WorldWideScience

Sample records for alleys

  1. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  2. In Fond Memory of Rewi Alley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengWanzhen

    2004-01-01

    Rewi Alley passed away on December 27, 1987 at the age of ninety. News of his demise came as a great shock to me, then on a diplomatic assignment in Washington, D.C. where I was serving as press counsellor of the Chinese Embassy.Even to this day I still deeply regret for not being able to attend his funeral service to bid final farewell to this great New Zealander who was not only an unflinching peace fighter but also a true internationalist who dedicated almost his entire life and who cherished boundless sympathy and love for China and the Chinese people.

  3. Cassini/CIRS Observations of Saturn's "Storm Alley"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesman, Brigette E.

    2010-01-01

    In the Voyager era storms on Saturn were observed predominantly in the northern hemisphere, however, in recent years storm activity has been confined to a narrow range of latitudes referred to as "storm alley" (approx.40degS planetographic latitude). Throughout Cassini's prime mission storms have been detected by two independent instruments: ISS through dayside images and RPWS using radio emissions from Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SED's) (Dyudina et al. 2007). Analysis of these storms indicates that the cloud tops are in the 200 - 500rnbar altitude range. During Saturn's Equinox, in August 2009, lSS imaged lightning on the night side in storm alley when ring-shine was at a minimum (Dyudina et al. 2010). This study indicates that lightning may have originated as deep as the water cloud. Decently, Cassini/CIRS was targeted at storm alley while a storm, originally detected by amateurs, was ongoing (March 2010). Phosphine can be used as a tracer of vertical transport because it is a disequilibrium species that falls off with altitude in the upper troposphere. CIRS can measure temperature and phosphine abundance independently in the altitude range where these cloud tops occur. Early analysis of these data shows stronger phosphine absorption at storm longitudes. This is an indication that powerful updrafts were dredging material upward into the upper troposphere. The results of the analysis of the March 2010 CIRS observations of storm alley will be presented.

  4. 32 CFR 644.422 - Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authorized widening of a public highway, street... and Easement Interests § 644.422 Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. 40 U.S.C... authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. The conveyance may be made with or...

  5. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosango, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  6. Land Tenure and the Potential for the Adoption of Alley Farming in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lawry, S; Steinberger, D; Jabbar, Mohammad A.

    1994-01-01

    Alley farming was developed as a means of maintaining soil fertility in fields under permanent cultivation in Africa, as population pressure makes the traditional practice of slash-and-burn combined with fallowing unsustainable. It is an agroforestry system under which food crops are grown in alleys formed by hedgerows of leguminous trees and shrubs. Studies have shown that it works, but farmers are only taking it up very slowly. Recent work suggests that land tenure might be a factor in the ...

  7. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  8. Multifactorial biogeochemical monitoring of linden alley in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Vadim; Khushvakhtova, Sabsbakhor; Tyutikov, Sergey; Danilova, Valentina; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The ecological and biogeochemical assessment of the linden alley within the Kosygin Street was conducted by means of an integrated comparative study of soils, their chemical composition and morphological parameters of leaf linden. For this purpose 5 points were tested within the linden alley and 5 other points outside the highway. In soils, water extract of soil, leaf linden the content of Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Co Mo, Cr and Se were determined by AAS and spectrofluorimetric method [1]. Macrocomponents (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, sulphates, chlorides), pH and total mineralization of water soil extract were measured by generally accepted methods. Thio-containing compounds in the leaves were determined by HPLC-NAM spectrofluorometry [2]. On level content of trace elements the soils of "contaminated" points different from background more high concentrations of lead, manganese, iron, selenium, strontium and low level of zinc. Leaf of linden from contaminated sites characterized by an increase of lead, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, chromium, and a sharp decrease in the level of manganese and strontium. Analysis of the aqueous extracts of the soil showed a slight decrease in the pH value in the "control" points and lower content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and total mineralization of the water soil extract. The phytochelatins test in the leaves of linden was weakly effective and the degree of asymmetry of leaf lamina too. The most differences between the variants were marked by the degree of pathology leaves (chlorosis and necrosis) and the content of pigments (chlorophyll and carotene). The data obtained reflect the impact of the application of de-icing salts and automobile emissions. References 1. Ermakov V.V., Danilova V.N., Khyshvakhtova S.D. Application of HPLC-NAM spectrofluorimtry to determination of sulfur-containing compounds in the environmental objects// Science of the biosphere: Innovation. Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov, 2014. P. 10

  9. The successive alleys test of anxiety in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Robert M J

    2013-06-17

    The plus-maze was derived from the early work of Montgomery. He observed that rats tended to avoid the open arms of a maze, preferring the enclosed ones. Handley, Mithani and File et al. performed the first studies on the plus-maze design we use today, and in 1987 Lister published a design for use with mice. Time spent on, and entries into, the open arms are an index of anxiety; the lower these indices, the more anxious the mouse is. Alternatively, a mouse that spends most of its time in the closed arms is classed as anxious. One of the problems of the plus-maze is that, while time spent on, and entries into, the open arms is a fairly unambiguous measure of anxiety, time in the central area is more difficult to interpret, although time spent here has been classified as "decision making". In many tests central area time is a considerable part of the total test time. Shepherd et al. produced an ingenious design to eliminate the central area, which they called the "zero maze". However, although used by several groups, it has never been as widely adopted as the plus-maze. In the present article I describe a modification of the plus-maze design that not only eliminates the central area but also incorporates elements from other anxiety tests, such as the light-dark box and emergence tests. It is a linear series of four alleys, each having increasing anxiogenic properties. It has given similar results to the plus-maze in general. Although it may not be more sensitive than the plus-maze (more data is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached on this point), it provides a useful confirmation of plus-maze results which would be useful when, for example, only a single example of a mutant mouse was available, as, for example, in ENU-based mutagenesis programs.

  10. Phenotypic nutrient up-take differences in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Machakos, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Coulson, C.L.; Stigter, C.J.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.; Mugendi, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    Alley cropping of Cassia siamea and maize was studied in semi-arid Kenya for soil fertility improvement. Katumani composite maize was planted except in the short rains of 1988 (SR88) when a hybrid variety was sown. Therefore the grain yield per row increased differently in the alley cropped maize (C

  11. Multimedia networks, globalization and strategies of innovation : the case of the silicon alley

    OpenAIRE

    Heydebrand, Wolf

    1999-01-01

    The report offers a sociological portrait of the structure and dynamics of „Silicon Alley“, an industry cluster of about a thousand new media firms that has emerged since the early 1990s. Situated in the context of New York’s development as a global city, Silicon Alley is part of the rise of advanced producer services and the dramatic growth of information and communications technology in an increasingly transnational economy. In analyzing the nature and importance of inter-firm networks amon...

  12. Speech by CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin at Commemorative Meeting Of Rewi Alley (Excerpts)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In Beijing on September 7, we held the commemorative meeting marking Rewi Alley’s 110th anniversary of birth, 80th anniversary of arrival in China and 20th anniversary of passing. Today we are holding this grand meeting here to cherish the memory of this renowned writer, poet, educator and social activist, our old friend Rewi Alley.

  13. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  14. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  15. Relative impacts of key drivers on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorduijn, S. L.; Smettem, K. R. J.; Vogwill, R.; Ghadouani, A.

    2009-11-01

    Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Re-establishing deep-rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape is one technique for managing land degradation. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width versus alley width) for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. Groundwater at the site is shallow (agroforestry system. It is concluded that declining annual rainfall is the principal control on hydrograph response at the site, whilst perennial biomass development has a lesser impact on water table depth.

  16. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  17. Beijing Alley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiXiaoke

    2004-01-01

    There are many distinguished artists with work in residence at Beijing's Creation Gallery, but there is one worthy of particular mention - gallery founder Li Xiaoke. Through his work, Li successfully unites elements of western art with traditional Chinese ideas and art theories. His favorite places of inspiration are old Beijing, Tibet, and southern China.

  18. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosyst

  19. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  20. The effect of changes in rainfall on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Noorduijn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Land degradation can be controlled by re-establishing native deep rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width verses alley width for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. At the site groundwater is shallow (<3 m and of poor quality (pH 3–5, Ec 2.1–45.9 mS cm−1 and so root water uptake from the saturated zone is limited.

    Simple hydrograph analysis did not identify any treatment effects on the water table response. Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that 20–30% of the variability in the water table data over the 12 year period was attributable to the alley farming experiment. It was hypothesized that a climate trend (reducing annual rainfall over time may be obscuring the effect of the experiment. To further investigate the effect of the experiment on groundwater response, further hydrograph analysis was conducted to compare the trends in the control piezometers in relation to those located within the belts. A difference of 0.9 m was observed between the mean groundwater levels in the control piezometers and the mean levels in the perennial belt piezometers. For a mean specific yield of 0.03 m3 m−3 this equates to a small additional water use of 27 mm yr−1 by the

  1. Phenotypic nutrient up-take differences in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Machakos, Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Alley cropping of Cassia siamea and maize was studied insemi-arid Kenya for soil fertility improvement. Katumani composite maize was planted except in the short rains of 1988 (SR88) when a hybrid variety was sown. Therefore the grain yield per row increased differently in the alley cropped maize (CM). Sole maize (SM) and CM yields were higher in SR88 than in the long rains of 1988 (LR88) by 62% and 38%, while yields from the same treatments in LR89 were only 21% and 45% of those in SR88. These differences in relative maize yields are attributed to differences between the two maize varieties in competition under nutrient stress conditions.

  2. Relative impacts of key drivers on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghadouani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Re-establishing deep-rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape is one technique for managing land degradation. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width versus alley width for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. Groundwater at the site is shallow (<3 m and of poor quality (pH 3–5, Ec 2.1–45.9 mS cm−1 so root water uptake from the saturated zone is limited.

    Simple hydrograph analysis could not separate treatment effects on the water table response. Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that 20–30% of the variability in the water table data over the 12 year study period was attributable to the alley farming experiment. To futher investigate the effect of the experiment on groundwater response, additional hydrograph analysis was conducted to compare the trends in the control piezometers in relation to those located within the belts. A difference of 0.9 m was observed between the mean groundwater levels in the control piezometers and the mean levels in the perennial belt piezometers. For a mean specific yield of 0.03 m3 m−3 (standard deviation of 0.03 m3 m−3 this equates to an additional average annual water use of 27 mm yr−1 (standard deviation of 33 mm yr−1 by the

  3. Water table response to an experimental alley farming trial: dissecting the spatial and temporal structure of the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorduijn, S L; Ghadouani, A; Vogwill, R; Smettem, K R J; Legendre, P

    2010-09-01

    Clearing vegetation for traditional agriculture diminishes native habitat and reduces plant transpiration, leading to increased groundwater recharge and onset of dryland salinization due to rising groundwater and mobilization of salt stores in the soil profile. This change in hydrology and salinity can also negatively affect biodiversity in many semiarid regions. Alternating native perennial tree belts with mono-species agriculture within the tree belt alleys is one possible system that can provide recharge control and recover some of the ecosystem services of degraded agricultural landscapes. To assess the effect of this agroforestry technique on groundwater levels, an alley farming trial was established in 1995, incorporating different combinations of belt width, alley width, and revegetation density. Transects of piezometers within each design have been monitored from October 1995 to January 2008. The data set consisted of 70 piezometers monitored on 39 dates. Two trends were observed within the raw data: An increase in water table depth with time and an increase in the range of depths monitored at the site were clearly discernible. However, simple hydrograph analysis of the data has proved unsuccessful at distinguishing the effect of the tree belts on the water table morphology. The statistical techniques employed in this paper to show the effect of the experiment on the water table were variation partitioning, principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), and canonical redundancy analysis (RDA). The environmental variables (alley farming design, distance of piezometer from the tree belt, and percentage vegetation cover including edge effect) explained 20-30% of the variation of the transformed and detrended data for the entire site. The spatial PCNM variables explained a further 20-30% of the variation. Partitioning of the site into a northern and southern block increased the proportion of explained variation for the plots in the northern block. The

  4. 冷巷的被动降温原理及其启示%The Principles of Passive-cooling Alley and Its Inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓扬; 仲德崑

    2011-01-01

    A field study of thermal environment is carried out on narrow alleys of three residential buildings to analyze the principles of passive-cooling alley. The main technical strategies can be concluded as: narrow alley with sunshade and ventilation, the ground and wall as heat sink, and night ventilation. Its inspiration on architectural design is also discussed.%通过对三处民居的窄巷进行热环境实测.剖析冷巷的被动降温原理,总结其主要技术策略为:遮阳通风的窄通道、蓄冷墙及地面、夜间通风.同时论述了这些技术策略对建筑设计的启示.

  5. Differences in Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations between Streets and Alleys in New York City: Open Space vs. Semi-Closed Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Outdoor ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH concentrations are variable throughout an urban environment. However, little is known about how variation in semivolatile and nonvolatile PAHs related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space contributes to differences in concentrations. Methods: We simultaneously collected 14, two-week samples of PAHs from the outside of windows facing the front (adjacent to the street open side of a New York City apartment building and the alley, semi-closed side of the same apartment unit between 2007 and 2012. We also analyzed samples of PAHs measured from 35 homes across Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, 17 from street facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 2–26 and 18 from alley-facing windows with a median floor level of 4 (range 1–15. Results: Levels of nonvolatile ambient PAHs were significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street (an open space, compared to a window 30 feet away, adjacent to an alley (a semi-closed space (street geometric mean (GM 1.32 ng/m3, arithmetic mean ± standard deviation (AM ± SD 1.61 ± 1.04 ng/m3; alley GM 1.10 ng/m3, AM ± SD 1.37 ± 0.94 ng/m3. In the neighborhood-wide comparison, nonvolatile PAHs were also significantly higher when measured adjacent to streets compared with adjacent to alley sides of apartment buildings (street GM 1.10 ng/m3, AM ± SD 1.46 ± 1.24 ng/m3; alley GM 0.61 ng/m3, AM ± SD 0.81 ± 0.80 ng/m3, but not semivolatile PAHs. Conclusions: Ambient PAHs, nonvolatile PAHs in particular, are significantly higher when measured from a window adjacent to a street compared to a window adjacent to an alley, despite both locations being relatively close to street traffic. This study highlights small-scale spatial variations in ambient PAH concentrations that may be related to the built environment (open space vs. semi-closed space from which the samples are measured, as well as the relative

  6. Living on the Edge:The Cost/Benefit Perceptions of TornadoSafe Rooms on the Periphery of Tornado Alley

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntz, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is a lack of correlation between the believed and actual threat of tornadoes on the periphery of Tornado Alley. The purpose of this project is to record the perceptions of homeowners and realtors of the threat posed by tornadoes in a specific geographic location and the need of tornado safe rooms to mitigate that threat and/or provide peace of mind from the potential of that threat. The research included surveying real estate agents and residents within the specified geo...

  7. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  8. Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

  9. Nutrient cycling, soil properties and physiological and yield responses in a Gliricidia Maize alley cropping system in the mid-country intermediate zone of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the research was to study the potential of alley-cropping agroforestry systems to improve degraded lands in the Mid-Country Intermediate Zone of Sri Lanka. A field experiment was carried out at the University of Peradeniya experimental station using Gliricidia as the hedgerow tree species. Gliricidia hedgerows having within row spacing of 0.75 m (8 m long rows) and between row spacing of 7 m were established. 15N-enriched ammonium sulphate (60 kg N ha1, 10 atom % 15N excess) was applied to a subplot (2.25 m wide x 3.5 m long) in the alley, which enclosed 3 Gliricidia trees. Labelled plant material was added to microplots as crop residue only (ML), Gliricidia loppings only (GL), crop residue and Gliricidia loppings (GLML), and no residues (NL) in the subsequent seasons. Soil properties, crop yields and nutrient dynamics were recorded regularly for every growing season.Addition of Gliricidia loppings and crop residues over 5 a improved soil chemical properties including soil organic matter, major (especially N) and minor nutrients and physical properties. There was no significant impact of hedgerows on soil fertility compared with the sole crop or at different distances from the hedgerow. Physiological parameters measured in this study illustrated that hedgerows may influence one or two adjacent crop rows negatively, possibly due to competition for light or water resources. Photosynthesis rates of both maize and cowpea crops were reduced near the hedgerow compared to the sole crops, due to partial shading by the hedgerow. However, leaf photosynthesis and yields were significantly greater in rows in the middle of the alleys compared with the sole-crop (control). This would suggest the existence of complementary interactions from Gliricidia hedgerows through increasing the resource availability and/or making the microenvironment more favorable for the crop species. Addition of Gliricidia and crop residues (MLGL) enhanced growth and yield of crops more

  10. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  11. 南京太平巷幼儿园设计中色彩的运用%On color application of Taiping Alley Kindergarten design in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢岚

    2015-01-01

    According to the analysis of the color design of kindergartens, the paper explores the meaning and methods for the indoor colors design of kindergartens, illustrates the features and methods for the color design in kindergartens with the case of Taiping Alley Kindergarten in Nanjing, introduces color application in the spatial design of kindergarten, and explores the optimal methods for the spatial color composition.%通过对幼儿园色彩设计的分析,探讨了幼儿园室内色彩设计的意义和方法,并以太平巷幼儿园为具体案例,阐述了幼儿园色彩设计的特点和手法,介绍了幼儿园空间设计中色彩的搭配及运用,以探索出幼儿园空间色彩组合的最佳方法。

  12. Counter-Orientalism: Retranslating the ‘Invisible Arab’1 in Leila Aboulela’s The Translator and Lyrics Alley2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gamal El Din

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Retranslation is a foundational postcolonial metaphor that might highlight the new horizons of transcultural and transnational relations and their political backdrop. By the same token, Arab British migrant narratives are of special relevancy to both translation and cultural studies, since migrant identity and writing are closely associated with the politics of translation, rewriting, relocation and cross-cultural pollination. This contribution explores the role of counter-discourses in general and counter-Orientalism in particular in the contemporary fiction of Arab British writers. In particular the paper focuses on the textual representations of invisible Arab men and women and the East-West cultural exchange in the writing of the Sudanese feminist and Scottish immigrant Leila Aboulela (1964-. Drawing on the counter-traditional concept of translation as engagement rather than transfer, this article attempts to spotlight the aesthetic and political parameters of cultural translation in Arab British literature represented by Leila Aboulela’s The Translator (1999 and Lyrics Alley (2010. Many studies have examined the mis/representation of Arabs in Western Orientalist narratives, but very few have probed how Arab émigrés have deftly attempted to engage with Orientalist narratives by restructuring new identities and critically hybridizing unexampled cultural models. In other words, counter-Orientalism implies appropriating Orientalist stereotypes of space, history, identity and gender in counter-narratives that seek to retranslate, demythologize and therefore de-Orientalize Arab subjects.

  13. Locomotion and claw disorders in Norwegian dairy cows housed in freestalls with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldaas, T; Sogstad, A M; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    This study was part of a cross-sectional project on freestall housing, and the aim was to compare locomotion and claw disorders in freestall dairy cattle herds with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys. The final population for studying claw disorders consisted of 66 dairy herds with 2,709 dry or lactating cows, whereas the population for studying locomotion consisted of 54 herds with 2,216 cows. All herds used Norwegian Red as the main breed. The herds were visited by 15 trained claw trimmers one time during the period from the beginning of February to summer let-out onto pasture in 2008. The trimmers assessed locomotion scores (LocS) of all cows before trimming. At trimming, claw disorders were diagnosed and recorded in the Norwegian Claw Health Card. Estimates describing locomotion and claw disorders in the hind feet were identified by use of multivariable models fit with LocS and each claw disorder as dependent variables, respectively. Herd nested within claw trimmer was included in the model as random effects. The odds ratio (OR) of having LocS >2 and LocS >3 was 1.9 and 2.1, respectively, on slatted concrete compared with solid concrete. Fewer cases of dermatitis were found on slatted than solid concrete (OR=0.70) and a tendency was observed for fewer heel horn erosions on slatted concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.47). Hemorrhages of the white line and sole were more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.6 and OR=2.1, respectively). White line fissures were also more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.1 and OR=2.0, respectively). Double soles were more prevalent on solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=4.4). However, sole ulcers were less prevalent in herds with slatted and solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.39 and OR=0.53, respectively). Fewer corkscrewed claws were found on slatted concrete than

  14. 语言景观个案研究--以昆明文化巷为例%Research on Linguistic Landscape - A Case Study of Wenhua Alley in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏娜; 夏百川

    2016-01-01

    Taking Yunnan Kunming foreigners’ distributing center—Wenhua Alley as the research object,the paper inquired the impact of English as the world language upon Kunming by means of the research method of linguistic landscape. The survey results re-veal that English has a great influence on the southwestern region of Kunming,and there have appeared a number of bilingual,trilin-gual and mixed language phenomena. The globalization trend of the linguistic landscape in Wenhua Alley is distinct.%以云南昆明外国人集散地———文化巷为研究对象,借助语言景观学的研究方法,探究作为世界语言的英语对昆明的影响力。调查结果表明,英语对地处西南地区的昆明有较大影响,并出现了多种双语、三语以及混合语现象,昆明文化巷语言景观的全球化趋向明显。

  15. 中国四川旱坡地植物篱农作系统能流特征%ENERGY FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF ALLEY CROPPING ON HILLSIDES IN SICHUAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一兵; 林超文; 黄晶晶; 涂仕华

    2007-01-01

    关于农业生态系统能流特征的研究很多,但关于植物篱农作系统能流特征的研究很少.在四川盆地雨养丘陵农区,2/3的耕地土壤侵蚀严重,为了控制土壤侵蚀和提高耕地生产力,该区域大量栽种了植物篱.该研究通过了解作物与植物篱之间的能流交付作用,通过系统能量投入水平提高与结构优化,建立环境友好的农作系统,最终实现坡地农业的可持续.通过两年田间小区试验,详细记录所有劳力投入、化肥投入、农药投入、农事管理活动以及落叶的数量并折算为标准能量单位.作物收获后所有生物产量的能量根据其各部分的转换值折算为标准能量.系统能流特征及效率通过统计分析完成.通过研究主要获得了以下3个结论:1)"作物-植物篱"系统产出能和输入能的数量和结构变化主要受植物篱子系统类型的影响.与大面积旱坡地传统农作物生产系统比较,植物篱农作系统能有效提高系统光能利用率、人工输入能效率,耕地单位面积总产出能也会增加,坡度越大,相对增幅亦越大;由于能极显著减少无机能施入量,这有利于降低化肥农药使用量,减少对环境的污染和破坏.2)"作物-果树类植物篱"系统输入能总量和有机能输入量大幅度增加,因此有利于优化输入能结构,促进坡地生态系统良性循环和集约高效农业发展.3)"作物-草本植物篱"系统人工辅助能的输入量大幅度下降,由于它所需投入能少,有机能耗和无机能耗均低,人工输入能效率很高而生物产量也较高,并且它们提高了与其间作的其它作物的能量产投比,因此提升了整个系统能量产投比率;由于保水固土的生态功能显著,使它能在四川广大山地、丘陵区退耕还林还草工程中发挥重要作用.%Aims Energy flow characteristics of alley cropping have been rarely studied, although alley cropping is common in Sichuan in order

  16. Development and Innovation of Leisure-themed Cultural Business Streets---Taking Jinli Alley of Chengdu%文化休闲商业街的开发与创新--以成都锦里为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明波; 晋超

    2014-01-01

    文化休闲商业街区是城市文化品牌、休闲生活、商业聚集的最好方式。文化休闲商业街的开发与创新是发展文化产业、都市旅游的重点。文章以成都锦里为例,提出高水平的文化创意是文化休闲商业街开发成功的核心,文化空间的营造是文化真实性体验得以实现的途径。%Leisure-themed cultural business streets are a trademark for a city ,integrating leisure activities and businesses .Their development and innovation are crucial for the growth of cultural industry and urban tourism . This paper ,taking Jinli Alley in Chengdu as an example , points out that high-level cultural innovation is the core for the success of such streets ,and that creation of cultural space is an effective approach to authentic cul-tural experience .

  17. Growth and productivity of corn as affected by mulching and tillage in Alley cropping systems Crescimento e produtividade de milho afetados pela cobertura e preparo do solo sob um cultivo em Aléias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoel Gomes de Moura

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alley cropping has been considered a means of intensifying land use sustainably as an alternative to slash and burn agriculture in tropical regions. An experimental trial was used to evaluating the growth and productivity of corn under alley cropping to test the viability of this system as a sustainable land use practice in an amazonian Ultisol. The experimental layout was a completely randomized block design with four replications of six treatments: mulch with 13.4 and 8.9 t ha-1 of pigeon pea, and a control treatment without mulch of pigeon pea, with or without tillage. Sustainability of soil and crop were determined from changes on physical properties, such as total porosity, air capacity, available water capacity of the soil, net assimilation rate, crop growth rate, and leaf area index, as well as several productivity parameters, including average weight of ears, weight of 100 grains, and total dry matter. Both mulching and tillage increased the air capacity. Mulching of tilled areas protects the soil against the rainfall impact and prevented its recompaction. The reduced air capacity of the soil had a negative impact on the net assimilation rate, resulting in lower productivity in the no-mulch and no-till plots, mainly due to the reduction of grain weight.O sistema de cultivo em aléias é considerado uma forma de uso intensivo do solo, como uma alternativa ao sistema de corte e queima nas regiões tropicais. O cultivo em aléias foi testado para verificar sua viabilidade como prática de uso sustentável de um Argissolo da Amazônia. Foram avaliados o crescimento e a produtividade do milho sob esse sistema de cultivo. O arranjo experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis tratamentos: cobertura do solo com 13,4 e 8,9 t ha-1 de feijão guandu, um tratamento testemunha sem cobertura do solo com palha ("mulch", com ou sem preparo. Foram determinadas porosidade total, capacidade de aeração e capacidade de

  18. 网络搜索中的“死胡同”现象及蚁群改进算法%The Problem of Blind Alley in Net Searching and an Improved Ant Colony Optimization with Backing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆克; 陈涛; 褚俊霞; 葛延峰

    2013-01-01

    For the ant colony algorithms we discuss a phenomenon,that a single ant falls into the taboo table set up their own "loop"in a process of searching path,and propose an improved ant colony algorithm.In the new algorithm,if an ant falls into one blind alley,it can back and search another path,such that the success rate of search of ants is improved.We analyze parameters of the algorithm and compare with three other algorithms by simulation experiments.The result of experiments show that the new algorithm is effective.%针对网络搜索时常会出现蚂蚁陷入所设置的禁忌表中,无路可寻的现象,提出了所谓“死胡同”现象并加以解决,给出了基于返回思想的改进蚁群算法.当蚂蚁走进了死胡同后,沿着原路返回,并寻找其他的路径绕过死胡同,继续向目标位置搜索,以提高蚂蚁寻找路径的成功率.对改进蚁群算法的参数进行了实验分析,并与其他三种算法进行了比较,仿真结果验证了本文所提出方法的有效性.

  19. Analysis on the Renovation of Historical and Cultural Blocks Based on Chengdu Width Alley%基于成都宽窄巷子的历史文化街区改造探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 蒋玉川

    2012-01-01

    The historic blocks are the witness of city evolution and the carrier of culture, the rapid development of the city will inevitably cause the collision and fusion between tradition and modernity. How to effectively carry out the building renovation of the historical and cultural blocks has become extremely important in the process of modernization. The Chengdu Width Alley, for example, from the space before and after the transformation of the layout, function-oriented and cultural diversity and value of the effectiveness of contrast, analysis of the pros and cons of the monuments the transformation process, in order to explore the historical and cultural relics protection and utilization of the perfect way.%历史街区是城市演进历程的见证和传统文化的载体,而城市的快速发展必然会引起传统与现代的碰撞与融合.在可持续性发展的背景下,如何有效地进行历史文化街区改造已经成为现代化进程中极其重要的问题.文章以成都宽窄巷子为例,从改造前后的空间布局、功能导向、文化气息及价值效益方面进行对比,分析了古迹改造过程中的得失,并提出了基于生态理念的重要性,以期探寻历史文化遗存保护与利用的完美方式.

  20. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições dos tratamentos: aléias de sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana, ingá (Inga edulis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e uma testemunha sem aléias. Foram avaliadas a remobilização de carbono e nitrogênio, massa de grãos, massa de mil grãos e competição interespecífica entre as cultivares de milho e as leguminosas. A produção de grãos foi maior nas parcelas com C. fairchildiana e L. leucocephala. A produtividade do híbrido de milho foi superior à da variedade em todos os tratamentos. A produtividade e a massa de mil grãos de milho não são negativamente afetadas pela distância da linha da leguminosa arbórea. Esse estudo conclui que o sistema de aléias com leguminosas arbóreas é uma alternativa importante ao manejo sustentável dos agroecossistemas no tropico úmido. Além disso, nessa região a produtividade em grãos na cultura do milho é favorecida no sistema de aléias preeestabelecidas com as leguminosas arbóreas sombreiro, ingá e leucena e pela utilização de genótipos eficientes no aproveitamento do nitrogênio, cujo sincronismo entre a liberação e a absorção do N aplicado por meio das leguminosas deve ser aprimorado.Alley cropping has been recommended as alternative land use to slash-and-burn agriculture in humid tropics. However, interespecific competition between cash crop and hedgerow can reduce this potential. This study aimed to evaluate the

  1. 基于IPA分析法的景区旅游形象游客感知研究--以三坊七巷历史文化街区为例%Research on Perceived Destination Image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on IPA Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓薇

    2014-01-01

    运用IPA分析法对三坊七巷旅游形象的游客感知进行了实证研究,结果表明:游客总体满意度较好;历史名人文化、节事活动、景区内部交通等感知要素游客评价满意度高于重要性,是景区竞争优势,今后可继续强化;传统坊巷格局、外部交通通达性、景区游览接待设施等感知因素亟待改进;核心区域延续性、旅游资源特色、餐饮价格等感知要素由于游客的期望值低,景区对这些服务可考虑采取适度发展的策略。%Taking Three Lanes and Seven Alleys as a case study, the paper determined the effects of 22 factors on the perceived image of the destination.Through the data collected from questionnaire, a quantitative demon-strative study has been conducted on perceived destination image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.The study conclusion indicates that overall customer satisfaction is good.Tourists are satisfied with historical celebrity cul-ture, festival activities and interior traffic of tourist spots;the layout of traditional lanes and alleys, the exterior traffic and infrastructure are in urgent need to be improved based on the undesirable percieved image;the conti-nuity of core tourist region, characteristics of the tourist resources and food prices can be given moderate attention to as expectations are low in these respects.The study conclusion can provide guidance for sustainable develop-ment of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.

  2. A Study of the Tourists’ Cultural Perception of the Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on Network Text Analysis%基于网络文本分析的三坊七巷游客文化感知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小娜; 郑向敏

    2015-01-01

    Using network text analysis and software of ROST Content Mining, the paper explores thetourists’ cultural awareness of theTh-ree Alleys and Seven Lanes. The results of the study are as follows: visitors’ awareness of theThree Alleys and Seven Lanes is generally positive, material cultural awareness is stronger than intangible culture, and awareness of diet culture is the strongest in the material cultural awareness. The perception of the craft is mainly showed in non-material cultural awareness, while tourists’cultural perception is different.%本文运用网络文本分析法,以各大旅游网站中相关游记与评论等数据为样本,使用ROST Content Mining软件探索三坊七巷游客的文化感知。研究结果如下:游客对三坊七巷文化的整体印象较好;物质文化感知强于非物质文化感知;物质文化感知中对饮食文化感知最强;非物质文化感知方面主要表现为对手工艺品的感知;游客的文化感知存在差异。

  3. Teatro Alley Houston – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Franzen y asociados, Arquitectos

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available Both in view of its exterior shape and appearance as well as its interior decoration this building has been planned meticulously, considering the area, the population and the climate of the city as well as the usual medium of transport that the visitor will be using. The box-offices are accessible by car for which there is a nearby underground parking lot, connected with the theatre through a tunnel. The staircases are short and of different shapes. The theatre has spacious and shading terraces next to the foyers from where there is a view over the civic centre of the town. The interior decoration is inspired by the Spanish tradition, the South West Indies and Central America the influence of which is noted extensively in the area. The construction in general has been made with curved walls of fairfaced concrete on the outside and on the inside the colours are orange, brown, golden and blue.Este edificio se proyectó, tanto en su forma y aspecto exterior, como en su decoración interior, pensando meticulosamente en la zona, población de la ciudad y su clima, así como el medio habitual de transporte que utilizará el visitante. Las taquillas tienen acceso desde el automóvil, el cual se puede dejar en el estacionamiento subterráneo próximo, enlazado con el teatro mediante un túnel. Las escalinatas son variadas y constan de tramos cortos de forma diferente. Dispone de amplias y sombreadas terrazas, junto a las salas de descanso, desde las que se observa el centro cívico de la población. La decoración interior se inspiró en la tradición española, de las Indias Suroccidentales y de América Central, cuya influencia se nota ostensiblemente en la región. La construcción general se realizó a base de muros curvos de hormigón visto al exterior y colores naranja, marrón, dorado y azul en el interior.

  4. Full speed ahead into a blind alley?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many decades, Dr. Claus Berke worked at the interface of technology and politics. This is particularly true of nuclear technology. Between 1985 and 1989, he was Chairman of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft; between 1989 and 1995, President of the Deutsches Atomforum. In Brussels, he was President of Foratom for a period of two years. Dr. Berke has been distinguished by a number of awards for his services. The Kerntechnische Gesellschaft has now appointed him its Honorary Member in recognition of his commitment to nuclear technology. The article is an excerpt from a speech made by Dr. Berke to the KTG at the awarding ceremony. Dr. Berke deals with the question why the acceptance of nuclear power in this country has become so negative, in contrast to the situation with our main competitors on the world market, especially France. He traces the growth of ideologies in the German political party scene, which resulted in destroying national unity in this important issue for the future. He feels that one of the major reasons for this development lies in the considerable loss of reputation and influence in the German public of science and engineering over the past thirty years. The situation with our French neighbors is quite different. Already French schools attach particular importance to mathematics, biology, physics, and chemistry. As a consequence, technical and scientific curricula are very attractive in France, while Germany is heading toward the paradoxical situation that industry will soon be short of more than ten thousand young engineers annually, while German universities produce a surplus of humanists for whom there will often be no proper jobs. (orig.)

  5. 智慧景区服务创新研究--以福州三坊七巷为例%Research on Service Innovation of Smart Scenic Spot:A Case Study of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys in Fuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁秋妹; 陈章旺

    2014-01-01

    以服务主导逻辑作为技术导向型和需求导向型结合的理论平台,阐释智慧旅游的服务内涵及其对智慧景区服务创新的影响,并以此为基础构建出智慧景区服务创新的概念模型。最后,以三坊七巷智慧景区的建设为例,研究从服务游客与居民、服务行政管理部门、服务旅游业态等3方面进行服务创新,改善旅游服务品质与效率,提升游客体验满意度,保障居民安全,进而保持三坊七巷景区旅游业态的持续竞争力,促进福州旅游产业的转型升级。%The theory of logicof service-dominant is both technology-oriented and demand-oriented, covering the exposition of smart tourism service as well as its effect on the innovation of smart scenic spot service. Based on the above theory, this paper is devoted to depicting the conceptual model of smart tourism service innovation. Three Lanes and Seven Alleys are quoted to show the service innovation.And with the implementation of these efforts, quality and efficiency of tourism can be the key for customers satisfaction which leads to the ultimate goal of maintaining the competitive edge of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys scenic as well as upgrading the transformation of tourism industry in Fuzhou.

  6. Avaliação de um sistema de cultivo em aléias em um argissolo franco-arenoso da região amazônica Evaluation of an alley cropping system under humid tropical conditions of the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoel Gomes de Moura

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available No trópico úmido, a construção e manutenção da fertilidade dos solos são os maiores desafios dos que se dedicam à implantação de sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar um sistema de cultivo em aléias com guandu, associado à adição anual de calcário e de K, em um Argissolo de textura franco-arenosa, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do uso desse sistema como alternativa ao corte e queima na agricultura do trópico úmido. Foram utilizados, como leguminosa, o guandu (Cajanus cajan e a cultura do milho. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T = testemunha, com solo desnudo; G2, G2,5 e G3, tratamentos com fileiras de guandu nos espaçamentos de 2, 2,5 e 3 m, respectivamente; G2K, G2,5K e G3K, tratamentos com guandu nos mesmos espaçamentos mais K; G2C, G2,5C e G3C, tratamentos com guandu mais calagem; G2KC, G2,5KC e G3KC, tratamentos com guandu mais K e calagem. A cobertura e o equilíbrio de nutrientes do solo foram os mais importantes fatores que influenciaram a produtividade do milho no sistema de cultivo em aléias com guandu; portanto, eles devem ser considerados como fundamentais para o manejo sustentável dos Argissolos de textura franco-argilosa do trópico úmido.In the humid tropics the buildup and maintenance of soil fertility are major challenges in terms of sustainability of agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate an alley cropping system with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan on an Alfisol, with annual application of lime and potassium, with special concern regarding the viability of this system as an alternative to slash and burn practiced in tropical agriculture. Pigeon pea and maize (Zea mays were planted in the experiment with the following treatments: T = control, with bare soil; G2, G2.5 and G3 = treatments with pigeon pea, spacing between lines of 2, 2.5 and 3 m, respectively; G2K, G2.5K and G3K = pigeon pea, same spacing, plus potassium; G2C, G2.5C and G3C = pigeon pea

  7. Porn Alley: Now at Your Local Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a definitive court ruling is needed to better define rights and responsibilities related to the First Amendment and libraries' Internet use policies so that libraries can provide a comfortable environment for users while maintaining the law. Discusses filters; court cases; claims of the anti-porn cult; research studies on how much of…

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  9. A Study on Tourist Cognition of Urban Memory in Historic Sites:A Case Study of Alley Nanluogu Historic Site in Beijing%基于游客认知的历史地段城市记忆研究——以北京南锣鼓巷历史地段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芳; 严琳; 熊忻恺; 吴必虎

    2012-01-01

    城市记忆是城市特色形成的重要源泉,而历史地段则盛载着与城市的前世今生所相关的城市记忆.因而,探讨人们对历史地段城市记忆的认知规律,将为有效保存城市记忆、有机更新历史地段提供重要思路.本文选取北京南锣鼓巷历史地段作为研究对象,归纳游客对城市记忆的认知变量,构建了由信息和载体2个一级变量衍生而得的20个二级变量、89个三级变量组成的城市记忆认知测量的指标体系,通过问卷对历史地段城市记忆的游客认知进行调查.基于调查数据统计,采用序次Logistic回归模型,分析影响游客城市记忆认知水平的相关因素,构建城市记忆认知程度公式,归纳游客认知规律,以便为历史地段和城市旅游的规划、管理提供参考.%Urban memory is the significant source of the formation of urban features, including historic sites related with the past and present of the city. Thus, research on the rules of how people recognize urban memory in historic sites will provide a new method for conservation of urban memory and renewal of historic sites. According to a case study of Alley Nanluogu Historic Site in Beijing and questionnaire by the tourists onsite and online, the paper sums up the cognition variables correlated urban memory of tourists and establishes a cognition-measuring index system of two level-one variables (including two variables of information and carrier), 20 level-two variables and 89 level-three variables. On a sample pool of 272 pieces of available dates, the orderly Logistic regression model is used to examine the relevant factors influencing cognitive degree of urban memory and then induce the characteristics of tourist cognition of urban memory. The result shows that tourist age and visiting time have a strong positive relationship with high cognition level of urban memory while the shopping motivation has a significant negative one with it. The detailed analysis

  10. The square and the alley: punctual dichotomies and contextual harmonies in downtown Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Alcântara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of two important public areas in the center of Rio de Janeiro; praça XV (formerly the largo do Paço and the travessa do Comércio. From examination of the changes in morphology and urban landscape that have occurred over time it is possible to relate the principal dichotomies and functional and spatial aspects between the two areas – considering the researcher’s cognitive view. The main objective is to define the characteristics of these urban areas, in which the significance, identity and user attractiveness determine its importance and sense of place. The analysis method being developed will be used in the study of other historic areas in the Rio de Janeiro Cultural Corridor Project during the current doctoral research.

  11. It's how you get there: walking down a virtual alley activates premotor and parietal areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, J.; Solis-Escalante, T.; Scherer, R.; Neuper, C.; Müller-Putz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary drive is crucial for motor learning, therefore we are interested in the role that motor planning plays in gait movements. In this study we examined the impact of an interactive Virtual Environment (VE) feedback task on the EEG patterns during robot assisted walking. We compared walking in

  12. It's how you get there: Walking down a virtual alley activates premotor and parietal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eWagner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary drive is crucial for motor learning, therefore we are interested in the role that motor planning plays in gait movements. In this study we examined the impact of an interactive Virtual Environment (VE feedback task on the EEG patterns during robot assisted walking. We compared walking in the VE modality to two control conditions: walking with a visual attention paradigm, in which visual stimuli were unrelated to the motor task; and walking with mirror feedback, in which participants observed their own movements. Eleven healthy participants were considered. Application of independent component analysis to the EEG revealed three independent component clusters in premotor and parietal areas showing increased activity during walking with the adaptive VE training paradigm compared to the control conditions. During the interactive VE walking task spectral power in frequency ranges 8-12Hz, 15-20Hz and 23-40Hz was significantly (p ≤ 0.05 decreased. This power decrease is interpreted as a correlate of an active cortical area. Furthermore activity in the premotor cortex revealed gait cycle related modulations significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 from baseline in the frequency range 23-40Hz during walking. These modulations were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced depending on gait cycle phases in the interactive VE walking task compared to the control conditions.We demonstrate that premotor and parietal areas show increased activity during walking with the adaptive VE training paradigm, when compared to walking with mirror- and movement unrelated feedback. Previous research has related a premotor-parietal network to motor planning and motor intention. We argue that movement related interactive feedback enhances motor planning and motor intention. We hypothesize that this might improve gait recovery during rehabilitation.

  13. Shanghai Alleys, Theatrical Practice, and Cinematic Spectatorship: From Street Angel (1937 to Fifth Generation Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Des Forges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that a certain type of Shanghai film of the Republican period, exemplified by 1937’s Street Angel (馬路天使, Malu tianshi, makes use of a specific mode of spatial organization, modelled on the theatre, to represent the urban environment. In the case of Street Angel, and later on in 1964’s Stage Sisters (舞台姐妹, Wutai jiemei, the interaction between performers and audiences characteristic of the Shanghai theatre experience serves as a crucial ground on which to base calls to political action. For a variety of related reasons, both the city of Shanghai and this mode of spatial organization so closely associated with it vanish from the big screen in the 1980s and 1990s, and begin to make a return only at the turn of the new century.

  14. A new alley in Opinion Mining using Senti Audio Visual Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Rawat,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available People share their views about products and services over social media, blogs, forums etc. If someone is willing to spend resources and money over these products and services will definitely learn about them from the past experiences of their peers. Opinion mining plays vital role in knowing increasing interests of a particular community, social and political events, making business strategies, marketing campaigns etc. This data is in unstructured form over internet but analyzed properly can be of great use. Sentiment analysis focuses on polarity detection of emotions like happy, sad or neutral. In this paper we proposed an algorithm i.e. Senti Audio Visual for examining Video as well as Audio sentiments. A review in the form of video/audio may contain several opinions/emotions, this algorithm will classify the reviews with the help of Baye’s Classifiers to three different classes i.e., positive, negative or neutral. The algorithm will use smiles, cries, gazes, pauses, pitch, and intensity as relevant Audio Visual features.

  15. Up a lymphoid blind alley: Does CALM/AF10 disturb Ikaros during leukemogenesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Greif, Philipp A; Bohlander, Stefan K.

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene is required for normal development of lymphocytes and frequent intragenic deletions of Ikaros have been identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, little is known about the role of Ikaros in myeloid malignancies. Here we discuss the role of Ikaros as a lineage master regulator during the onset and progression of myeloid leukemias, namely CALM-AF10 positive acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. Alterations of Ikaros at the gene or protein level may act ...

  16. Up a lymphoid blind alley:Does CALM/AF10 disturb Ikaros during leukemogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philipp; A; Greif; Stefan; K; Bohlander

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene is required for normal development of lymphocytes and frequent intragenic deletions of Ikaros have been identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.However,little is known about the role of Ikaros in myeloid malignancies.Here we discuss the role of Ikaros as a lineage master regulator during the onset and progression of myeloid leukemias,namely CALM-AF10 positive acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia.Alterations of Ikaros at the gene or protein level may act as a bi-directional lineage switch subverting developmental plasticity for malignant transformation.Finally,we propose that promiscuous signaling involving Ikaros and FOXO transcription factors might be a critical link between early lineage fate and uncontrolled proliferation.

  17. Burqas in Back Alleys: Street Art, hijab, and the Reterritorialization of Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Sweeney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining the symbolic and representational nature of the Islamic “veil” in its various forms, this project situates the political contestations of public space at stake in the French ban alongside street artist practices that mediate a counter-spectacle to the objectification of women within contemporary society.

  18. Burqas in Back Alleys: Street Art, hijab, and the Reterritorialization of Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the symbolic and representational nature of the Islamic “veil” in its various forms, this project situates the political contestations of public space at stake in the French ban alongside street artist practices that mediate a counter-spectacle to the objectification of women within contemporary society.

  19. Film at Fall Meeting: Do-it-yourself flicks, Richard Alley preview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Have you ever wished science had Hollywood star power? On Tuesday evening, 6 December, watch short science films and hear Hollywood filmmakers give advice to AGU scientists about these short films. Oceanographer-turned-filmmaker Randy Olson will host AGU's "The S Factor" video workshop along with screenwriter Sean Hood, cowriter of Halloween: Resurrection and the 2011 remake ofConan the Barbarian, and Jason Ensler, co-producer-director of TNT's Franklin & Bash. Olson is writer-director of the documentaries Flock of Dodos and Sizzle: A Global Warming Comedy and author of Don't Be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in an Age of Style. The workshop starts at 7:00 P.M. in Moscone South, Room 300.

  20. Relationship-centred care: antidote, guidepost or blind alley? The epistemology of 21st century health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C; Alves Silva, Suzana; Post, Stephen G; Quinlan, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary health care is increasing in complexity and lacks a unifying understanding of epistemology, methodology and goals. Lack of conceptual consistency in concepts such as 'patient-centred care' (PCC) typifies system-wide discordance. We contrast the fragmented descriptions of PCC and related tools to its own origins in the writings of Balint and to a subsequent construct, relationship-centred care (RCC). We identify the explicit and elaborated connection between RCC and a defined epistemological foundation as a distinguishing feature of the construct and we demonstrate that this makes possible the recognition of alignments between RCC and independently developed constructs. Among these, we emphasize Schon's reflective practice, Nonaka's theory of organizational knowledge creation and the research methodology of realist synthesis. We highlight the relational principles common to these domains and to their common epistemologies and illustrate unsatisfying consequences of adherence to less adequate epistemological frameworks such as positivism. We offer RCC not as an 'antidote' to the dilemmas identified at the outset but as an example that illuminates the value and importance of explicit identification of the premises and assumptions underlying approaches to improvement of the health care system. We stress the potential value of identifying epistemological affinities across otherwise disparate fields and disciplines.

  1. Shareholder Committees in the United States and Switzerland: Blind Alley or Vital Branch in the Evolution of Corporate Governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Häusermann, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Three Swiss corporate governance scholars have suggested recently that public corporations establish shareholder committees, which would have certain oversight functions and act as a communication link between shareholders and management. To assess the merits of this proposal, I review the history of shareholder committees in the United States, outline the spectrum of possibilities in designing shareholder committees, and evaluate their benefits and costs. Shareholder committees are not g...

  2. A European and Swedish perspective on ICT – policies and strategies in education. National and institutional pathways: crossings, blind alleys and uphill slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hansson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at answering the following questions: 1. What general goals do politicians in Europe express in national policy documents for the integration of information and communication technology (ICT in their education systems? To develop that theme further we explored the situation in our own country Sweden as a case. 2. What policies and strategies for ICT in education do leaders of Swedish higher education institutions develop? 3. How do Swedish national priorities and academic institutional interests match? The globalisation of education forces different value systems to meet. There is on the national level highly different political values on what kind of education system to prefer – the Scandinavian model and the American model are two extremes. There are also very different values inherent in higher education institutions, the academia, - compared with the values and visions held by the political leaders. These value differences between and within countries are elaborated and discussed. A Swedish, Scandinavian and European perspective is adopted, but a wider international outlook is also given. It is suggested that the value conflicts, often not explicit, understood or recognised, are one of the major inhibitors for systemic change. The direction of change cannot be taken for granted – the driving forces pull in opposing directions. Different visions of the future struggle to be fulfilled.

  3. 弄堂女儿的花样年华——记大型多媒体音乐剧《周璇》%The flowery life of Zhou Xuan, an actress born in the alley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CooKie

    2005-01-01

    “花样的年华、日样的清晨、冰雪样的聪明……”,随着主题曲《花样年华》的悠扬旋律,身着一袭白色及地旗袍的伊能静花团锦簇地亮相,故事就在周璇打开箱子的刹那开始倒叙……

  4. Nutrient input on rocket growth and soil microbial activity in alley cropping of pigeon pea Aporte de nutrientes em rúcula e atividade microbiana do solo em cultivo com aléias de guandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of organic fertilization combining cattle manure and pigeon pea shoots on the culture of rocket, planted with one or two plants per hole, including soil microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, the metabolic quotient, soil fumigation labile carbon, and the dry matter content and total N, K, P, Ca and Mg contents in the leaves and roots of rocket were investigated. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment: 0 and 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure, 0 and 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots, and one or two plants per hole, with three replicates. The most significant and positive correlations were obtained between leaf K × soil respiration, microbial biomass × leaf N and root Ca × metabolic quotient. The use of 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure along with 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots with two plants per hole resulted in a lower relative loss of C-CO2; the same result was found for the treatment of two plants per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure. Increased leaf and root N contents were observed in the treatment that combined two plants in each plot, fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots, whereas the highest dry matter content was obtained by using one plant per hole, specifically: combining one plant per hole without fertilization; one plant per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots; and one plant per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure and pigeon pea shoots.Investigou-se o efeito da adubação orgânica combinando esterco bovino, ramas de guandu e densidade populacional por cova na cultura da rúcula sobre carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo, respiração do solo, quociente metabólico, carbono lábil de solo fumigado, teor de matéria seca e conteúdo de N-total, K, P, Ca e Mg foliar e radicular de rúcula. O delineamento experimental adotado foi blocos ao acaso em ensaio fatorial 2 x 2 x 2 e três repetições: 0 e 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino, 0 e 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu e uma e duas plantas por cova. As correlações mais significativas e positivas foram obtidas entre K foliar x respiração do solo, N foliar x biomassa microbiana e Ca radicular x quociente metabólico. A utilização de 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino em conjunto com 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu com duas plantas por cova refletiu em menor perda relativa de C-CO2, o mesmo ocorrendo com o tratamento de duas plantas por cova adubada apenas com 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino. Maior conteúdo de N foliar e radicular foi observado no tratamento combinando duas plantas por cova adubada com 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu, enquanto maior teor de matéria seca foi obtido usando uma planta por cova, principalmente, nas combinações sem adubação; com 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu e com 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino e ramas de guandu.

  5. Vyhodnocení uličních stromořadí v městském parteru na příkladu stromořadí města Rakovník

    OpenAIRE

    Pochmanová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis „ The evaluation of the street ´s alley in urban enviroment ( for example of town Rakovník)“ deals with general characteristic different types of the street´s alley, appropriate types of the alley and overall treatment of the street´s alley. The survey data are reflected in the evaluation of seven different street´s alley in the town Rakovník. In goal the thesis is overall characteristics of trees by using a variety of documents and sorting by chatecter building and habitat co...

  6. Systémy a metody správy a péče o uliční stromořadí - modelový objekt Brno

    OpenAIRE

    Opálková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Theme of the Diploma Thesis " Systems and methods for street alley tending -- model object Brno" is focused on the given issue of terminology and related literature summarization. There are factors included which limits alley appearance in an urban environment, negative and positive woody plant effect in a city, but also requirements for planting and following care. Part of the methodology is a tree inventory and methods proposal, how to evaluate the prosperity of street alleys. The methodolo...

  7. 75 FR 81715 - Additional Designation of Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... COMPANY LIMITED, c/o Soroush Sarzamin Asatir (SSA) Ship Management Co, Shabnam Alley, Golriz St, Vafa... SHIPPING COMPANY LIMITED, c/o Soroush Sarzamin Asatir (SSA) Ship Management Co, Shabnam Alley, Golriz St...) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 13382 (70 FR 38567, July 1, 2005) (the ``Order''), effective at 12:01...

  8. 历史街区活化的景观策略--以德国慕尼黑“五个院子”和成都宽窄巷子为例%Landscape strategies for historical district revitalization -case studies of five courtyards in Munich and Kuanzhai Alley ni Chendu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧蕾; 谷明; 陈坚

    2014-01-01

    The historical districts are declining with the urbanization progress, because of the outdated infrastructure, the surrounding city function changes, and the spatial conflicts between exiting environment and the need of contemporary life. Hence, the historical district revitalization are among key issues in urban renewal. In this article, through the studies for two cases of historical district revitalization, it comes into conclusions that space reconstruction, continuity of spatial texture and scale, juxtaposition of old and new, abstraction of historical elements, and reproduce historical scene are the major landscape strategies for public space renewal.%在城市的蓬勃发展中,承载着城市文化记忆的历史街区往往因基础设施陈旧、周边城市功能变迁、空间与现代生活需求匹配度低等原因而逐渐衰退。因此历史街区的活化成为旧城更新的重要课题。本文通过对德国慕尼黑“五个院子”和成都宽窄巷子两个成功案例研究,深入分析其公共空间更新的设计策略,总结出空间重构、肌理及空间尺度延续、新旧并置、历史符号提炼与历史场景再现等景观策略。

  9. Vyhodnocení uličních stromořadí v městském parteru na příkladu stromořadí města Dobříš

    OpenAIRE

    Wildová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Summary This bachelor thesis "Evaluation of street trees in urban tree pit on the example of Dobříš town" discussed and analyzed the alley in this one. Main aim is to evaluate five selected alleys in various localities of Dobříš and determine the suitability of those plantings. In the introduction to the theoretical part is described history of alley in our cities as well as the history of Dobříš town. Below are given the main functions of trees in cities. There are included types an...

  10. Antiques in the Alley: Guan Fu Classical Art Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJing

    2003-01-01

    Nestled in an alley off South Chaoyangmen Nei Street in Beijing is Guan Fu Classical Art Museum, China's first privately owned and operated antique museum run by one of the country's most ardent collectors,

  11. Antiques in the Alley:Guan fu Classical Art Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangjing

    2003-01-01

    Nestled in an alley off South chaoyang men nei street in beijing is guan fu classical art museum,china's first privately owned and operated antique museum run by one of the country's most ardent collectors.

  12. 77 FR 68820 - Designation of Four (4) Individuals and Five (5) Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13628 of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... THE STUDY OF ORGANIZED CRIME; a.k.a. CYBER CRIME OFFICE), Tehran, Iran; Web site http://www.gerdab .ir.... PEYKASA (a.k.a. PEYKASA MESSAGE-WARE CO.), No. 10, 4 Alley, Sadeghi Street, West Corner of...

  13. 36 CFR 230.40 - Eligible practices for cost-share assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Agroforestry Implementation—Establishment, maintenance, and renovation of windbreaks, riparian forest buffers, silvopasture, alley cropping, or other agroforestry practices, including purposes for energy conservation and... forest wetlands and watersheds. (6) Fish and Wildlife Habitat Improvement—Establishment, maintenance,...

  14. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENT Outside Employment § 73a.735-401 General provisions. (a... the purpose of the establishment, e.g., hotels, theaters, bowling alleys, and sports arenas. (2)...

  15. A Warm and Cleaner Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Beijing municipal and district governments have taken measures to keep residents warm and the winter sky blue In a bungalow in Xisi North Fifth Alley in the Xicheng District of Beijing,Li has lived for nearly seven decades.

  16. Sixty Years of Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Gengyin

    2014-01-01

    <正>On December 2,1977,the CPAFFC held a grand reception in the Great Hall of the People to celebrate the 80th birthday of Rewi Alley,an old friend from New Zealand.Comrade Deng Xiaoping attended the reception and declared:"Tens of thousands of foreign friends have devoted themselves to the cause of Chinese revolution.Even so,rare are those like Comrade Rewi Alley,who for 50 years on end has done tremendous work for the Chinese people,in our years of difficulty and

  17. Red lantern Streets- Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2005-01-01

    WHEN speaking of ""red lantern streets,""what's the first thing that comes to mind?Sordid alleys, haunted by ladies of the night? While ""red lantern districts"" both in the East and the West have something in common, pleasures here in China are purely gastronomical in nature.

  18. Mobile Handsets from the Bottom Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallis, Cara; Linchuan Qiu, Jack; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The setting could be a hole-in-the-wall that serves as a shop in a narrow alley in Guangzhou, a cart on a dusty street on the outskirts of Accra, a bustling marketplace in Mexico City, or a tiny storefront near downtown Los Angeles’ garment district. At such locales, men and women hawk an array...

  19. 7 CFR 1410.9 - Conversion to trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to trees. 1410.9 Section 1410.9... Conversion to trees. An owner or operator who has entered into a CRP contract prior to November 28, 1990, may... permanent vegetative cover, from such cover to hardwood trees, (including alley cropping and...

  20. Masters of time how wormholes, snakewood and assaults on the big bang have brought mystery back to the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Boslough, John

    1992-01-01

    A cosmic mystery story of blind alleys where The Answer lurks perpetually just around the corner... Masters of Time tells of the eroic quest for new, ever stranger theoretical worlds, the elusive explanation of the cat's cradle of crisscrossing forces that seem to rule the universe.

  1. The effects of curvature on the grid illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael W; McAnany, J Jason

    2008-01-01

    Grid illusions, including the Hermann grid and scintillating grid (in which light disks are superimposed upon the grid intersections), are diminished by curving the alleys that limn the repeating pattern. Curvature might either disrupt the processes that induce the illusion, or simply make the illusory effects harder to see. To determine which mechanism might be invoked, we examined the effects of curving the alleys upon the vanishing-disk illusion, a phenomenon in which a single disk in a grid intersection is rendered less detectable. This illusion is of reduced visibility, rather than generating an illusory apparition as in the Hermann grid or scintillating grid. Thus, inhibition of illusory influence would enhance disk visibility, while a general reduction of visibility would render disks even harder to detect. We find that thresholds for both scintillation and the disk itself increase in a graded manner with increased curvature. Measuring the effect of curvature upon the vanishing disk with traditional forced-choice staircase methods demonstrates that the effect of curvature is upon detection, not subjective criterion. Furthermore, disks that are easy to detect within a rectilinear grid are more difficult to detect when the alleys are curved. Thus, curvature of the alleys induces a general tendency to inhibit the visibility of features, and is not specifically a repression of illusory effects.

  2. Our Hidden Prejudices, on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    In October 2006, a New Hampshire police officer named Michael Briggs was shot to death in an alley. His accused killer, Michael Addison, has been charged with capital murder. It is the state's first death-penalty case in more than 30 years, and it is racially fraught: Addison is African-American, and Briggs was white. New Hampshire has a long list…

  3. Fuck Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei

    2013-01-01

    continent. proposes that the thinking of the Academy be freed to be thought elsewhere, in the alleys and doorways of the village and cities, encountered not in the strictly defined spaces of the classroom and blackboard (now white) but anticipated and found where thinking occurs.

  4. Fuck Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available continent. proposes that the thinking of the Academy be freed to be thought elsewhere, in the alleys and doorways of the village and cities, encountered not in the strictly defined spaces of the classroom and blackboard (now white but anticipated and found where thinking occurs.

  5. Writing the Longtang Way of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheen, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Looked down upon from the highest point in the city, Shanghai’s longtang – her vast neighborhoods inside enclosed alleys – are a magnifi cent sight.’ Thus opens the award-winning novel Song of Everlasting Sorrow by the infl uential writer Wang Anyi. In this novel, Shanghai’s alleyway houses are bro

  6. Okla. Tornado Renews Debate on Storm Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the winds that left seven students in Moore, Okla., dead last month had calmed, and more storms blew through the same area less than two weeks later, questions about the safety of schools in a region labeled Tornado Alley rose amid the rubble. While better design of new schools and thorough emergency training and practice may be in…

  7. Building Public Confidence in Urban Schools: It Begins inside the District. A Guide for Administrators and Board Members. A Public Relations Executives Network Project of the Council of the Great City Schools, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Effective organizational communication begins with employees, who should be communications ambassadors for a district. From administrators to teachers to school bus drivers to custodians, employees set the tone for a district. The informal conversations they have at church, the bowling alley, the barbershop and other venues can make or break the…

  8. Research Reports and Teaching Materials Prepared by the Participants of the Department of Education-Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar (Cairo, Egypt, June-July, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Univ., Cairo (Egypt).

    The 20 items included in this document were prepared by teachers from the United States who traveled to Egypt in 1990 to participate in a seminar. The items are as follows: "Egypt and the Demographic Transition" (J. Bannister); "The Educational System: The Situation and the Challenge" (R. Bush); "Teaching Naguib Mahfouz''Midag Alley'" (J. Eret);…

  9. Survey of interculture practices and research in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Details are given of species composition, spatial arrangement and justification for growing the crops as mixtures (soil conservation, generation of fuels and fodder, incentives for replanting, export diversification, microclimate modification and reduction of pest incidence). The systems include intercropping in tea, rubber and coconut plantations, spice gardens and alley cropping between leguminous tree crops. 19 references.

  10. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Influence of Selected Multi-purpose Tree Species on Maize (Zea mays) under a Simulated Field Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Adeorike, V.; Ogburia, MN; Anegbeh, P.

    2001-01-01

    Germination and growth response of maize (Zea mays) that was periodically watered with 200 ml of leaf leachates of three selected multipurpose tree species (MPTs) - Inga edulis, Anthonatha macrophylla and Dactyladenia barterii were evaluated under a simulated field condition to determine their allolepathic characteristics and suitability for alley cropping. There was a significant (P

  11. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  12. Cocaine Self-Administration Alters the Relative Effectiveness of Multiple Memory Systems during Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Amanda; Setlow, Barry; Packard, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were trained to run a straight-alley maze for an oral cocaine or sucrose vehicle solution reward, followed by either response or latent extinction training procedures that engage neuroanatomically dissociable "habit" and "cognitive" memory systems, respectively. In the response extinction condition, rats performed a runway approach response…

  13. D-Cycloserine Enhances Memory Consolidation of Hippocampus-Dependent Latent Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained to run in a straight-alley maze for food reward and subsequently received hippocampus-dependent latent extinction training. Immediately following latent extinction, rats received peripheral injections of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS, 15 mg/kg), or saline. Twenty-four hours later, rats…

  14. Contour hedgerows and grass strips in erosion and runoff control in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinama, J.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Ong, C.K.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.; Gichuki, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    Most early alley cropping studies in semi-arid Kenya were on fairly flat land while there is an increase in cultivated sloping land. The effectiveness of aging contour hedgerows and grass strips for erosion control on an about 15% slope of an Alfisol was compared. The five treatments were Senna siam

  15. Trophic garnishes: cat-rat interactions in an urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community interactions can produce complex dynamics with counterintuitive responses. Synanthropic community members are of increasing practical interest for their effects on biodiversity and public health. Most studies incorporating introduced species have been performed on islands where they may pose a risk to the native fauna. Few have examined their interactions in urban environments where they represent the majority of species. We characterized house cat (Felis catus predation on wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, and its population effects in an urban area as a model system. Three aspects of predation likely to influence population dynamics were examined; the stratum of the prey population killed by predators, the intensity of the predation, and the size of the predator population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Predation pressure was estimated from the sizes of the rat and cat populations, and the characteristics of rats killed in 20 alleys. Short and long term responses of rat population to perturbations were examined by removal trapping. Perturbations removed an average of 56% of the rats/alley but had no negative long-term impact on the size of the rat population (49.6+/-12.5 rats/alley and 123.8+/-42.2 rats/alley over two years. The sizes of the cat population during two years (3.5 animals/alley and 2.7 animals/alley also were unaffected by rat population perturbations. Predation by cats occurred in 9/20 alleys. Predated rats were predominantly juveniles and significantly smaller (144.6 g+/-17.8 g than the trapped rats (385.0 g+/-135.6 g. Cats rarely preyed on the larger, older portion of the rat population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rat population appears resilient to perturbation from even substantial population reduction using targeted removal. In this area there is a relatively low population density of cats and they only occasionally prey on the rat population. This occasional predation primarily removes the

  16. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogstad ÅM

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

  17. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  18. Design of an allosterically regulated retroaldolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth A; Mack, Korrie L; Yoon, Jennifer H; Moroz, Olesia V; Moroz, Yurii S; Korendovych, Ivan V

    2015-01-01

    We employed a minimalist approach for design of an allosterically controlled retroaldolase. Introduction of a single lysine residue into the nonenzymatic protein calmodulin led to a 15,000-fold increase in the second order rate constant for retroaldol reaction with methodol as a substrate. The resulting catalyst AlleyCatR is active enough for subsequent directed evolution in crude cell bacterial lysates. AlleyCatR's activity is allosterically regulated by Ca2+ ions. No catalysis is observed in the absence of the metal ion. The increase in catalytic activity originates from the hydrophobic interaction of the substrate (∼2000-fold) and the change in the apparent pKa of the active lysine residue. PMID:25516403

  19. Mescaline action on "memory decay" and "problem solving" behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinengo, L; Cassone, M C; Baroli, A; Orsetti, M

    1986-01-01

    The modifications of behavior caused in the rat by a chronic oral administration of mescaline have been studied in three experimental situations. In the staircase maze mescaline accelerated the spontaneous decay on the conditioned reflex (memory decay) during the period without daily training. Only the results observed at 30 mg/kg/day of mescaline were statistically significant. In a T maze two lateral alleys closed by two swinging doors, 30 mg/kg/day of mescaline increased the time spent in opening the first door. When the two doors of the lateral alleys were closed with a latch, mescaline 30 mg/kg/day, caused an increase in the time spent by the rat in opening the doors. Mescaline caused an increase in food consumption. The increase at 30 mg/kg/day is statistically significant.

  20. Development of a telemetry and yield-mapping system of olive harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A; Agüera, Juan

    2015-02-10

    Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver's work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields.

  1. BOOK REPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    HAVE you ever wondered what Beijing might have looked like before it was covered with skyscrap- ers, overpasses, gigantic concrete structures and eight-lane avenues full of congested traffic? How life was in the old hutong when these narrow alleys were the city's predominant form of architecture, and not yet tourist attractions for hipster expatriates in search of that gritty lower-class vibe? And what did all those beautiful city gates.

  2. Bus Stop - Environment Connection: Do Characteristics of the Built Environment Correlate with Bus Stop Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Robin S Liggett; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Can we understand why some bus stops are safe and others are crime-ridden? Can we predict which features of the bus stop environment are likely to encourage or discourage crime? Can we design safer bus stops? These questions are addressed by exploring the relationship between environmental variables and bus stop crime. An earlier study used crime data, along with environmental indicators, for a sample of 60 bus stops in downtown Los Angeles. Crime rates were higher for bus stops near alleys, ...

  3. Speech by New Zealand-China Friendship Society National President Margaret Cooper (Excerpts)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Rewi Alley was a great man——a New Zealander who made a difference to many thousands of Chinese people.We are here today to reflect,remember and honour this man,acknowledge the work that he did in China during the sixty years that he lived with the people he loved,and celebrate the links that he established between our two countries.

  4. The Making of Green Engineers Sustainable Development and the Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    This book discusses the ways in which engineering educators are responding to the challenges that confront their profession. On the one hand, there is an overarching sustainability challenge: the need for engineers to relate to the problems brought to light in the debates about environmental prot...... of Green Engineering / Educating Green Engineers / Fostering Hybridity / A Case Study: The Alley Flat Initiative in Austin, Texas / Conclusions...

  5. Piano,A Paradox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    1999-01-01

    Dear Henry, Today I had my last piano class of this term. Can you believe it ? I was a 100percent piano illiterate a few months ago. But now I can play Scarborough Fairwithout much difficulty. It is so exciting to rediscover myself as a piano player.Did you remember that once when we walked through an alley in Shanghai and weheard somebody playing MOONLIGHT inside one of the windows? We stood here

  6. Variations on the Hermann grid: an extinction illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, J; Stevens, K A

    2000-01-01

    When the white disks in a scintillating grid are reduced in size, and outlined in black, they tend to disappear. One sees only a few of them at a time, in clusters which move erratically on the page. Where they are not seen, the grey alleys seem to be continuous, generating grey crossings that are not actually present. Some black sparkling can be seen at those crossings where no disk is seen. The illusion also works in reverse contrast.

  7. TANAMAN LEGUM POHON Desmodium rensonii SEBAGAI TANAMAN PAKAN TERNAK BERMUTU

    OpenAIRE

    Dadang Suherman; Iwan Herdiawan

    2015-01-01

    Tanaman Desmodium rensoniiatau Desmodium cinereum (Kunt) DC merupakan tanaman asli dari bagian barat Meksiko dan Amerika Tengah. Tanaman ini termasuk kedalam family Fabaceae (Alt. Leguminosae), berbentuk pohon/semak setinggi 1-3 m. Tanaman ini lebih dikenal sebagai hijauan pakan pada dataran rendah Indo-Cina, Malaysia, Filipina, Indonesia, Amerika Tengah dan Selatan. Tanaman D. rensonii paling sering digunakan sebagai pakan ternak dalam sistem lorong (Alley cropping) dan tanaman pagar. Budida...

  8. Responding changes systematically within sessions during conditioning procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, F K; Roll, J M

    1993-01-01

    When the procedure is held constant within an experimental session, responding often changes systematically within that session. Many of these within-session changes in responding cannot be dismissed as learning curves or by-products of satiation. They have been observed in studies of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, extinction, discrimination, delayed matching to sample, concept formation, maze and alley running, and laboratory analogues of foraging, as well as in the unconditi...

  9. Rapping, Blogging, and Plain Language: The Stars of Science Communication Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary Catherine

    2014-02-01

    "What you heard in the poetry, what you heard in the stories and the songs here tonight—there are people in the world who will get that a lot better than our posters," said Richard Alley to a packed crowd of Earth and space scientists at the Fall Meeting's second annual Open Mic Night. "Not only are they going to be happier because of it, but so are we."

  10. Facial beauty and fractal geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    1998-01-01

    What is it that makes a face beautiful? Average faces obtained by photographic (Galton 1878) or digital (Langlois & Roggman 1990) blending are judged attractive but not optimally attractive (Alley & Cunningham 1991) --- digital exaggerations of deviations from average face blends can lead to higher attractiveness ratings (Perrett, May, & Yoshikawa 1994). My novel approach to face design does not involve blending at all. Instead, the image of a female face with high ratings is composed from a ...

  11. Development of a Telemetry and Yield-Mapping System of Olive Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD and super-high-density (SHD olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver’s work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields.

  12. Development of a telemetry and yield-mapping system of olive harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver's work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields. PMID:25675283

  13. Constructing innovativeness in new-media start-up firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf Heydebrand; Annalisa Mirón

    2002-01-01

    We focus on the social construction of innovativeness in the context of project teams and interfirm networks among new-media start-up firms in Silicon Alley, Manhattan. The analysis is based on a total of thirty-four interviews with firm executives and other informants. A brief discussion of the historical and structural context of the research project is followed by an exposition of the theoretical framework, that is, the theory of industrial districts and the hypothesized connection between...

  14. Vegetable agroforestry - technology: Annual report

    OpenAIRE

    Palada, Manuel C.

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan, field evaluation of vegetable species and varieties under Agroforestry system continued at AVRDC Organic Farm. Six vegetables (cauliflower, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, sweet corn and yard long bean) were grown during the fall-winter season (October to December 2007) and winter-spring (January to March 2008) season. Vegetables were grown between tree hedgerows (alleys) and in control plots (no trees). Organic fertilizers (compost) were superimposed as sub-treatments. Varieties with...

  15. Anxiolytic-like actions of buspirone in a runway model of intravenous cocaine self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Ettenberg, Aaron; Bernardi, Rick E.

    2006-01-01

    In previous work from our laboratory, rats traversing a straight alley for a reward of IV cocaine have been observed to develop ambivalence about entering the goal box. Over trials, animals repeatedly run toward the goal box, stop at the entry point, and then retreat back toward the start box. This unique pattern of retreat behavior has been shown to reflect a form of “approach-avoidance conflict” that stems from the subjects' concurrent positive (cocaine reward) and negative (cocaine-induced...

  16. Microbial Biomass Changes during Decomposition of Plant Residues in a Lixisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachaka, SK.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A lixisol was amended with four different alley cropping species: Senna siamea, Leucaena leucocephala, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla. Soil samples were incubated for 140 days at 25 °C and the soil microbial biomass was determined by the ninhydrin extraction method along the incubation period. The soil microbial biomass values ranged between 80 and 600 mg.kg-1 and followed, in all cases, the decreasing order: Leucaena> Senna> Flemingia> Dactyladenia.

  17. Official Zhang Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tucked away at the highest elevation of any city in the world, Lhasa is filled with flowers bathed in warm sunlight. Whether in Barkor Street or in snaking alleys, one finds flowers in full bloom. They include the famous Gal-sang flower, azaleas, to be found in the mountains, Rho-diola which is used as a medicinal herb, and a kind of flower known as High Commissioner Zhang.

  18. DETECTING THE GAZING ATTENTION POINTS OF YOUNG AND ELDERLY CYCLISTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the perceived attention represented by "gazing" points of cyclists to expose a latent accidental factor hidden in cyclist behaviour. Eleven elderly people and 23 young people equipped with an eye camera participated in the study. From the camera images, the objects viewed by the cyclists were analyzed. A main road and a community road were used in the experiment. The objects viewed by the cyclists were categorized into nine items that would be indirectly related to the cause of bicycle traffic accidents: gates and porches, parking lots, signals, alleys, other bicycles on the road, pedestrians, signs and painted symbols on the road, schoolyards and houses, and other items. The results of the study indicated that many elderly cyclists always confirmed their safety at alley intersections along both main and community roads, whereas many young people were not so dutiful. The results for unsafe gazing behavior such as looking at a schoolyard or house while cycling were the same for the two groups in that most individuals did not look away from the road while cycling along the main and community roads. Dissimilar results, especially those for alley intersections, resulted from young people not paying due attention to objects, suggesting that such gazing behaviour could be strongly related to traffic accidents involving a bicycle. PMID:26182670

  19. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON NITROGEN MANAGEMENT IN SPECIALITY CORN UNDER PONGAMIA + MAIZE AGRI-SILVI SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prathyusha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping of agricultural crops with woody species is an age-old practice in traditional farming systems in the tropics. Food production is the major aim of subsistence farmers with most of their farmland being allocated to food crops rather than to trees and shrubs. Due to increasing population and scarcity of productive lands that cannot sustain intensive exploitation, one method that has been proposed to enhance the sustainability of agricultural production is the growing of trees in association with crops. Alley cropping is an agroforestry system in which food crops are grown in alleys formed by hedge rows of trees or shrubs and these hedge rows are kept pruned during the rainy season. The hedge rows are usually cut to a height of about 2 m when crops are sown and kept pruned to reduce competition with crops. Work done on alley cropping in Pongamia pinnata was less in India and other countries. Hence literature pertaining to tree crop competition studies in agri-silvi system was presented in this chapter. Moreover, it was unable to get sizeable literature related to speciality corn. In view of the paucity of adequate literature related to speciality corn, few citations with respect to grain corn were also presented in brief to know the general scientific idea.

  20. Soil Erosion of Various Farming Systems in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBIN; ZHANGTAOLIN; 等

    1996-01-01

    In order to optimise land use systems,to prevent erosion-induced degradation and to restore the degraded red soils in subtropical China,five cropping systems and four agrforestry systems were conducted in red soils with a slope of 7° from 1993 to 1995,The results showed that erosion risk period occurred from Aproil to June,and the annual runoff and and the losses of soil and nutrients with sediment were alarming for two conventional farming systems,whereas they were negligible for the farming systems with ridge tillage.Enrichment ratios of the lost soils from erosion erer more than 1.20 for all nutrients with much higher values for hydrolysable N and organic matter.Compared with the control,the alley cropping systems also distinctly decreased runoff by 30% or 50%.However,the coverage of soil surface varied with alley cropping systems for the competition of nutrients and soil water,which made a profound difference in runoff.The cropping systems of sweet potato intercropped with soybean,the alley cropping systems and the measures of mulching and ridge tillage were the alternatives for red soil reclamation so as to prevent erosion-induced degradation.

  1. Spatial variability of microbial biomass and organic matter labile pools in a haplic planosol soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Campana Loureiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the spatial variability of soil microbial biomass (SMB and labile soil organic matter pools (labile SOM, under different management systems and plant cover. The experiment was conducted in a Haplic Planosol soil on an Integrated Agroecological Production System (SIPA, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The evaluated management systems were: alley cropping, pasture, and bush garden, the late one was used as reference area. Three grids of regular spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 meters were used for sampling, consisting of 25 georeferenced points each, where soil samples were taken at 0-10 cm depth. The following labile constituents of soil organic matter were determined: free light fraction (FLF, water soluble C and N, C and N of SMB (SMB-C and SMB-N, and glomalin content. The textural fractions (sand, silt, and clay, pH in water, and chemical attributes (organic C, total N, Ca, Mg, Al, P, K, and CEC-cation exchange capacity were also determined. The areas of alley cropping and pasture showed spatial dependence to the attributes of SOM. The occurrence of high spatial dependence for the attributes associated to microbial biomass in the alley cropping system (C, FLF, SMB-N and respiration, probably was due to external factors related to management, such as: intensive rotational cropping system, diversity of crops and different inputs of organic matter to soil such as pruning material and organic compost.

  2. Effects of two trimming methods of dairy cattle on concrete or rubber-covered slatted floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweltjes, W; Holzhauer, M; van der Tol, P P J; van der Werf, J

    2009-03-01

    This study monitored claw health, claw conformation, locomotion, activity, and step traits of cows from a single dairy herd that were trimmed according to the standard Dutch method or with an alternative "concave" trimming method. Half of the cows were kept in a stall section with concrete slatted floors in the alleys. The other cows were kept in a pen within the same housing with an identical concrete slatted floor in the alleys, but with a rubber top layer. All experimental cows were kept in the same environment for at least 3 mo before and after trimming. It was hypothesized that trimming for more-concave soles (i.e., with 3 to 5 mm of sole dug out under the claw bone) was preferred to the standard Dutch trimming with flat sole surfaces for cows kept in stalls with soft alley floors. None of the claw health or locomotion traits differed for the trimming methods. No interactions were found between flooring and trimming method. Floor effects were significant for several traits. Cows on the rubber-topped floors had significantly fewer sole hemorrhages (prevalence of 22 vs. 48% in mo 3) and larger claws (claw length 76.1 +/- 5.0 vs. 72.5 +/- 4.9 mm; heel height 49.3 +/- 6.3 vs. 46.0 +/- 6.4 mm; claw diagonal 129 +/- 6.4 vs. 125 +/- 6.9 mm), spent more time standing in the alleys (55.4 +/- 2.8 vs. 49.6 +/- 2.8%), and had higher activity (61.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 53.0 +/- 3.7 steps/h). This suggests greater claw comfort on rubber flooring compared with concrete flooring. Kinetic patterns during claw-floor contact while walking were similar for all treatments. During the double-support (stance) phase, claw-floor contact area increased to a maximum in the first 30% of double-support phase time, remained more or less stable until 80% of double-support phase time, and sharply decreased as the animal pushed off as shown by the change in center of pressure. A gradual change of center of pressure in the medial direction during double-support phase time was shown. The research

  3. Analisis Vegetasi Sebagai Dasar Pengembangan Agroforestri di DAS Mikro Desa Tukad Sumaga, Kecamatan Gerokgak, Kabupaten Buleleng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN GEDE WIRYANTARA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetations Analysis As A Basic ForAgroforestry Development In Micro Watershed TukadSumaga Village, Gerokgak District, Buleleng Regency.Forest changed to agricultural hasconsciousness can effected many problems such as soil degradations, erosion, flora and fauna extinctions,floods, dryness, and even global environmental change. Agroforestry is one of solutions to protect thebiodiversity. The research was held at Micro Watershed Tukad Sumaga Village, Gerokgak District,Buleleng Regency which consist of intercropping agroforestry system, alley cropping agroforestry system,and the trees for soil conservations agroforestry system. The purpose of this research is to discoverbiodiversity and composition of vegetations species in each agroforestry system and also to find out theagroforestry management level at Micro Watershed Tukad Sumaga Village. The research result showsthat the biggest Important Value Index (INP in intercropping agroforestry system is in trees level bymango at 59.46%, scrubs and sapling level by teak at 80.13%, seddling level by gosh bean at 49.57%.The biggest INP in Alley Cropping Agroforestry System is in trees level by cashew at 150.33%, scrubsand saplings level by lamtoro at 95.26%, seedling level by legetan at 84,93%. The biggest INP in TheTrees for Soil Conservations Agroforestry System is in trees level by tamarind at 165,35%, %, scrubsand saplings level by india apple at 114.09%, seedling level by legetan at 83.98%. The calculations ofspecies biodiversity which as species variety, prevalent index, and domination index can separated themanagement level in each agroforestry system. The best management is Intercropping AgroforestrySystem. The second is The Trees for Soil Conservations Agroforestry System. The last is Alley CroppingAgroforestry System. The development of Intercropping Agroforestry System is needed because thissystem is the best. Monitoring, evaluations, and technical learning about forest and agricultural

  4. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  5. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-01-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, part...

  6. Motherly Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Translated onto glass from copper plates As from Rembrandt or Brueghel or their heirs In whose busy depictions such an act Is incidental, some side-alley fact, Now placed here in the center by Millet -- This all too human scene, both rude and true: A mother wrinkling up her young son’s gown  Before he wets himself on backdoor steps Where his six-year-old sister, shrinking, stares At the wobbly colossus, wholly exposed. His soft hand grips his mother’s muscled wrist, Still nearer to the milked...

  7. Manglende sammenhaeng mellem praestationer i et virtuelt og i et virkeligt miljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Bitsch, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Simulation-based training provides obvious benefits for patients and doctors in education. Frequently, virtual reality simulators are expensive and evidence for their efficacy is poor, particularly as a result of studies with poor methodology and few test participants. In medical......-five test subjects played two rounds of bowling on a Nintendo Wii and 25 days later on a real bowling alley. Correlations of the scores in the first and second round (test-retest-reliability) and of the scores on the simulator and in reality (criterion validation) were studied and there was tested for any...

  8. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  9. Qianshi Hutong Once a Wall Street,Now a Narrow Haven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    QIANSHI Hutong is located near the Dashilan’er commercial street,just on the west side of Zhubaoshi Street.With its narrowest point preserved at 40 cm,it is the most constricted alley in Beijing’s city limits.It was,once upon a time,China’s Wall Street. "Qianshi" literally means "money market." The hutong’s history can be traced back to the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911), when it was Beijing’s official area for currency trading.Home to 26 governmentauthorized mints that produced coins for all the city’s banks,large business firms,

  10. Danish interdominational school in Schleswig. HVAC system for a grammar school of superlatives; Daenische Gemeinschaftsschule in Schleswig. HLK-Technik fuer ein Gymnasium der Superlative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, Christian [Siemens Building Technologies GmbH und Co. OHG, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Schools are investments in the future. In the Danish school with pupils of the classes 7 to 13 in Schleswig (a gift from the Danish AP Moeller Foundation) not only the future of learning takes place, but also the identity of the Danish minority in Schleswig-Holstein. Externally, the school building corresponds to the best Danish architectural tradition. The school hall and the spatial sectioning are based on the communication patterns of a city with market-places, bridges, alleys and stairways. More inconspicuous, but not less effective and intelligent, the building services are integrated in the open space landscape.

  11. Zhengy Temple Theatre:Beijing’s Oldest Peking Opera Theatre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In a small, deep alley right outside Hepingmen (the Peace Gate), no more than one mile south of the Tian’anmen Square, there stands a Peking opera theatre of great antiquity named Zhengyi Temple Theatre. Built over 300 years ago, it is the sole ancient wooden theatre architecture in the world. There are also six other extant theatres with a similar scale, but Zhenyi Temple Theatre is the oldest. It is generally recognized as a living fossil and milestone in the history of Chinese theatres and often cited as an important reference

  12. Wagging ETOM's Long Tail: MOOCs, Hangouts on Air, and Formal and Informal Undergraduate Experiences with Climate Change Science and Clean Energy Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.; McNeal, K.; Blockstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can reasonably be described as a "wicked problem" meaning that it is complex, difficult and multi-faceted, although critical to equitable development and the sustainability of human civilization. But while the Wikipedia definition says such problems are "impossible" to solve, not even to try will lead to certain failure. "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) was an NSF-funded informal science education project with 3 hour-long TV programs appearing on PBS in 2011 and 2012, along with live presentations by series host, Penn State's Richard Alley, and others at 5 major science centers. Uniquely among climate change programming, ETOM gave equal time to identifying solutions along with climate science, and made all its materials freely available via YouTube. Formal and informal science educators can register to download HD videos for classroom and outreach use, and signups have ranged from middle schools to 4-year colleges. Building on the success of the series and Alley's companion tradebook of the same name, Penn State working with Coursera invited Alley to develop a MOOC entitled "Energy, The Environment and Our Future" that similarly combined the essential science along with clean energy solutions. The course reached more than 30,000 students in the first semester of 2014. More recently the ETOM team has partnered with the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) to develop "READ for the EARTH," an NSF EAGER project, offering campuses the opportunity to adopt Alley's book, the ETOM videos (including "How To Talk To An Ostrich"), NCSE's www.CAMELclimatechange.org web site and other resources for both formal and informal uses. Some campuses have used the book with honors classes, and some are exploring adapting ETOM as a first year reading experience for all freshman. Our presentation will share reactions to the MOOC, to the pilot phases of "READ for the EARTH" and present both qualitative and quantitative results. Some of the most

  13. A restaurant is a restaurant is a restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tricia Carswell

    2004-01-01

    <正> Except when it’s in Chengdu! You can say all you want about the thousands of restaurants, ethnic foods and original Chinese takeaways that are scattered throughout the streets, alleys, courtyards and hutongs of Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong - you won’t convince me. The five star, sophisticated, fine dining establishments with their white linen tablecloths, the well-organised roast duck tourist banquets, the contemporary, minimalist coffee spots, and not even the discerning hotel eateries of imported, skilful chef’s cuisine will

  14. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  15. Africa’s Economic Growth: A Fallacy of Numbers?

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, Theophilus

    2013-01-01

    Only a decade ago, Africa’s socioeconomic growth potential was confined to the doldrums and back alley of underdevelopment. Today, the international media continues to be abuzz with common memes such as ‘Africa Rising’ and ‘The Final Investment Frontier’ amongst others. Many writers often cite poverty, disease, starvation, wars and tribal conflict fuelled by a vicious neo-colonial legacy as the cause of the continent’s woes. Much as these may be true, we have witnessed Africa rise like the pr...

  16. Influence of Soft or Hard Floors before and after First Calving on Dairy Heifer Locomotion, Claw and Leg Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, Christer; Telezhenko, Evgenij; Ventorp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Claw health, an important dairy cow welfare parameter, may be affected by early-life foot/leg stresses. To investigate this, groups of pregnant heifers were allocated to deep straw bedding (Soft) or cubicles (Hard), both with scraped concrete feeding alleys. After the grazing season, they were re-housed in cubicle systems, half on slatted concrete (Hard) and half on slatted rubber (Soft) alleys. Claw measurements, contact area and pressure distribution claw/flooring, claw disorders and leg lesions were recorded at the start and end of each housing season. Locomotion and leg lesions were also scored monthly after calving. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages was higher among pregnant heifers in cubicles than in deep straw. After calving, first-calvers on Hard floors had higher odds for lameness (OR = 3.6; P < 0.01), sole haemorrhages/ulcers (OR = 2.2; P < 0.05), white-line haemorrhages (OR = 2.8; P < 0.01) and leg lesions (OR = 2.6; P < 0.02) than those on Soft floors. Lowest prevalence and severity of sole and white-line haemorrhages (non-significant) in first-calvers was found in those on Soft floors and reared on Hard floors and the highest prevalence and severity on those on Hard floors reared on Soft floors. Soft flooring after calving is of most importance for healthy feet and legs. PMID:26479380

  17. Mediterranean climate variability during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.L. CASFORD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on four high sedimentation-rate marine cores with suppressed bioturbation effects, recovered along the northern margin of the eastern Mediterranean. We demonstrate that this region, central to the development of modern civilisation, was substantially affected throughout the Holocene by a distinct cycle of cooling events on the order of 2o C. In the best-preserved cases the onset of these events appears particularly abrupt, within less than a century. The cooling events typically lasted several centuries, and there are compelling indications that they were associated with increased aridity in the Levantine/NE African sector (Rossignol-Strick, 1995; 1998; Alley et al., 1997; Hassan, 1986; 1996; 1997a,b; McKim Malville et al., 1998. Several of these episodes appear coincident with cultural reorganisations, with indigenous developments (eg. cattle domestication, new technologies and population migrations and fusion of peoples and ideas (Hassan, 1986; 1996; 1997a,b; McKim Malville, 1998. We infer that climatic events of a likely high-latitude origin (O’Brien et al., 1995; Bond et al., 1997; Mayewski et al., 1997; Alley et al., 1997 caused cooling and aridity in and around the eastern Mediterranean via a direct atmospheric link, and therefore played an important role in the development of modern civilisation.

  18. P1-18: The Effect of Background Music on Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hao Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies do visual working memory research under sundry sound conditions (Alley & Greene, 2008 Current Psychology 27 277–289; Iwanaga & Ito, 2002 Perceptual Motor Skills 94 1251–1258; Pring & Walker, 1994 Current Psychology 13 165–171. In order to understand more about background music, we modified previous studies to examine how the performance of working memory is affected by four different music conditions. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to listen to two different pop songs to see if they have the similar effect on the performance of working memory. They were required to do six trials of digit span tasks under each music condition (silence, classical music, non-vocal music, vocal music. After being shown ten digits, each for 800 ms, participants were asked to recall and write down the digits in the correct order within 20 s. The results showed that there was no significant difference between two pop songs. Therefore, data were pooled for further analysis and indicated that there are significant differences and correlations in working memory among the four music conditions. The finding that the effect of non-vocal music affects working memory is greater in this study than in that of western films (Alley & Greene, 2008; Pring & Walker, 1994, which is consistent with the previous study in Japan (Iwanaga & Ito, 2002. The application of this study will be discussed in detail.

  19. Supply of wood-based bioenergy sources by means of agro-forestry systems; Bereitstellung von holzartigen Bioenergietraegern durch Agroforstsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christian; Quinkenstein, Ansgar; Freese, Dirk [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenschutz und Rekultivierung; Baerwolff, Manuela [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Because of the initiated energy revolution and the associated increasing demand for woody biomass in Germany, the production of woody crops on agricultural sites is increasingly gaining in importance. In this context, agroforestry systems provide a promising option to cultivate simultaneously fast growing tree species and annual crops on the same field and to produce woody biomass and conventional products at the same time. Agroforestry systems in which hedgerows of fast growing tree species are established on agricultural sites in a regular pattern are called as alley cropping systems (ACS). These can be managed as low input systems and thus provide several ecological benefits. The cultivation of trees results in an enhanced humus accumulation in the soil and affects the quality of surface as well as percolating waters in a positive way. Additionally, ACS alter the microclimatic conditions at the site, from which the conventional crops cultivated in the alleys between the tree stripes benefit. However, from an economic point of view the production of woody crops with ACS is not generally preferable to conventional agriculture. The positive effects of ACS are most pronounced on marginal sites and, consequently, ACS are currently economically unfavorable compared to conventional agriculture on fertile soils. However, on unfertile, dry sites, such as can be found at a large scale in the Lusatian post-mining landscapes, ACS can be an ecologically and economically promising land-use alternative.

  20. Influence of Soft or Hard Floors before and after First Calving on Dairy Heifer Locomotion, Claw and Leg Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Bergsten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Claw health, an important dairy cow welfare parameter, may be affected by early-life foot/leg stresses. To investigate this, groups of pregnant heifers were allocated to deep straw bedding (Soft or cubicles (Hard, both with scraped concrete feeding alleys. After the grazing season, they were re-housed in cubicle systems, half on slatted concrete (Hard and half on slatted rubber (Soft alleys. Claw measurements, contact area and pressure distribution claw/flooring, claw disorders and leg lesions were recorded at the start and end of each housing season. Locomotion and leg lesions were also scored monthly after calving. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages was higher among pregnant heifers in cubicles than in deep straw. After calving, first-calvers on Hard floors had higher odds for lameness (OR = 3.6; P < 0.01, sole haemorrhages/ulcers (OR = 2.2; P < 0.05, white-line haemorrhages (OR = 2.8; P < 0.01 and leg lesions (OR = 2.6; P < 0.02 than those on Soft floors. Lowest prevalence and severity of sole and white-line haemorrhages (non-significant in first-calvers was found in those on Soft floors and reared on Hard floors and the highest prevalence and severity on those on Hard floors reared on Soft floors. Soft flooring after calving is of most importance for healthy feet and legs.

  1. Influence of Soft or Hard Floors before and after First Calving on Dairy Heifer Locomotion, Claw and Leg Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, Christer; Telezhenko, Evgenij; Ventorp, Michael

    2015-08-06

    Claw health, an important dairy cow welfare parameter, may be affected by early-life foot/leg stresses. To investigate this, groups of pregnant heifers were allocated to deep straw bedding (Soft) or cubicles (Hard), both with scraped concrete feeding alleys. After the grazing season, they were re-housed in cubicle systems, half on slatted concrete (Hard) and half on slatted rubber (Soft) alleys. Claw measurements, contact area and pressure distribution claw/flooring, claw disorders and leg lesions were recorded at the start and end of each housing season. Locomotion and leg lesions were also scored monthly after calving. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages was higher among pregnant heifers in cubicles than in deep straw. After calving, first-calvers on Hard floors had higher odds for lameness (OR = 3.6; P floors. Lowest prevalence and severity of sole and white-line haemorrhages (non-significant) in first-calvers was found in those on Soft floors and reared on Hard floors and the highest prevalence and severity on those on Hard floors reared on Soft floors. Soft flooring after calving is of most importance for healthy feet and legs.

  2. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  3. Environmental and agricultural benefits of a management system designed for sandy loam soils of the humid tropics Benefícios ambientais e agronômicos de um agrossistema definido para solos de textura franco arenosa do trópico úmido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility on family farms in the humid tropics is a great challenge and overcoming it would be an enormous benefit for the environment and the farmers. The objective of this study was to assess the environmental and agronomic benefits of alley cropping, based on the evaluation of C sequestration, soil quality indicators, and corn yields. Combinations of four legumes were used in alley cropping systems in the following treatments: Clitoria fairchildiana + Cajanus cajan; Acacia mangium + Cajanus cajan; Leucaena leucocephala + Cajanus cajan; Clitoria fairchildiana + Leucaena leucocephala; Leucaena leucocephala + Acacia mangium and a control. Corn was used as a cash crop. The C content was determined in the different compartments of soil organic matter, CEC, available P, base saturation, percentage of water saturation, the period of the root hospitality factor below the critical level and corn yield. It was concluded that alley cropping could substitute the slash and burn system in the humid tropics. The main environmental benefit of alley cropping is the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium between C input and output that could sustain up to 10 Mg ha-1 of C in the litter layer, decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Alley cropping is also beneficial from the agricultural point of view, because it increases base saturation and decreases physical resistance to root penetration in the soil layer 0 - 10 cm, which ensures the increase and sustainability of corn yield.O manejo sustentável dos solos de baixa fertilidade natural na agricultura familiar do trópico tem sido um grande desafio, que, se vencido, resultará em vantagens para o ambiente e para os agricultores. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os benefícios ambiental e agronômico de um cultivo em aleias, por meio da determinação do C sequestrado, dos indicadores da qualidade do solo e da produtividade da cultura do milho

  4. Applying the Science of Science Communication to Climate Change and Clean Energy: Lessons Learned from the NSF- and PBS-supported "Earth: The Operators' Manual"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Sanford, C.

    2014-12-01

    Yale legal scholar and professor of psychology Dan Kahan has criticized the climate change science community for not applying what's known about effective communications strategies to topics with potentially controversial content. "Earth: The Operators' Manual," funded by NSF's Informal Science Education program and appearing on PBS was hosted by Penn State geoscientist Richard Alley. From the initial proposal forward into airing on public television in 2011 and 2012, ETOM aimed to be authoritative and apolitical while still being engaging to general audiences. Based on social scientific insights from project Advisor, Suzanne Moser, and others, ETOM aimed to avoid "climate porn" scare tactics and over-used footage, and to enlist a diverse group of "messengers" in addition to Alley. An important design criterion was to give equal time to clean energy solutions while pulling no punches as to the consensus findings of leading climate scientists. With the ETOM project now completed and final reports submitted to NSF, what results can be shared to inform future efforts? And how did ETOM compare in audience impact with other major media efforts such as Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth" or Showtime's more recent "Years of Living Dangerously"? Results reported draw on the external evaluation by Rockman Et Al, and include both quantitative and qualitative data. Key findings are the importance of including Texan ranchers enthusiastic about wind power alongside Navy Admirals adamant that climate change is human-caused and Marines implementing solar energy to reduce casualties incurred while transporting fossil fuels. In-person presentations by Alley and others at science centers served as de facto focus groups for scripting the TV programs, along with actual focus groups convened by Rockman. The 3rd program, ENERGY QUEST USA, documented 5 quite different communities, from Alaska to Forth Worth, Baltimore, Portland and Kansas, all using competition, local values, and economic

  5. SIGNAL : Water vapour flux variability and local wind field investigations within five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Optimising soil water uptake and ground water consumption in mono-specific agricultural systems plays an important role for sustainable land management. By including tree alleys into the agricultural landscape, called agroforestry (AF), the wind flow is modified leading to a presumably favourable microclimate behind the tree alleys. We expect that this zone is characterized by increased air temperature and atmospheric water vapour content, compared to mono-specific fields. This would extend the growing season and increase the yield production behind the tree alleys. Within the SIGNAL (Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture through Agroforestry) project the evapotranspiration (ET) variability and the local wind field of agroforestry sites compared to mono-specific agricultural systems is investigated. Our study is based on the comparison of five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany. All site feature one agroforestry plot and one reference plot, which represents a mono-specific cropped system. Each plot is equipped with an eddy-covariance tower, including a high frequency 3D SONIC anemometer and instruments gathering standard meteorological parameter as pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, ground heat flux, net- and global radiation. The Surface Energy Budget (SEB) method will be used to calculate evapotranspiration QE as QE = - QN - QH - QG - Res by measuring the sensible heat flux, QH, with the eddy covariance method, the radiation balance, QN and the ground heat flux, QG. QH and QN will be measured continuously long-term. We will quantify site specific energy balance non-closure, Res, by temporarily measuring QE, using eddy covariance and a roving tower and then solving the SEB equation for Res. The short term Res will be used to then continuously derive QE from the SEB method. We will compare measured evapotranspiration rates from the SEB method to modelled evapotranspiration of the agroforestry systems through upscaling

  6. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  7. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1). PMID:15710518

  8. New Tricks for Old Proteins: Single Mutations in a Nonenzymatic Protein Give Rise to Various Enzymatic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Yurii S; Dunston, Tiffany T; Makhlynets, Olga V; Moroz, Olesia V; Wu, Yibing; Yoon, Jennifer H; Olsen, Alissa B; McLaughlin, Jaclyn M; Mack, Korrie L; Gosavi, Pallavi M; van Nuland, Nico A J; Korendovych, Ivan V

    2015-12-01

    Design of a new catalytic function in proteins, apart from its inherent practical value, is important for fundamental understanding of enzymatic activity. Using a computationally inexpensive, minimalistic approach that focuses on introducing a single highly reactive residue into proteins to achieve catalysis we converted a 74-residue-long C-terminal domain of calmodulin into an efficient esterase. The catalytic efficiency of the resulting stereoselective, allosterically regulated catalyst, nicknamed AlleyCatE, is higher than that of any previously reported de novo designed esterases. The simplicity of our design protocol should complement and expand the capabilities of current state-of-art approaches to protein design. These results show that even a small nonenzymatic protein can efficiently attain catalytic activities in various reactions (Kemp elimination, ester hydrolysis, retroaldol reaction) as a result of a single mutation. In other words, proteins can be just one mutation away from becoming entry points for subsequent evolution.

  9. Dendroflora of the historical park in Rzepiszew (Łódź province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kałczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The historical, manor park in Rzepiszew was established in the 19th century in the English landscape style. The park and manor have a long and rich history and deserve to be protected. The inventory of dendroflora showed that within the park boundaries grow more thana thousand of arborescent plants deriving from 35 species and 17 families. They are mostly common, native woody plant species, associated with deciduous forests (Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, Acer pseudoplatanus. The most valuable are the magnificent trees. Among all the trees inventoried, 123 splendid trees were found, among which 8 are monuments of nature legally protected and 33 trees with circumferences that exceed minimal values to be protected. Valuable and well-preserved elements of the park are Aesculus hippocastanum and Carpinus betulus alleys. Currently, the park in Rzepiszew is subjected to a gradual naturalization and loses its primary, spatial arrangement, therefore this object requires reassessment.

  10. Study And Implementation Of LCS Algorithm For Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrishali P. Sonavane

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the roads and the highways in the information World, the content providers are the road workers, and the visitors are the drivers. As in the real world, there can be traffic jams, wrong signs, blind alleys, and so on. The content providers, as the road workers, need information about their users to make possible Web site adjustments. Web logs store every motion on the provider's Web site. So the providers need only a tool to analyze these logs. This tool is called Web Usage Mining. Web Usage Mining is a part of Web Mining. It is the foundation for a Web site analysis. It employs various knowledge discovery methods to gain Web usage patterns. In this paper we used LCS algorithm for improving accuracy of recommendation. The Expremental results show that the approach can improve accuracy of classification in the architecture. Using LCS algorithm we can predict users future request more accurately.

  11. CALCULATION REGARDING THERMAL TRANSFER THROUGH CLOSING ELEMENTS FOR A CATTLE SHELTER KEPT IN LOOSE HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuţa JURCO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculation regarding thermal transmission due to closing elements for cattle shelter kept loose housing. The shelter is compound from 2 compartments, splitted in the middle by a cross alley. The compartments are divided in feeding area and resting area. The shelter has the opening of 16.35 m, total hall lenght is 40.95 m, with surface about 669.53 sqm and the maximum hight about 6.40 m. After analyzing the calculation of heat transfer through closing elements for a cattle shelter kept in loose housing show that the amount of heat lost through external walls with heterogeneous structure is minimal compared to the classical exterior wall with homogeneous structure.

  12. Plant community and white-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity response to intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ethan Jacob

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic feedstock for alternative energy production that could grow well between planted pines (Pinus spp.). Southeastern planted pine occupies 15.8 million hectares and thus, switchgrass intercropping could affect biodiversity if broadly implemented. Therefore, I evaluated effects of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) plantations on plant community diversity, plant biomass production, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) nutritional carrying capacity. In a randomized complete block design, I assigned three treatments (switchgrass intercropped, switchgrass monoculture, and a "control" of traditional pine management) to 4 replicates of 10-ha experimental units in Kemper County, Mississippi during 2014-2015. I detected 246 different plant species. Switchgrass intercropping reduced plant species richness and diversity but maintained evenness. I observed reduced forb and high-use deer forage biomass but only in intercropped alleys (interbeds). Soil micronutrient interactions affected forage protein of deer plants. White-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity remained unaffected.

  13. Mice deficient for the close homologue of the neural adhesion cell L1 (CHL1) display alterations in emotional reactivity and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, M; Rougon, G; Schachner, M; Jamon, M

    2003-12-17

    Motor and cognitive phenotypes were assessed in mice deficient for the close homologue of the L1 adhesion molecule (CHL1). The CHL1-deficient mice displayed signs of decreased stress and a modification of exploratory behaviour. The mice also showed motor impairments on the Rotarod, but they were able to move as fast as controls in the alleys of a T-maze. The observed changes were assumed to be related to a deficit in attention. In addition, gender differences in CHL1 deficits were found and are discussed in view of a possible interaction with other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) during development. The results are discussed in relation with motor and cognitive deficits in the human, caused by mutations of the distal part of the chromosome 3 which contains the CHL1 orthologue. PMID:14659567

  14. Development of Centrifugal Cast High Speed Steel Roll with High Wear Resistance for Pre-Finishing Stands of a Hot Rod-Wire Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-qiang; FENG Xi-lan; FU Han-guang; SHA Quan-you

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims at developing high speed steel ( HSS ) as roll materials to replace traditional roll materials such as the alloy cast iron and powder metallurgical (PM) hard alloy, because lowcost alley cast iron rolls have poor wear resistance and the cost of high-quality PM hard alloy rolls is too high to be accepted by some users. By means of a centrifugal casting method, HSS rolls with excellent wear resistance have been developed. Its hardness is 65 ~ 67HRC, and its variation is smaller than 2HRC ; its impact toughness excels 15J/cm2. Using pre-finishing stands of a high-speed hot wire-rod rolling mill, the wear raze of HSS rolls per one thousand ton of steel is 0. 25mm. However, the manufacturing burden of HSS rolls is obviously lower than that of PM hard alloy rolls; it is only 30% of that of PM hard alloy rolls.

  15. Response to Fackerell's Article

    CERN Document Server

    Alley, C O; Alley, Carroll O.; Yilmaz, Huseyin

    2000-01-01

    E. D. Fackerell claims: 1) that Alley and Yilmaz treatment of parallel slabs in general relativity is wrong because the Yilmaz metric used is not a solution of the field equations of general relativity; 2) he also claims that the correct treatment of the parallel slab problem in general relativity must be based on the so-called Taub metric. We show below that both of Fackerell's claims are false. His first claim is based on his failure to distinguish the matter-free regions and the regions with matter. His second claim is based on his failure to recognize that for the Taub metric the left-hand side, hence also the right-hand side of the field equations, are identically zero everywhere. Thus no material systems can be treated via the Taub metric.

  16. Fronteras y espacios fronterizos en África central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bennafla

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The frontier spaces of Central Africa have forthe last fifteen years been experiencing bubbling cornmercial activity, within a general context of an economic and political blind alley. These ernerging transborder zones are crisscrossed on a lasser or grealer scale by other boundaries (monetary, cultura1, political that are superimposed with the national perimeters. For this reason, these spaces are very complex in the way they function. They are structured with regard to markets and the avenues of cornmunication that put them in contact with cities in the interior, comsumers and providers of merchandise. Problems of security, of police control, of uneven maintenance of roadways explain the constant movement of real restate investments on the borders. The transborder spaces are, when all is said and done, fleeting structures but closely connected with the interior urban centers, consolidating framework of the national territories.

  17. Multiple photoreceptor systems control the swim pacemaker activity in box jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garm, A; Mori, S

    2009-12-01

    Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each with a similar set of six eyes of four morphologically different types. We have examined how each of the four eye types influences the swim pacemaker. Multiple photoreceptor systems, three of the four eye types, plus the rhopalial neuropil, affect the swim pacemaker. The lower lens eye inhibits the pacemaker when stimulated and provokes a strong increase in the pacemaker frequency upon light-off. The upper lens eye, the pit eyes and the rhopalial neuropil all have close to the opposite effect. When these responses are compared with all-eye stimulations it is seen that some advanced integration must take place. PMID:19946073

  18. Cancer corridors and toxic terrors--is it safe to eat and drink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Frederic T

    2005-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the "toxic terrors" (1) Love Canal and Hinkley, California, and a more specific, in depth, evaluation of the extent and the significance of the industrial and petrochemical cancer risks to the people of Louisiana in the so-called "Cancer Alley" between Baton Rouge and New Orleans. Has the birthright been exchanged for a mess of "chemical pottage?" "...and a great star fell from heaven, blazing like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. The name of the star is Wormwood. A third of the waters turned bitter, and many people died from the waters that had become bitter." Revelation 8:10-12. Two miles away from my house flows the Mississippi River, which swells with water from well over one-third of the rivers and streams of the continental United States.

  19. Giant viruses: The difficult breaking of multiple epistemological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of the first "giant virus", Mimivirus, in 2003 could solely have been that of an exceptional freak, a blind alley of evolution as occasionally encountered in biology, albeit without conceptual significance. On the contrary, once broken this epistemological barrier, additional unrelated families of giant viruses such as the Pandoraviruses, the Pithoviruses and most recently Mollivirus, were quickly unraveled, suggesting that an entire chapter of microbiology had been ignored since Pasteur and Ivanovski. In this article, we examine to what extent the giant viruses challenge previous definitions of viruses, the diversity of forms they could take, and how they might have evolved from extinct ancestral cellular lineages. Inspired by the epistemology of Gaston Bachelard, we will also suggest the reasons for which giant viruses laid hidden in plain sight for more than a century. Finally, we propose a new definition for "viruses" that paradoxically emphasize the fact that they do not encode a single universally shared macromolecule or biochemical function.

  20. Hippocampal lesions do not alter the partial punishment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, S; Rawlins, J N; Gray, J A

    1983-01-01

    Rats were trained to run in an alley for food reward. In a 'partial punishment' condition the animals also received occasional footshock in the goalbox; controls received only food reward during training. In a test phase all animals were given both food and footshock in the goalbox on every trial. Previously partially punished animals demonstrated greater persistence in running to the goal during this test phase. This 'partial punishment effect' was unchanged by hippocampectomy whether the experiment was conducted with an inter-trial interval of a few minutes or one of 24 h. The presence of the partial punishment effect in hippocampectomised rats is in sharp contrast with the abolition of the partial reinforcement extinction effect (which is very similar to the partial punishment effect, but based upon nonreward rather than punishment) previously reported after hippocampectomy. PMID:6628595

  1. Responding changes systematically within sessions during conditioning procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, F K; Roll, J M

    1993-11-01

    When the procedure is held constant within an experimental session, responding often changes systematically within that session. Many of these within-session changes in responding cannot be dismissed as learning curves or by-products of satiation. They have been observed in studies of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, extinction, discrimination, delayed matching to sample, concept formation, maze and alley running, and laboratory analogues of foraging, as well as in the unconditioned substrates of conditioned behavior. When aversive stimuli are used, responding usually increases early in the session. When positive reinforcers are used, responding changes in a variety of ways, including increasing, decreasing, and bitonic functions. Both strong and minimal reinforcement procedures produce within-session decreases in positively reinforced behavior. Within-session changes in responding have substantial theoretical and methodological implications for research in conditioning. PMID:8283153

  2. Tricyclic antidepressants: effects on extinction and fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, G; Handel, J; Rogers, R; Weiss, J

    1975-01-01

    Rats trained to run an alley for a food reward were extinguished following injections of different antidepressants. When retested several days later, the animals extinguished following pretreatment with the NE reuptake blocker protriptyline showed faster running speeds than did the other groups. Other rats given electrical shocks following pretreatment with protriptyline avoided the compartment in which they had been shocked less than did animals shocked following pretreatment with other antidepressants. This implies an interferance with some aspect of the learning or consolidation process which is correlated with the degree of NE reuptake blockage. It is hypothesized that NE terminals are deactivated following frustrative nonreward or punishment by the conversion and reuptake of the released NE to an altered extinction molecule. PMID:1129357

  3. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse. PMID:15019422

  4. Determination of water quality variables, endotoxin concentration, and Enterobacteriaceae concentration and identification in southern High Plains dairy lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of endotoxin, determine 20 water quality variables, and identify and enumerate fungal and bacterial pathogens from United States southern High Plains dairy lagoons and control lakes during summer and winter. Water samples were collected in triplicate from the north, south, east, and west quadrants of each body of water. The mean (+/- SEM) winter dairy lagoon endotoxin concentration was significantly higher (9,678+/-1,834 ng/mL) than the summer concentration (3,220+/-810 ng/mL). The mean endotoxin concentration of the 2 control lakes (summer: 58.1+/-8.8 ng/mL; winter: 38.6+/-4.2 ng/mL) was significantly less than that of the dairy lagoons. Two hundred-one Salmonella enterica spp. isolates were identified, 7 serovars were recovered from the dairy lagoons, and 259 Salmonella ssp. were identified from 5 other dairy locations (milk barn, ditch effluent, settling basin, feed alley pad flush, and center pivots). Twenty-eight Salmonella spp. were identified from center pivot water. Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens were isolated from other dairy locations but not from lagoons. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157:H7 were identified from control lakes. Enterobacteriaceae opportunistic pathogens were isolated from both dairies and control lakes. Important mesophilic and thermophilic catabolic (to manure biosolids) fungal isolates were identified from dairy effluent locations, but no thermophilic fungal isolates were cultured from the control lakes. Adequate curing of green forage following center pivot irrigation is important to kill lagoon water enteric pathogens, even though the lagoon water is mixed with fresh water. Recirculating lagoon water to flush the feed alley pad, where cows stand while eating, to remove manure and using lagoon water to abate dairy dust in loafing pens and unimproved dairy roads is inconsistent with good environmental practice management. PMID:20338428

  5. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  6. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  7. Using Major Outer Membrane Protein Typing as an Epidemiological Tool To Investigate Outbreaks Caused by Milk-Borne Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, Robert E.; Yuan, Jean; Bates, Anna; Manalac, Rosa; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Kimura, Akiko; Lidgard, Janice; Miller, William G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the Campylobacter jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milk-borne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. The genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental strains with identical or closely related porA sequences was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The first outbreak involved 1,644 C. jejuni infections at 11 state correctional facilities and was associated with consumption of pasteurized milk supplied by an on-site dairy (dairy A) at a prison in the central valley. The second outbreak involved eight confirmed and three suspect C. jejuni cases linked to consumption of commercial raw milk and raw chocolate colostrum at another central valley dairy (dairy B). Both dairies bottled fluid milk on the farm and distributed the finished product to off-site locations. Altogether, C. jejuni was isolated from 7 of 15 (46.7%) bovine fecal, 12 of 20 (60%) flush alley water, and 1 of 20 (5%) lagoon samples collected on dairy A. At dairy B, C. jejuni was cultured from 9 of 26 (34.6%) bovine fecal samples. Environmental strains indistinguishable from the clinical outbreak strains were found in five flush alley water samples (dairy A) and four bovine fecal samples (dairy B). The findings demonstrate that MOMP typing is a useful tool to triage environmental isolates prior to conducting more labor-intensive molecular typing methods. PMID:23115263

  8. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  9. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wang

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia monoculture system (JRMS, a wheat (Triticum aestivum monoculture system (TAMS, and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  10. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  11. Light redirecting system using sine-wave based panels for dense urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed W. N.; Mashaly, Islam A.; Mohamed, Osama N.; El-Henawy, Sally I.; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cities and towns around the world are becoming more condensed due to the shrinking amount of buildable areas, which significantly reduces the amount of light that occupants have access to. This lack of natural lighting results in health, safety and quality of life degradation. This paper presents a new technique of transmitting sunlight downward into narrow alleys and streets, by using a daylighting guiding acrylic panel that is capable of changing the direction and distribution of the incident light. The core of the proposed daylight guidance system is made up of light transmission panels with high quality. The corrugations have sine wave shaped cross-section so that the panel functions as an optical diffuser perpendicular to the direction of sunlight propagation. The day lighting system consists of the corrugated panels and a lattice frame, which supports the panel. The proposed system is to be mounted on the building roof facing the sun so as to redirect the incident sunlight downward into the narrow alleys or streets. Since building sizes and orientations are different the frame is arranged such that substantially deep light penetration and high luminance level can be achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter, respectively, provides fan-out angle that exceeds 80° for certain solar altitudes and the transmitted power percentage varies from 40% to 90% as the solar altitude varies from 10° to 80°. Experimental results are in a good agreement with the simulations.

  12. Effect of rubber flooring on claw health in lactating dairy cows housed in free-stall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, J; Overton, M; Berry, S L; Sischo, W M

    2006-11-01

    Multiparous dairy cows between 10 to 30 d in milk (DIM) were enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of rubber flooring on the development of claw lesions, locomotion scores, clinical lameness, and rates of hoof growth and wear. Two groups of cows were housed in identical free-stall facilities, except that 1 pen (rubber, n = 84) had rubber alley mats covering the entire concrete floor of the pen, whereas cows in the second pen were exposed to concrete flooring (concrete, n = 82) without rubber alley mats. All cows were evaluated 3 times between 10 and 30, 74 and 94, and 110 and 130 DIM for 1) the presence of claw lesions on their rear feet, 2) the occurrence of clinical lameness based on a locomotion score, and 3) rates of claw growth and wear as observed on the dorsal wall of the right lateral claw. No differences between flooring groups at the time of enrollment were detected for lactation number, mean DIM at first examination, body condition score, and proportion of cows with claw lesions at the first examination. Odds of developing claw lesions between examinations were not different for cows exposed to the rubber surface compared with those exposed to concrete. Cows on concrete, however, had greater odds of developing or exacerbating existing heel erosion than cows on rubber flooring. Regardless of the flooring surface, the lateral claw was more likely to develop lesions than the medial claw. Odds of becoming lame by the third examination and the proportion of cows requiring therapeutic hoof trimming because of lameness were greater for concrete-exposed cows than those on rubber. Cows on rubber flooring had decreased claw growth and wear between the first and last examination compared with cows on concrete. Regardless of flooring surface, second-lactation cows had greater wear rates than those in third or greater parities. Results of our study suggest that a soft flooring surface, such as interlocking rubber, is beneficial for hoof health.

  13. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water

  14. Influence of temperament score and handling facility on stress, reproductive hormone concentrations, and fixed time AI pregnancy rates in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Assay, M; Kasimanickam, V; Moore, D A; Gay, J M; Whittier, W D

    2014-10-01

    The objectives were (i) to evaluate the effect of temperament, determined by modified 2-point chute exit and gait score, on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers following fixed time AI and (ii) to determine the effect of temperament on cortisol, substance-P, prolactin and progesterone at initiation of synchronization and at the time of AI. Angus beef heifers (n = 967) at eight locations were included in this study. At the initiation of synchronization (Day 0 = initiation of synchronization), all heifers received a body condition score (BCS), and temperament score (0 = calm; slow exit and walk or 1 = excitable; fast exit or jump or trot or run). Blood samples were collected from a sub-population of heifers (n = 86) at both synchronization initiation and the time of AI to determine the differences in serum progesterone, cortisol, prolactin and substance-P concentrations between temperament groups. Heifers were synchronized with 5-day CO-Synch+ controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and were inseminated at 56 h after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy by ultrasound 70 days after AI to determine AI pregnancy. Controlling for synchronization treatment (p = 0.03), facility design (p = 0.05), and cattle handling facility design by temperament score interaction (p = 0.02), the AI pregnancy differed between heifers with excitable and calm temperament (51.9% vs 60.3%; p = 0.01). The alley-way with acute bends and turns, and long straight alley-way had lower AI pregnancy rate than did the semicircular alley-way (53.5%, 56.3% and 67.0% respectively; p = 0.05). The serum hormone concentrations differed significantly between different types of cattle handling facility (p cattle handling facility design by temperament group interactions significantly influenced progesterone (p = 0.01), cortisol (p = 0.01), prolactin (p = 0.02) and substance-P (p = 0.04) both at the initiation of synchronization and at

  15. Why 'Science + Solutions' Is An Effective & Essential Climate Communications Strategy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.

    2013-12-01

    Success in the Second World War was enabled in large part through advances in science and technology such as radar and the Manhattan Project, and the subsequent growth of the US economy endowed scientists with unrivaled influence in society and policy-making. But climate science has not been immune to criticism, and attacks on what 97% of expert climate scientists regard as well-established have continued. However, as shown in Leiserowitz et al's series of SIX AMERICAS studies, the vast majority of citizens are neither firmly committed against accepting the reality of human-caused climate change, nor 100% certain of the cause. The question, then, is how to reach 'the movable middle.' Richard Alley's 'Earth: The Operators' Manual'-a 3-part series aired nationally on PBS, and supported by the National Science Foundation-was an attempt to improve the understanding of consensus climate science, and showcase examples of clean energy innovations in the United States and worldwide. A fundamental design principle for the series, derived from close reading of social science studies, was to include solutions along with solid science. In addition, the producers enlisted a diverse cast of on-camera personalities alongside Alley: Texas ranchers, Republican senators and Kansan bankers, CEOs and academics, a Navy rear admiral in dress whites, and 'energy captains' in inner city Baltimore. An NSF-mandated Summative Evaluation documented the success of these approaches, and the first two programs reached some 3.6 million viewers on PBS. However, the rapidly-evolving media landscape has meant that national primetime exposure is only part of how climate information is 'sent' and 'received' today. ETOM structured its Facebook page to embody the same solutions-oriented philosophy, and has secured an 'Engagement Index' higher than Buzzfeed, and more than most other environment- and climate-oriented pages. ETOM programs can be downloaded in HD for watch parties, and many schools

  16. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  17. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweltjes, W; van der Werf, J T N; Frankena, K; van Leeuwen, J L

    2011-02-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing the stalls between 2300 h and 0500 h (yes or no) and alley flooring (concrete or rubber topped slatted floors). Apart from treatments, housing was identical. The animals were kept in small groups (n=4 to 6) in adjacent barn pens. Thereafter, the animals were kept in 1 group in a freestall section with concrete slatted floor and unrestricted access to the stalls for 5 wk. All animals were fed the same partial mixed ration. We hypothesized that (1) hard flooring causes high mechanical load of the claws and (2) restricted freestall access causes prolonged standing bouts and reinforced effects of hard flooring on claws. The heifers had only minor claw lesions before first calving, and the prevalence and severity of sole hemorrhages increased during the first 3 mo after calving (from 0.24 ± 0.08 to 1.18 ± 0.14 and from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively), particularly in the outer hind claws. Animals kept on rubber alley flooring had lower average hemorrhage scores in wk 9 (0.13 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.03) and wk 14 (0.20 ± 0.03 vs. 0.27 ± 0.03) after calving, had a slower feed intake (3.05 ± 0.14 vs. 3.46 ± 0.14 g/s) and spent more time feeding (7.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.6 ± 0.3 min/h) than animals kept on hard concrete alley floors. Restricted freestall access resulted in fewer standing bouts per day (14.4 ± 1.0 vs. 17.9 ± 1.0) and more strides per hour (99.8 ± 5.4 vs. 87.2 ± 5.4) without changing overall standing time (15.0 ± 0.3 vs. 14.7 ± 0.3 h/d) and did not affect the occurrence of sole hemorrhages. The animals with no overnight freestall access spent more time standing (55.9 ± 0.9 vs. 35.8 ± 0.9 min/h) and feeding (7.8 ± 0.3 vs. 4.3 ± 0.3 min/h) between

  18. Sub-seafloor epidosite alteration: Timing, depth and stratigraphic distribution in the Semail ophiolite, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, Samuel A.; Diamond, Larryn W.; Mercolli, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Pervasive epidotization of igneous rocks is a common feature in the ophiolite record of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust. Current genetic models view epidosites as markers of focussed upflow of hydrothermal fluid beneath oceanic spreading ridges. The epidosites are envisaged to form at the base of the sheeted dike complex (SDC) during active plate spreading. Our mapping of the Semail ophiolite in Oman has revealed abundant epidosites in the volcanic sequence, some exceeding 1 km2 in extent. They are more frequent and far larger than the mineralogically identical epidosites in the SDC. We have also found epidosites that traverse the entire SDC from bottom to top. Thus, rather than being restricted to the base of the SDC, as implied by current models, epidosites in fact occur throughout the SDC and dominantly within the overlying volcanic pile. We report the occurrence of 19 epidosite bodies and their crosscutting relations with respect to host lava units, dikes, intrusive stocks and also seafloor umbers. The volcanostratigraphic affiliation of the dikes is identified by their whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions. The relations set constraints on the timing of epidotization with respect to igneous activity in the ophiolite. At least one of the epidosites in the SDC formed during Lasail off-axis volcanism. Another epidosite in the SDC and many in the volcanic units formed later during post-spreading, Alley and Boninitic Alley supra-subduction zone volcanism. Only permissive, not compelling, evidence allows just two of the epidosites to have formed within the main-stage SDC during or shortly after its emplacement. We conclude that epidotization of the oceanic crust is not necessarily coupled to spreading ridges and that it can occur during fore-arc volcanism. This finding is consistent with evidence from the modern seafloor and it requires a different hydrothermal environment to that traditionally associated with alteration beneath spreading axes. The timing

  19. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  20. "EARTH: The Operators' Manual" - a hybrid model (TV+online+in-person) to effectively communicate climate change science alongside sustainable energy solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent public opinion surveys have found that Americans underestimate the degree of agreement by climate scientists about global warming and climate change, and - despite growing evidence of ice sheet loss, ocean acidification, sea level rise and extreme weather events - believe less in warming trends in 2011 than they did earlier. The issue has become politicized and controversial. "EARTH: The Operators' Manual" is an informal science education project supported by NSF, the National Science Foundation. Its ambitious goal is to use a hybrid mix of broadcast programs appearing on public television and hosted by Penn State geoscientist, Richard Alley, together with on-site outreach events and online resources and tools, to present core climate science in engaging ways, and to combine that presentation of objective research with an overview of sustainable energy solutions. The project's content and communication strategies have been shaped in response to analyses of public opinion such as the SIX AMERICAS study and aim to address common "skeptic" arguments and share essential climate science. Social science research has also found that audiences seem more open to scientific information where the possibility of a positive response is also offered. The first hour-long PBS program aired nationally in April 2011, has since been re-broadcast, and is also available online. Two more programs will air in 2012, and the presentation at the Fall AGU Conference will preview segments from both programs. Five regionally-diverse science centers (in San Diego, Raleigh NC, St. Paul MN, Fort Worth TX and Portland OR) have hosted outreach events, with Richard Alley and other project participants, and will continue with additional activities through summer 2012. The project's website includes video clips, case studies of energy-saving initiatives world-wide and across the USA, plus an interactive "Energy Gauge" inviting users to assess their current Home, Travel, Food, and Goods and

  1. Landscape-level variation in greenhouse gas emissions in vineyards of central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbeco, M.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Jackson, L. E.; Higgins, C.; Yu, O.; Greenhut, R. F.; O'Geen, T.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils can differ greatly across the landscape depending on soil type, landscape formation and management, making the implementation of mitigation practices challenging. In our study, we evaluated the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions from vineyard soils across a broad landscape in the Lodi Wine-grape District representing three soil types of different geologic history and under varying conventional management systems in the Central Valley of California. Soils of the District vary in space as a result of the depositional history of the parent materials from which the soils formed and subsequent weathering. The nature of the deposition of these materials has resulted in systematic patterns of soils in space. We sampled the following soils from this soil sequence over the larger landscape: 1) Slightly weathered granitic alluvium with low clay content located on the southern side of the district; 2) Intermediately weathered soils derived from granitic alluvium with high clay content located on the northern side of the district; and, 3) Highly weathered soils derived from metavolcanic and metasedimentary alluvium with intermediate clay content and rocky soils located on the eastern side of the district. The climate is Mediterranean with cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers. Initial results indicated that under wet conditions, the soils had similar carbon dioxide emissions with little variation between management or landscape formation. However, carbon dioxide emissions were typically higher in the alley than in the vine row. Nitrous oxide emissions were more variable in the higher clay soils as compared to sandier soils (0-180 g N/ha/day and 0-20 g N/ha/day, respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions were similar from the soil in the alley and vine row. We expect to see similar variability for carbon dioxide emissions under drier conditions later in the summer, but predict that it will differ by landscape position

  2. Methodology for mapping non-forest wood elements using historic cadastral maps and aerial photographs as a basis for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalos, Jan; Engstová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a method for analysing long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a newly developed classification system and relevant landscape characteristics. Although these non-forest wood elements are biotopes that have positive effects for the ecological stability of the landscape little is known about their long-term dynamics. The newly developed knowledge of the historical impact of various landscape management practices on non-forest wood elements can be applied in landscape planning procedures (e.g. planning ecological networks) in order to ensure relevant landscape management in the future. The method was applied in two contrasting study sites, Honbice (244 ha) and Krida (268 ha), located in east Bohemia and north Bohemia, in the Czech Republic. The study was based on old cadastral maps (from 1839 to 1843), black and white aerial photographs (from 1938, 1950, 1966, 1975 to 2006) and field control data from 2006. At the Honbice study site, the proportion of non-forest wood elements increased from 2.0 to 2.9% of the study site, due to large plantations of scattered vegetation in the open landscape. On the other hand, more than half of the wood vegetation in the village was cut down between 1966 and 2006. In addition, the relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.021 km ha(-1) to 0.018 km ha(-1) between 1950 and 1966. At the Krida study site, there was a significant increase in non-forest vegetation (from 2.4 to 8.2%), due to abandonment of the landscape (former military area). As the village disappeared, the total amount of scattered vegetation grew, due to the natural succession process. The relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.009 km ha(-1) to 0.005 km ha(-1). The method that was applied and based on the analysis of long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a (newly developed) classification system and relevant landscape characteristics has proved to be a suitable

  3. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  4. Time's Arrow and the Measurement Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Halabi, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    When both slits of the double slit experiment are open, closing one of the slits increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. This very feature underlies Feynman's famous pessimistic quote on getting lost in dark alleys when thinking about this experiment. Having heard a fire alarm, there are two trajectories the universe can take into a past in which an unintended fire had started. One, in which a fire drill strangely coinciding with the unintended fire triggers the alarm, and another whereby NO fire drill was scheduled and the unintended fire triggers the alarm. These two trajectories into a past in which an unintended fire had started are analogous to the particle trajectories through the two slits into a future in which the aforementioned detection occurs. When trajectories involving a scheduled drill are ruled out, the probability of the unintended fire rises (through Bayesian inference), much as the detection probability rises when one of the slits is closed. The enigmatic featur...

  5. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

  6. Can anything better come along? Reflections on the deep future of hydrogen-electricity systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.S. [Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' Sometimes, for some things, we can project the deep future better than tomorrow. This is particularly relevant to our energy system where, if we focus on energy currencies, looking further out allows us to leap the tangles of today's conventional wisdom, vested mantras and ill-found hopes. We will first recall the rationale that sets out why - by the time the 22nd century rolls around - hydrogen and electricity will have become civilization's staple energy currencies. Building on this dual-currencies inevitability we'll then evoke the wisdom that, we never know everything about the future but we always know something. For future energy systems that 'something' is the role and nature of the energy currencies. From this understanding, our appreciation of the deep future can take shape - at least for infrastructures, energy sources and some imbedded technologies-but not service-delivery widgets. The long view provides more than mere entertainment. It should form the basis of strategies for today that, in turn, will avoid blind alleys on our journey to tomorrow. Some people accept that hydrogen and electricity will be our future, but only 'until something better comes along.' The talk will conclude with logic that explains the response: No, nothing better will ever come along. (author)

  7. Can anything better come along? Reflections on the deep future of hydrogen-electricity systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D. S. [International Association for Hydrogen Energy (United States); Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, U. of Victoria (Canada); Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Sometimes, for some things, we can project the deep future better than tomorrow. This is particularly relevant to our energy system where, if we focus on energy currencies, looking further out allows us to leap the tangles of today's conventional wisdom, vested mantras and ill-found hopes. We will first recall the rationale that sets out why - by the time the 22. century rolls around - hydrogen and electricity will have become civilizations staple energy currencies. Building on this dual-currency inevitability we'll then evoke the wisdom that, while we never know everything about the future we always know something. For future energy systems that 'something' is the role and nature of the energy currencies. From this understanding, our appreciation of the deep future can take shape - at least for infrastructures, energy sources and some imbedded technologies - but not service-delivery widgets. The long view provides more than mere entertainment. It should form the basis of strategies for today that, in turn, will avoid setbacks and blind alleys on our journey to tomorrow. Some people accept that hydrogen and electricity will be our future, but only 'until something better comes along.' The talk will conclude with logic that explains the response: 'No{exclamation_point} Nothing better will ever come along.'. (authors)

  8. Privacy and security in the era of digital health: what should translational researchers know and do about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, Barbara L; Kim, Ju Young; Roberts, Bruce; Armstrong, Winston; Miller, Mark A; Hultner, Michael L; Castillo, Anthony P; Ducom, Jean-Christophe; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in the availability and incorporation of digital technologies in almost every aspect of our lives creates extraordinary opportunities but brings with it unique challenges. This is especially true for the translational researcher, whose work has been markedly enhanced through the capabilities of big data aggregation and analytics, wireless sensors, online study enrollment, mobile engagement, and much more. At the same time each of these tools brings distinctive security and privacy issues that most translational researchers are inadequately prepared to deal with despite accepting overall responsibility for them. For the researcher, the solution for addressing these challenges is both simple and complex. Cyber-situational awareness is no longer a luxury-it is fundamental in combating both the elite and highly organized adversaries on the Internet as well as taking proactive steps to avoid a careless turn down the wrong digital dark alley. The researcher, now responsible for elements that may/may not be beyond his or her direct control, needs an additional level of cyber literacy to understand the responsibilities imposed on them as data owner. Responsibility lies with knowing what you can do about the things you can control and those you can't. The objective of this paper is to describe the data privacy and security concerns that translational researchers need to be aware of, and discuss the tools and techniques available to them to help minimize that risk. PMID:27186282

  9. Connecting Ancient and Modern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing has a history of over 1,000 years.There were once many renowned readitional Chinese opera theaters in the capital city.But now these vintage theaters are being swallowed up in the glitz of modernization and urbanization.Nevertheless,people can still make unexpected discoveries of traditional Chinese culture when wandering through Beijing's hutongs,or alleys.The Zheng Yi Ci Theater is one such surprise.It is a historical relic with over 300 years of history,poised to reinvigorate the traditional Chinese opera.Xinhuayaji International Cultural Communication Co.Ltd.produced the 2011Winter Drama Season at the Zheng Yi Ci Theater from November 23 to December 25,2011,reigniting the fame of the oldest theater in Beijing.The Zheng Yi Ci served as the venue for the 100th production of the Mei Lanfang Classics,a six-part production by the eponymous Peking Opera master.This year will mark the 300th anniversary of the theater's reconstruction.

  10. Resource heterogeneity and foraging behaviour of cattle across spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demment Montague W

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the mechanisms that influence grazing selectivity in patchy environments is vital to promote sustainable production and conservation of cultivated and natural grasslands. To better understand how patch size and spatial dynamics influence selectivity in cattle, we examined grazing selectivity under 9 different treatments by offering alfalfa and fescue in patches of 3 sizes spaced with 1, 4, and 8 m between patches along an alley. We hypothesized that (1 selectivity is driven by preference for the forage species that maximizes forage intake over feeding scales ranging from single bites to patches along grazing paths, (2 that increasing patch size enhances selectivity for the preferred species, and that (3 increasing distances between patches restricts selectivity because of the aggregation of scale-specific behaviours across foraging scales. Results Cows preferred and selected alfalfa, the species that yielded greater short-term intake rates (P Conclusion We conclude that patch size and spacing affect components of intake rate and, to a lesser extent, the selectivity of livestock at lower hierarchies of the grazing process, particularly by enticing livestock to make more even use of the available species as patches are spaced further apart. Thus, modifications in the spatial pattern of plant patches along with reductions in the temporal and spatial allocation of grazing may offer opportunities to improve uniformity of grazing by livestock and help sustain biodiversity and stability of plant communities.

  11. Seasonal population abundance of the assembly of solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera according to land-use in Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Costa Batista Matos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera play a key role in ecosystem and agroecosystem functioning. Crops may benefit from biological pest control and pollination carried out by predatory solitary wasps and solitary bees, respectively. Here, we aimed at evaluating the abundance and faunistic compositions of solitary wasps and bees in respect to land-use (pasture, alley cropping, young fallow and old fallow over an entire year using trap nests in the Brazilian northeastern state of Maranhão. Land-use did not influence the abundance of solitary wasps and bees, however, levels of dominance, abundance and frequency of the species Pachodynerus guadulpensis Saussure, Isodontia sp. 1, Isodontia sp. 2, Trypoxylon nitidum Smith and Megachile cfr. framea Schrottky varied with land-use. The abundance of wasps and bees varied over the period of the year with populations peeking in January (bees, and June and July (wasps. Relative humidity explained most of the variation for the abundance of wasps while temperature explained higher portions of the variance for the abundance of bees. There was an interaction between period of the year and land-use for the abundance of wasps (but not for bees. We concluded that total population abundance of solitary wasps and bees were not affected by the land-use however, levels of dominance, abundance and frequency of some species of these hymenopterans changed according to land-use. Also, relative humidity and temperature were important environmental variables explaining the abundances of wasps and bees.

  12. Other Land Border Little-known Guangzhou Bay---On the Gulf of Guangzhou-Pick Fresh Red Known Historical Facts%粤西边陲红土地鲜为人知广州湾--撷拾广州湾鲜为人知的红色史实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范忆慧

    2015-01-01

    湛江旧称“广州湾”,曾是法国租借地,也被日军占领过。在战时曾因其地理位置使得城市对外贸易繁盛一时。文章通过对广州湾历史概述及中国人民抗法斗争的略述,还原了战时广州湾发展状况。%Zhanjiang is a beautiful coastal city in southern China, in 1899 by the French loan called "The Gulf of Guangzhou ", once the foreign trade flourished. "The Gulf of Guangzhou" is a name of a gradually receding, A nearly forgotten history, but in the flames of war, it is carrying the Chinese nation's bear and responsibility . Objects and buildings streets old alley, Confirm This piece of red land cannot die the past, burning about this period of history deep thick made.

  13. Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Green Manures as a Potential Source of N for Maize Production in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Bah

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of cheap, N-rich, and environmentally benign legume green manures to correct N deficiency in infertile soils is a very attractive option in the humid tropics. Understanding the influence of management and climate on their effectiveness, and quantifying their contribution to crop productivity, is therefore crucial for technology adoption and adaptation. Mineral N buildup and the contribution to N uptake in maize were studied in an Ultisol amended with fresh Gliricidia leaves. Net mineral N accumulation was compared in mulched and incorporated treatments in a field incubation study. The 15N isotope dilution technique was used to quantify N supplied to maize by Gliricidia leaves in an alley cropping. Mineral N accumulation was slow, but was much greater after incorporation than after mulching. Also, N buildup was always higher in the topsoil (0 to 10 cm than in the subsoil (10 to 20 cm. More NO3-N was leached than NH4-N, and the effect was greater in the incorporated treatment. Surface-applied Gliricidia leaves significantly increased N uptake by maize, and supplied >30% of the total N in the stover and >20% of that in the corn grain, even in the presence of hedgerows. Thus Gliricidia leaf mulch has immense potential to improve productivity in tropical soils.

  14. Ressources et partage de l'eau dans l'oasis de Kenadsa (Sud-Ouest Algerien; approche historique et constat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUCEF BENMOUSSA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resources And Water Sharing In The Oasis Of Kenadsa (Southwest Algeria; Historical Approach And Findings. Kenadsa, a peaceable oasis in southwestern Algeria, with the discovery and exploitation of coal (1917 - 1956, underwent graft of Western models for its development. That has cleared the oasis of the spatial dimension and tr ansformed into a mining village by excellence. These networks of foggaras draining groundwater, enclosed in a multilayer aquifer, which becomes free on the northern border of the Ksar. There were 25 foggaras of sources (Ain, each of which had its own drai nage channels to downstream gardens of Ksar. The distribution of water from these sources was ensured by a complex network, fed by drainage galleries that meander the alleys of Ksar and gives place to access points for domestic uses. The right to water is generally private property; one could dispose of according to modes of transmission of a property. It’s sharing for irrigation is governed by the volume and time. Currently, only some ten foggaras of sources that are still alive (Ain Sidi Mbarek, Ain Dir, Belkaid Ain, Ain Sheikh ..... These waters are characterized by mediocre quality (pH 7.31, CE: 4.88 ms / cm, RS 2420 mg / l Ca ++: 288.2 mg / l, SO4 -- : 468 83 mg / l..

  15. Uncorking the Future: Transitions to a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues discussed at three recent WAAS events regarding the process of transition to a new paradigm. The prominent institutions and policies governing the present paradigm are founded upon a bedrock of ideas and values and an abstract, reductionistic mode of analytic thinking detached from people and social reality. Escape from the present blind alley and transition to a new paradigm require adoption of a different way of thinking that is human-centered, value-based, inclusive and synthetic. The multidimensional challenges confronting humanity today are the consequence of precious opportunities missed at the end of the Cold War. At the same time the awareness and energy released by these challenges has the potential for converting current challenges into unprecedented opportunities for progress at the global level. The outcome depends on our capacity to discover the complementarity underlying apparently contradictory, opposite viewpoints. Multi-culturalism is at once the source of intense frictions and conflict and the rich genetic potential from which a new paradigm can emerge. A new paradigm requires a deeper understanding of the cultural underpinnings of democracy, a rational examination of the sacred cow of national sovereignty, and explicit recognition of the social responsibility of science for the consequences of scientific discovery and technological innovation. Leadership will play a crucial role in determining the outcome – intellectual leadership at the level of ideas, scientific leadership that exhibits consciousness responsibility, transformational leadership at the level of international institutions and nation-states.

  16. Privacy and security in the era of digital health: what should translational researchers know and do about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, Barbara L; Kim, Ju Young; Roberts, Bruce; Armstrong, Winston; Miller, Mark A; Hultner, Michael L; Castillo, Anthony P; Ducom, Jean-Christophe; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in the availability and incorporation of digital technologies in almost every aspect of our lives creates extraordinary opportunities but brings with it unique challenges. This is especially true for the translational researcher, whose work has been markedly enhanced through the capabilities of big data aggregation and analytics, wireless sensors, online study enrollment, mobile engagement, and much more. At the same time each of these tools brings distinctive security and privacy issues that most translational researchers are inadequately prepared to deal with despite accepting overall responsibility for them. For the researcher, the solution for addressing these challenges is both simple and complex. Cyber-situational awareness is no longer a luxury-it is fundamental in combating both the elite and highly organized adversaries on the Internet as well as taking proactive steps to avoid a careless turn down the wrong digital dark alley. The researcher, now responsible for elements that may/may not be beyond his or her direct control, needs an additional level of cyber literacy to understand the responsibilities imposed on them as data owner. Responsibility lies with knowing what you can do about the things you can control and those you can't. The objective of this paper is to describe the data privacy and security concerns that translational researchers need to be aware of, and discuss the tools and techniques available to them to help minimize that risk.

  17. Peta Usaha Kecil Menengah (Ukm Jalan Syahdan sebuah Hasil Penelitian Proyek Workshop Do Good Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Wulandari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Syahdan Small Medium Enterprises (SME map around the campus BINUS Syahdan Syahdan precisely along the streets and alleys that connect with it, ranging from Seven-Eleven to Circle K, which has become the backbone of student activities on campus so as to facilitate students in accessing the small business as well as media liaison for SMEs to communicate with the target market. The research was conducted referring to the science of Visual Communication Design Discipline. The purpose and benefits of this research is to use scientific and practical the SME Map of Jalan Syahdan and research results in the form of advice which are based on Cognitive Principle for ID member, Communication Principles for ID member, which is based on ease of implementation, the function of information for ID, which will tell us the effectiveness of media communications, and aesthetics. It is expected that the information in it will be delivered properly, can bring out the character right BINUS University and establish a positive image in the mind of the reader. In the results of this study will be presented the data and advice needed as a reference by them who will develop the SME Map of Jalan Syahdan.

  18. Computer Security: what is your identity?

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    In the physical world this is fairly clear; your sense of self is multi-faceted and highly complex but the entity of “you” is well defined.  You can prove your identity simply, typically by showing your ID card or by having someone vouch for you. You are a being layered with attributes. Other people may request some of these attributes: your first name at Starbucks or your shoe size at the bowling alley. But only your most trusted contacts are granted access to your entire set of attributes… or maybe you never expose your identity entirely!   Online, your identity is a very different beast. It is fragmented. Each piece of your identity is typically verified by its own username and password. Occasionally pieces are forgotten or lost to the depths of the Internet. The hundreds of accounts that identify “you” present a security problem. Can you keep track of these accounts and is it even realistic to use unique, non-trivial passwords for ea...

  19. Short rotation woody biomass production as option for the restoration of post-mining areas in lower Lusatia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, C.; Quinkenstein, A.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatian lignite-mining district in Germany are characterized by low annual precipitation and marginal soils. As such, crop yield is typically low and conventional land use systems fail in terms of reliable and efficient crop production. The production of woody biomass for bioenergy may be a promising alternative to improve soil fertility and also to enhance the economic value of these post-mining areas. Previous studies have shown that black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) may be a suitable tree species for this purpose. This paper evaluated the ecological and economic benefits of producing woody biomass in short rotation coppices (SRC) and alley cropping systems (ACS) with black locust. The results showed that compared to conventional agriculture, such land use is not very profitable due to high establishment and harvesting costs and the comparatively low prices for wood energy. However, because of the improved microclimate, the crop yield in ACS is higher than in conventional agriculture. The cultivation of black locust resulted in a higher humus accumulation and in a lower harvest-related nutrient export than the cultivation of alfalfa as a typical recultivation crop in this region. It was concluded SRC with black locust is more beneficial than conventional agriculture in terms of improving soil fertility in the degraded post-mining areas of Lower Lusatia.

  20. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  1. Comparison among NH3 and GHGs emissive patterns from different housing solutions of dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Cecilia; Borgonovo, Federica; Gardoni, Davide; Guarino, Marcella

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture and livestock farming are known to be activities emitting relevant quantities of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, in intensive animal farming, buildings can be identified as a relevant source of ammonia and greenhouse gases. This study aimed at: i) determining the emission factors of NH3, N2O, CH4, and CO2 from different dairy farms in Italy, and ii) assessing the effects of the different floor types and manure-handling systems used, in order to minimize the impact of this important productive sector. A measurement campaign was carried out for 27 months in four naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings with different floor types, layouts and manure management systems, representative of the most common technologies in the north of Italy. Gas emissions were measured with the "static chamber method": a chamber was placed above the floor farm and an infrared photoacoustic detector (IPD) was used to monitor gas accumulation over time. In the feeding alleys, emissions of NH3 were higher from solid floors than from flushing systems and perforated floors. N2O emissions were significantly different among farms but the absolute values were relatively low. CH4 and CO2 emissions were higher from perforated floors than from other types of housing solution. Regarding the cubicles, the emissions of NH3 were approximately equal from the two housing solution studied. Contrariwise, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were different between the cubicles with rubber mat and those with straw where the highest values were found.

  2. First Steps in Initiating an Effective Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Program in Urban Slums: the BRAC Manoshi Project's Experience with Community Engagement, Social Mapping, and Census Taking in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcil, Lucy; Afsana, Kaosar; Perry, Henry B

    2016-02-01

    The processes for implementing effective programs at scale in low-income countries have not been well-documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This article describes the initial steps taken by one such program--the BRAC Manoshi Project, which now reaches a population of 6.9 million. The project has achieved notable increases in facility births and reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality. The focus of the paper is on the initial steps--community engagement, social mapping, and census taking. Community engagement began with (1) engaging local leaders, (2) creating Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Committees for populations of approximately 10,000 people, (3) responding to advice from the community, (4) social mapping of the community, and (5) census taking. Social mapping involved community members working with BRAC staff to map all important physical features that affect how the community carries out its daily functions--such as alleys, lanes and roads, schools, mosques, markets, pharmacies, health facilities, latrine sites, and ponds. As the social mapping progressed, it became possible to conduct household censuses with maps identifying every household and listing family members by household. Again, this was a process of collaboration between BRAC staff and community members. Thus, social mapping and census taking were also instrumental for advancing community engagement. These three processes-community engagement, social mapping, and census taking--can be valuable strategies for strengthening health programs in urban slum settings of low-income countries. PMID:26830423

  3. Modeling of Natural Coastal Hazards in Puerto Rico in Support of Emergency Management and Coastal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, A., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The island of Puerto Rico is not only located in the so-called Caribbean hurricane alley, but is also located in a tsunami prone region. And both phenomena have affected the island. For the past few years we have undergone the task of upgrading the available coastal flood maps due to storm surges and tsunamis. This has been done taking advantage of new Lidar-derived, high resolution, topography and bathymetry and state-of-the-art models (MOST for tsunamis and ADCIRC/SWAN for storm surges). The tsunami inundation maps have been converted to evacuation maps. In tsunamis we are also working in preparing hazard maps due to tsunami currents inside ports, bays, and marinas. The storm surge maps include two scenarios of sea level rise: 0.5 and 1.0 m above Mean High Water. All maps have been adopted by the Puerto Rico State Emergency Management Agency, and are publicly available through the Internet. It is the purpose of this presentation to summarize how it has been done, the spin-off applications they have generated, and how we plan to improve coastal flooding predictions.

  4. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  5. Gösteri Dünyasında Kadın Oyunculara Yönelik Cinsiyetçi Yaklaşım ve Bir Örnek Olay: Fat Actress

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, N.Aysun

    2006-01-01

    Pek çok iş alanında olduğu üzere gösteri dünyasında da kadınlara yönelik cinsiyetçi ve eşitsiz uygulamalar söz konusudur. Kadın oyuncuların yaşları ve bedenlerindeki dönüşüm bir role tercih edilmelerinde olumsuz faktörler olarak karşılarına çıkarken erkek oyuncular için ilerlemiş yaşları ve/veya deforme olmuş bedenleri başrolde oynamak için bir sorun olmamaktadır. Bu noktadan hareketle,  anılan ayrımcılığa ilişkin Kirstie Alley'in ironik bir yaklaşıma sahip, otobiyografik özellikler de taşıya...

  6. Health science education: reviewing a framework for problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarlie, V Wallace; Orr, Daniel L

    2010-05-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has become one pedagogical approach to gain currency in recent decades, its foundational underpinnings have remained obscure. This investigation seeks to elucidate the theoretical framework or assumptions upon which PBL operates. We have situated core PBL principles in the larger context of health science education, which underwent dramatic changes at the beginning of the twentieth century. The fundamental problem at that time in dental education was moving beyond a lecture-based and apprentice curriculum (students memorizing facts) to a critical thinking-based curriculum. We trace these developments and especially the principles that one thinker, who does not easily fit into any one school of thought, used to frame the problem. We found that the principles underlying the idea of PBL have existed for over a century in varying academic alleys outside of dentistry (including constructivist thought). Despite our technological advances, many of the core challenges of a century ago remain challenges today. Although PBL is certainly not the only way to provide dental students an opportunity to best develop critical thinking, it nevertheless provides an environment in which the learning process may be enhanced. PMID:20442425

  7. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  8. Dan Johnson the mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Richard

    2003-04-01

    I first met Dan Johnson in early 1975 as I was interviewing for an engineering job with Henning von Gierke's bioengineering and bionics laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. From the very beginning Dan was always direct and forthright. Over the ensuing next 27 years my knowledge and respect of Dan constantly grew. This presentation will review Dan's technical and personal contributions while at the laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. He was instrumental in the development of a national noise exposure criteria with the equal-energy-rule, an accurate single number hearing protector attenuation measure based on ``C-A,'' an impulse noise exposure criteria, a longitudinal study of hearing loss in children, development of noise dosimeters, and description of hearing damage risk from nonoccupational noise exposures such as disco's, bowling alleys, lawn mowers, and school buses. Dan has had a significant effect on my career. I and the many people who knew him at the laboratory miss him greatly.

  9. Elevation-Dependent Vegetation Greening of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin in the Southern Tibetan Plateau, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River basin is an important alley to transport moisture from the Indian Ocean to the inner Tibetan Plateau. With a wide range of elevations from 147 m to over 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l., ecosystems respond differently to climate change at various elevations. However, the pattern of elevation-dependent vegetation change and how it responds to recent warming have been rarely reported. Here, we investigated the pattern of vegetation greening at different elevations in this river basin using SPOT normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data during 1999–2013, and examined its relationship with elevation-dependent changes in temperature and precipitation. The annual NDVI has increased by 8.83% from 1999 to 2013. In particular, the NDVI increased more apparently at lower elevations, but remained relatively stable or even decreased at high elevations. It seems that rising temperature has driven the basin-wide vegetation greening, but the greening rate is in contrast to the pattern of elevation-dependent warming (EDW with more significant temperature increase at higher elevations. It appears that decreasing precipitation does not reverse the overall increasing trend in NDVI, but relatively limited precipitation (<500 mm may constrain the NDVI increases, causing apparently stable or even decreased NDVI at higher elevations (>4000 m.

  10. Interaktivitet - moteord eller passord til fremtidens pedagogikk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Søby

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Will interactive digital media promote the construction of intelligent communities in which our social and learning potential can be mutually developed and enhanced? The author points out that trendy phrases are like metaphors captured in a time capsule. In particular he looks at several definitions of interactivity, which he points out is a synthesis of several complex relations between man and digital medias. The paper questions whether interactivity phrases are generated by information technologyıs development prior to learning theoriesı development. He draws on Castellıs use of the word interactivity. He builds further on Engelbartıs definition of how interactive technology can be understood as an intellectual prosthesis as well as Levyıs development of Engelbartıs view of the relationship between knowledge and technology. Time will show whether the term was a password to a new interdisciplinary field for digitalisation and learning or whether we end up in an alley called Hype.

  11. Contents of the heavy metals nickel and lead in leaves of Paulownia elongata S.Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was carried out on the capabilities of the two species Paulownia elongata S. Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. as biomonitors of atmospheric (and soil heavy-metal pollution. Research on content of the heavy metals nickel (Ni and lead (Pb in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata growing under urban and suburban conditions with the comparison to the concentration of these elements in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortunei on an experimental plot in Bela Crkva showed average nickel concentrations of 2.7 μg/g on the experimental plot in Bela Crkva, Serbia, twice as low as the concentrations measured under extreme urban conditions (6.62 μg/g, or 4.54 μg/g in the immediate vicinity of suburban traffic lines. Inasmuch as Paulownia elongata endures urban conditions well, it can be recommended for cultivation in parks, tree alleys, and wind-protection zones along urban and regional traffic lines.

  12. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls.

  13. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  14. Model Bera dalam Sistem Agroforestri (Fallow Land Model in Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Suryanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tree-based agroforestry model gives consequences to the space utilization dominated by trees. Farmers take action on this condition by conniving the fallow land. This research was aimed to know the fallow land model, find the key parameters of fallow land model, and formulating the management of fallow land. The spatial model of agroforestry used in this research were trees along border, alley cropping, alternate rows and mixer. The actual data obtained were tree height, tree diameter, crown diameter, land width, and light intensity; the calculated data were land extent, the percentage of crown cover and crown density. The analysis used to determining the percentage of crown cover to calculate the affective arable land area was zone system. Zonation system maked for four zone : 1 zone 1 interval 0-1 m ; 2 zone 2 interval 1-2 m; zone 3 interval 2-3 m; zone 4 interval 3-4m.Key words: agroforestry, fallow land, silviculture, land cover, resource sharing, crown dynamic

  15. Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium: decomposition of its leaves in soil and effects on sweet-corn yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium subjected to three pruning regimes (one, two or four cuts per year) was measured using the 15N-dilution technique with Cassia siamea as the reference species. Over a 4-year period, estimates of the fraction of N derived from fixation, generally 2 fixer. Gliricidia sepium leaves were placed in litter-bags, buried in an ultisol and sampled at intervals over 70 days. The half-life for dry matter was 17 days, and about 60% of the N was lost within 10 days; K and Ca were the most rapidly released nutrients, with half-lives of only 1 and 3 days, respectively. The N contributions from G. sepium leaves and roots to alley-cropped sweet corn were quantified by the 15N-dilution technique over three growing seasons. The application of leaves with roots resulted in increased N uptake and dry matter yield in corn. Below-ground competition between hedgerow and corn, assessed using 32P with the third crop, occurred under conditions of low nutrient-availability. The data imply that there is no advantage of the cut-and-carry system over permanent hedgerows, provided that prunings are applied at the time of nutrient demand in the crop. (author)

  16. Living through some giant change: the establishment of abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women's health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  17. Dynamics Of Saturn'S Mid-scale Storms In The Cassini Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2010-10-01

    Convective storms, similar to those in Earth, but of much larger scale, develop often in Saturn's atmosphere. During the Voyagers’ flybys of Saturn in 1981 mid-scale storms, with an horizontal extension of the order of 1000-3000 km were observed to occur mainly in a narrow tropical-latitude band in the Northern hemisphere at latitudes 38-40 deg North. Contrasting with the Voyagers’ era, since the starting of the Cassini mission in 2004, a similar mid-scale convective activity has concentrated in the so-called "storm alley", a narrow band at a symmetric Southern latitude of 38 deg.. In this work, we characterize this storm activity using available visual information provided by Cassini ISS cameras and the continuous survey from the Earth by the International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) and its online database PVOL (Hueso et al., Planetary and Space Science, 2010). We study the frequency of appearance of storms with sizes above 2000 km, their characteristic size and life-time, as well as their interaction with surrounding dynamical features. In particular we examine the possibility that storms might provide a mechanism of injection of energy into Saturn's jets, the influence of storms in the generation of atmospheric vortices, and the analogies and differences of Voyagers’ and present day jet structure at the relevant latitudes. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464

  18. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  19. The effect of partial reinforcement on instrumental successive negative contrast in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low- (RLA-I) Avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C

    2012-03-20

    Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables.

  20. The Use of A Bio fertilizer And Phosphate Rock For Enhancing Corn Production On Upland Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment where N and P was applied to corn planted in alley cropping system was done. The N source consists of a bio fertilizer in the form of Glyricidia cuttings, urea and the combination of these 2 N-sources. The P-source use was in the form of phosphate rock (PR) and SP-36 .A factorial experiment using four replicates were applied The N-bio fertilizer source was received om Glyricidia trees which has been grown a year before. Results showed that Glyricidia cuttings could be as an N-source and could enhance crop production. The same results was shown be the P-sources, where P 6 was superior than PR in enhancing crop production. The highest available N-soil was found when urea as applied and P could increase available N-soil. But no interaction between N and P were found which could increase crop production. The highest dry weight production was found when 50 % Glyricidia + 50 % was applied and P was used. The available N-soil did not show increasing influence on the dry weight production. PR combined with 50 % Giyricidia + 50 % urea was the second best treatment

  1. Health science education: reviewing a framework for problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarlie, V Wallace; Orr, Daniel L

    2010-05-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has become one pedagogical approach to gain currency in recent decades, its foundational underpinnings have remained obscure. This investigation seeks to elucidate the theoretical framework or assumptions upon which PBL operates. We have situated core PBL principles in the larger context of health science education, which underwent dramatic changes at the beginning of the twentieth century. The fundamental problem at that time in dental education was moving beyond a lecture-based and apprentice curriculum (students memorizing facts) to a critical thinking-based curriculum. We trace these developments and especially the principles that one thinker, who does not easily fit into any one school of thought, used to frame the problem. We found that the principles underlying the idea of PBL have existed for over a century in varying academic alleys outside of dentistry (including constructivist thought). Despite our technological advances, many of the core challenges of a century ago remain challenges today. Although PBL is certainly not the only way to provide dental students an opportunity to best develop critical thinking, it nevertheless provides an environment in which the learning process may be enhanced.

  2. Development of a geodatabase for springs within and surrounding outcrops of the Trinity aquifer in northern Bexar County, Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Pedraza, Diane E.

    2013-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer is an important source of groundwater in central Texas, including Bexar County, where population growth has resulted in an increased demand for water (Ashworth, 1983; Mace and others, 2000). Numerous springs issue from rock outcrops within and surrounding the Trinity aquifer in northern Bexar County (fig. 1). The effects of increased groundwater withdrawals from the Trinity aquifer on springflow in the area are not well documented, but because the total amount of water entering, leaving, and being stored in a groundwater system must be conserved, increased groundwater withdrawals will result in decreases in springflow (Alley and others, 1999). Documenting the location, discharge, and basic water-quality information of the springs in northern Bexar County can provide a baseline assessment for comparison to future conditions. Accordingly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Trinity Glen Rose Groundwater Conservation District, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, and the San Antonio River Authority, developed a geodatabase populated with data associated with springs within and surrounding outcrops of the Trinity aquifer in northern Bexar County during 2010–11. A geodatabase provides a framework for organizing spatial and tabular data (such as the geographic location and water-quality characteristics, respectively) in a relational database environment, making it easier and more intuitive to evaluate changes over time.

  3. Evaluating the Role of Gender Equity in Sustainable Development of Big Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yavari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development movement and the women's movement in the world has shown that in today's world conditions, achieving a just and sustainable society without the active participation of women is not possible. Some social norms and economic constraints in urban areas of Iran, lead to limitation of presence of women. These constraints belong house and the spaces in close to the house for woman. In past centuries, the safe range for women included house spaces, and semi-private outdoor space of houses, a dead-end alleys and side porch. In the West, despite the claims of providing a civil society, necessary and requirement to attend and enjoy of urban spaces for all groups from industrial revolution was due to the dominant approaches to the thoughts of people in connection with the space, or close space. Descriptive statistics used in this study included frequency tables, the data show (Figure the central indices and in the level of understanding of factor analysis, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and several statistics methods were analyzed using SPSS version 17.

  4. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  5. Fractal structures in two-metal electrodeposition systems I: Pb and Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakouzi, Elias; Sultan, Rabih [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, P. O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, 1107 2020 Beirut (Lebanon)

    2011-12-15

    Pattern formation in two-metal electrochemical deposition has been scarcely explored in the chemical literature. In this paper, we report new experiments on zinc-lead fractal co-deposition. Electrodeposits are grown in special cells at a fixed large value of the zinc ion concentration, while that of the lead ion is increased gradually. A very wide diversity of morphologies are obtained and classified. Most of the deposited domains are almost exclusively Pb or Zn. But certain regions originating at the base cathode, ranging from a short grass alley to dense, grown-up bushes or shrubs, manifest a combined Pb-Zn composition. Composition is determined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x ray measurements as well atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pb domains are characterized by shiny leaf-like and dense deposits as well as flowers with round, balloon-like corollas. The Zn zones display a greater variety of morphologies such as thick trunks and thin and fine branching, in addition to minute ''cigar flower'' structures. The various morphologies are analyzed and classified from the viewpoint of fractal nature, characterized by the box-count fractal dimension. Finally, macroscopic spatial alternation between two different characteristic morphologies is observed under certain conditions.

  6. The cold event 8200 years ago documented in oxygen isotope records of precipitation in Europe and Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Grafenstein, U.; Jouzel, J. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. de Modelisation du Climat et de l`Environnement; Erlenkeuser, H. [Leibniz-Labor fuer Altersbestimmung und Isotopenforschung der Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (CAU), Max-Eyth-Strasse11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Mueller, J. [Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeine, Angewandte und Ingenieur-Geologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Johnsen, S. [Niels Bohr Institute, Department of Geophysics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios of ostracod valves in late glacial and Holocene sediments of core AS 92-5 from deep lake Ammersee (southern Germany) reflect variations of mean oxygen isotope ratios in past atmospheric precipitation. The record reconfirms the strong similarity of climate evolution in Europe and Greenland during the last deglaciation. For the first time in Europe, we find a 200-year-long negative {delta}{sup 18}O-excursion, which is contemporaneous with the strongest negative {delta}{sup 18}O-excursion in the Greenland ice around 8.2 ky before present. The 8.2 ky isotopic event on both sides of the North Atlantic ocean is interpreted as a cold period, most probably induced by a perturbation of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. We discuss two possible triggering mechanisms: (1) weak forcing (as proposed by Alley et al.), and (2) forcing by a strong and sudden freshwater pulse from the collapse of the Hudson Ice Dome. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 43 refs.

  7. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2009-03-01

    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  8. Mental walking through a complex maze influences lateralized ultradian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Koll, A; Albrecht, U; Neuschwander, D

    1998-12-01

    Subjects of two experimental groups, 10 males and 10 females in each group, explored artificial environments represented by compact city mazes. The mazes, a simple and a complex one, were generated by means of a computer program. After turning the program on, a scene with houses, streets, and alleys appeared on a TV screen. The subjects sat in front of the screen and manoeuvered through the simple or the complex maze with the help of a hand-operated device. Correspondingly the street scenes changed in such a way that the subject had the illusion of a normal pace. Each subject explored one maze for eight hours. Every 15 min. an experimenter interrupted the subject's walk and measured tactile discrimination in either hand. Ultradian periodic variations in the tactile error rate of the right and left hands with periods of 2 or 3 hours are found. They are considered manifestations of endogenous rhythms operating separately in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. As demonstrated in a previous paper, lateralized ultradian rhythms in tactile discrimination are different for males and females when tested under quiet laboratory conditions. The present paper shows that the rhythms are specifically influenced in both sexes by the spatial complexity of an artificial environment (maze). These findings are discussed from an evolutionary point of view.

  9. Bioindicators of soil quality in coffee organic cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of different coffee organic cultivation systems on chemical and biological soil characteristics, in different seasons of the year. The following systems were evaluated: coffee intercropped with one (CJ1, two (CJ2 or three (CJ3 pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan alleys; coffee planted under full sun (CS; area planted with sweet pepper and snap bean in a conventional tillage system (AC; and secondary forest area (FFR. Row spacing in CJ1, CJ2, CJ3 and CS was 2.0x1.0, 2.8x1.0, 3.6x1.0, and 2.8x1.0 m, respectively. Soil samples were collected at 10-cm depth, during the four seasons of the year. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and redundancy analysis. There was an increase in edaphic macrofauna, soil basal respiration, and microbial quotient in the summer. Total macrofauna density was greater in CJ2 followed by CJ3, CS, CJ1, AC and FFR; Coleoptera, Formicidae, and Isoptera were the most abundant groups. There are no significant differences among the areas for soil basal respiration, and the metabolic quotient is higher in CJ1, CJ3, and FFR. Microbial biomass carbon and the contents of K, pH, Ca+Mg, and P show greater values in AC.

  10. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility. PMID:20653534

  11. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Whitlock

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells and representations of azimuth (head direction cells. Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze vs. an open field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009, the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  12. Effet de Leucaena leucocephala, des fientes de volaille ou du fumier de bovins sur la productivité du maïs cultivé sur "terre de barre" au sud Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallouhi, N.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Leucaena leucocephala, Poultry Manure or Cattle Manure on Maize Productivity on Feralitic Soil "terre de barre" in South Benin. Our work has consisted on the study of post-effect of Leucaen's prunings and poultry manure buried last year and also on the study of the direct effect of cattle manure and its interaction with Leucaen's pruning on maize productivity on feralitic soil "terre de barre". - The mixture of Leucaen's prunings and poultry manure had positive post-effect giving a yield of fresh ears and grains significantly higher (9 % to the reference and other treatments in the plots over the alley. - The supply of 5 t/ha of cattle manure appears insufficient. On the other hand the mixture of Leucaen's prunings and cattle manure gave the best results related to the soil's properties such as organic matter's content or total exchange capacity of the soil and also concerning the yields. In this case we notice that ail the results are significantly higher to the other treatments. These results emphasize the importance of a supply of organic matter's to the soil thereby fertilizing it in humus and mineral elements.

  13. Resistance to extinction after schedules of partial delay or partial reinforcement in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, J N; Feldon, J; Ursin, H; Gray, J A

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental procedures were employed to establish the reason why hippocampal lesions apparently block the development of tolerance for aversive events in partial reinforcement experiments, but do not do so in partial punishment experiments. Rats were trained to run in a straight alley following hippocampal lesions (HC), cortical control lesions (CC) or sham operations (SO), and resistance to extinction was assessed following differing acquisition conditions. In Experiment 1 a 4-8 min inter-trial interval (ITI) was used. Either every acquisition trial was rewarded immediately (Continuous Reinforcement, CR), or only a randomly selected half of the trials were immediately rewarded, the reward being delayed for thirty seconds on the other trials (Partial Delay, PD). This delay procedure produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. In Experiment 2 the ITI was reduced to a few seconds, and rats were trained either on a CR schedule, or on a schedule in which only half the trials were rewarded (Partial Reinforcement, PR). This form of partial reinforcement procedure also produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. It thus appears that hippocampal lesions only prevent the development of resistance to aversive events when the interval between aversive and subsequent appetitive events exceeds some minimum value. PMID:4029302

  14. Long term effects of chronic chlordiazepoxide (CDP) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, A; Tykocinski, O; Feldon, J

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to test the long-term behavioral effects of 12 days administration of CDP (5 mg/kg/day) in rats. In the first two experiments, 4 weeks after the end of drug administration (CDP or placebo), and after 2 weeks of training to run a straight alley for food reward, animals were tested in extinction, i.e., following omission of reward (Expt. 1) or with punishment, i.e., 0.3 mA electric shock in addition to the food reward (Expt. 2). Drug-treated animals showed significantly increased resistance to extinction and to punishment compared with controls. In the third experiment, 10 weeks after drug administration, animals were exposed to 60 s of intense noise to induce audiogenic seizures. The convulsant metrazol was injected 5 min prior to successive sessions (10 min apart) with doses starting at 10 mg/kg an increased by 10 mg/kg each session up to 40 mg/kg. Drug-treated animals were significantly less susceptible to seizures than their placebo controls. These results suggest that chronic benzodiazepine treatment causes long-term neurochemical changes which are responsible for the observed behavioral effects. PMID:6433391

  15. Principal facts and an approach to collecting gravity data using near-real-time observations in the vicinity of Barstow, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.; Cronkite-Ratcliff, C.; Klofas, L.

    2013-01-01

    A gravity survey was done in the vicinity of Barstow, California, in which data were processed and analyzed in the field. The purpose of the data collection was to investigate possible changes in gravity across mapped Quaternary faults and to improve regional gravity coverage, adding to the existing national gravity database. Data were collected, processed, analyzed, and interpreted in the field in order to make decisions about where to collect data for the remainder of the survey. Geological targets in the Barstow area included the Cady Fault, the Manix Fault, and the Yermo Hills. Upon interpreting initial results, additional data were collected to more completely define the fault targets, rather than collecting data to improve the regional gravity coverage in an adjacent area. Both the Manix and Cady Faults showed gravitational expression of the subsurface in the form of steep gravitational gradients that we interpret to represent down-dropped blocks. The gravitational expression of the Cady Fault is on trend with the linear projection of the mapped fault, and the gravitational expression of the Manix Fault is north of the current northernmost mapped strand of the fault. The relative gravitational low over the Yermo Hills was confirmed and better constrained, indicating a significant thickness of sediments at the junction of the Calico, Manix, and Tin Can Alley Faults.

  16. Marine bacterioplankton biomass, activity and community structure in the vicinity of Antarctic icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alison E.; Peng, Vivian; Tyler, Charlotte; Wagh, Protima

    2011-06-01

    We studied marine bacterioplankton in the Scotia Sea in June 2008 and in the northwest Weddell Sea in March to mid April 2009 in waters proximal to three free-drifting icebergs (SS-1, A-43k, and C-18a), in a region with a high density of smaller icebergs (iceberg alley), and at stations that were upstream of the iceberg trajectories designated as far-field reference sites that were between 16-75 km away. Hydrographic parameters were used to define water masses in which comparisons between bacterioplankton-associated characteristics (abundance, leucine incorporation into protein, aminopeptidase activities and community structure) within and between water masses could be made. Early winter Scotia Sea bacterioplankton had low levels of cells and low heterotrophic production rates in the upper 50 m. Influences of the icebergs on bacterioplankton at this time of year were minimal, if not deleterious, as we found lower levels of heterotrophic production near A-43k in comparison to stations >16 km away. Additionally, the results point to small but significant differences in cell abundance, heterotrophic production, and community structure between the two icebergs studied. These icebergs differed greatly in size and the findings suggest that the larger iceberg had a greater effect. In the NW Weddell Sea in March-mid April bacterioplankton were twice as abundant and had heterotrophic productions rates that were 8-fold higher than what we determined in the Scotia Sea, though levels were still quite low, which is typical for autumn. We did not detect direct iceberg-related influences on the bacterioplankton characteristics studied here. Clues to understanding bacterioplankton responses may lie in the details of community structure, as there were some significant differences in community structure in the winter water and underlying upper circumpolar deep-water masses between stations occupied close to C-18a and at stations 18 km away (i.e. Polaribacter and Pelagibacter

  17. "Preaching To The Choir" And Empowering The Congregation: Using Facebook And Face Time To Counter Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuginow, E.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) is an education and outreach initiative, supported by NSF, which uses stories, metaphors and innovative communications strategies to cut through misinformation about climate change and promote positive action. External evaluation provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence on the success of this approach. This presentation includes short videos illustrating the strategy, and images from live nationwide events and Facebook posts. ETOM includes three PBS specials, a series of on-site presentations by scientists and military officers, a website functioning as portal to its video components, and a lively and growing Facebook community where uninformed statements about climate are often rebutted by 3rd party contributors not formally affiliated with the project. At outreach events at science centers such as the Science Museum of Minnesota, geoscientist Richard Alley, host of the TV programs, presented to large audiences with ample opportunities for follow-up Q&A. Audience surveys reported that Alley offered "the most clear explanation of linking carbon dioxide to climate change" and noted that his physical performance (nodding his head to show his North Pole bald spot to illustrate precession) was memorable. "I'll have that vision in my mind forever." 91% said the information was new to them, and 96% said the performance encouraged them to discuss the issues with friends: "He gave us language that we can use to communicate to other people, and I think that's what we need more than more data." But surveys also requested still more arguments to counter denial. The producers added a set of rebuttals ("But my brother-in-law said…") to the next live performance, at a Science Pub in Portland OR, with positive responses. The live events relied on stories and metaphors that audiences found new and memorable. Emitting CO2 is rather like how we used to dump filthy human waste out our windows, before the sanitation revolution. "You

  18. Study on tunneling magnetoresistance effects in parab olic well magnetic tunneling junction with double barriers%双势垒抛物势阱磁性隧道结隧穿磁阻及自旋输运性质的研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄政; 龙超云; 周勋; 徐明

    2016-01-01

    to alley ratio of the spin polarization and the tunnel magnetic resistance are increase with the barrier width increases. Furthermore, the spin polarization make quasiperiodic oscillation that the oscillation amplitudes become large, the period and peak to alley ratio are decrease as the Rashba spin-orbit coupling strength increases. It appears the spin flip phenomenon as increasing the thickness of the barriers. The TMR shows the typical properties of resonant tunneling with the increasing of the spin orbit coupling strength. In order to better reveal the role of the symmetry double tunnel barriers in the parabolic well structure, we calculate TMR against the thickness of the double barriers. It is found that the existence of the double tunnel barriers increase the TMR and the spin polarization significantly, which shows that the large TMR value can be obtained with the suitable layer thickness of the double barriers layer and the Rashba spin-orbital coupling coefficients. These characteristics are helpful to promote the development and application of new magnetic tunnel junctions.

  19. Effect of different flooring systems on weight and pressure distribution on claws of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Ventorp, M; Nilsson, C

    2008-05-01

    Weight and pressure distribution on the claw were studied in Swedish Holsteins housed in different flooring systems. A total of 127 cows housed in different sections of the experimental barn were used. Each section had different flooring in the walking and standing areas. There were rubber mats or abrasive mastic asphalt flooring on the alleys or a low-abrasive slatted concrete floor. Some sections had feed-stalls equipped with rubber mats; other sections did not. The vertical ground reaction force, contact area, and average contact pressure were determined on the left hind foot using the I-Scan system and analyzed with the F-scan system. These determinations were made in each of the following 3 zones of the claw: bulb, wall, and sole. Most of the weight on claws exposed to concrete floors was carried by the bulb (37.4 +/- 3.5 and 18.3 +/- 2.9% of weight exerted on the foot in the lateral and medial claw, respectively) and the wall zone (20.0 +/- 2.6 and 13.4 +/- 2.4% on lateral and medial claw, respectively). The weight and pressure distribution in cows kept on sections with rubber covered alleys but passing daily over the asphalt floor on their way to the milking parlor did not differ in any zones, except for lateral bulbs, compared with those exposed to slatted concrete alone. Still, the weight bearing of the sole zone in cows kept on rubber mats without access to asphalt was less than that of cows kept on concrete slatted floors (5.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 12.7 +/- 1.1% and 1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.7% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). In cows kept on asphalt flooring without feed-stalls, most weight was exerted to the sole zone (36.2 +/- 2.9 and 22.2 +/- 1.8% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). Feed-stalls in combination with asphalt flooring yielded a decreased total contact area (30.1 +/- 1.2 cm(2)) compared with asphalt floors without feed-stalls (35.7 +/- 1.2 cm(2)). The largest total contact area was obtained on the asphalt floor without feed

  20. Making Connections to Students' Lives and Careers Throughout a General Education Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Oklahoma's general education lecture course Severe & Unusual Weather, taught in two sections each fall and spring, covers about nine topics. The sections are taught by different instructors, each of whom has flexibility to employ a variety of instructional strategies and choose specific topics to cover while meeting the requirement that general education courses in the natural sciences help students understand the importance of the science for appreciating the world around them. Students enrolled have been approximately 6-10% returning adult students, some of whom were veterans or active duty military, and about 10% members of racial or ethnic groups. Their majors are mostly in the humanities (theater, photography) and social sciences (education, English, journalism, sociology), with some natural science majors (psychology, aviation). For the past two years, Section 001 has been designed with adult and active learning concepts in mind, using deliberate connections between course content and students' lives and careers to motivate meaningful learning. Students were grouped in teams according to similar majors and assigned group presentations connecting course content to topics that should interest them, such as economic impacts of weather, societal and personal impacts of severe weather, risks to aviation, media coverage of weather, and psychological and sociological responses to weather risks. Students learn about the peer review process for scientific papers while also exploring a connection of course content to their future career or life interests through papers that are run through a mock peer review process. Public policy is discussed in several sections of the course, such as hurricane building codes, wind-resistant construction in tornado alley, and the disproportionate impacts of weather and climate on certain socioeconomic groups. Most students deeply appreciate the opportunity to explore how course content intersects with their lives

  1. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics pre-college outreach program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Bacon, L.; Copper, K. K.; Hansen, L. J.; Sanchez, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Many United States, school children perceive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as difficult, boring and often irrelevant subjects. The possible reasons for this problem are endlessly debated. However, the economic, social, and overall national importance of producing graduates who are technically literate and enthusiastic in their support of a rational scientific world is essential to our nation. This apparent STEM crisis should motivate the many scientific and engineering societies to develop STEM outreach programs aimed at students, parents, teachers and schools (grades K-12). The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is among those organizations that have identified the need to educate students and teachers about STEM current events and their direct effects on the United States population in a way that motivates both. The AIAA has established a pre-college outreach program that has several major elements that will be described in this paper. Elements focused on the teachers include a pre-college Educator Associate Membership program, classroom grants to support hands-on learning activities, Educator of the Year awards and recognition program and two national workshop events. The first workshop event, Passport to the Future, is held annually in conjunction with the Joint Propulsion Conference. It is intended to provide summertime training in Aerospace science education to classroom teachers, in conjunction with a national professional conference. The second workshop, Education Alley, is held in the fall in conjunction with the “Space” series of conferences. This program is aimed at direct outreach to local students in the conference host city, providing fun, interesting, and educational events that promote STEM. The AIAA also encourages and supports pre-college outreach activities sponsored by the local AIAA sections through leadership training, activity and material support.

  2. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. PMID:26863223

  3. Between 'Existence' and 'Nothingness' The Design of Yanlord Guantang and Tangbei Communities%“有”“无”之间 仁恒观棠、棠北社区设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋照青; 岑岭; 董艺

    2012-01-01

    This paper expresses the architect's inclinations towards pursuing strong visual effects in contemporary Chinese architectural design, and reflects on the possibilities of expressing Oriental philosophy's commitment to atmosphere by way of space treatment approaches rich in traditional architectural ambiance. In the design practice of Yanlord Guantang and Tangbei communities in Suzhou, the architects have actively engaged in experimentation in architectural layout, courtyard space, street and alley space and material, eventually succeeded in expressing more 'existence' through the medium of 'nothingness' which is characterized by deliberately left empty spaces, imitation of nature and self-abnegation.%文章表达建筑师面对当下中国建筑设计中追求强烈视觉效果的倾向,思考用更多富含传统建筑意境的空间处理手法来表达东方哲学中对意境的追求。通过苏州仁恒观棠社区、棠北社区的设计实践,建筑师对建筑布局、建筑院落空间、建筑街巷空间以及材料进行积极尝试,最终用建筑留白、摹画自然、自我消隐的方式诠释了传统建筑意境,用"无"表达了更多的"有"。

  4. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. PMID:23261382

  5. Behavioral assessment of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM P8 and R1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, A L; Spangler, E L; Ingram, D K

    1998-04-01

    Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM P8 and R1) were behaviorally assessed in a cross-sectional study at 4 and 15 months of age. Behavioral measures included memory (place discrimination and repeated acquisition in a water maze), sensorimotor performance (turning in an alley, traversing bridges, wire rod hanging, and falls from a wire screen), psychomotor performance (open-field exploration), and emotionality (entries in a plus maze, grooming, and defecation in a plus maze and in an open field). In the water maze, aged P8 mice were impaired in place discrimination and in repeated acquisition tasks, demonstrating evidence of an age-related decline in spatial memory processing abilities. The demonstration of this impairment, however, was complicated by noncognitive factors, such as the tendency of many older P8 mice to float. Sensorimotor skill impairment was accelerated with age in P8 mice, but not in R1 mice, and this impairment was present despite the lack of age-related changes in body weight in P8 mice. Although P8 and R1 mice were not different in general activity at old age, P8 mice were substantially more hyperactive in an open field and in the plus maze than R1 mice when compared at young age. Independent of age, P8 mice demonstrated a reduction of anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Taken as a whole, the data suggest that although age-related behavioral alterations occur in the P8 mice, some of these changes are evident at 4 months of age. Thus, the behavioral abnormalities that exist not only represent an accelerated aging phenomenon but may also be considered a developmental pathology. PMID:9661977

  6. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  7. Open field-applicable instrumental methods for structural and functional assessment of whole trees and stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cermák J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This illustrated review is aimed to provide succinct account of different methods applicable for obtaining objective information about the functional ecology of forest sites and stands (and also, e.g., orchards, watersheds, parks or alleys for the purposes of phytotechnology or precise forestry. Management strategies must consider preservation of many important functions of forests in the landscape. Management methodologies include classical forestry approaches based on classification of the natural environment according to climatic zones, soil characteristics and composition of herbaceous as well as woody vegetation. One possibility for obtaining objective information came with the development of ecologically applicable instrumentation, allowing studies on the whole tree and stand levels to be undertaken anywhere in the field. Information may be derived at sites that are not permanently observed and are not equipped with additional constructions, such as towers, masts, or greenhouses. These field applicable methods are focused especially on tree and stand macrostructure, water relations and functional parameters of trees. In addition, problems associated with interactions between trees and different organisms are also discussed. A series of methods based on different principles is useful to measure mostly quantitative, operative or effective tree parameters as tree crowns and leaf distribution, stems (or large tree trunks and root systems including skeleton and absorptive fine roots. This is sometimes possible to do with rather simple methods, but instrumental methods prevail especially for root studies. In addition to several classical measurement principles including anatomical or mechanical sensing, the methods work with sound speed (acoustic tomography using electromagnetic rays of different wavelength (from radar to optical, electric conductivity or impedance, supersonic air stream and thermodynamics for example. Methods for data

  8. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  9. 长安人深谙长安味———评高云光小说《长安城里水车巷》%Flavor of Chang’an Lingers on Chang’an People——— Book Report of Gao Yunguang’s W aterwheel A lley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2012-01-01

      Waterwheel Alley by Mr .Gao shows us the beauty of Chang’an from the person who was born in Chang’an .It also shows us the peace ,depth ,broad and profound culture appealing to all and the stubborn character and spirit that lasts forever .The steamed wheaten food in this novel symbolizes the long history of Chang’an and ever lasting enthusiasm among Chang’an people .The whole story also pro-claims the inner meaning of Chang’an ,which is forever peaceful ,by talking about the long -standing cul-ture .%  高云光先生的小说《长安城里水车巷》[1]以“写我西安”的深情与魄力,表现了宁静悠远古老深沉的长安风貌、博大精深雅俗共融的长安文化、刚正执拗高标孤傲的长安性情,以及沧桑巨变仁义不改的长安风骨。作者笔下具有浓郁审美特性的小吃“烫面热油塔”,象征了长安漫长曲折的历史和长安人历尽艰辛不改初衷的古道热肠。小说以长安人传承的古老文化,诠释了长安城“长久平安”的内在含义。

  10. [Possible causes of unspecific reduced productivity in dairy herds in SchIeswig-Holstein: an explorative case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campe, Amely; Hohmeier, Stefan; Koesters, Sarah; Hartmann, Maria; Ruddat, Inga; Mahlkow-Nerge, Katrin; Heilemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recently unspecific productivity losses were observed in dairy herds in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. This case-control study on cattle health investigated the possible association between a multifactorial event and the occurrence of unspecific productivity losses. 35 dairy farms were defined as cases and 65 farms as controls, when they met two out of three eligibility criteria, respectively (cell count, mortality and life production of cows). Case farms had relevantly more often problems with forage collection (too low cutting height), feed storage (no foil used), and energy supply of dairy cattle (insufficient feeding of corn silage and lowered energy content of grass silage). Case farms had relevantly more often dirty lying areas, feeding and walking alleys, feed bunks and watering places as well as more cows with dirty udders, flanks and legs than control farms. Farm individual self-control as well as veterinarian and agricultural consultancy should focus on these management areas. Furthermore, the health situation should be checked regularly on an individual animal level for diseases of the locomotor (especially by intensifying claw care), metabolic and reproductive systems. Additionally, 22 so-called intermediate farms with considerable herd health problem during the study period were investigated for possible exogenous influences on the farm performance. There were no indications for influences by the soil type, weather conditions at harvesting or wild bird occurrence on cropland, which might be as well due to the explorative nature of the study. However, herd health problems were apparent in case and intermediate farms more often and more diversely than in control farms. PMID:27169149

  11. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  12. Method of preventing unwanted traffic in the “Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontu, A. I.; Maftei, A.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Sachelarie, A.; Budeanu, B.

    2016-08-01

    In 1970’ when the university campus was built the road infrastructure was designed for a very small number of cars. Over time technology has advanced and the number of vehicles has risen. According to the Directorate of Vehicle Registration from Iasi in 2015 there were 173.619 registered vehicles, about 11,000 vehicles in addition to 2014. This rise in vehicle numbers has lead to a particular problem in which, vehicle drivers prefer in some cases the use of back alleys and back roads to get to the destination. The ”Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus is not a main road of transit, is a residential area that does not support a high number of vehicles and especially does not support heavy vehicles. In our case study we observed the tendency of drivers to use the campus roads as a method of bypassing rush hour traffic in their route, especially in the case of taxi vehicles as well as light trucks and vans that use the campus roads as access to the commercial stores and restaurants that are situated in the front of the campus. In the study of ”Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus traffic, on terrain vehicle number collection has been conducted, this was done one week, day by day, and this has revealed that: • the number of cars which enter in the campus area is high. • a lot of cars only transit the campus on route to the commercial area. • 25% from that cars are taxis • trucks and light trucks have been present. In this paper we present a solution that resolves these problems which have been identified in the analysis of the current campus status. In terrain measurements mathematical calculations accompanied with PTV Vissim software simulations using real world data have been used to confirm the proposed solution is viable.

  13. Les aliments des habitants de la « cabane » / Food in the shack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Plancade

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel, Lucien, Gérard et Jean-Baptiste habitent une cabane dans une ruelle d'une grande ville. Leur alimentation est issue principalement de dons, de restes ou de déchets. Le terrain mené auprès d'eux permet de mettre en évidence comment ces denrées doivent être revalorisées pour pouvoir être consommées. Entrent en ligne de compte les conditions de leur obtention, l'acte culinaire et la création de déchets qui s'en suit. L'analyse montre donc que loin de se réduire à sa dimension nutritive, l'alimentation dans ces conditions de précarité organise la vie sociale des habitants de cette cabane : c'est par elle que passe la création de relations cordiales avec le voisinage, et la possibilité de devenir aidant/donateur à son tour auprès de personnes encore plus démunies.Daniel, Lucien, Gérard and Jean-Baptiste live in a shack, in a city back-alley. They get their food mainly from donations, left-overs or waste. The fieldwork performed in their company sheds light on the fact that new values must be conferred to such foods in order to become edible. What matters is how the food was obtained, the cooking process, and the subsequent production of waste. The analysis shows that feeding in such precarious conditions, far from being reduced to its nutritive dimension, organizes the social life of this shack's residents: food is what makes friendly relations possible with neighbours and gives the opportunity to become helper/ donator in turn towards even more destitute persons

  14. Zonal Flow and Vortices in Anelastic Deep Convection Models of Jupiter and Saturn With Shallow Stable Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimpel, M. H.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary jet streams and vortices have been studied for over 350 years, yet their origin and dynamics are still vigorously debated. On both Jupiter and Saturn zonal flow consists of equatorial superrotation and alternating East-West jets at higher latitude. On Jupiter, numerous vortices, the vast majority anticyclones, occur with various sizes and lifetimes, interacting strongly with the zonal flow. Saturn's vortices and jets are also clearly coupled, and its North and South polar vortices are cyclonic. Models of giant planet atmospheres have generally been of two classes. Shallow flow models produce jets and vortices from 2D turbulence in a very thin spherical layer, but require special conditions to reproduce observed equatorial superrotation. In contrast, deep convection models generically reproduce equatorial superrotation, but typically lack coherent vortices, which do not survive the formation of jets. Here, we combine elements of both approaches using a 3D spherical shell compressible fluid numerical model, driven by convection at depth, but grading to a stably stratified shallow layer. In typical model simulations convective plumes rising from the deep interior impinge on the stably stratified layer, diverge near the outer spherical surface, and efficiently create the dominant anticyclones, which are shielded by downwelling cyclonic rings and filaments. These results may explain the dominance of anticyclones and the flow structure of small and medium sized anticyclonic ovals on Jupiter. The largest of our model vortices form in westward anticyclonic shear nearest the equatorial jet, similar to Saturn's "storm alley" and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. We also explore conditions under which cyclones, including polar cyclones like those on Saturn, may form.

  15. Global Deep Convection Models of Saturn's Atmospheric Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Cuff, Keith; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini mission, along with previous missions and ground-based observations, has revealed a rich variety of atmospheric phenomena and time variability on Saturn. Some examples of dynamical features are: zonal flows with multiple jet streams, turbulent tilted shear flows that seem to power the jets, the north polar hexagon, the south polar cyclone, large anticyclones in "storm alley", numerous convective storms (white spots) of various sizes, and the 2010/2011 great storm, which destroyed an array of vortices dubbed the "string of pearls". Here we use the anelastic dynamo code MagIC, in non-magnetic mode, to study rotating convection in a spherical shell. The thickness of the shell is set to approximate the depth of the low electrical conductivity deep atmosphere of Saturn, and the convective forcing is set to yield zonal flows of similar velocity (Rossby number) to those of Saturn. Internal heating and the outer entropy boundary conditions allow simple modelling of atmospheric layers with neutral stability or stable stratification. In these simulations we can identify several saturnian and jovian atmospheric features, with some variations. We find that large anticyclonic vortices tend to form in the first anticyclonic shear zones away from the equatorial jet. Cyclones form at the poles, and polar polygonal jet streams, comparable to Saturn's hexagon, may or may not form, depending on the model conditions. Strings of small scale vortical structures arise as convective plumes near boundaries of shear zones. They typically precede larger scale convective storms that spawn propagating shear flow disturbances and anticyclonic vortices, which tend to drift across anticyclonic shear zones, toward the equator (opposite the drift direction of Saturn's 2010/2011 storm). Our model results indicate that many identifiable dynamical atmospheric features seen on Jupiter and Saturn arise from deep convection, shaped by planetary rotation, underlying and interacting with stably

  16. Clinical features of neovascular glaucoma treated with multi-wavelength laser photocoagulation%多波长激光视网膜光凝治疗新生血管性青光眼的临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕刚; 唐连志; 张伟; 王涛; 黄红深

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察新生血管性青光眼(neovascular glaucoma,NVG)应用多波长激光进行全视网膜光凝(pan retinal photocoagulation,PRP)的临床特点.方法:NVG患者21例25眼积极抗青光眼治疗同时,应用多波长激光进行PRP,观察光凝特点及并发症.结果:所有患者PRP顺利完成,应用红光光凝较多,光凝时明显疼痛3例5眼,虹膜炎症反应2例3眼,前房和玻璃体少量出血4例4眼,未发生脉络膜视网膜脱离.眼压不同程度下降,眼痛、头痛症状缓解.结论:多波长激光有利于NVG患者PRP的顺利完成,且安全有效.%AIM: To observe clinical features of neovascular glaucoma ( NVG) treated with multi - wavelength laser photocoagulation (PRP).METHODS: Totally 21 patients (25 eyes) with NVG were performed actively anti-glaucoma treatment, at the same time, they were also performed multi-wavelength laser photocoagulation. Photocoagulation characteristics and complications were observed.RESULTS: The PRP was completed successfully on alleyes. Red photocoagulation was used more offen. Three cases (5 eyes) had obvious pain, 2 cases (3 eyes) had iris inflammation reaction, 4 cases (4 eyes) had anterior chamber and vitreous hemorrhage. Choroidal retinal detachment was not found. IOP was decreased at different degree, eye pain and headache symptoms were relieved.CONCLUSION; Multi-wavelength laser is conducive to the successful completion of pan retinal photocoagulation in neovascular glaucoma. It is safe and effective.

  17. Management concept to promote biodiversity-linked ecosystem services in vineyards (Project PromESSinG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Schlossnikel, Bettina; Pingel, Martin; Uzman, Deniz; Steiner, Magdalena; Reineke, Annette; Bacher, Sven; van Helden, Maarten; Giffard, Brice; Tolle, Pauline; Preda, Cristina; Forneck, Astrid; Leyer, Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Although vineyards are intensive used agro-ecosystem with high economic importance worldwide the efforts to establish a sustainable viticulture system have been increased dramatically. In accordance with these efforts knowledge about the ecosystem vineyard and the influencing factors is highly needed. In a three years project the question whether and how biodiversity can support ecosystem services is addressed in five European countries, representing temperate vine-growing regions. Vineyards can provide high levels of biodiversity inside the cropped area, which cannot be found in annual cropping systems. Our research will have a strong focus on the biodiversity in the soil, analyzing microorganisms as well as the meso- und macrofauna. These parameters will be linked with different ecosystem services of the soil, like organic matter degradation, provision of water and nutrients, influences on the soil structure and the interaction of beneficial and phytopathogenic microorganisms and insects. In order to find options for promoting biodiversity and ecosystem services we study three different types of vineyard soil management: bare ground, complete vegetation cover, and both types arranged in alternating alleys. Further treatments of green manure and species rich seed mixtures are investigated in single countries. The second influencing factor analyzed is the surrounding landscape structure, as it is known that a high density of semi-natural habitats can provide biodiversity and ecosystem services for agricultural fields. Therefore vineyards with a different density of hedges, woodlands, and grasslands were selected for the study. The project started 2015 and first results concerning the influence of the soil management system on the degradation of the soil organic matter and the abundance of the macrofauna showed already first responsive effects in Austrian vineyards.

  18. Club Americano de Tokio – Japón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yendo, -

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available The new installations of this complex contain 12,730 m2 divided on two structures: one 10 storeyed main tower with a restaurant for 300 people, 5 banquet halls, conference rooms and offices. The other, lower building is provided with a bowling alley, swimming pool and other recreation facilities for ladies, gentlemen, young people and families. The construction is entirely of reinforced concrete. The massive and impressive looking facade is made up of a combination of fairfaced concrete, with a white granulated finish, and panels of ceramic tiles of the same colour. Inside the building the predominating colour is white, though in some cases combined with striking colours. The entire furniture was made to measure, by means of which it could be better adapted to the particular requirements. The illumination is fluorescent, incandescent or special depending on the various sections.Las nuevas instalaciones de este complejo comprenden 12.730 m2en una torre principal de 10 plantas, con restaurante para 300 personas, cinco salones de banquetes, salas de reuniones y oficinas, y un edificio de recreo, a menor altura, con pista de bolos, piscina y diversas instalaciones para señoras, caballeros, jóvenes y familias. La construcción es en su totalidad de hormigón armado. La fachada, de aspecto macizo y monumental,está constituida por una combinación de hormigón visto, con un acabado granulado blanco, y paneles de azulejo cerámico, del mismo color. En el interior predomina el color blanco, combinado, en algunas zonas, con tonos cálidos. Todo el mobiliario se diseñó e hizo a la medida, consiguiendo de este modo la mayor confortabilidad. La iluminación, según las zonas, es fluorescente, incandescente o especial.

  19. Pharmacological modulation of lateral habenular dopamine D2 receptors alters the anxiogenic response to cocaine in a runway model of drug self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kerisa; Bogyo, Kelsie; Schick, Tinisha; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine has long been known to produce an initial "high" followed by an aversive/anxiogenic "crash". While much is known about the neurobiology of cocaine's positive/rewarding effects, the mechanisms that give rise to the drug's negative/anxiogenic actions remain unclear. Recent research has implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in the encoding of aversive events including the anxiogenic response to cocaine. Of particular interest in this regard are the reciprocal connections between the LHb and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA-DA neurons innervate different subsets of LHb cells that in turn feedback upon and modulate VTA neuronal activity. Here we examined the impact of D2 receptor activation and inhibition on the anxiogenic response to cocaine using a runway model of self-administration that is sensitive to the dual and opposing effects of the drug. Male rats ran a straight alley for IV cocaine (1.0mg/kg) following bilateral intra-LHb infusions of the D2 receptor antagonist, cis-flupenthixol (0, 7.5 or 15μg/side) or the D2 agonist, sumanirole (0, 5 or 10μg/side). Vehicle-pretreated controls developed approach-avoidance conflict behaviors about goal-box entry reflective of the dual positive and negative effects of cocaine. These behaviors were significantly diminished during LHb-D2 receptor antagonism and increased by the LHb D2 receptor agonist. These results demonstrate that activity at the D2 receptor in the lateral habenula serves to modulate the anxiogenic response to cocaine. PMID:27155504

  20. The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture. PMID:23305424

  1. The Joy of Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    The effectiveness of cryospheric science in addressing its main purpose (predicting and assessing response to climate change) is powerfully, but intangibly enhanced by the mysterious nature and the remote locations of ice and snow phenomena. Study of the cryosphere, in essence, depends as much on the universal human desire to satisfy curiosity as it does on the fact that cryospheric science informs humanity about the consequences of the environmental changes now clearly visible in all realms of the cryosphere. In my presentation, I shall consider the study of ice-shelf dynamics and stability, and shall draw on the perspective of my 37 years of involvement in this small, but important corner of glaciology, to show where curiosity has, and continues to be, a major driver of understanding. Joyful moments within the development of ice-shelf glaciology include examples where complete misunderstandings and blind alleys have ironically led to unexpected insight into how related phenomena operate, including: the flow of ice streams, the role of sticky spots, styles and drivers of iceberg calving, tidewater glacier terminus behavior, the source mechanisms and interpretations of cryospheric related seismic signals, and the dynamics of iceberg-drift-steering ocean circulation in basins separated by mid-ocean ridges. The familiar joke, "Why did the man who lost his keys on a dark night only search underneath the streetlamp?", is apt for cryospheric science--but with a perverse twist: We cryospheric scientists are more akin to the man who is driven to also grope for the key in the darkness because of the chance that in addition to the key, the car that the key will start might also be found somewhere beyond the glow of the streetlamp.

  2. Ontogenetic development of avoidance learning in rats after eye opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, O; Köllner, U; Göb, R; Klingberg, F

    1988-01-01

    Five male and one female group of 8 pups were selected from 8 liters on the second postnatal day and returned to 6 dams. The animals were investigated in two subsequent tests; first, in a peripheral field avoidance test using a 60 x 75 x 22 cm open field subdivided into 20 equal squares of 15 x 15 cm with separate floor grids for electrical punishment and, second, in a W-like maze with a start arm falling into a common alley from which left and right each two goal arms branched off. Four qualities were measured in the first test: finding out that only central fields remained unpunished; the stay duration in central fields indicating passive avoidance; the response to a conditioned stimulus, when they entered peripheral fields indicating active avoidance; the quality of extinction. The differences of these qualities changed significantly from week to week as the acquisition speed and the consolidation increased, the extinction was rapid in the third week, very slow in the fourth week and adult-like in the fifth week. The self-chosen strategy of pups showed dominance of escape with subsequent motor inhibition in the third week, dominance of trials and active avoidance in the fourth week, dominance of passive avoidance in the fifth week. We found no difference between males and females, or between blind and control rats. The W-maze test revealed additionally that reversal learning from left goal to right goal was still difficult in the fourth week and that brightness-cued alteration of goals in which wrong choices were punished when a time limit was overcome could not be learned before the sixth week and not consolidated before the end of the seventh week. The results suggest that various brain processes are involved in the development of avoidance and learning strategies which mature unevenly and reach their peaks at different ages. PMID:3254159

  3. Design and Operation of Infrasound Stations for Hazardous Weather Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepyne, D.

    2012-04-01

    Each year tornadoes cause property damage and death, some of which could be avoided with increased warning lead time. The year 2011 was particularly severe, with more than 1600 tornadoes causing in excess of 500 deaths in the U.S. It is known that tornadoes and their precursors generate infrasound in the 0.5Hz to 10Hz frequency band, with precursors occurring some 30-60 minutes prior to tornado touch down, which is some 15-45 minutes earlier than the average tornado warning lead time in the U.S. Given the potential of infrasound to improve tornado early warning and emergency response, the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in conjunction with its research on small, boundary-layer observing X-band weather radars, has begun a research project whose goal is to combine the passive detection of tornado infrasound with active tracking of the parent storms that carry the tornadoes with its weather radars. In the spring of 2011 CASA conducted an infrasound field-test in Oklahoma, in the heart of the so-called "tornado-alley" where statistically the majority of springtime tornadoes in the U.S. occur. This being CASA's first infrasound experiment, the goal of the field-test was to gain an understanding of the issues involved in the design and operation of infrasound stations for severe weather monitoring and early warning. In this application, it is not so much the ability of infrasound to travel long distances that is of importance, but rather the fact that there can be precursor signals that unlike radar do not require line-of-sight to detect. In fact, for early warning, detection distance would generally need to be less than 100 km, since a propagation delay of much more than 5 minutes would be too late. Challenges encountered included persistent infrasound "clutter" from a nearby large windfarm, accurate bearing detection over a wide bandwidth with a fixed four sensor aperture, and the need to operate in the the high winds that surround

  4. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Oil Frond and Stem Bunch for Developing Pruner and Harvester Machinery Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A development of oil palm pruner and harvester machinery design implemented in the field still faces a problem due to the lack of effective and efficient design which is need to be solved. It was noted that in order to develop the design, an early data and information of physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem fruits is critically important. The objective of the research was to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem in order to develop the design of pruner and harvester machinery. The result showed that tool machinery was been advantageous by the physical properties of the plant i.e. the total weight of frond and leaf which enable to support the cutting process. The average of total weight of frond and leaf was 16.8 kg. The diagonal cutting trajectory was been more advantageous because of total weight and frond shape toward to the different of the plant tissue area. The measurement result shows that cutting curve follows the time required for cutting. The comparison among cutting curve shows differences in cutting thickness or length. In this case, the thickness is linear with cutting time. Besides, those curves show differences at the height which determine the maximum value of tested material cutting resistance. Alternative solution for machinery development design is pruner-harvester for height plant below 6 m and among 6 to 12 m. For below 6 m, pruner-harvester was designed by incorporating motor as power source and cutter-disc as the knife cutter. That condition was relied on that estate which was maintenance intensively commonly used cutter-disc. Pruner-harvester above 6 m and up to 12 m was improved based on manual egrek-designed by adding fresh fruit bunch alley supply glide in order to keep the fruits still in intact form. The consideration was based on affectivity and efficiency. It also considers homogenous ecological of palm oil plant which should be maintained to reduce global

  5. Frutos da castidade e da lascívia: as crianças abandonadas no Recife (1789-1832 Fruits of chastity and lasciviousness: the abandoned children in Recife (1789-1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcileide Cabral do Nascimento

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga o abandono de crianças no Recife, geradas nas relações castas e lascivas, sacramentadas e duvidosas, entre os anos de 1789 a 1832. Como provas da "fraqueza moral" ou "fruto da miséria", eram os "miúdos" abandonados às intempéries e aos animais carnívoros, deixados em portas de casas e igrejas, ruas e becos quando foi instituída a Casa dos Expostos que visava acolher e criá-los, salvaguardar a honra de moças de família e desestimular o infanticídio. Paradoxalmente, os discursos, as interdições e a normatização relativas à sexualidade e à religiosidade que regulavam a vida dos colonos foi também o esteio para o costume de se abandonar bebês. Os sinais e fragmentos desses "pequenos" são encontrados nos livros de batismos que falam de crianças sem família, vidas excedentes e indesejadas, como fica patente no alto índice de mortalidade dentro da Instituição.This work investigates the abandonment of children born from chaste and lascivious, blessed and doubtful, relationships in Recife between 1789 and 1832. As live evidence of the moral "weakness" or as a "fruit of misery", they were abandoned to bad weather conditions and carnivorous animals, left at houses' and churches' doors, on the streets and alleys, until the House of the Bare was finally created, mainly to shelter and rear them, to protect the honor of the well-born women and to discourage the infanticide. Paradoxically, the discourses, interdictions and the normalization relating to sexuality and religiousness of the settlers' lives were also a support for the habit of abandoning children. The traces and fragments of these "little ones" are found in baptism books which tell us about boys and girls without families, exceeding and undesired lives, as the high rate of mortality in that institution indicates.

  6. Aggregate stability and soil degradation in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregate stability is a measure of the structural stability of soils. Factors that influence aggregate stability are important in evaluating the ease with which soils erode by water and/or wind, the potential of soils to crust and/or seal, soil permeability, quasi-steady state infiltration rates and seedling emergence and in predicting the capacity of soils to sustain long-term crop production. Aggregate stability of soils can be measured by the wet-sieving or raindrop techniques. A reduction in soil aggregate stability implies an increase in soil degradation. Hence aggregate stability and soil degradation are interwoven. The measures used can either be preventive or remedial. Preventive practices minimize the chances of soil degradation occurring or the magnitude or severity of the damage when the degradation manifests. These include in Nigeria, (i) manuring and mulching, (ii) planted fallows and cover crops, (iii) sustainable farming systems, (iv) adequate rotations, (v) home gardens or compound farms, (vi) alley cropping and related agro forestry systems, and (vii) chemical fertilizers which are mainly remedial measures. Because of alterations in soil properties that affect particular land uses, soils may degrade for one crop (maize rather sorghum). As long as some land use is possible soil degradation is not always an absolute concept. Decline in agricultural productivity should be evaluated in terms of inputs such as fertilizer use, water management and tillage methods. We can alleviate some types of soil degradation by use of micronutrients, inorganic fertilizers and organic residues. Soil that responds to management practices cannot be said to be degraded. Since crop growth depends on weather, degraded soils may be more sensitive to harsh weather (e.g. drought, temperature) than undegraded soils. A soil is degraded if its productivity falls below the economic threshold even under favourable weather conditions or with judicious inputs. All human

  7. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INSURANCE SALES SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stofor Ovidiu-Ilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insurance system in Romania is carried out with a constant natural activity, evolving quite honorably these times. This is largely due to the difficulty with which insurance is sold in normal economic conditions when it comes to prosperity. Although psychologists, led by Maslow believes that the protection needs are basic needs, along with the physiological one, on the priority list regarding procurement, insurance needs are for some Romanians, of minimum or no importance, so that they are either pushed to the bottom of the list, or even, as it most often happens, they are non existent. Current economic conditions and climate, urges caution on most fields, especially in terms of individual properties, including, how somewhat forced, life and physical integrity which are still considered property, if this aspect is not debated in terms of Christian or other religious dogma. In other words, many Romanians see insurance as a product that “is not up their alley” including it in the luxury category. Furthermore, the media shows, sometimes amplify certain cases of doubt in relations between insurance company - customer. Appropriate marketing, allied with the information technology can improve the complete relationship between the two entities - the offeror and the consumer. Through this study we aim to identify important issues that facilitate the sale of insurance, using information technology, given that the sales of these financial products through the "ancestral" methods are effective but not very efficient. We will follow, byanchoring to the current reality, the insurance utility and how to use information technologies in support of marketing (sales. The study itself was done by observing the results in practical work, from an insurance agency, but also related to what the literature offers. Because this study is currently underway, there are certainly some limitations of accuracy of results, which are adjusted "on the fly". Realizing

  8. Image segmentation of diseased lentil leaves for disease speckle%扁豆病害叶片的病斑剥离分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学俊; 赵礼良

    2014-01-01

    Traditional segmentation methods can obtain better result for these images which have distinct difference between the goal and background area. However these methods are difficult to obtain ideal disease speckle for diseased lentil leave images which have minor difference among normal leaves and disease speckles. So in this paper, it proposes a method that is suitable for diseased lentil leave images. This method has two stages including initial segmentation and secondary segmentation. Color gradient graph of these images is computed, then the Otsu algorithm is applied to eliminate lower gra-dient. Watershed algorithm is used to pre-segment the images, then a rough target zone based on zone area features is gained. FCM algorithm is applied to rough target zone. By analyzing difference between green alley of disease speckle and normal leaves, disease speckle is acquired. Experimental results show good effect of segmenting disease speckle with this method.%传统的分割方法针对目标和背景灰度值差距大的图像能得到较好的分割效果,但在对正常叶片和病斑灰度值相似度高的扁豆病害叶片图像分割时,难以得到理想的目标病斑。针对该问题,提出了一种适合正常叶片和病斑相似度高的图像剥离分割方法。该方法包括初始分割和二次分割两个步骤。初始分割是基于样本图片的彩色梯度图,采用最大类间标准方差与分水岭相结合的算法获得病斑粗略区域。二次分割是对粗略目标区域进行模糊C聚类分割得到目标病斑。实验结果表明,该剥离分割算法能提高病斑分割精确度,较好地分割出病斑目标。

  9. Changes in hoof health and animal hygiene in a dairy herd after covering concrete slatted floor with slatted rubber mats: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F; Platz, S; Link, C; Mahling, M; Meyer, H H D; Erhard, M H

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of changing the flooring in the alleys of a barn from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats on hoof disorders and animal hygiene in 44 loose-housed Brown Swiss dairy cows. Cows were examined for disorders of the hind hooves (hemorrhages, white line fissures, ulcers, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis) and for skin lesions. The dirtiness of the animals and of the floor was recorded. Climatic (temperature, humidity) and ammonia gas conditions were measured. Evaluations were carried out when the cows were housed on a concrete slatted floor and after 4 and 10 mo on soft flooring (slatted rubber mats, 29-mm thick). The anatomical portion of claw (medial, lateral), number of lactations (parity), and days in milk were included as covariates in the statistical model. Changing the flooring from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats increased the score for white line fissures [1.0 ± 0.3 (concrete) vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 (10 mo rubber mats)] and influenced air humidity (i.e., the difference in the absolute humidity between the inside and outside of the barn increased from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.2g/m(3)), whereas the other hoof disorders, skin lesions (score of 8.7 ± 0.3), the dirtiness of the animals (score of 5.9 ± 0.3), and the floor (score of 2.1 ± 0.1), and ammonia gas concentration (2.6 ± 0.3mg/kg) were not affected (overall scores or measures; mean ± SE). Lateral claws were more affected (except for heel horn erosion) than medial claws (estimated effects between 1.3 ± 0.2 and 3.0 ± 0.6). Parity influenced hoof disorders (except for hemorrhages) and skin lesions (estimated effects between -0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2). Days in milk influenced hoof disorders, but had no effect on skin lesions and on the dirtiness of the animal. Irrespective of floor type, the slots (2.6 ± 0.1) were dirtier than the slats (1.6 ± 0.1). In conclusion, covering slatted concrete flooring with slatted rubber mats partially impaired hoof

  10. Soil physical conditions in Nigerian savannas and biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria is located in the tropical zone, with a vast area having savanna vegetation. This is a region that is itself diverse, necessitating a classification into derived savanna, southern Guinea savanna and northern Guinea savanna. These classifications reflect environmental characteristics such as length of growing period, which for instance is 151-180 days for the northern Guinea savanna, 181-210 days for the southern Guinea savanna and 211-270 days for the derived savanna/coastal savanna. The major soils found in the various agro-ecological zones have coarse-textured surface soil, and are low in organic matter and chemical fertility. Although, yields can be improved by addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer, this can only be sustained and assured with high soil physical qualities. Soil physical qualities can be sustained at a high level with conservation tillage and soil conservation measures. Tillage is physical manipulation of the soil. Thus, the most profound effect of tillage is in relation to soil physical properties. For socio-economic and cultural reasons, manual tillage is still widely practiced in Africa as farming is largely at subsistence level. However, there are now a number of commercial farms especially for cash crop production in many parts of Africa. Many of these are located in locations which were hitherto reserved as forest and a need for sustainable production in pertinent to maintain ecological balance. Soils with coarse texture are not often sensitive to some physical parameters while some physical parameters are more relevant in a given study than others. Sustainable crop production researches in the tropics have focused on the role of planted fallows and their spatial arrangement (e.g., as in alley cropping) for many decades. Application of soil physics in the area of food production and environmental management still lags behind other sub-disciplines of soil science, particularly soil fertility in the tropics. A great challenge is

  11. The distribution of leaf area, radiation, photosynthesis and transpiration in a Shamouti orange hedgerow orchard, part 2: photosynthesis, transpiration and the effect of row shape and direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the periphery of the canopy at all heights within the orchard. (c) Whereas row orientation has little influence on total photosynthesis of the orchard, a N-S orientation allows more light penetration into rows with slanted walls and/or wide inter-row alleys, thus reducing spatial variation in the computed photosynthesis. (d) Water use of vertically pruned citrus orchards can be decreased significantly without seriously affecting photosynthesis by reducing canopy height to as low as 3 m. (author)

  12. 煤层底板穿层钻孔水力冲孔技术的应用及效果考察%Coal Floor Layer of Drilling Hydraulic Punching Technology Application and Effect of Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷庆超; 廉有轩; 王恩营; 刘度

    2015-01-01

    End of the alley pumping wear layer drilling hydraulic punching pressure, the anti-reflection measures can effectively en-hance the permeability of coal seam, expanding radius of extraction and improve the effect of the gas extraction., on the basis of the principle of antireflection unloading hydraulic punching in for zhengzhou mining revitalization of two coal mine hydraulic punching plate wear layer, gas drainage concentration before and after the hydraulic punching, the change of coal seam permeability and the gas flow attenuation coefficient and so on.The test results show that the average single-hole gas drainage concentration is 11.02%, after hy-draulic punching is 2.14%, the anti-reflection measures of improve 4 times; Coefficient of permeability of coal seam after taking steps to improve the 39 times;The gas flow attenuation coefficient is reduced nearly 3 times.Using the method of pressure measured at the same time the mine hydraulic punching effective drainage radius to 10 m.%采用底抽巷穿层钻孔水力冲孔卸压增透措施,可以有效增强煤层的透气性、扩大抽采半径和提高瓦斯抽采效果。基于水力冲孔卸压增透原理,对郑州矿区振兴二矿突出煤层实施底板穿层水力冲孔,考察水力冲孔前后瓦斯抽放浓度、煤层透气性和瓦斯流量衰减系数等的变化。试验结果表明:单孔平均瓦斯抽放浓度在水力冲孔后为11.02%,较未采取增透措施时的2.14%,提高了4倍;煤层透气性系数在采取措施后提高了39倍;瓦斯流量衰减系数则减小了近3倍。同时运用压力法测得该矿水力冲孔有效抽放半径为10 m。

  13. Nitrogen Fertilization of Corn: Plant Biochemistry Effects and Carbon Cycle Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Masiello, C. A.; McSwiney, C. P.; Robertson, G. P.; Baldock, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are rising due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Alley et al. 2007; Prentice et al. 2001). About half of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted during the 1990s was absorbed by the terrestrial biosphere and ocean (Prentice et al. 2001). It is possible to estimate the size of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks individually using atmospheric CO2 and O2 measurements (Keeling et al. 1996). To best estimate the sizes of these carbon sinks, we need to accurately know the oxidative ratio (OR) of the terrestrial biosphere (Randerson et al. 2006). OR is the ratio of the moles of O2 released per moles of CO2 consumed in gas fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere. Though it is likely that the net OR of the biosphere varies with ecosystem type and nutrient status, OR is assumed constant in carbon sink apportionment calculations (e.g. Prentice et al. 2001). Small shifts in OR can lead to large variations in the calculated sizes of the terrestrial biosphere and ocean carbon sinks (Randerson et al. 2006). OR likely shifts with changes in climate, nutrient status, and land use. These shifts are due, in part, to shifts in plant biochemistry. We are measuring ecosystem OR in corn agricultural ecosystems under a range of nitrogen fertilization treatments at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. We measure OR indirectly, through its relationship with organic carbon oxidation state (Cox) (Masiello et al. in press 2008). Cox can be measured through elemental analysis and, with basic knowledge of plant nitrogen use patterns, Cox values can be converted to OR values. Cox can also be measured through 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which can be combined with a molecular mixing model to determine Cox, OR, and plant biochemical composition (i.e. percentage carbohydrates, lignin, lipids, and proteins) (Baldock et al. 2004). Here we present data showing the effects of

  14. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used

  15. CHALLENGES IN SOURCE TERM MODELING OF DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING WASTES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-08-01

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used

  16. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Schutz, M M; Lossie, A C; Eicher, S D

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, immune status, and expression of genes associated with lameness during the dry and periparturient periods. Cows were assigned to freestall housing with either rubber (RUB; n = 13) or concrete (CON; n = 14) at the feed-bunk and alley immediately after their first calving, and managed on this system during all subsequent lactations. At dry off, cows were moved to a straw bedded-pack dry cow pen, and remained there until about 2 d before subsequent calving. To investigate whether greater exposure to RUB or CON increased the differences between cows on each treatment, cows at the end of either their first (n = 16) or second (n = 11) lactations were included in the experiment. Locomotion scores and blood samples were obtained at -60 (beginning of the dry period), -30, 0 (after calving), +10 and +18 d relative to calving. Leukocyte counts were obtained by using an automated cell counter. Phagocytic activity, and cells positive for CD14 and CD18 expression were measured by flow cytometry using labeled microbeads and antibodies. Expression of tachikinin 1(TAC1), histamine receptor 1 (H1), and metalloproteinase (MMP)13 in blood leukocytes was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment effects were determined using a repeated measures model. Provision of rubber flooring did not improve dairy cow locomotion during the subsequent study period. However, time relative to calving had an effect on locomotion score and speed, which were worst on d 0, probably because of the discomfort associated with calving. An interaction occurred between treatment and time for neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. The RUB cows had greater neutrophil and lesser lymphocyte numbers postpartum than CON. These cows also had more cells positive for CD14 postpartum compared with prepartum. Moreover, RUB cows showed upregulation of MMP13 and TAC1 compared with CON. These genes are associated with lameness and pain

  17. Flooring in front of the feed bunk affects feeding behavior and use of freestalls by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; de Passillé, A M; Campbell, B; Rushen, J

    2006-06-01

    In 2 experiments we assessed how preferences, time budgets, and feeding behavior of dairy cows change in response to flooring surfaces in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, 12 nonlactating dairy cattle were individually housed with access to 2 standing platforms filled with either concrete or sawdust. In Experiment 2, 24 nonlactating dairy cattle were given access to either concrete or Animat rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, cows preferred the sawdust to the concrete flooring. In both experiments, cows provided with a softer floor in front of the feed bunk spent more time standing near the feed bunk without eating (Experiment 1: 67 vs. 40 min/d on sawdust vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 5.6 min/d; Experiment 2: 176 vs. 115 min/d on Animat vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 20.5 min/d) compared with when they were kept on concrete. The increased time spent at the feed bunk was due to a combination of more frequent eating and standing bouts, indicating that cows were more willing to move on nonconcrete flooring. Total time spent eating was significantly greater on the softer floor in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1 (Exp. 1: 289 vs. 275 min/d on sawdust and concrete, respectively, SEM = 7.3 min/d; Exp. 2: 330 vs. 289 min/d on Animat and concrete, respectively, SEM = 15.4), although feed intake was increased on the sawdust treatment in Experiment 1. Cows spent significantly more time lying in the feed alley when the flooring was rubber (219 vs. 53 min/d on Animat and concrete, SEM = 53.6 min/d), perhaps because the lying area in Experiment 2 was inadequate. In conclusion, cows prefer to stand on softer flooring in front of the feed bunk, and are more willing to move on and spend more time standing in front of the feed bunk when provided with softer flooring. These results indicate that cows find softer flooring surfaces more comfortable to stand on than concrete, and highlight the importance of evaluating the comfort of the

  18. Changes in hoof health and animal hygiene in a dairy herd after covering concrete slatted floor with slatted rubber mats: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F; Platz, S; Link, C; Mahling, M; Meyer, H H D; Erhard, M H

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of changing the flooring in the alleys of a barn from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats on hoof disorders and animal hygiene in 44 loose-housed Brown Swiss dairy cows. Cows were examined for disorders of the hind hooves (hemorrhages, white line fissures, ulcers, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis) and for skin lesions. The dirtiness of the animals and of the floor was recorded. Climatic (temperature, humidity) and ammonia gas conditions were measured. Evaluations were carried out when the cows were housed on a concrete slatted floor and after 4 and 10 mo on soft flooring (slatted rubber mats, 29-mm thick). The anatomical portion of claw (medial, lateral), number of lactations (parity), and days in milk were included as covariates in the statistical model. Changing the flooring from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats increased the score for white line fissures [1.0 ± 0.3 (concrete) vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 (10 mo rubber mats)] and influenced air humidity (i.e., the difference in the absolute humidity between the inside and outside of the barn increased from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.2g/m(3)), whereas the other hoof disorders, skin lesions (score of 8.7 ± 0.3), the dirtiness of the animals (score of 5.9 ± 0.3), and the floor (score of 2.1 ± 0.1), and ammonia gas concentration (2.6 ± 0.3mg/kg) were not affected (overall scores or measures; mean ± SE). Lateral claws were more affected (except for heel horn erosion) than medial claws (estimated effects between 1.3 ± 0.2 and 3.0 ± 0.6). Parity influenced hoof disorders (except for hemorrhages) and skin lesions (estimated effects between -0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2). Days in milk influenced hoof disorders, but had no effect on skin lesions and on the dirtiness of the animal. Irrespective of floor type, the slots (2.6 ± 0.1) were dirtier than the slats (1.6 ± 0.1). In conclusion, covering slatted concrete flooring with slatted rubber mats partially impaired hoof

  19. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  20. Swath-bathymetric Mapping of Glacial Landforms in the Central Pine Island Trough, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Anderson, J. B.; Nitsche, F. O.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Kirshner, A. E.; Kirchner, N.; O'regan, M. A.; Mohammad, R.; Eriksson, B.

    2011-12-01

    at about 73°S in our surveyed area took between 600 and 2000 years to form. The ice stream retreated landward of this wedge at about 12.3 cal ka BP. Jakobsson, M., Anderson, J.B., Nitsche, F.O., Dowdeswell, J.A., Gyllencreutz, R., Kirchner, N., O'Regan, M.A., Alley, R.B., Anandakrishnan, S., Mohammad, R., Eriksson, B., Fernandez, R., Kirshner, A., Minzoni, R., Stolldorf, T., Majewski, W., 2011. Geological record of Ice Shelf Breakup and Grounding Line Retreat, Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica. Geology 39, 691-694.

  1. 高应力开拓巷道底鼓控制技术%High Stress Developing Roadway Floor Heave Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 李磊

    2015-01-01

    Because the burial depth of Yi'an coal mine westside developing roadway is large and of which cen-trally affected by fault,the floor heave issues is outstanding,it seriously affects the roadway driving speed.In order to control the stability of surrounding rock,deeply analyzes the reason of floor heave aiming at the surrounding rock me-chanics environment and geological conditions around the westside alleys.According to the mechanism and cause of floor heave,formulates the secondary long ring support rigid supporting on the basis of first supporting of full -time anchor net cables.Through the industrial test of the program,the stress distribution of westside roadway obviously im-proves,effectively controls the heaving floor in the region,the subsidence quantity of roadway roof is 50 mm,and the displacement of roadway two sides is less than 15 mm.%义安矿西翼开拓大巷埋深大,同时受断层的集中影响,巷道底鼓问题突出,严重影响巷道的掘进速度,为控制其稳定性,针对西翼大巷周围的围岩力学环境及地质条件对底鼓原因进行深入分析,依据该区域底鼓机理及成因,在全锚网索一次支护的基础上,制定二次长环形支架刚性支护。通过该方案的工业性试验,西翼大巷应力分布状况明显改善,有效控制了该区域的底鼓问题,煤巷顶板下沉量为50 mm,而巷道两帮的移近量<15 mm.

  2. Embedding With Scientists Results In Better Understanding Of How Science Is Really Done, More Human Stories, And More Effective Communication About Controversial Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing

  3. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC Simulation of soil organic carbon changes in crop systems with castor bean using the RothC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila González Molina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis: multiestratos (MUL, callejones (CALL y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG. Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema TMC. Las tasas de cambio de COS estimadas con el RothC, en ambas profundidades de suelo, estuvieron en 0,5-1,2, 0,4-0,8, 0,3-0,5 y 0,04-0,1 Mg ha-1 de C por año en los sistemas HIG, MUL, CALL y TMC, respectivamente, y fueron consistentes con las reportadas en la literatura. El desempeño del RothC tuvo 89% de eficiencia (EF, con R²=0,9, lo que muestra que este modelo puede usarse con información temporal del COS escasa, información de la historia de uso de suelo y mediciones de la entrada de residuos vegetales aéreos y subterráneos en el suelo.The objective of this work was to simulate, by the RothC model, the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC caused by changes of land use - from the traditional maize-squash (TMC association to systems with castor bean (Ricinus communis: multilayer (MUL, alleys (CALL and monoculture (HIG. SOC simulations were performed for 0-20 and 0-40 cm soil depths, for the period 1980-2040, considering the TMC system as the base line. SOC change rates estimated with RothC, for both soil depths, were 0.5-1.2, 0.4-0.8, 0.3-0.5 and 0.04-0.1 Mg ha-1 C per year in the HIG, MUL, CALL and TMC systems, respectively, and were consistent with those reported in the literature. RothC perfomance had 89% efficiency (EF and R² = 0.9, which shows that this model can be used with scarce SOC temporal information, information on the history of land use, and with input measurements of aerial and underground plant residues in the soil.

  4. Architectures de la petite industrie urbaine : l’exemple des Lilas (Seine-Saint-Denis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pierrot

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Les usines et les ateliers artisanaux repérés sur le territoire de la commune des Lilas ont été construits au cours du XXe siècle. A la différence de La Plaine-Saint-Denis, de ses industries lourdes, notamment chimiques et métallurgiques, à fortes emprises et génératrices d'emplois exigeant peu de qualification, Les Lilas accueillent à partir de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, à l'image des autres communes bordant Paris à l’est, des activités diversifiées recourant souvent à une main-d'œuvre qualifiée. Les entreprises, installées en grand nombre, sont ici disséminées en ateliers discrets : l'activité de production s'affirme peu, aux Lilas, par le décor. L’étude morphologique et architecturale permet de suivre l’évolution des ateliers et des usines, au fond des cours, le long des sentes, parfois sur la rue, et de comprendre les modalités de leur inscription dans le tissu urbain.The factories and artisans’ workshops surveyed in the suburban town of Les Lilas were built essentially during the XXth century. Unlike the town of La Plaine-Saint-Denis, whose heavy industry - namely chemical and metallurgical - generated a large unskilled workforce, Les Lilas attracted, from the second half of the XIXth century onward, numerous and varied industries that hired skilled workers. These companies were disseminated throughout the town in discreet workshops : ornate factories are not a "Lilasian" tradition. A morphological and architectural study allows us to follow the evolution of the workshops and factories found in back courtyards, along alleys or sometimes more visibly located, and to understand the different ways they wove themselves into the urban fabric of Les Lilas.

  5. 青春期低剂量氰戊菊酯暴露对小鼠行为的影响%Effects of pubertal exposure to low dose fenvalerate on behaviors in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代波; 赵莹莹; 王博; 王华; 张程; 徐德祥; 孟秀红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究青春期低剂量氰戊菊酯暴露对小鼠行为的影响。方法对出生后第28天的48只ICR小鼠雌雄各半分别进行不同浓度氰戊菊酯(0、0.02、0.20、2.00 mg/kg )灌胃染毒。出生后第28~56天。在出生后第9周,雌雄小鼠分别进行相关行为学实验。通过黑白巷实验、旷场实验检测小鼠的探索行为和焦虑相关行为,采用Morris水迷宫实验检测小鼠的空间学习和记忆相关行为。结果各组小鼠在旷场实验中的行为差异无统计学意义。在黑白巷实验中,与0 mg/kg组雄性小鼠比较,0.02 mg/kg组和2.00 mg/kg组雄性小鼠跨过中线的潜伏期明显延长(P=0.006,P=0.039)。在Morris水迷宫的定位航行实验中,与0 mg/kg 组雌鼠比较,0.02 mg/kg组和2.00 mg/kg组的雌鼠登陆平台的潜伏期明显延长(P=0.011,P=0.014);与0 mg/kg组雌鼠比较,0.20 mg/kg 组的雌鼠搜寻平台的距离明显增加( P =0.003);而雄性小鼠各组指标之间差异无统计学意义。在Morris水迷宫的空间探索实验中,与0 mg/kg组比较,0.20 mg/kg组雌鼠的目标象限时间比降低(P=0.046);而雄鼠各组指标之间的差异无统计学意义。结论青春期低剂量的氰戊菊酯暴露能够影响小鼠的多种行为,可能影响小鼠青春期的神经行为发育。%Objective To explore the effects of low dose of fenvalerate exposure during puberty on behaviors in mice. Methods Twenty four male and twenty four female ICR mice in postnatal day 28 were randomly divided into four groups respectively: the control group (0 mg/kg) and fenvalerate group, 0. 02, 0. 20, 2. 00 mg/kg. Mice were treated with corn oil as a vehicle control or fenvalerate by gavage daily from postnatal day 28 to 56 . At the age of 9 weeks, open field, black and white alley, Morris water maze were used to test anxiety, exploratory behavior, spatial learning and memory in mice. Results Exposure to fenvalerate did not alter mice

  6. Deep-C Drilling: Carbon Sequestration at Depth under Vine Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Management practices designed to increase carbon sequestration via perennial tree crops, are potential tools to mitigate the consequences of climate change. Changes in orchard management could enable growers to meet eco-verification market demands for products with a low carbon footprint, and potentially exploit the emerging business opportunity in carbon storage, whilst enhancing the delivery of ecosystem services that depend on soil carbon stocks. However, there is no standard methodology to verify any potential claims of carbon storage by perennial vine crops. We developed a robust methodology to quantify carbon storage in kiwifruit orchards. Soil carbon stocks (SCS) were determined in six depth increments to 1 m depth in two adjacent kiwifruit blocks, which had been established 10 ('young') and 25 ('old') years earlier. We used a 'space-for-time' analysis. Our key results were: • The 'young' and 'old' kiwifruit block stored about 139 and 145 t C/ha to 1 m depth. Between 80-90% of the SCS were stored in the top 0.5 m, and 89-95% in the top 0.7 m. • There was no significant difference between the SCS in row and alley to a depth of 0.5 m. • A CV of 5-15% indicates that 4-10 cores are needed for 80% confidence in the estimated SCS. • We recommend separating each core into the depths 0-0.1, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.5 and 0.5-1 m to allow the assessment of SCS dynamics. • We detected a weak spatial pattern of the SCS only for the 'old' kiwifruit block with a range of about 3 m. A sampling bay along a vine-row should have a maximum length of 3 m. We then assessed SCS in over 60 kiwifruit orchards throughout New Zealand. They stored on average 174.9 ± 3 t C ha-1 to 1 m depth. On average, 51% of the SCS down to 1 m depth were stored in the top 0.3 m, which is the standard depth according to the Kyoto protocol. About 72% of the SCS to 1 m depth were captured when increasing the sampling depth to 0.5 m. These results underscore the necessity to analyze SCS in an orchard

  7. Caracterização do microambiente em secção transversal de um galpão do tipo "free-stall" orientado na direção norte-sul Environment characterization in transversal direction in a free-stall housing oriented to north-south direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro T. Campos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar o microambiente climático das baias de um galpão de confinamento para gado leiteiro, modelo "free-stall", no sentido transversal da instalação. O "free-stall" é orientado na direção norte-sul, localizado em Marechal Cândido Rondon, região Oeste do Paraná, com capacidade para abrigar 40 vacas em lactação (40 baias. Visando à determinação do Índice de Temperatura do Globo e Umidade (ITGU e da Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR, foram instalados quatro globos negros, no centro de baias dispostas no sent ido transversal, dispondo dois globos no lado oeste e dois globos no lado leste (separados pelo corredor de alimentação. Lateralmente ao galpão, no lado leste, havia vegetação a 4 m da instalação, que promovia sombreamento nas primeiras horas do dia. Pode-se concluir que, nas primeiras horas do dia, não há diferença significativa entre os valores de ITGU e CTR encontrados, indicando que o sombreamento, devido à vegetação, foi capaz de amenizar os efeitos da radiação solar. Às 17 h 30 min, verificou-se que há ocorrência de maiores valores, tanto de ITGU quanto de CTR, nas baias localizadas no lado oeste do "free-stall".This work aimed to characterize the microclimatic conditions of the stalls of a free-stall model confinement building for dairy cattle in the transversal direction of the installation. Free-stall building was oriented to north-south direction, located in Marechal Cândido Rondon, west of Paraná State -Brazil, with a capacity of 40 dairy cows (40 stalls. In order to determine the Black-Globe-Humidity Index (BGHI and Radiant Heat Load (RHL, four black globes were installed in the center of stalls disposed in the transversal direction, disposing two globes in the west side and two globes in the east side (separated by the feed alley. At the building sidelong, east side, there was a four meter distant vegetation, that promoted shading in the first hours of the day

  8. 城中村制造业空间集聚研究——以广州康乐村服装生产企业为例%Characteristics and mechanism of spatial agglomeration of manufacturing enterprises in Chengzhongcun. A case study of Kangle village, Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丽丽; 赵耀龙; 欧阳军; 刘望保

    2012-01-01

    persons of the enterprises selected by convenient and snowball sampling. Location of the samples covers major manufacturing area in the village. In addition, land-use pattern of the village is investigated by dividing the whole village into small grids to describe the spatial distribution of manufacturing enterprises. The results show that most of the factories in the center of Kangle village are garment processing workshops built by migrants. The factories have the attributes of temporality, endogeneity, the diversity of native places of owners, and informality, and the basic economic characteristics of which are small scale, loosing production linkage with each other, and lack of technological innovation. Moreover, many workshops are situated in residential buildings and significantly influenced by the road and alley network in the village. Industrial, residential and commercial land is mixed in vertical space, and factories with similar products are relatively agglomerated. The manufacturing enterprises in Kangle village are not passively isolated only by low cost, but are actively agglomerated because of both low cost and favorable location.

  9. Gust-Front and Outflow Related Waterspouts: Timely Warnings, Formation, and Impact on Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappucci, M.

    2013-12-01

    Massachusetts may be over a thousand miles away from the traditional "tornado alley", but as the deadly tornadoes that killed four on June 1st 2011 proved, we are not immune to such storms. Over the course of half a century or so, Massachusetts has bore witness to scores of tornadoes, including an F5 twister that touched down on June 9th 1953, resulting in the death of 94 people. Since this tornado, none other in the United States had caused as many deaths, until the Joplin, Missouri catastrophe of May 22, 2011 (161 deaths). In Massachusetts, however, storms of such destructive magnitude are generally confined to the western half of the state, as the June 1, 2011 tornadoes in South Central Massachusetts illustrated. Despite this, a recently observed trend has revealed that the eastern Massachusetts coastline may boast as many, if not more, tornadoes, albeit undocumented. On June 23rd, 2012, a strong thunderstorm produced a spectacular gust front over Boston Harbor. This gust front was associated with intense thunderstorm outflow that helped to spawn a waterspout that roared ashore in Scituate as an EF-0 tornado. This waterspout, however, developed ahead of the gust front, yet merged with the cloud structure of the outflow, hinting at a type of interaction between the thunderstorm downdraft and the waterspout. This tornado caused minor damage. A similar situation occurred in Plymouth, MA, on July 24th, when three waterspouts formed ahead of the gust front of a severe thunderstorm; one of these tempests roared ashore on White Horse Beach as an EF-0 storm, causing minor damage to the sum of a few hundred dollars. Photos taken of these spouts reveal their formation ahead of the gust front, with a downdraft/waterspout interaction similar to the situation of June 23rd. Time-lapse videography of the gust front taken moments after the dissipation of the spouts reveals a horizontally oriented vortex a few hundred meters ahead of the storm's outflow boundary. The spinning of

  10. A Paradigm shift to an Old Scheme for Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alastair B.

    2016-04-01

    nérales Sur Les Températures Du Globe Terrestre Et Des Espaces Planétaires.' Annales de Chimie et de Physique 27: 136-67, translated by Raymond T. Pierrehumbert http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v432/n7018/extref/432677a-s1.pdf Philipona, Rolf, Bruno Dürr, Atsumu Ohmura, and Christian Ruckstuhl. 2005. 'Anthropogenic Greenhouse Forcing and Strong Water Vapor Feedback Increase Temperature in Europe'. Geophysical Research Letters 32 (19): L19809. doi:10.1029/2005GL023624. Saussure, Horace-Benedict de. 1786. 'Chapter XXXV. Des Causes du Froid qui Regne sur les Montagnes'. In Voyages dans les Alpes, II:347-71. Neuchatel: Fauche-Borel. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1029499.r=.langFR, translated by Alastair B. McDonald, http://www.abmcdonald.freeserve.co.uk/saussure/CHAPTER%2035.pdf. Thorne, Peter W., Philip Brohan, Holly A. Titchner, et al. 2011. 'A Quantification of Uncertainties in Historical Tropical Tropospheric Temperature Trends from Radiosondes'. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 116 (D12): n/a - n/a. doi:10.1029/2010JD015487. Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Christoph Schär, et al. 2013. 'The Global Energy Balance from a Surface Perspective'. Climate Dynamics 40 (11-12): 3107-34. doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1569-8. White, James W.C., Alley, Richard B., Archer, David E., et al. 2013. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18373.

  11. Reaching Out Beyond The "Usual Suspects" And Traditional Media: Re-Branding Climate Change As A Problem With Feasible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) was an experiment, funded by NSF, to see how combining PBS TV broadcasts, online resources including both website and social media, plus on-site events at science centers could engage and inform large public audiences about both the science of climate change and renewable energy solutions. ETOM was structured to address the findings of social science researchers indicating that scaring audiences into changed behavior through doom and gloom scenarios was unlikely to work. While the three primetime broadcasts were relatively traditional in approach—classic public TV hours presented by noted geoscientist, Richard Alley—focus groups tested the impact of introducing him as a "church-going, registered Republican." Findings indicated this would engage a wider audience. Alley's key science arguments were also repackaged into a series of nine "How to Talk to an Ostrich" videos, complete with actual ostrich sounds, and encouraging viewers to ASK ETOM further questions about common misperceptions. The ClimateBite blog said, "Simply the best short videos on climate. Ever… each segment a clear, concise and compelling climate story, in everyday language, with great visuals." In addition, web-exclusive videos profiled diverse "Energy Heroes" such as West Texas rancher Steve Oatman, Fort Worth solar enthusiast, German Vasquez, and Baltimore "Energy Captain," Robbyn Lewis. Understanding that who says what is as important as what is said, ETOM featured an unusual and diverse set of "messengers." Houston's Mayor, Annise Parker, explained why she wanted her city to be America's renewable energy capital, and Marine Brigadier General Bob Hedelund argued that cutting back on fossil fuel could save soldiers' lives. West Texas cotton farmer Cliff Etheredge participated in outreach events in Washington DC, and high-ranking former military men were part of MILITARY GOES GREEN events in Raleigh NC and San Diego. Surveys and focus groups showed

  12. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, an 8-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri?s list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. Potential sources of fecal contamination to the Jacks Fork include a wastewater treatment plant; campground pit-toilet or septic-system effluent; a large commercial, cross-country horseback trail riding facility; canoeists, boaters, and tubers; and cows.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 8-mile 303(d) reach. Identification of the sources would provide the National Park Service and the State of Missouri with the information needed to craft a solution of abatement, regulation, prevention, and mitigation with the end result being the removal of the Jacks Fork from the 303(d) list. Fifteen sites were sampled from November 1999 through December 2000. An additional site was sampled one time. Samples were collected mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses. Samples were analyzed for selected fecal indicator bacteria, physical properties, nutrients, and wastewater organic compounds. During the sampling period, the whole-body-contact recreation standard for fecal coliform (200 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample) was exceeded at three sites on August 10, 2000, and also at one site on May 11, June 7, and October 3, 2000. Fecal coliform densities and instantaneous loads generally increased from background concentrations at the Eminence site, peaked about 2 river miles downstream, and then decreased until the most downstream site sampled. Generally, the largest densities and loads at sites downstream from Eminence not related to wet-weather flow were observed during a trail ride held

  13. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  14. Evidence for in-situ metabolic activity in ice sheets based on anomalous trace gas records from the Vostok and other ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, T.

    2003-04-01

    the last glacial period are consistent with methanogenic CH4 from acetogenesis. References Campen, R.K., T. Sowers, and R.B. Alley, Evidence of Microbial Consortia Metabolizing Within a Low-Latitude Mountain Glacier, Geology, 31 (No. 3), 231-234, 2003. Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.M. Barnola, I. Basile, B. M., J. Chappellaz, J. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmontte, J.M. Kotyakov, M. Legrand, V. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pepin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard, Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica, Nature, 399, 429-436, 1999. Sowers, T., The N2O record spanning the penultimate deglaciation from the Vostok ice core, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (D23), 31,903-31,914, 2001.

  15. La vente des biens nationaux à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, nouvelle donne pour la ville The sale of national assets at the end of the 18th century – a gift to the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Antoine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available À la fin de l’Ancien Régime, les villes des Pays-Bas gardaient les traits de villes médiévales sans ordre et faites d’entrelacs de rues et de ruelles. Le caractère corporatif de la production limitait la présence de grands ensembles industriels et les couvents et leurs jardins occupaient une grande partie de la superficie intra et extra muros des cités. Par ailleurs, l’Église était propriétaire d’un important parc immobilier de petites demeures adossées à des églises jusqu’aux importants refuges d’abbayes dominant dans les campagnes de vastes espaces fonciers. Durant la deuxième moitié du xviiie, les autorités habsbourgeoises menèrent une politique tendant à moderniser les villes en faisant, en autres, tomber les enceintes et en donnant une nouvelle affectation aux couvents contemplatifs supprimés. La Révolution française bouleversa ces ensembles urbains en libérant d’un coup une masse très importante de biens immobiliers qui appartenait à l’Église et en modifiant radicalement les modes de production par la suppression des corporations de métiers. La bourgeoisie principalement négociante réussi habilement tirer tous les profits de cette nouvelle donne. Cet effet d’aubaine contribua grandement à faire passer nos régions dans un nouveau stade de leur démarrage industriel.At the end of the Ancien Régime, the towns of the Netherlands retained the characteristics of medieval towns, without any order and consisting of warrens of streets and alleys. The corporative nature of production limited the presence of major industrial complexes and the monasteries and convents, together with their gardens, covered a large part of the urban areas both within and outside city walls. In addition, the church had important property holdings, ranging from small residential properties attached to churches to major abbey residences dominating vast countryside estates. During the second half of the 18th century, the

  16. La ergonomía organizacional y la responsabilidad social inclusiva y preactiva: Un compromiso dentro de los objetivos de la organización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Carrasquero

    2014-01-01

    by the contents of Lippel (2001, Guédez (2005, Domont (1999, between others. As for social responsibility: Of the Slope (2002, Guédez (2006, Alleys (2005, between others, developing under an interpretive approach of descriptive type and not experimental design, across analysis of documents. To effects of this investigation, it is investigated on trends in the social demand of a major responsibility of the State and the organizations, examining his significance as central element in the conformation of the models of human development who form our future, dividing that exist two attitudes and two sensibilities in the human being, visions are exposed on the paper of the ergonomics as tool for the development of the proactividad and the inclusive disposition, as form incorporation of aspects of Social Responsibility in the ergonomic management organizacional. Keywords: Organizational Ergonomics; social responsibility; attitudes and sensitivities.

  17. ‘THE BIGGEST MISTAKE GOD EVER MADE WAS TO CREATE JUNKIES’: UNSAFE INJECTION PRACTICES, HEALTH CARE DISCRIMINATION AND OVERDOSE DEATHS IN MONTREAL, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozaghi, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existence of prevention programmes in Montreal, Canada, injection drug users (IDUs continue to share their injection drug equipment. This practice has led to an increase in the incidences of HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV among IDUs since 2003. The present study was conducted to explore factors contributing to the increased risks of this morbidity. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted as drug users were actively involved in their routine activities. The participants’ narratives indicate that IDUs in Montreal are involved in risky injection behaviour that increases HIV, HCV and bacterial transmission. Moreover, IDUs in Montreal are at an increased risk of overdose and death when they are forced to inject in public washrooms or alleys. In addition, many IDUs have placed the general public at risk by discarding their used needles in public parks, sidewalks and public washrooms. Furthermore, many IDUs in Montreal have faced discrimination and are refused treatment by the health care system. Micro- environmental factors, such as a paucity of safe injection sites, inaccessibility of injection equipment and discrimination all seem to be contributing factors in recent increases in HIV and HCV in Montreal.Malgré les programmes de prévention qui existent à Montréal, Canada, les utilisateurs de drogues injectables (UDI continuent de partager leurs seringues. Cette pratique a mené à une augmentation de l’incidence du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH et du virus de l’hépatite C (VHC parmi les UDI depuis 2003. La présente étude a été menée afin d’examiner les facteurs qui contribuent à l’augmentation des risques de cette morbidité. Des entretiens qualitatifs semi-directifs ont été réalisés pendant que les utilisateurs faisaient usage de drogues. Les commentaires recueillis auprès des participants ont confirmé que les UDI de Montréal adoptent des comportements d’injection qui augmentent les

  18. Case studies related to the management of soil acidity and infertility in the West-African Moist Savannah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cropping in the tree-based systems, and even increased in the Senna treatments. Soil pHKCl values decreased at least 0.5 units in the control and Leucaena treatments, but only slightly in the Senna treatments. In general, the soils that received fertilizer during the trial were more acid (0.2 to 0.3 units) than the ones not receiving fertilizer. From the above, the Senna-based alley cropping system with fertilizers is the more resilient one, both in terms of crop yields and soil fertility status. A third experiment evaluated the potential of deep-rooting hedgerow trees to recycle basic cations from the subsoil and increase the topsoil pH. Topsoil Ca content, effective cation exchange capacity, and pH were substantially higher under Senna than under Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, or the no-tree control plots in sites with soils having a Bt horizon rich in exchangeable Ca. It was shown that this effect was largely related to the recovery of Ca from the subsoil by the Senna trees. The lack of increase in Ca accumulation under the other species was related to (i) potential recovery of Ca from the topsoil itself and/or (ii) substantial Ca leaching. The accumulation of Ca in the topsoil under Senna had a marked effect on the topsoil pH, the latter increasing significantly compared with the Leucaena, Gliricidia, and no-tree control treatments. (author)

  19. PBS Plus Facebook: The Old And New Communication Of Climate Science (Please "Like" And "Share" This Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional and innovative communications strategies were combined in "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM; writer & director Geoff Haines-Stiles, producer Erna Akuginow, presenter Richard Alley). We attempted both a clear and accessible presentation of some key essentials of current climate science and an experiment in new messaging and new media for outreach and education. ETOM is a 3-part TV series broadcast by PBS ("…one of the more interesting documentary series to come along in years", said the New York Times) and a 320 plus page tradebook, with 110 pages of footnotes referencing peer-reviewed science, published by Norton. But it's also a lively and growing Facebook page with a clear voice sharing positive examples of how renewable energy can reduce polluting emissions here in the US and worldwide, alongside headlines of climate science, and a website—relaunched for the 2012 Earth Day PBS broadcasts—where all three programs can be streamed, and teachers can register to download HD segments for classroom use. The TV programs were designed to offer a highly accessible statement of core climate science, literally explaining how ice cores show us today's climate is changing in ways not seen in the last 800,000 thousand years and why physics and chemistry let us know "It's Us" who are changing CO2 levels in the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels. But the project's outreach components also includes a "Science Pub" in a converted theater in Portland, where the audience consumes food, drink and climate science, and "Adventures of a Climate Scientist in the Age of Politics and Punditry," a dynamic live performance recorded for TV and the web. Messaging includes a Navy Rear Admiral in dress whites explaining why the Pentagon believes climate change is real, and scenes showing Marines and Army implementing solar technologies to enhance mission security and reduce their carbon bootprint. Similarly, outreach events at the North Carolina Museum of Natural

  20. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  1. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 μm) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar

  2. MOONLIGHT: A NEW LUNAR LASER RANGING RETROREFLECTOR AND THE LUNAR GEODETIC PRECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR to the Apollo Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR arrays (developed by the University of Maryland, UMD supplied almost all significant tests of General Relativity (Alley et al., 1970; Chang et al., 1971; Bender et al.,1973: possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy, weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. The LNF group, in fact, has just completed a new measurement of the lunar geodetic precession with Apollo array, with accuracy of 9 × 10−3, comparable to the best measurement to date. LLR has also provided significant information on the composition and origin of the moon. This is the only Apollo experiment still in operation. In the 1970s Apollo LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the project MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High-accuracy Tests, in 2006 INFN-LNF joined UMD in the development and test of a new-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100mm diameter unaffected by the effect of librations. With MoonLIGHT CCRs the accuracy of the measurement of the lunar geodetic precession can be improved up to a factor 100 compared to Apollo arrays. From a technological point of view, INFN-LNF built and is operating a new experimental apparatus (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facility, SCF and created a new industry-standard test procedure (SCF-Test to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of CCRs in accurately laboratory-simulated space conditions, for industrial and scientific applications. Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP and the

  3. The Growth of Hydrological Understanding: Observations, Theories and Societal Influences that have Shaped the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.

    2009-12-01

    “Progress in science depends on new techniques, new discoveries and new ideas, probably in that order.” Sydney Brenner (1980). ______________ Science never progresses smoothly or uniformly on all fronts. History of science tells us that progress cannot be meticulously planned, and elaborate plans do not always end up at their intended targets. Breakthroughs tend to happen by themselves through human ingenuity, which cannot be precisely predicted nor pre-planned. All sciences go through periods of euphoria, stagnation, pessimism and then recovery. New theories/ideas, or new measurements/data sources or new analysis techniques have alternated in generating vital breakthroughs. Progress in science is also not immune from other societal and technological influences, including wars. Hydrology is no exception. However, at this point in time it is not clear if hydrologic science is limited by data (and our ability to measure or monitor water cycle dynamics) or by theories or vital ideas that can help us understand how the hydrologic system works and will evolve. We can map the surface of Mars in search of the presence of water, but cannot close the water balance here on Earth. We have instruments that can help us observe pore scale processes in the laboratory, but still cannot predict how these will evolve in time in real places, at much larger scales. We are dealing with a complex adaptive system that evolves at all time and space scales. There is a great need for data to close the water balance, but there is an even greater need to understand and predict in all places in such a dynamic environment. It sometimes happens that every time a new measurement technology or data analysis technique is introduced we get excited and pour enormous resources on their development only to be disappointed that we have gone down a narrow alley. In spite of occasional breakthroughs in our measurement capability, the bigger challenge remains our inability to extrapolate beyond the

  4. Skeletal types: key to unraveling the mystery of facial beauty and its biologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Y

    1996-06-01

    In random studies, some faces will deviate toward Type II skeletal and some toward Type III. Some will deviate toward a skeletally short vertical while some toward long. In their study, Langlois and Roggman digitized individual faces through a computer. As more and more faces were entered, the composite of these faces became more and more attractive. From this, they concluded that attractive faces are only average. The "average" face may very well conform to the divine proportion. However, some faces are strikingly beautiful, and Alley and Cunningham in their study attempted to explain these attributes. Individuals who are blessed with attractive features are treated differently in our society. Ackerman states, "Attractive people do better: in school, where they receive more help, better grades and less punishment; at work, where they are rewarded with higher pay, more prestigious jobs and faster promotions; in finding mates, where they tend to be in control of the relationship and make most of the decisions; and among strangers, who assume them to be more interesting, honest, virtuous and successful." Many would find this special treatment objectionable and unfair. The irony is that beautiful individuals make up a very small percentage of the population; they have very little power to dictate how society should act and behave. Various disciplines have studied the nature of facial beauty. Individually, they provide partial answers; however, when viewed together, they begin to weave provocative insights as to its biologic significance. It is intricately related to divine proportion, and all living creatures have the genetic potential to develop toward it. The appreciation for this proportion is primitive and inborn; it is a biologic mechanism by which all living creatures are attracted to potential mates who conform to this strict proportion because they are biologically strong, healthy, and fertile. To date, there is no other profession other than ours that has the

  5. Pairing Essential Climate Science with Sustainable Energy Information: the "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2010-12-01

    Social science research on the effective communication of climate science suggests that today's audiences may be effectively engaged by presenting information about Earth's climate in the context of individual and community actions that can be taken to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) is an informal science education and outreach project supported by NSF, comprising three related components: a 3-part broadcast television mini-series; on-site outreach at 5 major science centers and natural history museums strategically located across the USA; and a website with innovative social networking tools. A companion tradebook, written by series presenter and Penn State glaciologist Richard Alley, is to be published by W. W. Norton in spring 2011. Program 1, THE BURNING QUESTION, shows how throughout human history our need for energy has been met by burning wood, whale oil and fossil fuels, but notes that fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide which inevitably change the composition of Earth's atmosphere. The program uses little known stories (such as US Air Force atmospheric research immediately after WW2, looking at the effect of CO2 levels on heat-seeking missiles, and Abraham Lincoln's role in the founding of the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy's role in solving navigation problems during the Civil War) to offer fresh perspectives on essential but sometimes disputed aspects of climate science: that today's levels of CO2 are unprecedented in the last 400,000 and more years; that human burning of fossil fuel is the scientifically-proven source, and that multiple lines of evidence show Earth is warming. Program 2, TEN WAYS TO KEEP TEN BILLION SMILING, offers a list of appealing strategies (such as "Get Rich and Save the World": Texas & wind energy, and "Do More with Less": how glow worms make cool light without waste heat, suggesting a role for organic LEDs) to motivate positive responses to the

  6. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams

  7. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    ,000 years. Nature,419(6903):207-214. Severinghaus, J. P., Sowers, T., Brook, E. J., Alley, R. B., and Be

  8. Heidegger Revisited%回到海德格尔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一兵

    2012-01-01

    of Seyn. On this dim alley there is no more dazzling light of logos. The presence and the readiness-to-hand which reveal all the existence will be replaced with the refusal of existence~ the being-truth cognition to un-conceal and the abstract gathering together (Versammlung) generated by the guiding questioning of logos will be replaced with the truth-Wesen and the resort in Seyn's basic questioning. The world in terms of existence will come to its end, and the heaven, the earth, the being toward death, and the ultimate God will form a new divine and poetic time-space-play realm of Seyn. Therefore, in Heidegger's development of thought, there is no breaking point, and there is only one HeideggerI This Heidegger, in his doppelter Zurtickgrund to the Greek origin, exists both in the "first beginning" of his struggle to deconstruct metaphysics, and in his "another beginning" of Ereignis, where beyng essentially happens as enowning (Seyn west als Ereignis). His effort in both of these two philosophical situating levels is spreading over the whole process of the development of his thought.

  9. Economic wealth and soil erosion in new Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain or how to explain the Land Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemio; Pereira, Pauloq

    2014-05-01

    higher than rainfed agriculture soil (García Orenes et al., 2009). Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Bono, E. 2010. Naranja y desarrollo. La base agrícola exportadora de la economía del País Valenciano y el modelo de crecimiento hacea afuera. PUV, Valencia, 203 pp. Cerdà, A. 2001. Erosión hídrica del suelo en el Territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuestión a través de la revisión bibliográfica. Geoforma Ediciones, Logroño, 79 pp. Cerdá, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250.

  10. Regional Inequalities in Security Research Subjects: women aged 15 and above living in Yasouj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Heidari

    2013-01-01

    physical environment and in district 2, it is mostly connected with the social environment. Three most important insecurity factors are respectively back alleys, rascals and villains and robbery in district 1, and grappling, sexual disturbance and rascals and villains in district 2. In other words, the women's insecurity in the two districts is not originated from the same factors. In addition, the social characteristics of dwelling place results in more insecurity of single women in comparison with married women. However, physical characteristics do not have any significant effect on single and married women's insecurity. The women's literacy level has a significant correlation with the insecurity caused by physical features of the dwelling place. That is to say, high school graduates, bachelors and holders of higher degrees experience the highest extent of insecurity on the side of the physical characteristics of their domicile. With regard to the professional status, too, university students, self-employed workers and pupils experience the highest degree of insecurity rooted in their domicile social features. The results of the two-way ANOVA of the correlation between the domicile and the marital status showed that the single women of the two districts had experienced more insecurity in relation to the social features of their domicile than the married women of the two districts. The uptown married women, in comparison with the single women of the same district showed a lower security caused by the physical features of their dwelling place. In the downtown, the single women had experienced a lower security than the married women of the same district. Moreover, the uptown married women had a more considerable security originated in the social characteristics of their domicile. In general, single women were more insecure than married women. Based on the findings of the present research, it can be concluded that the insecurity of the women of the two districts is rooted in

  11. Comparison of Aminpour’s Qhazal and Qhazve‘s Qhazal Based on Structural Stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rezae

    2014-12-01

    world. The envy the poet feels for the martyrs and the blame he puts on himself for being left behind is evident throughout the poem. He is abandoned in this world which he calls a "black alley", while his friends and companions pass in front of him. The poet cries and is so overwhelmed by emotions that he speaks with sudden pauses, which is reflected in the use of short syllables in the poem. Its rhymes and meters indicate the internal speed. The poet's feeling of lament, conveyed by the use of fricative consonants as rhymes, adds to the music of the poem. Aminpour makes the most of linguistic potentials, so that repetitions, harmony and deviations function better to impart the theme and also the poet's feeling. In both poems, the subject matter is in tune with the phonemes. Aminpour employs vowels and affricate consonants to express his internal grief. Ghazve conveys his nostalgic feeling by fricative consonants. In "Destiny" fricative consonants are mostly used, whereas in "Calendars" affricate consonants prevail. In "Destiny" the melody of rhyme has added to the music of the poem and has done its task in communicating the poet's distress and weariness. Aminpour makes use of identical rhymes in addition to rhymes because identical rhymes act as the center of unity and coherence in his poem. However, in both poems, words in syntagmatic and paradigmatic axis appear together, and these collocations add to the coherence of both texts. Both poets use words which are semantically related or close together. Aminpour's diction is more reader-friendly his language is closer to ordinary language that is why he is more successful in communicating his feeling and thought. Aminpour tried to invent fresh combinations that are absent from Ghazve's ghazal. The correlation of the parts with the content in both poems shows that the authors have been successful in conveying their feelings. The tone of the poems is quite appropriate to the feelings of their poets and the clarity and

  12. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    ,000 years. Nature,419(6903):207-214. Severinghaus, J. P., Sowers, T., Brook, E. J., Alley, R. B., and Bender, M. L. (1998). Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated gases in polar ice. Nature, 391:141-146. Schwander, J., Sowers, T., Barnola, J., Blunier, T., Fuchs, A., and Malaizé, B. (1997). Age scale of the air in the summit ice: implication for glacial-interglacial temperature change. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos., 102(D16):19483-19493.

  13. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    barriers were addressed in parallel projects. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in another type of construction. In mines, excavated ore volumes are filled with tailings stabilized with cement before the neighbouring volumes may be exploited. Fly ash may replace at least half of the cement, which also has been confirmed in pilot tests. The main thrust in the Ash Programme on landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. In two parallel alleys projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. The properties of these surfaces are now being followed up during a longer time. Landfills are today the largest consumers of ashes. The uses for ashes, e.g. as banking material or covers, and the experience gained have been reviewed. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in a sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the shape of logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide also a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain, the so-called vitalizing fertilization. In contrast to construction, where guidelines are needed, there are already guidelines, acceptance from authorities and ongoing activities. An important issue is the classification of combustion by-products according to the waste regulations. This requires a deep knowledge of the speciation of elements

  14. Urban rustytextures recreation with an emphasis on social mobilization (Case study: Slaughter house district in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Esmailpoor

    2013-01-01

    citizenship and the citizens escape, Justice Jurnal, No. 15.Management and Planning Organization of the Country, (2000. The program to combat poverty and increasing the income of low-incom families, Tehran, social affair office.Mohseni Tabrizi, A. R. (1996. Estrangement: An obstacle for partnership and national development- Investigating the relationship between estrangement and social-political participation, cultural research Jurnal, Fundamental research center,Islamic culture ministry.Payman, S.H. (2007. Charactristics of urban familiesʼ houses in income levels, Housing economics Journal, No. 41, autumn.Pirayi, Kh. And Shafiee, Sh. (2001. Measuring poverty with an emphesis on urban families of Mazandaran from 1990-1996, economical researches. First Year, No. 1.Poor Ahmad A. and et al (2010. Evolution of the concept of urban recreation as a new approach in urban rusty texturs, Iranian-Islamic city Jurnal, First Year, No. 1, pp:73-92.Raghfar, H. and Ebrahimi, Z. (2006. Povery in Iran during 1386 -2004, Social Welfare Jurnal, year, No. 24. Rahimi, M. and Mohammadi, H. (2007. Poverty indicators and welfare changes in rural families, Social Welfare Jurnal, Sixth, No. 24.Rahnavard, F.A. and Hosseyni, N. (2008. The effective factors on women rehabilitaion, Women research Jurnal, Sixth period, No. 1, pp 105-118. Sadeghi, H. and Masaeli, A. (2008. The relationship of economical growth and incom distribution with the povery trends in Iran by using Fuzzy approach, Social Welfare Jurnal, seven year, No. 28. Sanoff, H, (2000, Connunity Participation Methods in Design and Planning, New York: John Wiley & Sons,.UN-HABITAT (2003, The Challenge of Slums, Global report on human settlement. Ziari, K. A. and Nozari A. D. .1388, Improving and rehabilitaion of informal settlement in Ahvaz (Water resource alley, Human geography researches Jurnal, No. 86, Summer, pp 21-36.

  15. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    approach. Catena, 85 (3), 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia, 64 (3), 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. Lavigne, C., Achard, R., Tixier, P., Lesueur Jannoyer, M. 2012. How to integrate cover crops to enhance sustainability in banana and citrus cropping systems. Acta Horticulturae, 928, 351-358. Le Bellec, F., Damas, O., Boullenger, G., Vannière, H., Lesueur Jannoyer, M., Tournebize, R., Ozier Lafontaine, H. 2012. Weed control with a cover crop (Neonotonia wightii) in mandarin orchards in Guadeloupe (FWI). Acta Horticulturae, 928, 359-366. Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Lu, J., Wilson, M.J., Yu, J. 1997. Effects of trench planting and soil chiselling on soil properties and citrus production in hilly ultisols of China Soil and Tillage Research, 43 (3-4), 309-318. Lü, W., Zhang, H., Wu, Y., Cheng, J., Li, J., Wang, X. 2012. The impact of plant hedgerow in Three Gorges on the soil chemicophysical properties and soil erosion. Key Engineering Materials, 500, 142-148. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250. Wu J., Li Q., Yan L. 1997. Effect of intercropping on soil erosion in young citrus plantation - a simulation study. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 8 (2), 143-146. Wu, D.-M., Yu, Y.-C., Xia, L.-Z., Yin, S.-X., Yang, L.-Z. 2011. Soil fertility indices of citrus

  16. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix

    2013-04-01

    de València (Valencia, España). 256 pp. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250.

  17. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    . Catena 105, 75-92. Robichaud, P.R., Wagenbrenner, J.W., Lewis, S.A., Ashmun, L.E., Brown, R.E., Wohlgemuth, P.M. 2013b. Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation. Part II: Effectiveness in reducing runoff and sediment yields from small catchments. Catena 105, 93-111. Silvestre, G., Gómez, M.P., Pascual, A., Ruiz, B. 2013. Anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with rice straw: Economic & energy feasibility. Water Science and Technology 67, 745-755 Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research 110, 243-250. Wu J., Li Q., Yan L. 1997. Effect of intercropping on soil erosion in young citrus plantation - a simulation study. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 8, 143-146. Wu, D.-M., Yu, Y.-C., Xia, L.-Z., Yin, S.-X., Yang, L.-Z. 2011. Soil fertility indices of citrus orchard land along topographic gradients in the three gorges area of China. Pedosphere 21, 782-792. Xu, Q., Wang, T., Li, Z., Cai, C., Shi, Z., Jiang, C. 2010. Effect of soil conservation measurements on runoff, erosion and plant production: A case study on steeplands from the Three Gorges Area, China. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 8, 980-984. Xu, Q.X., Wang, T.W., Cai, C.F., Li, Z.X., Shi, Z.H. 2012. Effects of soil conservation on soil properties of citrus orchards in the Three-Gorges Area, China. Land Degradation and Development 23, 34-42. Zhao, G., Mu, X., Wen, Z., Wang, F., Gao, P. 2013. Soil erosion, conservation, and eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degradation & Development, 24, 499- 510. DOI 10.1002/ldr.2246SP

  18. Privatização tcheca: de propriedade pública a propriedade pública em cinco anos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mertlík

    1996-12-01

    calls the modernization dead end are of structural character and that so shoud they be understood and dealt with. The second part of the article concerns the transformation as a new path of modernization, covering what the autor understands to be the relevant issues for getting these countries "out of the dead end alley": the long term problems , institutional building and changes in the behavioural norms. The article finishes with an overview and prospects, especially those concerned with the European Union membership. DR. TATIANA ZASLAVSKAIA'S ARTICLE is a broad overview of the social stratification of the Russian Federation and it dynamics, as a result of the systemic transformation the country is undergoing. This article results of an original research, done on the basis of a three year monitoring of the reforms, conduced by the Russian Center of Public Opinion Research. Besides defining the goals of the research and the methods followed, the article traces the social structure of the Russian society; it identifies its different groups and strata, with the correspondent socio-demographic characteristics and socio-economic status; and it discusses the income distribution and its dynamics over the period under investigation. The main conclusion of the research - only part of it being the subject mather of the article - is that the process of systemic transformation is deep and marked by contradictions, reflecting the combination of modernisation and social regression, without definition of which of these trends prevails. The central issue is now the adaptation of the mass groups to the new social conditions, which may lead to serious social and political problems. In view of this, the role of social scientist is to correctly assess the results of the transformation process and the degree of its conformity with the social interests of the mass groups and strata of the population and with their capacity of adaptation to the market. This would be their contribution to