the status of any job in the system, cancel jobs that are executing or awaiting execution, reroute output, raise job priority, or get information on the backlog of batch jobs. WYLBUR also has excellent recovery capabilities and a fast response time. This manual describes the WYLBUR version currently used at ANL. It is intended primarily as a reference manual; thus, examples of WYLBUR commands are kept to a minimum. (RWR)

  7. Geographical origin: meaningful reference or marketing tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    dimensions of local culture. The French label served as inspiration for the European PDO/PGI-labels, but even if these labels are known in Denmark only five products are PDO-branded The data-collection in Denmark indicated little trust in increased sales through PDO-labelling. This was contrary to data...... of production can be positioned on a map, but there is no precise standard for the rootedness of the product in this place. Origin means to be from a place in the sense that natural factors, cultural practices and historical links contribute to the understanding of the link between food and place...... origin was the result of a crisis in French wine-production in the early 20th century. Labelling was intended to protect the reputation of a product in terms of quality and taste by referring to parcels of land where specific traditions are maintained and the resulting products embedded in collective...

  8. A bibliography of references to avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jack E.; Wilson, Sonoma S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography, first compiled in 1970 in response to many requests for information on avian botulism, has been updated to include the literature published through 1975.In general, only articles dealing primarily with the avian disease are included, as opposed to those concerned with various aspects of the biology of Clostridium botulinum, either type C or type E. A few exceptions, such as Bengton’s report of the first isolation and description of the type C organism, are included for their historical interest. Progress reports and other administrative documents not available for distribution or request are excluded, as are textbook accounts, which are generally summaries of work published elsewhere.Although Mr. Allen and Mrs. Wilson have attempted to list every important reference, they make no claim to complete coverage of the published literature. The authors will be grateful to users of the bibliography who call attention to errors or omissions.

  9. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-14

    This planning reference book is a document reflecting a Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) effort to put together multiple sources of information and provide a clear, systemic, comprehensive outline of the problems, both existing and anticipated; their impacts on the system; currently used and proposed solutions by the industry and research community; planning practices; new technologies, equipment, and standards; and expected future trends. This living (periodically updated) document could help WECC and other practicing engineers, especially the younger generation of engineers joining the workforce, to get familiar with a large variety of information related to the integration of variable resources into the WECC system, bypassing in part the need for time-consuming information gathering and learning processes from more experienced engineers or from the literature.

  10. RL-1: a certified uranium reference ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1985-06-01

    A 145-kg sample of a uranium ore from Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, has been prepared as a compositional reference material. RL-1 was ground to minus 74 μm and mixed in one lot. Approximately one half of this ore was bottled in 100-g units, the remainder being stored in bulk. The homogeneity of RL-1 with respect to uranium and nickel was confirmed by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques. In a 'free choice' analytical program, 13 laboratories contributed results for one or more of uranium, nickel and arsenic in one bottle of RL-1. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, the following recommended values were assigned: U, 0.201%; Ni, 185 μg/g; and As, 19.6 μg/g

  11. Reference dosimeter system of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1995-01-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit. (author)

  12. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with detonation waves or compression shock waves in reactive heterogeneous media, including mixtures of solid, liquid and gas phases. The topics involve a variety of energy release and control processes in such media - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The six extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Spray Detonation (SB Murray and PA Thibault) - Detonation of Gas-Particle Flow (F Zhang) - Slurry Detonation (DL Frost and F Zhang) - Detonation of Metalized Composite Explosives (MF Gogulya and MA Brazhnikov) - Shock-Induced Solid-Solid Reactions and Detonations (YA Gordopolov, SS Batsanov, and VS Trofimov) - Shock Ignition of Particles (SM Frolov and AV Fedorov) Each chapter is self-contained and can be read independently of the others, though, they are thematically interrelated. They offer a t...

  13. Entanglement detection with bounded reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Caslav; Harrigan, Nicholas; Rudolph, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Quantum experiments usually assume the existence of perfect, classical reference frames (RFs), which allow for the specification of measurement settings (e.g. orientation of the Stern-Gerlach magnet in spin measurements) with arbitrary precision. If the RFs are 'bounded' (i.e. quantum systems themselves, having a finite number of degrees of freedom), only limited precision can be attained. Using spin coherent states as bounded RFs, we have found the minimum size needed for them to violate local realism for entangled spin systems. For composite systems of spin 1/2 particles, RFs of very small size are sufficient for the violation; however, to see this violation for macroscopic entangled spins, the size of the RF must be at least quadratically larger than that of the spins. The unavailability of such RFs gives a possible explanation for the non-observance of violation of local realism in everyday experience.

  14. Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  15. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Balawi, Ibrahim A.; Meir, Hadir M.; Yousef, Mohammad K.; Nayel, Hala A.; Al-Mobarak, Mohammad F.

    2001-01-01

    The current work was conducted to study the disease status and treatment results of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioactive iodine therapy. Retrospective review of 78 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy in the Nuclear Medicine Unit, King Abdulaziz Hospital and Oncology Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, treatment protocol and results were performed. Seventy seven percent were female and the female to male ratio was 3.5:1. The age of patients ranged between 13-63 years with a median age of 36 years. Cervical lymph node involvement was detected in 22 patients (25%). Papillary carcinoma was encountered in 78 patients (90%) and follicular carcinoma in 9 patients (10%). Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics showed no statistically significant difference between patients in the different age groups except for extrathyroid extension and lymph node involvement. Patients older than 45 years had a statistically significant lower incidence of nodal involvement and higher incidence of extra thyroid extension (P<0.02). In the current study we used a high dose method (Radioiodine-131 dose 75-100mCi) for thyroid remnant ablation after thyroidectomy (total or near total) in 67 patients. An Iodine 131 dose of 150 mCi was used in 12 patients with radioiodine-avid cervical lymph nodes and in 3 patients with gross residual tumor. In 4 patients with distant metastases an Iodine 131 dose of 200 mCi was used. For the whole study group the 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival was 96% and 88%. The current study, as with many other retrospective studies, concluded that despite the fact that differentiated thyroid carcinoma is among the most curable cancers, some patients are still at high risk for recurrent disease and associated mortality. (author)

  16. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  17. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  18. A Comparison Between the OSI Reference Model and the B-ISDN Protocol Reference Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalhagen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This article aims at comparing the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model (RM) and the broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) Protocol Reference Model (PRM). According to the International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications Sector (ITU-T), the exact...... relationship between the lower layers of the OSI RM and the B-ISDN PRM is for further study. It is therefore the intention of this article to present some views on these relationships which hopefully could facilitate an interconnection between B-ISDN and data networks conforming to the OSI standards....

  19. A routine chromium determination in biological materials; application to various reference materials and standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination limit under standard working conditions of chromium in biological materials is discussed. Neutron activation analysis and atomic spectrometry have been described for some analytical experiences with NBS SRM 1577 reference material. The chromium determination is a part of a larger multi-element scheme for the determination of 12 elements in biological materials

  20. 2001 - 2010 Design reference year for Denmark. [DRY]; 2001 - 2010 Design reference year for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddersholm Wang, P.; Scharling, M.; Pagh Nielsen, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents the Danish Design Reference Year based on data from 2001 - 2010. It contains data set for technical dimensioning for the parameters global radiation, relative humidity, temperature and wind velocity, and diffuse solar radiation and illuminance. All data may be downloaded from www.dmi.dk/dmi/tr12-17.zip. (LN)

  1. What's Wrong with Reference: Coping with Success and Failure at the Reference Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William

    1984-01-01

    This essay on problems associated with library reference service and personnel discusses the pros and cons of four approaches designed to improve staff utilization and quality of performance--hiring additional staff, automation, alternative staffing arrangements, and planning and rearrangement of priorities. Fourteen sources are given. (EJS)

  2. Reference document 2001. A (AREVA) for..; Document de reference 2001. A (AREVA) comme..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This reference document 2001, on the group Areva, provides data and information on the Areva emerges, overview of operations, sustainable development policy, research and development programs, nuclear power activities (front-end, reactors and services back-end divisions), components (connectors division and STMicroelectronics, human resources, share data and financial information (financial report 2001, financial report first-half 2002). (A.L.B.)

  3. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  4. BUSCA-JUN91 reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdale, S.A.; Guentay, S.; Friederichs, H.G.

    1995-02-01

    BUSCA models the decontamination of a bubble as it rises through a water pool. The bubble may contain a mixture of non-condensable gases, steam, iodine vapor and aerosol particles. The bubble thermal-hydraulics are modeled as well as the removal of soluble vapor and aerosol contaminants. The code was originally developed at SRD (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority) during the mid 1980's. A description of an early version of the code was presented in the BUSCA-JUN90 Reference Manual. Since then, the code has been further enhanced by collaboration within the European Pool Scrubbing Group and additional mechanisms included in its calculations. In particular, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Wuerenlingen) has converted the original FACSIMILE code into FORTRAN and added different bubble initial volume, geometry and bubble rise speed options, UPM (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid) has added the bubble breakup modelling and SRD has added the cluster and plume features. This report describes the BUSCA code version JUN91 which treats the bubble hydrodynamics and removal of aerosol particles and soluble gas in an attempt to calculate the decontamination factor (mass in/mass out), including its input and output requirements. It must be stressed that the development of BUSCA is an on-going project. Currently SRD and PSI have added additional models in their own versions. (author) 3 figs., 39 refs

  5. Development of a new reference spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwinkels, J.C.; Gignac, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A new reference spectrophotometer is being developed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) for high-accuracy transmittance measurements over the spectral range 200 to 250 nm. This computerized instrument is a single-beam design based upon a servomotor-driven double monochromator with a wavelength resolution of 0.022 nm. The other main components are: two interchangeable sources (deuterium and tungsten-halogen), two computer-selectable TE-cooled detectors (GaAs photomultiplier tube and PbS cell), all-reflective input and exit optics, and a large sample compartment. The significant feature of the optical system is a large, well-collimated measurement beam: the angle of convergence is 0.7 degrees for a slit height of 7 mm, and the maximal beam size is 37 x 20 mm. This beam geometry eliminates the need for polarization corrections (using linearly polarized light) or compensation for spatially non-uniform detector responsivity (using averaging sphere). The paper describes the instrument design and presents data from preliminary performance tests. The systematic and random sources of error that have been investigated include: wavelength accuracy and reproducibility, bandpass, beam uniformity, polarization, stray light, system drift and linearity

  6. Teaching Reference Skills: Does it really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study at the core of which is the question of whether teaching reference skills really matters – i.e. how useful it is to train students to work with dictionaries. To answer this query, two issues are investigated: firstly, how effective the particular methodology developed here is with regard to using thesauri; and secondly, whether it makes a difference if some specific hands-on exercises are included or excluded. By the end of the project, the students felt that thesauri, a previously unknown language tool, would be quite useful for their work in the future; on average, they were planning to use a thesaurus several times a month. The analysis of the student questionnaires and a comparison of lexical variation in the first and second drafts of the essays also showed that the experimental group, which received more practical training, generally found thesauri more useful and, accordingly, used them more than the control group did.

  7. Construction Marketing: Developing a Reference Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mokhtariani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful companies are strongly committed to marketing management. However, marketing is either misunderstood or completely neglected in many construction companies, mainly due to the difficulty of applying conventional marketing in the industry, accompanied by the lack of sufficient research on the nature of marketing and tailored marketing theories and strategies for the construction. This study attempts to fill a part of this gap by examining the nature of the construction industry from the marketing viewpoint and developing a comprehensive framework. A systematic investigation into the nature via a combination of Kotler’s product classification system and Lovelock’s classification criteria reveals that construction is an “industrial, project-based, and primarily service-oriented” (IPS product with specific characteristics from the marketing perspective. Based on this nature, a reference framework for strategic marketing planning is developed through a literature review based on grounded theory and using the focus group discussion as a refinement tool. The framework indicates that construction companies are involved in and should plan for three working fields—project-based activities, relationship marketing, and marketing mix-related functions. The findings provide a fundamental basis that helps researchers and practitioners gain a true understanding of the concepts and scope of construction marketing and draw a clear and practical roadmap for future work.

  8. Reference Specifications for SAVOIR Avionics Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Torbjorn; Lindskog, Martin; Roques, Remi; Planche, Luc; Brunjes, Bernhard; Dellandrea, Brice; Terraillon, Jean-Loup

    2012-08-01

    Space industry and Agencies have been recognizing already for quite some time the need to raise the level of standardisation in the spacecraft avionics systems in order to increase efficiency and reduce development cost and schedule. This also includes the aspect of increasing competition in global space business, which is a challenge that European space companies are facing at all stages of involvement in the international markets.A number of initiatives towards this vision are driven both by the industry and ESA’s R&D programmes. However, today an intensified coordination of these activities is required in order to achieve the necessary synergy and to ensure they converge towards the shared vision. It has been proposed to federate these initiatives under the common Space Avionics Open Interface Architecture (SAVOIR) initiative. Within this initiative, the approach based on reference architectures and building blocks plays a key role.Following the principles outlined above, the overall goal of the SAVOIR is to establish a streamlined onboard architecture in order to standardize the development of avionics systems for space programmes. This reflects the need to increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness in the development process as well as account the trend towards more functionality implemented by the onboard building blocks, i.e. HW and SW components, and more complexity for the overall space mission objectives.

  9. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 2 - Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Smith; S. T. Wood; W. J. Galyean; J. A. Schroeder; M. B. Sattison

    2011-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs). Herein information is provided on the principles used in the construction and operation of Version 8.0 of the SAPHIRE system. This report summarizes the fundamental mathematical concepts of sets and logic, fault trees, and probability. This volume then describes the algorithms used to construct a fault tree and to obtain the minimal cut sets. It gives the formulas used to obtain the probability of the top event from the minimal cut sets, and the formulas for probabilities that apply for various assumptions concerning reparability and mission time. It defines the measures of basic event importance that SAPHIRE can calculate. This volume gives an overview of uncertainty analysis using simple Monte Carlo sampling or Latin Hypercube sampling, and states the algorithms used by this program to generate random basic event probabilities from various distributions. Also covered are enhance capabilities such as seismic analysis, Workspace algorithms, cut set "recovery," end state manipulation, and use of "compound events."

  10. The Lyα Reference Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostlin, Goran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral...... are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ~ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present......) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate outflow in the neutral interstellar medium (probed by low ionization stage absorption features) and Lyα emission with an asymmetric profile. Radiative transfer...

  11. Image quality evaluation of full reference algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nannan; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong; Ye, Yushan

    2018-03-01

    Image quality evaluation is a classic research topic, the goal is to design the algorithm, given the subjective feelings consistent with the evaluation value. This paper mainly introduces several typical reference methods of Mean Squared Error(MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Rate(PSNR), Structural Similarity Image Metric(SSIM) and feature similarity(FSIM) of objective evaluation methods. The different evaluation methods are tested by Matlab, and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are obtained by analyzing and comparing them.MSE and PSNR are simple, but they are not considered to introduce HVS characteristics into image quality evaluation. The evaluation result is not ideal. SSIM has a good correlation and simple calculation ,because it is considered to the human visual effect into image quality evaluation,However the SSIM method is based on a hypothesis,The evaluation result is limited. The FSIM method can be used for test of gray image and color image test, and the result is better. Experimental results show that the new image quality evaluation algorithm based on FSIM is more accurate.

  12. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  13. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  14. A reference regional nuclear fuel centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel centre groups the facilities for spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium fuel fabrication, waste conditioning, and interim storage on a single site. The technical aspects of safety and protection, and the socio-economic consequences of two types of centre have been studied. The reference centre has an initial reprocessing capacity of 1500 tonnes. This capacity is quadrupled by the construction of two new units in 15 years. The other centre considered is a quarter of this size. A description is given of the processes used, the personal and capital requirements for construction and operation of the plant, the transport of radioactive waste and products, and the quantities involved. The local radiological impact is low and could be further reduced to a level well below that of natural radioactivity. The resulting increase in economic activity, employment, income redistribution and the new infrastructure requirements are estimated for a rural or semi-rural region. Measures to prevent tension are proposed. The impact of the host country's balance of payments, finances, employment situation and technological knowhow is evaluated. The original centre is compared with equivalent facilities scattered geographically

  15. Biomass Scenario Model Documentation: Data and References

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.; Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.; Stright, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model that represents the entire biomass-to-biofuels supply chain, from feedstock to fuel use. The BSM is a complex model that has been used for extensive analyses; the model and its results can be better understood if input data used for initialization and calibration are well-characterized. It has been carefully validated and calibrated against the available data, with data gaps filled in using expert opinion and internally consistent assumed values. Most of the main data sources that feed into the model are recognized as baseline values by the industry. This report documents data sources and references in Version 2 of the BSM (BSM2), which only contains the ethanol pathway, although subsequent versions of the BSM contain multiple conversion pathways. The BSM2 contains over 12,000 total input values, with 506 distinct variables. Many of the variables are opportunities for the user to define scenarios, while others are simply used to initialize a stock, such as the initial number of biorefineries. However, around 35% of the distinct variables are defined by external sources, such as models or reports. The focus of this report is to provide insight into which sources are most influential in each area of the supply chain.

  16. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  17. Bibliography of references to avian botulism: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sonoma S.; Locke, Louis N.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography, first compiled in 1970 (Allen and Wilson 1977) and published in 1977 in response to many requests for information on avian botulism, has been updated to include the literature published through 1980.In general, only articles dealing primarily with the avian disease are included, as opposed to those concerned with the various aspects of the biology of Clostridium botulinum, either type C or E. A few exceptions, such as Bengtson's report of the first isolation and description of the type C organism, are included for their historical interest. Progress reports and other administrative documents not available for distribution on request are excluded, as are most textbook accounts, which are generally summaries of work published elsewhere.This bibliography was a cooperative effort by the National Wildlife Health Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. National Park Service. The National Park Service provided partial funding for the work through Contract No. 89100-0491.Although the authors attempted to list every important reference, they make no claim to complete coverage of the published literature. The authors will be grateful to users of the bibliography who call attention to errors or omissions.Wayne I. Jensen (Retired)Milton Friend, Director, National Wildlife Health Laboratory

  18. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  19. Swiss National Reference Levels in Fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroua, A.; Baechler, S.; Verdun, F.R.; Rickli, H.; Trueb, Ph.R.; Vock, P.

    2006-01-01

    A nationwide survey was launched in Switzerland in order to investigate the use of fluoroscopy and to establish national reference levels (R.L.) for dose-intensive procedures particularly in interventional radiology. The 2-year investigation covered 5 radiology and 9 cardiology departments in public hospitals and private clinics, and focused on twelve types of examinations: six diagnostic and six interventional. The performance of the fluoroscopy units used in these health-care centres (image quality and dose) was assessed extensively and 1000 examinations were registered. Information on the fluoroscopy time (T), the number of frames (N), the dose-area product (D.A.P.), the difficulty of the case, the age, gender, height and weight of the patient, as well as the experience of the practitioner was provided. The whole set of data was used in relative values (to the mean values for each type of examination) to establish the distributions of T, N and the D.A.P.. From these distributions a set of R.L. values was deduced for the types of examinations investigated using the 3.-quartile method. The R.L. values found are compared to the data published in the literature. (authors)

  20. Raman lidar characterization using a reference lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; da Silva Lopes, Fábio J.

    2014-10-01

    The determination of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere using lidar is a calibration dependent technique. Different collocated instruments are used for this purpose, like radiossoundings and microwave radiometers. When there are no collocated instruments available, an independente lamp mapping calibration technique can be used. Aiming to stabilish an independ technique for the calibration of the six channels Nd-YAG Raman lidar system located at the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA), S˜ao Paulo, Brazil, an optical characterization of the system was first performed using a reference tungsten lamp. This characterization is useful to identify any possible distortions in the interference filters, telescope mirror and stray light contamination. In this paper we show three lamp mapping caracterizations (01/16/2014, 01/22/2014, 04/09/2014). The first day is used to demostrate how the tecnique is useful to detect stray light, the second one how it is sensible to the position of the filters and the third one demostrates a well optimized optical system.

  1. Establishing a Business Process Reference Model for Universities

    KAUST Repository

    Svensson, Carsten; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Reference), DCOR (Design Chain Operations Reference) and ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) have gained popularity among organizations in both the private and public sectors. We speculate that this success can be replicated in a university

  2. Evaluation of users' perception and satisfaction with reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of users' perception and satisfaction with reference services in Olusegun ... limitations in good internet facility for searching online reference resources, ... It is recommended that there is need for short courses in customer care to be ...

  3. Selected references on thermoluminescent dosemeters for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-08-01

    This bibliography contains references on: specific thermoluminescent dosemeters used for personnel dosimetry; comparisons of thermoluminescent and other dosemeters for personnel monitoring and read-out apparatus for thermoluminescent dosemeters. An appendix contains selected foreign language references. (author)

  4. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.; Wessells, C.D.; Deshazer, H.D.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case

  5. Reference models supporting enterprise networks and virtual enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses different types of reference models applicable to support the set up and (re)configuration of Virtual Enterprises (VEs). Reference models are models capturing concepts common to VEs aiming to convert the task of setting up of VE into a configuration task, and hence reducing...... the time needed for VE creation. The reference models are analysed through a mapping onto the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) based upon GERAM and created in the IMS GLOBEMEN project....

  6. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    OpenAIRE

    van Oest, R.D.; Paap, R.

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to learn how many prices observed in the past are used for reference price formation. Furthermore, we learn to what extent households have sufficient price knowledge to form an internal reference price...

  7. Transformations between inertial and linearly accelerated frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Transformation equations between inertial and linearly accelerated frames of reference are derived and these transformation equations are shown to be compatible, where applicable, with those of special relativity. The physical nature of an accelerated frame of reference is unambiguously defined by means of an equation which relates the velocity of all points within the accelerated frame of reference to measurements made in an inertial frame of reference. (author)

  8. The use of Reference Management tools to improve Citation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Reference Management tools offer an easy way of finding relevant literature, collecting references, organizing them in a database, and insert citations works in a manuscript with proper citation style. Most of the new Reference Management tools provide facility to connect with other researchers that you can’t find on other platforms. A Web-based reference management provide easier collaboration and use across multiple devices and assist you to improve publication visibility.

  9. Proposals for common definitions of reference points in gynecological brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagne, D.; Horiot, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    In May 1975 the report of European Curietherapy Group recommended in gynecological Dosimetry by computer. Use of reference points = lymphatic trapezoid figure with 6 points, Pelvic wall, all points are refering to bony structures. Use of critical organ reference points = maximum rectum dose, bladder dose mean rectal dose. Use of 6,000 rads reference isodose described by height, width, and thickness dimensions. These proposals are the basis of a common language in gynecological brachytherapy [fr

  10. The evaluation for reference fission yield of 238U fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qichang; Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    In the fission yield data evaluation and measurement, the reference yield is very important, good or poor recommended or measurement values depend upon the reference data to a great extent. According to the CRP's requirement, the evaluation of reference fission yields have been and will be carried out in CNDC, as a part of the whole work (contract No.9504/R 0 /Regular Budget Fund), the evaluation for 29 reference fission yields of 15 product nuclides from 238 U fission have been completed

  11. BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Bernahl, W.

    1996-12-01

    The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ''Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors''. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User's Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution

  12. International linear collider reference design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  13. The reference ballistic imaging database revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceuster, Jan; Dujardin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    A reference ballistic image database (RBID) contains images of cartridge cases fired in firearms that are in circulation: a ballistic fingerprint database. The performance of an RBID was investigated a decade ago by De Kinder et al. using IBIS(®) Heritage™ technology. The results of that study were published in this journal, issue 214. Since then, technologies have evolved quite significantly and novel apparatus have become available on the market. The current research article investigates the efficiency of another automated ballistic imaging system, Evofinder(®) using the same database as used by De Kinder et al. The results demonstrate a significant increase in correlation efficiency: 38% of all matches were on first position of the Evofinder correlation list in comparison to IBIS(®) Heritage™ where only 19% were on the first position. Average correlation times are comparable to the IBIS(®) Heritage™ system. While Evofinder(®) demonstrates specific improvement for mutually correlating different ammunition brands, ammunition dependence of the markings is still strongly influencing the correlation result because the markings may vary considerably. As a consequence a great deal of potential hits (36%) was still far down in the correlation lists (positions 31 and lower). The large database was used to examine the probability of finding a match as a function of correlation list verification. As an example, the RBID study on Evofinder(®) demonstrates that to find at least 90% of all potential matches, at least 43% of the items in the database need to be compared on screen and this for breech face markings and firing pin impression separately. These results, although a clear improvement to the original RBID study, indicate that the implementation of such a database should still not be considered nowadays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. International linear collider reference design report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R and D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade

  15. An Estimator for Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Based on Virtual Horizontal Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    makes it possible to correct the output of roll and pitch of the attitude estimator in the situations without accelerometer measurements, which cannot be achieved by the conventional nonlinear attitude estimator. The performance of VHR is tested both in simulation and hardware environment to validate......The output of the attitude determination systems suffers from large errors in case of accelerometer malfunctions. In this paper, an attitude estimator, based on Virtual Horizontal Reference (VHR), is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) to cope with this problem. The VHR...... their estimation performance. Moreover, the hardware test results are compared with that of a high-precision commercial AHRS to verify the estimation results. The implemented algorithm has shown high accuracy of attitude estimation that makes the system suitable for many applications....

  16. Analytical quality control service programme, intercomparison runs, certified reference materials, reference materials 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) programme provided by the IAEA, is to assist laboratories engaged in the analysis of nuclear, environmental, biological, and materials of marine origin for radionuclide, major, minor and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes using atomic and nuclear analytical techniques, to check the quality of their work. The tables give details of the intercomparison samples and reference materials distributed by the IAEA in the period 1987 to 1988. 2 tabs

  17. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R.; Geske, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 137 Cs, 147 Pm and 204 Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author)

  18. 14 CFR 135.207 - VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR: Helicopter surface reference... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.207 VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements. No person may operate a helicopter under VFR unless that person has visual surface reference or...

  19. RECENT REFERENCES: JULY 1, 2006 TO SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINCHELL, D.F.

    2006-09-30

    This document lists experimental references added to Nuclear Science References (NSR) during the period July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. The first section lists keynumbers and keywords sorted by mass and nuclide. The second section lists all references, ordered by keynumber.

  20. 37 CFR 1.74 - Reference to drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference to drawings. 1.74... Reference to drawings. When there are drawings, there shall be a brief description of the several views of the drawings and the detailed description of the invention shall refer to the different views by...

  1. An outline of reference materials for analysis techniques in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanxun, Zhang; Yine, Qian; Yongping, Zhang; Yongpeng, Tong [Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica (China)

    1994-07-01

    This paper provides background information on the development in the field of reference materials in China. The major considerations in development of reference materials include homogeneity, stability, handling procedures and certification. Further it discusses the plans for development in the near future specific natural-matrix reference materials containing low levels of trace elements and having high degree of homogeneity.

  2. RECENT REFERENCES: JANUARY 1, 2005 TO DECEMBER 31, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINCHELL, D.F.

    2005-12-31

    This document lists experimental references added to Nuclear Science References (NSR) during the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. The first section lists keynumbers and keywords sorted by mass and nuclide. The second section lists all references, ordered by keynumber.

  3. RECENT REFERENCES: OCTOBER 1, 2005 TO DECEMBER 31, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINCHELL, D.F.

    2005-12-31

    This document lists experimental references added to Nuclear Science References (NSR) during the period October 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. The first section lists keynumbers and keywords sorted by mass and nuclide. The second section lists all references, ordered by keynumber.

  4. Awareness and perception of reference sources and services by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... e-mail, telephone and social media (e.g. facebook). It was also revealed that 228 (70.45%) have good knowledge of what reference source are; 192 (59.08%) have good understanding of what reference services are, and 241 (74.15%) make use of reference sources in the Federal University of Technology, Owerri library.

  5. Quantum mechanics with respect to different reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geometric (Schroedinger) quantization of nonrelativistic mechanics with respect to different reference frames is considered. In classical nonrelativistic mechanics, a reference frame is represented by a connection on a configuration space fibered over a time axis R. Under quantization, it yields a connection on the quantum algebra of Schroedinger operators. The operators of energy with respect to different reference frames are examined

  6. An outline of reference materials for analysis techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Qian Yine; Zhang Yongping; Tong Yongpeng

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the development in the field of reference materials in China. The major considerations in development of reference materials include homogeneity, stability, handling procedures and certification. Further it discusses the plans for development in the near future specific natural-matrix reference materials containing low levels of trace elements and having high degree of homogeneity

  7. Employment references: defamation law in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, D G

    1993-01-01

    The law of defamation and the risks involved in issuing employment references are discussed. A hypothetical scenario is used to illustrate the legal standards governing the tort of defamation and to apply those standards to employment references. Practical suggestions for a "controlled reference" policy are provided, with the objective of allowing for responsible exchange of employment information and avoiding a defamation lawsuit.

  8. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  9. World Reference Base | FAO SOILS PORTAL | Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Soil classification > World Reference Base FAO SOILS PORTAL Survey Assessment Biodiversity Management Degradation/Restoration Policies/Governance Publications Soil properties Soil classification World Soil Maps and Databases World Reference Base Dominant soils of the world The World Reference Base (WRB

  10. The Lean Reference Collection: Improving Functionality through Selection and Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses references collections in academic libraries and offers guidelines for placing materials in a reference collection that focus on their suitability for true reference functions and the expected frequency of use. Problems with poorly managed collections are discussed, and the importance of selection policies and weeding are emphasized. (37…

  11. REFERENCE MATERIALS IN THE SPHERE OF USE OF ATOMIC ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the chronology of development of the system of reference materials in the nuclear industry of the Russian Federation. The basic documents used in the sphere of nuclear energy are described. The nomenclature of reference materials and feature of their application in the "Rosatom" is given. The prospects of development activities in the field of reference materials are formulated.

  12. Conceptual Match as a Determinant of Reference Reuse in Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Dominique; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    As speakers interact, they add references to their common ground, which they can then reuse to facilitate listener comprehension. However, all references are not equally likely to be reused. The purpose of this study was to shed light on how the speakers' conceptualizations of the referents under discussion affect reuse (along with a generation…

  13. Preferred Formats for References | Editor | Ghana Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Formats for References. References made in the notes or in the text should include author's last name, the date of publication and the relevant page number(s), e.g. (Chomsky 1972: 63-4). There should be a separate list of references at the end of the paper, but before any appendices, in which all and only items ...

  14. Self- and Other-Referent Criteria of Career Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslin, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Business students (n=71) evaluated their career success thus far. Framed by social comparison theory, results showed that 68% used other-referent criteria to assess their success. Participants who believed that ability and personality are fixed attributes had greater reliance on other-referent criteria. (Contains 100 references.) (SK)

  15. Current status of digital reference services in academic libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the extent of the application of digital reference services in academic libraries in Nigeria, highlighting the emerging formats and models of digital reference services, to include email and web forms, Ask A librarian services, online chat reference, video conferencing, digital robots, and collaborative ...

  16. 40 CFR 53.16 - Supersession of reference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supersession of reference methods. 53... (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions § 53.16 Supersession of reference methods. (a) This section prescribes procedures and criteria applicable to requests that...

  17. Zotero : a free and open-source reference manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Zotero is a free, open-source reference management program compatible with Linux®, Mac®, and Windows® operating systems. Libraries are backed up online allowing sharing between computers and even multiple users. Zotero makes it easy to keep your reference library organised and ‘clean’. Reference...

  18. From a Distance: Robust Reference Service via Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, Yvonne Nalani; Carr, Allison; Ly, Pearl

    2010-01-01

    Reference service via instant messaging (IM) has significant potential to benefit distance learners. There has been wide experimentation with IM to expand reference services in libraries across the US, with mixed results. Concern has been expressed that IM cannot provide the same reference experience as face-to-face interactions. One academic…

  19. User Satisfaction with Referrals at a Collaborative Virtual Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nahyun

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference…

  20. The Predictive Validity of Teacher Candidate Letters of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Letters of reference are widely used as an essential part of the hiring process of newly licensed teachers. While the predictive validity of these letters of reference has been called into question it has never been empirically studied. The current study examined the predictive validity of the quality of letters of reference for forty-one student…