Full Text Available One of the efforts to preserve the sources of vegetarian, soil, and water is to rehabilitate the land and soil conservation. The aim of this rehabilitation is increasing and maintaining the produtivity of the land, so it can be preserved and used optimally. Therefore, it is necessary to a develop a variety of good soil conservation, such as vegetative method and civil engineering. To find an appropriate technology, so it is necessary to develop some alternatives of soil conservation technique that are mainly implemented at dry land with its slope of more than 15% in the upstream area of discharge. One of the most suitable soil conservation technique today is Alley Cropping. Based on the research (trial and error in some areas, Alley Cropping could really provide a positive result in terms of erotion controlling and running off and maintain the land productivity. In addition, the technique is more easly operated and spends a cheaper cost than making a bench terrace.
A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, and Cajanus cajan) was conducted in the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki ...
Michael A. Cary; Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer
Alley cropping offers a potential alternative to traditional land management practices. However, its implementation in the United States is extremely limited and general awareness and knowledge of alley cropping is lacking. While alley cropping does have a few barriers to entry, the cost of maintaining hedgerow products and foregone returns from primary crops...
The use of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi under farmers' conditions was tried at Ajibode Village, a humid tropical environment on maize/cassava intercropped farms in an alley cropping system. Four species of AM fungi (Glomus clarum, Glomus mosseae Glomus etunicatum and Acaulospora dilatata) were used in ...
A three-year old leucaena leococephala alley cropping with maize was evaluated with respect to soil chemical pro-perties and grain and stover yields on a Coastal Savanna Soil of Ghana. The four treatments established between the leucaena hedgerows were: half rate of recommended fertilizer for maize (T1); full rate of ...
Wolz, Kevin J; Lovell, Sarah T; Branham, Bruce E; Eddy, William C; Keeley, Keefe; Revord, Ronald S; Wander, Michelle M; Yang, Wendy H; DeLucia, Evan H
Annual row crops dominate agriculture around the world and have considerable negative environmental impacts, including significant greenhouse gas emissions. Transformative land-use solutions are necessary to mitigate climate change and restore critical ecosystem services. Alley cropping (AC)-the integration of trees with crops-is an agroforestry practice that has been studied as a transformative, multifunctional land-use solution. In the temperate zone, AC has strong potential for climate change mitigation through direct emissions reductions and increases in land-use efficiency via overyielding compared to trees and crops grown separately. In addition, AC provides climate change adaptation potential and ecological benefits by buffering alley crops to weather extremes, diversifying income to hedge financial risk, increasing biodiversity, reducing soil erosion, and improving nutrient- and water-use efficiency. The scope of temperate AC research and application has been largely limited to simple systems that combine one timber tree species with an annual grain. We propose two frontiers in temperate AC that expand this scope and could transform its climate-related benefits: (i) diversification via woody polyculture and (ii) expanded use of tree crops for food and fodder. While AC is ready now for implementation on marginal lands, we discuss key considerations that could enhance the scalability of the two proposed frontiers and catalyze widespread adoption. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jan 1, 2009 ... A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena ... This exploits the biological .... chemical properties were observed in the last two years of study (2004-2005) over the pre-planting soil result. The pH values in the C. cajan alley.
Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.
Medinski, T.; Freese, D.
Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil aggregates. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and turnover are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (<53 µm), followed by determination of organic carbon and nitrogen by gas-chromatography. Soil samples were also analysed for the total C&N content, cold-water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, <53 µm) carbon fraction were observed between treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster turnover of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.
Alley cropping is an aspect of agroforestry being developed for small farmers in the tropics. It consists of establishing fast-growing leguminous shrubs or tree species in rows, then controlling the shading from the trees during cropping by pruning the branches which can be used as mulch or green manure to benefit the companion crops planted between the alleys. This paper attempts to assess the economic implications on labour utilization for the management of the leucaena hedgerows, on crop yields and the overall benefits from alley cropping with leucaena. The results show that although the management of leucaena trees increases labour requirements by about 50% the system can sustain and increase maize yields by over 60%, reduce the use of nitrogenous fertilizers and give an attractive net income and marginal rate of return per unit cost. It gave a reasonable benefit-cost ratio of 1.23 to 1.32 and looks promising, especially for maize production in tropical areas. 16 references.
Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain
Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.
Zhang, B.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, M.Z.
Tree and crop components of an alley cropping system may compete for nutrients and water in the surface soil while the deeper-rooting tree may have better access to resources in the subsoil. The objectives of the present study in an alley cropping system were to monitor runoff and soil loss, spatial variation of soil water, and tree sap flow to determine competitiveness for water between the tree and peanut. Plant and root growth were also recorded to evaluate competition. The tree competed for water in the surface soil at some critical period as indicated by the spatial variation of monitored soil water content. The tree used deep soil water and reduced deep drainage as indicated by modelling of soil water fluxes and direction of water movement. Trees in the alley cropping system used less soil water than peanut, and more water than trees alone, as indicated by water balance modelling. The magnitude of the reduction of deep drainage increased with tree age. The alley cropping system increased system water use efficiency by using deep soil water as indicated by water balance modelling. The alley cropping system promoted Choerospondias axillaris growth by 50 to 100% and reduced peanut biomass and yield by 20 to 50%. Field management should aim to prevent water competition between trees and crops in the surface soil. (author)
H.D. Stevenson; D.J. Robison; F.W. Cubbage; J.P. Mueller; M.G. Burton; M.H. Gocke
Alley cropping may prove useful in the Southeast United States, providing multiple products and income streams, as well as affording sustainable land use alternatives to conventional farming. An alley-cropping system may be a good alternative in agriculture because of the benefits provided by trees to crops and soils, as well as the income generated from wood products...
Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.
Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in
Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.
The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to
Lefroy, E.C.; Pate, J.S.; Stirzaker, R.J.
Components of the water balance of an alley cropping system were measured to assess the extent to which tree rows 30 m apart with access to a fresh, perched watertable at 5 m depth were able to capture deep drainage from an inter-cropped cereal-legume rotation. Neutron probe data showed that the 4-year-old trees, cut back to 0.6-m high at the beginning of the experiment, depleted soil water to 2, 4, and 8 m laterally from the tree rows in their first, second, and third years of coppice regrowth, respectively. Combining data from soil water depletion in summer and comparisons of deuterium/hydrogen ratios of groundwater, xylem sap of trees, and herbaceous plants, it was shown that tagasaste trees drew on soil water for 80% of their transpiration in the first winter and 40% in the second, while switching to near total dependence on groundwater each summer and early autumn. Tree water use on a whole plot basis was 170 mm in 1997 (68% from groundwater) v. 167 mm in 1998 (73% from groundwater). Recharge to the perched watertable was estimated to be 193 mm under sole crop in 1998 (52% of rainfall), reducing to 32 mm when uptake of groundwater by trees was included. The degree of complementarity between tagasaste trees and crops in alley cropping used for water management is quantified for 1998 by calculating the ratio of the distance over which trees reduced drainage to zero to the distance over which they reduced crop yield to zero. It is concluded that segregated monocultures of trees and crops would be a more appropriate strategy than a closely integrated system such as alley cropping in this case. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia
Mungai, D. N.; Stigter, C. J.; Coulson, C. L.; Ng'ang'a, J. K.
Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosystems these results deserve new attention. They quantify, in a simple but detailed manner, the influence of hedgerows on the microclimate of their intercrop and for comparison provide a sole maize (SM) control. Due to inhomogeneity of Cassia and maize, as well as limited budgets, the sampling methodology and the choice of appropriate equipment, including the sensors, demanded special attention. The diurnal patterns of soil temperatures at 7.5cm depth represented well the shading patterns of the hedgerows. This can be developed into an operational auxiliary methodology of integrated shade quantification. With proper precautions, the developed sampling methodologies showed appropriately the time integrated values of the three microclimatic parameters with enough detail to understand yield differences between treatments and between rows. This approach may therefore be recommended for on-farm quantification of even greater spatial variability of parameters. The limitations of the selected methods are highlighted. Experiences with some alternative methods are also discussed.
Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35
Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia
Alley Farming is a system where food crops are planted in the alleys between hedgerows of leguminous trees. An appraisal study was undertaken to review the importance and need to combine alley farming with livestock production in fragile soil of Anambra State using structured questionnaire and oral interview method.
Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas
The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar
Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .
Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.
year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...
Full Text Available Climate-smart agriculture (CSA is proposed as a necessity, as the agricultural sector will need to adapt to resist future climatic change, to which high emissions from the sector contribute significantly. This study, which is an exploratory case study based on qualitative interviews and field observations, investigates the barriers to making a CSA-adjustment in maize production among Maya communities in southern Belize. The adjustment is alley cropping, which is a low-input adjustment that has the potential to result in both adaptation and mitigation benefits, and furthermore, to enhance food security. The findings show that a CSA-adjustment in small-scale maize production in Maya villages in southern Belize is possible in principle, though several barriers can make the overall climate-smart objective difficult to implement in practice. The barriers are of a proximate and indirect nature, exist at different spatial scales, and involve various levels of governance. The barriers are shown to be land tenure, market access, and changes in the traditional culture, however, these barriers are not homogenous across the villages in the region. To break down the barriers an overall district-level strategy is possible, but the toolbox should contain a wide variety of approaches. These could happen, for instance, through alterations to land tenure and the land taxation system nationally, enhancement of the agricultural extension system to ease access to knowledge and input at the district level, and support to a less complex governance structure at the village level.
The competitive irradiance constraint of trees on the understory can be reduced by imposing standard silvicultural practices like pruning and thinning. Use of tillage to disrupt tree roots is an intensive practice which may improve herbage productivity at the crop-tree interface by reducing competi...
Effect of row azimuth on alley crop illumination is difficult to determine empirically. Our objective was to determine if Google SketchUp (Trimble Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) could be used to simulate effect of azimuth orientation on illumination of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) alleys. Simulations were...
Camila Pinheiro Nobre
Full Text Available Sistemas em aléias podem consistir numa solução para o uso da terra em regiões do Trópico Úmido. A relação dessa forma de manejo com a dinâmica dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA ainda é pouco compreendida. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a influência de leguminosas arbóreas em um sistema em aléias na capacidade infectiva e diversidade de FMA nativos em São Luís, Maranhão. Amostras de solo coletadas do sistema em aléias no campus experimental da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão (UEMA - São Luís, em duas épocas do ano (Julho/2006 e Abril/2007, a duas distâncias (0 m e 0,5 m do tronco de três leguminosas (Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria fairchildiana e Acacia mangium e em área testemunha (sem leguminosas na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm. O solo coletado foi utilizado para avaliar a capacidade infectiva dos FMA nativos, densidade e identificação de glomerosporos. O sistema em aléias aumenta o potencial de infectividade dos FMA nativos dependendo da espécie de leguminosa arbórea associada, estação de coleta e proximidades das árvores. Dezesseis espécies de FMA foram encontradas na área distribuídas em cinco gêneros, sendo Scutellospora o mais representativo.Alley cropping systems may be a solution for land use in tropical regions. How land use is connected to mycorrhizal arbuscular fungi (AMF is poorly understood, especially in the tropics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of leguminous trees in an alley cropping system in regard to the infectivity and diversity of native AMF species in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in an experimental area of the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão (UEMA - São Luís, in two seasons (July/2006 and April/2007, two distances (0 m and 0.5 m from the trunk of three leguminous trees (Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria fairchildiana e Acacia mangium, and in a control area 0-20 cm deep. Soil samples were used to evaluate the
Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees
Andréia Araújo Lima Leite
Full Text Available O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições dos tratamentos: aléias de sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana, ingá (Inga edulis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e uma testemunha sem aléias. Foram avaliadas a remobilização de carbono e nitrogênio, massa de grãos, massa de mil grãos e competição interespecífica entre as cultivares de milho e as leguminosas. A produção de grãos foi maior nas parcelas com C. fairchildiana e L. leucocephala. A produtividade do híbrido de milho foi superior à da variedade em todos os tratamentos. A produtividade e a massa de mil grãos de milho não são negativamente afetadas pela distância da linha da leguminosa arbórea. Esse estudo conclui que o sistema de aléias com leguminosas arbóreas é uma alternativa importante ao manejo sustentável dos agroecossistemas no tropico úmido. Além disso, nessa região a produtividade em grãos na cultura do milho é favorecida no sistema de aléias preeestabelecidas com as leguminosas arbóreas sombreiro, ingá e leucena e pela utilização de genótipos eficientes no aproveitamento do nitrogênio, cujo sincronismo entre a liberação e a absorção do N aplicado por meio das leguminosas deve ser aprimorado.Alley cropping has been recommended as alternative land use to slash-and-burn agriculture in humid tropics. However, interespecific competition between cash crop and hedgerow can reduce this potential. This study aimed to evaluate the
Hellström, Christina; Hellström, Tomas
The present paper introduces a view of how ideas develop in organizations that goes beyond the traditional focus on either individual or structural conditions for creativity and innovation. An interview study was conducted with key actors in a large Swedish telecom company. A model...... was then constructed where idea development is viewed as a process of combining and integrating various informal, yet powerful qualities of the organization. The paper argues that successful idea development depends on the capacity of actors and ideas to move on ‘organizational highways, alleys and by–lanes’. A number...
Gustavo Porto Salmi
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de fitomassa aérea, seus teores de N, P, K, e a dinâmica de liberação desses nutrientes, em seis genótipos de guandu (Cajanus cajan, em sistema de cultivo em aléias. A produção média de biomassa foi de 5,9 Mg ha-1; o acúmulo de N variou de 188,3 a 261,3 kg ha-1, o de P de 7,2 a 9,4 kg ha-1 e o de K de 29,3 a 45,5 kg ha-1; não houve diferença estatística entre os genótipos avaliados. As curvas de liberação mostraram que, aos 56 dias aproximadamente 60% do N e 65% do P e do K, contidos na biomassa remanescente, haviam sido liberados ao solo. Não houve efeito dos genótipos sobre a taxa de liberação de nutrientes. Os resultados indicam que os seis genótipos estudados foram igualmente eficientes em produzir biomassa e em liberar nutrientes de modo satisfatório, no primeiro ano de estudos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the aerial biomass, N, P and K contents, and the dynamics of decomposition and mineralization, in six genotypes of pigeon pea, grown as hedgerows in an alley cropping system. Dry biomass production averaged 5.9 Mg ha-1; N content ranged from 188.3 to 261.3 kg ha-1; P content, from 7.2 to 9.4 kg ha-1 and K content, from 29.3 to 45.5 kg ha-1 . No differences between genotypes were found. Decay curves indicated a rate of 75% of the biomass still remaining 30 days after deposition. Also, approximately 60% of N, and 65% of P and K, of the remaining biomass, were released to soil. No effects of pigeon pea genotypes were found in decomposition or mineralization rates.
The recent devastating tornado attacks in Oklahoma, Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota raise an important question: can we do something to eliminate the major tornado threats in Tornado Alley? Violent tornado attacks in Tornado Alley are starting from intensive encounters between the northbound warm air flow and southbound cold air flow. As there is no mountain in Tornado Alley ranging from west to east to weaken or block such air flows, some encounters are violent, creating instability: The strong wind changes direction and increases in speed and height. As a result, it creates a supercell, violent vortex, an invisible horizontal spinning motion in the lower atmosphere. When the rising air tilts the spinning air from horizontal to vertical, tornadoes with radii of miles are formed and cause tremendous damage. Here we show that if we build three east-west great walls in the American Midwest, 300m high and 50m wide, one in North Dakota, one along the border between Kansas and Oklahoma to east, and the third one in the south Texas and Louisiana, we will diminish the tornado threats in the Tornado Alley forever. We may also build such great walls at some area with frequent devastating tornado attacks first, then gradually extend it. This research is supported in part by a grant from US Naval Research Lab.
Full Text Available Occurrence of arthropods on abandoned apple trees was studied in 2010 and 2011. The research was carried out in South Moravia (Czech Republic. Two sites were selected within this area – apple trees (Malus domestica in an alley along a road and an abandoned apple orchard. At each location, arthropods were collected from 5 separate trees. Deltamethrin was applied into the treetops using a fogger. The killed arthropods were collected 15 minutes after the application. From among the collected data, 48 families were determined in accordance with a generalized linear model with a logarithmic-link function and Poisson distribution. As a result it was found that 33 families have significantly higher abundance in the abandoned orchard and 9 families in the alley. According to the Shannon-Wiener index, diversity of families was higher in the alley in both years (2010: H’ = 3.016, 2011: H’ = 3.177 compared to the abandoned orchard (2010: H’ = 2.413, 2011: H’ = 3.007.
Ermakov, Vadim; Khushvakhtova, Sabsbakhor; Tyutikov, Sergey; Danilova, Valentina; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume
The ecological and biogeochemical assessment of the linden alley within the Kosygin Street was conducted by means of an integrated comparative study of soils, their chemical composition and morphological parameters of leaf linden. For this purpose 5 points were tested within the linden alley and 5 other points outside the highway. In soils, water extract of soil, leaf linden the content of Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Co Mo, Cr and Se were determined by AAS and spectrofluorimetric method . Macrocomponents (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, sulphates, chlorides), pH and total mineralization of water soil extract were measured by generally accepted methods. Thio-containing compounds in the leaves were determined by HPLC-NAM spectrofluorometry . On level content of trace elements the soils of "contaminated" points different from background more high concentrations of lead, manganese, iron, selenium, strontium and low level of zinc. Leaf of linden from contaminated sites characterized by an increase of lead, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, chromium, and a sharp decrease in the level of manganese and strontium. Analysis of the aqueous extracts of the soil showed a slight decrease in the pH value in the "control" points and lower content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and total mineralization of the water soil extract. The phytochelatins test in the leaves of linden was weakly effective and the degree of asymmetry of leaf lamina too. The most differences between the variants were marked by the degree of pathology leaves (chlorosis and necrosis) and the content of pigments (chlorophyll and carotene). The data obtained reflect the impact of the application of de-icing salts and automobile emissions. References 1. Ermakov V.V., Danilova V.N., Khyshvakhtova S.D. Application of HPLC-NAM spectrofluorimtry to determination of sulfur-containing compounds in the environmental objects// Science of the biosphere: Innovation. Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov, 2014. P. 10
B R Ntare, F Waliyar. Heterotic responses of tetraploid and triploid plantain hybrids in southeast Nigeria under alley-cropping. V Wilson, A Tenkouano. Inheritance of male sterility in finger millet. S C Gupta. Agronomic performances, yield stability and field disease reaction of cassava genotypes in the sub-humid forest region ...
Canan, B D; Asti, L; Heaney, C; Ashida, S; Renick, K; Xiang, H; Stallones, L; Jepsen, S D; Crawford, J M; Wilkins, J R
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in the U.S. among persons 1 to 44 years of age. Over one million children and adolescents in the U.S. live, work, and/or play on farms, where injury risk is relatively high compared to other settings. In an attempt to reduce the number of childhood agricultural injuries occurring on farms, the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) was developed to assist parents or other caregivers in assigning developmentally appropriate chores to youth exposed to agricultural hazards. The results presented here are from a longitudinal study in which we obtained (self-reported) daily chore, injury, and safety behavior data from children and adolescents. We focused on one NAGCAT chore, cleaning a service alley in a stall barn, in order to estimate the extent of compliance with specific work practice recommendations contained in the NAGCAT. Our results indicated that among the four NAGCAT-recommended safety practices for cleaning service alleys in stall barns (wearing nonskid shoes, leather gloves, a respirator, and eye protection), wearing non-skid shoes was the only safety practice reported with any degree of regularity. Overall, boys were more likely to wear non-skid shoes compared to girls. In addition, older youth were generally more likely to report higher work practice compliance compared to younger youth.
Kochemasov, G. G.
"Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities . But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40˚-50˚) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50˚-60˚) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60˚, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46˚ south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44˚ north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59˚ north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44˚ north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70˚ north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10439 - dance
Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.
Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)
Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.
In the EU-funded CROPS project robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit
and fruit vegetables. The robots are being designed to harvest crops, such as greenhouse vegetables, apples,
grapes and for canopy spraying in orchards and for precision target
Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.
Robert W. Rydell
Full Text Available America’s War with Spain inspired Tin Pan Alley music publishers to generate popular songs to accompany America’s military victories and subsequent occupation of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines. By expanding the genre of the so-called “coon song” to include the people of these islands, composers and publishers contributed to the domestication of empire in fin-de-siècle America.
Wijk, van der S.
Crop insurance was fairly new in the Netherlands but there was no legal objection or limitation to particular crops. If a crop were insured, it was important that the whole area of the crop were insured. Speculative insurance seemed preferable to mutual insurance.Crop insurance covered all risks
Dalemo, M.; Edstroem, M.; Thyselius, L.; Brolin, L.
This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs
The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original research papers dealing with all aspects of crop agronomy, production, genetics and breeding, germplasm, crop protection, post harvest systems and utilisation, agro-forestry, crop-animal interactions, information science, environmental science ...
than labor; E is exogenous income We assume households can sell parts or all of food crop, PCC and ... Farmers may also get informal credit from village money lenders based on their credit worthiness, which ..... exogenous at the time of making food crop planting decisions as the latter are annual and the former (PCC and ...
Olesen, Jørgen E
This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....
Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.
The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)
Fjeldaas, T; Sogstad, A M; Osterås, O
This study was part of a cross-sectional project on freestall housing, and the aim was to compare locomotion and claw disorders in freestall dairy cattle herds with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys. The final population for studying claw disorders consisted of 66 dairy herds with 2,709 dry or lactating cows, whereas the population for studying locomotion consisted of 54 herds with 2,216 cows. All herds used Norwegian Red as the main breed. The herds were visited by 15 trained claw trimmers one time during the period from the beginning of February to summer let-out onto pasture in 2008. The trimmers assessed locomotion scores (LocS) of all cows before trimming. At trimming, claw disorders were diagnosed and recorded in the Norwegian Claw Health Card. Estimates describing locomotion and claw disorders in the hind feet were identified by use of multivariable models fit with LocS and each claw disorder as dependent variables, respectively. Herd nested within claw trimmer was included in the model as random effects. The odds ratio (OR) of having LocS >2 and LocS >3 was 1.9 and 2.1, respectively, on slatted concrete compared with solid concrete. Fewer cases of dermatitis were found on slatted than solid concrete (OR=0.70) and a tendency was observed for fewer heel horn erosions on slatted concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.47). Hemorrhages of the white line and sole were more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.6 and OR=2.1, respectively). White line fissures were also more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.1 and OR=2.0, respectively). Double soles were more prevalent on solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=4.4). However, sole ulcers were less prevalent in herds with slatted and solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.39 and OR=0.53, respectively). Fewer corkscrewed claws were found on slatted concrete than
Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P. M.
A 5° latitude band on Saturn centered near planetocentric latitude 36°S is known as "Storm Alley" because it has been for several extended periods a site of frequent lightning activity and associated thunderstorms, first identified by Porco et al. (2005). The thunderstorms appeared as bright clouds at short and long continuum wavelengths, and over a period of a week or so transformed into dark ovals (Dyudina et al., 2007). The ovals were found to be dark over a wide spectral range, which led Baines et al. (2009) to suggest the possibility that a broadband absorber such as soot produced by lightning could play a significant role in darkening the clouds relative to their surroundings. Here we show that an alternative explanation, which is that the clouds are less reflective because of reduced optical depth, provides an excellent fit to near infrared spectra of similar features obtained by the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) in 2008, and leads to a plausible scenario for cloud evolution. We find that the background clouds and the oval clouds are both dominated by the optical properties of a ubiquitous upper cloud layer, which has the same particle size in both regions, but about half the optical depth and physical thickness in the dark oval regions. The dark oval regions are also marked by enhanced emissions in the 5-μm window region, a result of lower optical depth of the deep cloud layer near 3.1-3.8 bar, presumably composed of ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH). The bright storm clouds completely block this deep thermal emission with a thick layer of ammonia (NH3) clouds extending from the middle of the main visible cloud layer probably as deep as the 1.7-bar NH3 condensation level. Other condensates might also be present at higher pressures, but are obscured by the NH3 cloud. The strong 3-μm spectral absorption that was displayed by Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 (Sromovsky et al., 2013) is weaker in these storms because the contrast is
Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.
Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject to s...
Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp
Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse ...
Márcio Sampaio Pimentel
Full Text Available The effects of organic fertilization combining cattle manure and pigeon pea shoots on the culture of rocket, planted with one or two plants per hole, including soil microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, the metabolic quotient, soil fumigation labile carbon, and the dry matter content and total N, K, P, Ca and Mg contents in the leaves and roots of rocket were investigated. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment: 0 and 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure, 0 and 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots, and one or two plants per hole, with three replicates. The most significant and positive correlations were obtained between leaf K × soil respiration, microbial biomass × leaf N and root Ca × metabolic quotient. The use of 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure along with 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots with two plants per hole resulted in a lower relative loss of C-CO2; the same result was found for the treatment of two plants per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure. Increased leaf and root N contents were observed in the treatment that combined two plants in each plot, fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots, whereas the highest dry matter content was obtained by using one plant per hole, specifically: combining one plant per hole without fertilization; one plant per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from pigeon pea shoots; and one plant per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 N from cattle manure and pigeon pea shoots.Investigou-se o efeito da adubação orgânica combinando esterco bovino, ramas de guandu e densidade populacional por cova na cultura da rúcula sobre carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo, respiração do solo, quociente metabólico, carbono lábil de solo fumigado, teor de matéria seca e conteúdo de N-total, K, P, Ca e Mg foliar e radicular de rúcula. O delineamento experimental adotado foi blocos ao acaso em ensaio fatorial 2 x 2 x 2 e três repetições: 0 e 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino, 0 e 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu e uma e duas plantas por cova. As correlações mais significativas e positivas foram obtidas entre K foliar x respiração do solo, N foliar x biomassa microbiana e Ca radicular x quociente metabólico. A utilização de 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino em conjunto com 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu com duas plantas por cova refletiu em menor perda relativa de C-CO2, o mesmo ocorrendo com o tratamento de duas plantas por cova adubada apenas com 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino. Maior conteúdo de N foliar e radicular foi observado no tratamento combinando duas plantas por cova adubada com 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu, enquanto maior teor de matéria seca foi obtido usando uma planta por cova, principalmente, nas combinações sem adubação; com 160 kg ha-1 de N de ramas de guandu e com 160 kg ha-1 de N de esterco bovino e ramas de guandu.
Seigler, D.S. (ed.)
Eighteen papers originally presented as a symposium on Crop Resources at the 17th annual meeting of the Society for Economic Botany in Urbana, Illinois, June 13 to 17, 1976 comprise this book. The papers are: Potential Wealth in New Crops: Research and Development, L. H. Princen; Plant Introductions--A Source of New Crops, George A. White; Nonfood Uses for Commercial Vegetable Oil Crops, E. H. Pryde; New Industrial Potentials for Carbohydrates, F. H. Otey; The Current Importance of Plants as a Source of Drugs, Norman R. Farnsworth; Potentials for Development of Wild Plants as Row Crops for Use by Man, Arnold Krochmal and Connie Krochmal; Recent Evidence in Support of the Tropical Origin of New World Crops, C. Earle Smith, Jr.; Requirements for a Green Revolution, G. F. Sprague; How Green Can a Revolution Be, Jack R. Harlan; Increasing Cereal Yields: Evolution under Domestication, J. M. J. de Wet; Hevea Rubber: Past and Future, Ernest P. Imle; Horseradish--Problems and Research in Illinois, A. M. Rhodes; Dioscorea--The Pill Crop, Norman Applezweig; Plant Derivatives for Insect Control, Robert L. Metcalf; Evolutionary Dynamics of Sorghum Domestication, J. M. J. de Wet and Y. Shecter; The Origin and Future of Wheat, E. R. Sears; Current Thoughts on Origins, Present Status, and Future of Soybeans, T. Hymowitz and C. A. Newell; and The Origin of Corn--Studies of the Last Hundred Years, Garrison Wilkes. (MCW)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...
Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.
With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.
Retaining crop residues in the field and using legume-based crop rotations have been suggested as ways to simultaneously increase yields per unit area and replenish soil nutrients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cropping systems and three crop residue management practices on grain ...
Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.
Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.
Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.
Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins
Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman
objectives of this discussion article are as follows: (i) to discuss the characteristics of cropping systems which might affect the LCA methodology, (ii) to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current available methods for the life-cycle assessment of cropping systems, and (iii) to offer...... management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability...... considers cropping system issues if they are related to multiproduct and nutrient cycling, while the crop-by-crop approach is highly affected by assumptions and considers cropping system issues only if they are related to the analyzed crop. Conclusions Each LCA approach presents advantages and disadvantages...
Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Hoek, Steven; Iizumi, Toshichika; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jones, Curtis; Khabarov, Nikolay; Lawrence, Peter; Liu, Wenfeng; Olin, Stefan; Pugh, Thomas A.M.; Ray, Deepak K.; Reddy, Ashwan; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alex C.; Sakurai, Gen; Schmid, Erwin; Skalsky, Rastislav; Song, Carol X.; Wang, Xuhui; Wit, De Allard; Yang, Hong
Crop models are increasingly used to simulate crop yields at the global scale, but so far there is no general framework on how to assess model performance. Here we evaluate the simulation results of 14 global gridded crop modeling groups that have contributed historic crop yield simulations for
Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...
Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...
At the Research Station of Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark, investigation concerning cultivation and exploitation of field crops for production of fuels was carried out during the period 1986-1989. High yielding crops, such as sugar beet - BETA VULGARIS, jerusalem artichoke - HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS, rhubarb - RHEUM RHAPONTICUM, and comfrey - SYMPHYTUM ASPERUM, were grown experimentally in the field. Different cultivation methods for the crops were used and evaluated. Simultaneously with the field experiment, laboratory investigation was carried out to determine the energy potential of different products and by-products from the crops processes, such as alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation. Production expenses for the crops were determined, and cost of the fuels was estimated. The experimental results show that beet is a superior crop for the climatic conditions of Northern Europe. In the season 1986, yields exceeded 20 t TS/ha in the form of roots and tops, where achieved. A combined exploitation of beet roots and tops via alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation gave a gross energy corresponding to 80 hl OE/ha/yr. Using methanogenic fermentation exclusively, from ensiled beet roots and tops, gross energy yield corresponding to 85 hl IE/ha/yr, was achieved. The cost of energy in the form of alcohol from beet roots was estimated to be 5.17 DKK/1 OE (0.64 ECU/l OE). The cost of energy in the form of methane from ensiled beet tops, was estimated to be 2.68 DKK/l OE (0.33 ECU/l OE). At the present time, methane produced on the basis of ensiled beet roots and tops appears to be competitive with fossil fuels. Irrespective of the cost, however, the possibility of producing clean energy from field crops remains of interest for the future. (author) 27 refs.
Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G
Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.
Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.
A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.
This research topic review aims to summarise research knowledge and observational experience of combinable protein crop production in organic farming systems for the UK. European research on peas, faba beans and lupins is included; considering their role in the rotation, nitrogen fixation, varieties, establishment, weed control, yields, problems experienced and intercropping with cereals.
Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra
New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.
Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…
Wit, de C.T.
Theoretical and practical aspects of the transpiration of crops in the field are discussed and he concludes that the relationship between transpiration and total dry matter production is much less affected by growing conditions than has been supposed. In semi-arid and arid regions, this relationship
Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.
This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest efforts by crop breeders and geneticists to develop improved varieties for organic production. The book opens with chapters looking at breeding efforts that focus on specific valuable traits such as quality, pest and disease resistance
Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per unit
Porter, John R.; Semenov, Mikhail A.
The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop...... production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important...... for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal...
Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.
The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that t...
Paarlberg, Robert L.
Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...
Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.
In the EU-funded CROPS (Clever Robots for Crops) project high tech robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit and fruit vegetables. The harvesting robots are being designed to harvest high-value crops such as greenhouse vegetables, fruits in orchards and grapes
Producers need to know how to sequence crops to develop sustainable dynamic cropping systems that take advantage of inherent internal resources, such as crop synergism, nutrient cycling, and soil water, and capitalize on external resources, such as weather, markets, and government programs. Version ...
Roy, Stuart J.
Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.
Full Text Available Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops.
Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co......-substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...
Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian
Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jan Antoni Rafalski
Full Text Available Most important crop productivity traits, such as yield under normal and environmental stress conditions, are determined by a large number of genes, each with a small phenotypic effect. Genetic improvement of these traits through breeding or genetic engineering has been frustrating researchers in academia and industry. The reasons for this include the complexity of the traits, the difficulty of precise phenotyping and the lack of validated candidate genes. Different approaches to the discovery of the genetic architecture of such traits, such as Genetic Association Mapping and Genomic Selection and their engineering, are expected to yield benefits for farmers and consumers.
CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.
Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M
The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from quantitative trait locus mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification and improvement traits. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamdia, M. A; Shaddad, M. A. K.
Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies) and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different pla...
Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim
Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)
Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...
Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo
One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly
Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld
of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...
Since their introduction in 1995, crops made resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate with transgenes are widely available and used in much of the world. As of 2008, over 80% of the transgenic crops grown world-wide have this transgenic trait. This technology has had m...
Items 51 - 98 of 98 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 98 of 98 ...
Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.
Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.
Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important
Wit, de C.T.
A formula for calculating the potential photosynthesis of a closed crop surface is proposed, assuming that the leaves of the crop are not arranged in any definite direction. In the Netherlands, values for potential photosynthesis vary from 290 kg. CH2O/ha./day in June to 50 kg./ha./day in December.
Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.
With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)
Items 1 - 50 of 99 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 99 ...
AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of UN-FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity, an...
Full Text Available Tree-based intercropping (TBI systems, consisting of a medium to fast-growing woody species planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, are a potential sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. TBI systems contribute to farm income in the long-term by improving soil quality, as indicated by soil carbon (C storage, generating profits from crop plus tree production and potentially through C credit trading. The objectives of the current study were: (1 to evaluate soil C and nitrogen (N stocks in soil depth increments in the 0–30 cm layer between tree rows of nine-year old hybrid poplar-hay intercropping systems, to compare these to C and N stocks in adjacent agricultural systems; and (2 to determine how hay yield, litterfall and percent total light transmittance (PTLT were related to soil C and N stocks between tree rows and in adjacent agricultural systems. The two TBI study sites (St. Edouard and St. Paulin had a hay intercrop with alternating rows of hybrid poplar clones and hardwoods and included an adjacent agricultural system with no trees (i.e., the control plots. Soil C and N stocks were greater in the 0–5 cm depth increment of the TBI system within 1 m of the hardwood row, to the west of the poplar row, compared to the sampling point 1 m east of poplar at St. Edouard (p = 0.02. However, the agricultural system stored more soil C than the nine-year old TBI system in the 20–30 cm and 0–30 cm depth increments. Accumulation of soil C in the 20–30 cm depth increment could be due to tillage-induced burial of non-harvested crop residues at the bottom of the plow-pan. Soil C and N stocks were similar at all depth increments in TBI and agricultural systems at St. Paulin. Soil C and N stocks were not related to hay yield, litterfall and PTLT at St. Paulin, but hay yield and PTLT were significantly correlated (R = 0.87, p < 0.05, n = 21, with lower hay yield in proximity to trees in the TBI system and similar hay
... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations...
...-0001] RIN 0563-AC37 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions... Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance... changes to the Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance...
Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca
Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants. With the......Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants....... With the aim to enhance productivity, a number of functional stay-green cultivars have been selected by conventional breeding, in particular of sorghum and maize. In many cases, a positive correlation between leaf area duration and yield has been observed, although in a number of other cases, stay......-green cultivars do not display significant effects with regards to productivity. In several crops, the stay-green phenotype is observed to be associated with a higher drought resistance and a better performance under low nitrogen conditions. Among the approaches used to achieve stay-green phenotypes in transgenic...
Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.
As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.
Müller, H E
The concept of hygiene was created in the 19th century although Hippocrates had already conceived an influence of atmosphere, soil and water on human health. The concept of a public health organisation, however, is a fairly recent one. Environmental and social hygiene were the two poles of the new discipline that focussed on public health. However, the ideologies of capitalism, communism and socialism as well as of social darwinism and "survival of the elite" discredited social hygiene. The decline of totalitarianism was associated with a "loss of face" of state-controlled medicine, including social hygiene. Both the post-World War II German constitution and the previous German statutory health insurance ordinance had blocked it, and hence, no Federal bill on public health was carried. The consequences of this disregard of public health are poor protection by vaccination, a gap in compulsory notification and in epidemics control and high rates of nosocomial infections. Absolutely no development of the science of epidemiology was possible whereas that of medical microbiology is choked by the system now in existence. There is a great misconception within individual hygiene by identifying it merely with cleanliness. Hygiene became a synonym for cleanliness, although that had evolved during a long cultural sociological process centuries before hygiene was established. The modern evolution of the science of hygiene shows the danger that emphasis on healthy lifestyles or on environmental protection may result in regulations and finally in a tyranny that may threaten the liberty of human rights. The so-called "principle of concern" is an example of such irrationality because there is no sensible proportion between risk and expense.
Ulrich Franzen y asociados, Arquitectos
Full Text Available Both in view of its exterior shape and appearance as well as its interior decoration this building has been planned meticulously, considering the area, the population and the climate of the city as well as the usual medium of transport that the visitor will be using. The box-offices are accessible by car for which there is a nearby underground parking lot, connected with the theatre through a tunnel. The staircases are short and of different shapes. The theatre has spacious and shading terraces next to the foyers from where there is a view over the civic centre of the town. The interior decoration is inspired by the Spanish tradition, the South West Indies and Central America the influence of which is noted extensively in the area. The construction in general has been made with curved walls of fairfaced concrete on the outside and on the inside the colours are orange, brown, golden and blue.Este edificio se proyectó, tanto en su forma y aspecto exterior, como en su decoración interior, pensando meticulosamente en la zona, población de la ciudad y su clima, así como el medio habitual de transporte que utilizará el visitante. Las taquillas tienen acceso desde el automóvil, el cual se puede dejar en el estacionamiento subterráneo próximo, enlazado con el teatro mediante un túnel. Las escalinatas son variadas y constan de tramos cortos de forma diferente. Dispone de amplias y sombreadas terrazas, junto a las salas de descanso, desde las que se observa el centro cívico de la población. La decoración interior se inspiró en la tradición española, de las Indias Suroccidentales y de América Central, cuya influencia se nota ostensiblemente en la región. La construcción general se realizó a base de muros curvos de hormigón visto al exterior y colores naranja, marrón, dorado y azul en el interior.
Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.
Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.
Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.
The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original research papers dealing with all aspects of crop agronomy, production, genetics and breeding, germplasm, crop protection, post harvest systems and utilisation, agro-forestry, crop-animal interactions, ... Scientific Editor: Michael Paul Nampala
... Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-11-0011] RIN 0563-AC34 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop...
... Staple Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to remove all references to the Daily Spot Cotton Quotation and... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC27 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop... Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions consistent with the Upland Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions. The...
...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...
... their apple production to the public as fresh apples, without undergoing any change in its basic form... Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... Crop Insurance Regulations, Apple Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to...
McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler
AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.
Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)
IRSIS and CRPSM models were used in this study to see how closely they could predict grain yields for selected stations in Tanzania. Input for the models comprised of weather, crop and soil data collected from five selected stations. Simulation results show that IRSIS model tends to over predict grain yields of maize, ...
Over the past 15 years, biofortification, the process of breeding nutrients into food crops, has gained ample recognition as a cost-effective, complementary, feasible means of delivering micronutrients to populations that may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, or commercially fortified foods. In 2008, a panel of ...
Stevens, L.H.; Kok, C.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.
International patent application number: WO2004067699http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/en/WO2004067699 (EN)The invention relates to a composition for protecting an agricultural crop against external threats, such as weeds, pathogens, abiotic and biotic stresses and/or for improving the quality
Swinton, Scott M.; Babcock, Bruce A.; James, Laura K.; Bandaru, Varaprasad
By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food prices increase and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states. At this rate, a doubling of expected profitability from biomass crops would expand cropland supply by only 3.2%. Yet targets for cellulosic ethanol production in the US Energy Independence and Security Act imply boosting US planted area by 10% or more with perennial biomass crops. Given landowner reluctance to expand crop area with familiar crops in the short run, large scale expansion of the area in dedicated bioenergy crops will likely be difficult and costly to achieve. - Highlights: → Biofuel crops on cropland can displace food crops, reducing food supply and triggering indirect land use. → Growing biofuel crops on non-crop marginal land avoids these problems. → But US farmers expanded cropland by only 2% when crop profitability jumped 64% during 2006-09. → So medium-term availability of marginal lands for biofuel crops is limited and costly.
Kantzes, James G.; And Others
As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…
Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others
As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…
Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.
The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional
Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter
A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520
The African Crop Science Journal uses the Harvard citation style. Only published articles (journals and proceedings) or books may be cited. In addition, articles with evidence of official acceptance by journals for publication are considered as “In press” and are citable. Some are sometimes verifiable on journal websites.
Camacho Villa, T.C.; Maxted, N.; Scholten, M.; Ford-Lloyd, B.
Awareness of the need for biodiversity conservation is now universally accepted, but most often recent conservation activities have focused on wild species. Crop species and the diversity between and within them has significant socioeconomic as well as heritage value. The bulk of genetic diversity
1971-01-01To a large extent the results of a farmer's efforts to get higher crop yields will be determined by the prevailing environmental conditions, i.e. by the existing complex of physical, chemical and biological factors. The possibilities of an efficient use of these factors are enlarged by our
Advances in micro irrigation have facilitated greater adoption of fertigation for specialty crops. Fertigation improves nutrient uptake efficiency, minimize leaching of NO3-N below the root zone, and increases the yield and quality as compared to those with dry fertilizer broadcast. This paper is ba...
Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas
crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agriculture and a diverse set of treatments (irrigation, fertilisation, CO2 concentration, soil types...... accurately than main crops (cereals). The majority of models performed better for the treatments of increased CO2 and nitrogen fertilisation than for irrigation and soil-related treatments. The yield simulation of the multi-model ensemble reduced the error compared to single-model simulations. The low degree...... representation of crop rotations, further research is required to synthesise existing knowledge of the physiology of intermediate crops and of carry-over effects from the preceding to the following crop, and to implement/improve the modelling of processes that condition these effects....
Hefferon, Kathleen L
Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world's poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.
Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.
In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason......, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse...... dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among...
Cama-Pinto, Alejandro; Gil-Montoya, Francisco; Gómez-López, Julio; García-Cruz, Amos; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco
The agriculture in the southeast Spain has experimented important changes in the last years due to the greenhouse crops. In this kind of crops is very important the use of advanced techniques and new technologies to improve the crop efficiency. This work presents an advanced system to monitor the variables applied on greenhouse crops. The monitoring system uses a wireless sensor network (WSN) that works with 6LoWPAN and RPL as the routing protocol. It measures humidity, temperature, light, an...
Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified.......Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified....
In order e.g. to optimize harvesting crops of the kind which may be self dried on a field prior to a harvesting step (116, 118), there is disclosed a method of providing a mobile unit (102) for working (114, 116, 118) the field with crops, equipping the mobile unit (102) with crop biomass measuring...
Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.
The management of the fertilization of soil grown crops in greenhouses can be distinguished in the addition of fertilizers before cultivation, the base dressing and those added during the cultivations period of the crops, the top dressing. The growing period of the crops in greenhouse production
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop. 985.10 Section 985.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.10 Crop. Crop means that...
Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stegeman, A.
A method is proposed to write crop succession requirements as linear constraints in an LP-based model for agricultural production planning. Crop succession information is given in the form of a set of inadmissible successions of crops. The decision variables represent the areas where a certain
Insect pests cause significant damage to crops world-wide. This is despite integrated pest management strategies combining such control measures as chemical control, use of resistant varieties and other measures. Other control measures such as use of genetically modified crops are being adopted. Transgenic crops ...
The southeastern United States with its long growing season and mild winter temperatures has long been able to produce a variety of food, forage, and fiber crops. In addition to these crops, the Southeast is capable of producing a plethora of lignoceullosic-based bioenergy crops for conversion into ...
E M IGBOKWE
A total of 260 crop farmers who have sustained the use of agrochemicals for at ..... Internet. 105 (40.4). 10th. NAFDAC. 88 (32.3). 11th. EPA. 36 (13.8). 12th. Extension Visits to Crop Farmers. More than 30% of crop farmers were not visited in the last one ..... parameters of eggplant protection in Jessore District of Bangladesh.
... / Tuesday, April 16, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule...
Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian
is analyzed for the whole cropping system. The environmental conditions, crop choices and management will all affect the fate of the N left in the soil, and whether this will contribute mainly to leaching loss or be used for production in later crops. As an example, increasing pre-crop fertilization was shown...
Production and consumption of organic food is on the rise globally mainly due to a greater consumer awareness of issues related to health and the environment. However, the productivity of organic farming systems is considerably lower than for conventional systems. A key factor behind the low...... organic fertilizers in organic greenhouse crop production. Four greenhouse experiments were designed where different liquid organic fertilizers were prepared: acidic extraction or anaerobic digestion of red clover and white mustard silage, water extraction of composted chicken manure and flushing...... (EC) and oxygen concentration in the growing medium was studied. Further, crop growth and biomass yield were measured using leaf area, fresh and dry weight, photosynthesis and carbohydrate content in plant materials. The study showed that acid extraction of red clover and white mustard silage resulted...
Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co......, being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas...
Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik
impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...
Bhatia, V.K.; Kulsrestha, G.N.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))
Biomass constituents in the form of energy crops can be used as starting materials in the production of transportation fuels. The potential of biocrudes obtained from laticiferous species belonging to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae for the production of hydrocarbon fuels has been explored. Results of studies carried out on upgrading these biocrudes by catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst are presented. (author)
Serban F. Peteu
Full Text Available This review outlines the responsive polymer methods currently in use with their potential application to plant protection and puts forward plant-specific mechanisms as stimuli in newly devised methods for smart release of crop protection agents (CPAs. CPAs include chemicals (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, biochemicals (antibiotics, RNA-based vaccines for plant viruses, semiochemicals (pheromones, repellents, allomones, microbial pesticides, growth regulators (insect and plant or micronutrients, all with crop protection effects. This appraisal focuses on emerging uses of polymer nano-encapsulated CPAs. Firstly, the most interesting advances in controlled release methods are critically discussed with their advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, several plant-specific stimuli-based smart methods are anticipated for use alongside the polymer nano- or micro-capsules. These new CPA release methods are designed to (i protect plants against infection produced by fungi or bacteria, and (ii apply micro-nutrients when the plants need it the most. Thus, we foresee (i the responsive release of nano- encapsulated bio-insecticides regulated by plant stress enzymes, and (ii the delivery of micro-nutrients synchronized by the nature or intensity of plant root exudates. Such continued advances of nano-scale smart polymer-based CPAs for the protection of crops herald a “small revolution” for the benefit of sustainable agriculture.
Hamdia, M. A
Full Text Available Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past 2 decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, the authores try to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza or enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot, using genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."
Bartolelli, V.; Mutinati, G.; Pisani, F.
The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)
Knowledge of cotton crop evapotranspiration is important in scheduling irrigations, optimizing crop production, and modeling evapotranspiration and crop growth. The ability to measure, estimate, and predict evapotranspiration and cotton crop water requirements can result in better satisfying the cr...
In order e.g. to optimize harvesting crops of the kind which may be self dried on a field prior to a harvesting step (116, 118), there is disclosed a method of providing a mobile unit (102) for working (114, 116, 118) the field with crops, equipping the mobile unit (102) with crop biomass...... measuring means (108) and with crop moisture content measurement means (106), measuring crop biomass (107a, 107b) and crop moisture content (109a, 109b) of the crop, providing a spatial crop biomass and crop moisture content characteristics map of the field based on the biomass data (107a, 107b) provided...... from moving the mobile unit on the field and the moisture content (109a, 109b), and determining an optimised drying time (104a, 104b) prior to the following harvesting step (116, 118) in response to the spatial crop biomass and crop moisture content characteristics map and in response to a weather...
Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo
Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.
Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S
Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.
Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.
Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...
Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.
The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.
Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining
Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)
In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.
There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)
Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa
Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.
Micke, A.; Donini, B.; Maluszynski, M.
Mutation induction has become an established tool in plant breeding to supplement existing germ plasma and to improve cultivars in certain specific traits. Hundreds of improved varieties have been released to farmers for many different crop species, demonstrating the economic value of the technology. Limitations arise mainly from the large mutagenized populations to be screened and from the unsatisfactory selection methods. Both limitations may be eased to some extent by advances in techniques of plant in-vitro culture. (author). Refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs
Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.
Jon P. Cody
Full Text Available Minichromosome technology has the potential to offer a number of possibilities for expanding current biofortification strategies. While conventional genome manipulations rely on random integration of one or a few genes, engineered minichromosomes would enable researchers to concatenate several gene aggregates into a single independent chromosome. These engineered minichromosomes can be rapidly transferred as a unit to other lines through the utilization of doubled haploid breeding. If used in conjunction with other biofortification methods, it may be possible to significantly increase the nutritional value of crops.
Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia
Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.
Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia
Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064
Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.
This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.
Tanveer, Mohsin; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Hussain, Saddam; Cerdà, Artemi; Ashraf, Umair
Climate change, soil degradation, and depletion of natural resources are becoming the most prominent challenges for crop productivity and environmental sustainability in modern agriculture. In the scenario of conventional farming system, limited chances are available to cope with these issues. Relay cropping is a method of multiple cropping where one crop is seeded into standing second crop well before harvesting of second crop. Relay cropping may solve a number of conflicts such as inefficient use of available resources, controversies in sowing time, fertilizer application, and soil degradation. Relay cropping is a complex suite of different resource-efficient technologies, which possesses the capability to improve soil quality, to increase net return, to increase land equivalent ratio, and to control the weeds and pest infestation. The current review emphasized relay cropping as a tool for crop diversification and environmental sustainability with special focus on soil. Briefly, benefits, constraints, and opportunities of relay cropping keeping the goals of higher crop productivity and sustainability have also been discussed in this review. The research and knowledge gap in relay cropping was also highlighted in order to guide the further studies in future.
Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.
The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation. PMID:27790232
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...
Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.
Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation
Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Heisey, Paul W.; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Sullivan, John; Frisvold, George B.
Crop genetic resources are the basis of agricultural production, and significant economic benefits have resulted from their conservation and use. However, crop genetic resources are largely public goods, so private incentives for genetic resource conservation may fall short of achieving public objectives. Within the U.S. germplasm system, certain crop collections lack sufficient diversity to reduce vulnerability to pests and diseases. Many such genetic resources lie outside the United States....
Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.
Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing p...
Vaughan, D. A.; Bal?zs, E.; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.
Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disc...
Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline
The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on...
Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.
Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.
Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.
This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.
Gush, Mark B
Full Text Available (export potential) of those crops. However, there is essentially no more water available to allocate to irrigation. Consequently, the only option is to improve knowledge on crop water requirements and associated irrigation scheduling, thereby enhancing...
... policy does not cover the inability to market the insured crop due to quarantine, boycott, or refusal of... are unable to market the insured crop due to quarantine, boycott, or refusal of any person to accept...
Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, César R.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong
This paper introduces a spatially-explicit bioeconomic model for the study of potential cellulosic biomass supply. For biomass crops to begin to replace current crops, farmers must earn more from them than from current crops. Using weather, topographic and soil data, the terrestrial ecosystem model, EPIC, dynamically simulates multiple cropping systems that vary by crop rotation, tillage, fertilization and residue removal rate. EPIC generates predicted crop yield and environmental outcomes over multiple watersheds. These EPIC results are used to parameterize a regional profit-maximization mathematical programming model that identifies profitable cropping system choices. The bioeconomic model is calibrated to 2007–09 crop production in a 9-county region of southwest Michigan. A simulation of biomass supply in response to rising biomass prices shows that cellulosic residues from corn stover and wheat straw begin to be supplied at minimum delivered biomass:corn grain price ratios of 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. At the mean corn price of $162.6/Mg ($4.13 per bushel) at commercial moisture content during 2007–2009, these ratios correspond to stover and straw prices of $24 and $29 per dry Mg. Perennial bioenergy crops begin to be supplied at price levels 2–3 times higher. Average biomass transport costs to the biorefinery plant range from $6 to $20/Mg compared to conventional crop production practices in the area, biomass supply from annual crop residues increased greenhouse gas emissions and reduced water quality through increased nutrient loss. By contrast, perennial cellulosic biomass crop production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved water quality. -- Highlights: ► A new bioeconomic model predicts biomass supply and its environmental impacts. ► The model captures the opportunity cost of switching to new cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from crop residues is supplied at lower biomass price than cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from cellulosic crops has
Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)
The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in
Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric
The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.
Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001), and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.
Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; Tienderen, van P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.; Visser, R.G.F.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.
After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The
Full Text Available Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001, and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.
Heerwaarden, van J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Ross-Ibarra, J.
The need to protect crop genetic resources has sparked a growing interest in the genetic diversity maintained in traditional farming systems worldwide. Although traditional seed management has been proposed as an important determinant of genetic diversity and structure in crops, no models exist that
The need for fertilizer use to enhance soil nutrient pools to achieve good crop yield is essential to modern agriculture. Specific management practices, including cover cropping, that increase the activities of soil microorganisms to fix N and mobilize P and micronutrients may reduce annual inputs ...
Koning, de G.H.J.; Diepen, van C.A.; Reinds, G.J.
The WOFOST model was calibrated with an experiment on yield effects of drought in potatoes, using data on weather, soil moisture and crop calendar. Then, crop growth and development were predicted for the next year, using planting date and weather data. The model is described. The adjustments in the
The fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is worldwide in distribution and pathogenic to more than 400 plant species. This disease causes significant yield losses of various important crops including sunflower, canola, and soybean. Applying fungicides and crop rotation are currently the major methods of ...
Burrill, A.; Vossen, P.; Diepen, van C.A.
The EC land information system has been combined with meteorological, topographical and crop parameter data, and with historical agricultural statistics, to produce an integrated database suitable as input to a European-level crop growth modelling system. The selection of variables to be included in
what is optimal mix of crop in one agro-ecology, as well socio-economic and market conditions may be totally ... awareness among the policy makers, about these important dimensions of crop diversification and ... The study is uses the Ethiopian Agricultural Household and Marketing Survey (EAHMS) jointly implemented by ...
Heusinkveld, B. G.
The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.
The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...
Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...
Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...
This study assessed the level of adoption of recommended agrochemical practices among crop farmers in Kaduna and Ondo States of Nigeria. It measured the perception of farmers on pesticides and their knowledge on the harmful effects of pesticides. A total of 260 crop farmers who have sustained the use of ...
The High Plains is a temperate semi-arid region with highly variable rainfall. Extended periods of drought are common. In general, crop management strategies attempt to maximize the total water available to the crop and to maximize transpiration by minimizing soil evaporation. Summer fallow, the pra...
1984-01-01In crop micrometeorology the transfer of radiation, momentum, heat and mass to or from a crop canopy is studied. Simulation models for these processes do exist but are not easy to handle because of their complexity and the long computing time they need. Moreover, up to now such models can
This study examined the institutional factors influencing adoption of recommended agrochemical practices (RAPs) among crop farmers in Nigeria. A total of 260 crop farmers who have sustained the use of agrochemicals for at least five years were selected for the study using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were ...
A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...
The challenge. Ethiopia suffers high levels of food insecurity, exacerbated by population growth, land degradation, and frequent droughts. Pulse crops — the edible seeds from crops such as chickpeas, lentils, and faba beans — are important to Ethiopian farmers because they provide an alternative source of protein,.
It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.
This chapter describes use of molecular markers and transgenics in development of new cultivars in a survey obtained from public and private sector breeders. It also reviews traits in Rosaceae crops for which markers are currently available for use in developing new crops. The surprising results a...
Since their introduction in the mid-1990s, genetically engineered (GE) crops have been the topic of much debate. This report reviews evidence accumulated from experiences on the most widely grown GE crops to date: herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties of maize, soybean, and cotton.
Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...
Full Text Available Continuous increase of population in Egypt, limited fresh water, poor maintenance and low efficiency of irrigation systems lead to a real burden on the Egyptian natural water resources. Accordingly, for Egypt, land and water resources management is considered an absolutely strategic priority. In this study, a linear optimization model is developed to maximize the net annual return from the three old regions of Egypt. Data for 28 crops in five years from 2008 to 2012 are being analyzed. The spatial variations of crops, irrigation water needs, crop yields and food requirements are incorporated in the model. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the allocated areas for onion, garlic, barley, flax, fenugreek, chickpeas, lentil and lupine since they are considered as non-strategic crops. On the other side, the allocated areas for strategic crops such as wheat, maize, clover, rice, sugar products and cotton remained almost the same to satisfy their actual food requirements. However, crops with high net returns such as tomatoes have increased substantially. The trend for the gross net benefit is decreasing and is expected to reach a lower value in year 2017. Different approaches and scenarios are analyzed. The developed model proposes a change in the cropping pattern in the old lands of Egypt to increase the gross net return without adding further any other expenses. Keywords: Cropping pattern, Linear programming, Net return, Optimization
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table grape crop insurance provisions. 457.149 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.149 Table grape crop insurance provisions. The Table Grape Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grape crop insurance provisions. 457.138 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.138 Grape crop insurance provisions. The grape crop insurance provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows: United...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Value loss crops. 760.816 Section 760.816 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760.816 Value loss crops. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, this section applies to value loss crops and tropical crops...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.104 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.104 Cotton crop insurance provisions. The cotton crop insurance provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years are as follows...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows...
Søndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten
This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from...
Bošković Jelena V.; Isajev Vasilije V.; Prijić Željana S.; Zečević Veselinka M.; Hojka Zdravko M.; Dozet Gordana K.
Genetically modified (GM) crops and biotechnology are providing new opportunities for increasing crop productivity and tackling agriculture problems, such as diseases, pests and weeds, abiotic stress and nutritional limitations of staple food crops. As GM crops are being adopted in various locations with different ecosystems, a scientifically based understanding of the environmental effects of cultivations of GM crops would assist decision makers worldwide ...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage seeding crop insurance provisions. 457.151... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.151 Forage seeding crop insurance provisions. The Forage Seeding Crop Insurance Provisions for 2003 and succeeding crop...
The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...
Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline
The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Midtiby, Henrik; Rasmussen, Jesper
are considered weeds. We have used a Sugar beet ﬁeld as a case for evaluating the proposed crop detection method. The suggested image processing consists of: 1) locating vegetation regions in the image by thresholding the excess green image derived from the orig- inal image, 2) calculate the Hough transform......Images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles can provide information about the weed distribution in ﬁelds. A direct way is to quantify the amount of vegetation present in diﬀerent areas of the ﬁeld. The limitation of this approach is that it includes both crops and weeds in the reported num- bers. To get...... of the segmented image 3) determine the dominating crop row direction by analysing output from the Hough transform and 4) use the found crop row direction to locate crop rows....
Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen
The effects of faba bean, lupin, pea and oat crops, with and without an undersown grass-clover mixture as a nitrogen (N) catch crop, on subsequent spring wheat followed by winter triticale crops were determined by aboveground dry matter (DM) harvests, nitrate (NO3) leaching measurements and soil ......−2) compared to lupin (950 g m−2), pea (850 g m−2) and oat (1,100 g m−2) independent of the catch crop strategy. Faba bean derived more than 90% of its N from N2 fixation, which was unusually high as compared to lupin (70–75%) and pea (50–60%). No effect of preceding crop was observed...
Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K B; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P
Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8–2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on
Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.
Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8-2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on these
Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.
Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.
Understanding crop water use is critical to being able to determine crop water requirements and when water is limiting crop productivity. There have been many different techniques used to quantify crop water use and the eddy covariance approach is one method that has the capacity to measure crop wat...
Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus
Management practices designed to increase carbon sequestration via perennial tree crops, are potential tools to mitigate the consequences of climate change. Changes in orchard management could enable growers to meet eco-verification market demands for products with a low carbon footprint, and potentially exploit the emerging business opportunity in carbon storage, whilst enhancing the delivery of ecosystem services that depend on soil carbon stocks. However, there is no standard methodology to verify any potential claims of carbon storage by perennial vine crops. We developed a robust methodology to quantify carbon storage in kiwifruit orchards. Soil carbon stocks (SCS) were determined in six depth increments to 1 m depth in two adjacent kiwifruit blocks, which had been established 10 ('young') and 25 ('old') years earlier. We used a 'space-for-time' analysis. Our key results were: • The 'young' and 'old' kiwifruit block stored about 139 and 145 t C/ha to 1 m depth. Between 80-90% of the SCS were stored in the top 0.5 m, and 89-95% in the top 0.7 m. • There was no significant difference between the SCS in row and alley to a depth of 0.5 m. • A CV of 5-15% indicates that 4-10 cores are needed for 80% confidence in the estimated SCS. • We recommend separating each core into the depths 0-0.1, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.5 and 0.5-1 m to allow the assessment of SCS dynamics. • We detected a weak spatial pattern of the SCS only for the 'old' kiwifruit block with a range of about 3 m. A sampling bay along a vine-row should have a maximum length of 3 m. We then assessed SCS in over 60 kiwifruit orchards throughout New Zealand. They stored on average 174.9 ± 3 t C ha-1 to 1 m depth. On average, 51% of the SCS down to 1 m depth were stored in the top 0.3 m, which is the standard depth according to the Kyoto protocol. About 72% of the SCS to 1 m depth were captured when increasing the sampling depth to 0.5 m. These results underscore the necessity to analyze SCS in an orchard
Hong, Chuanxue; Schultz, Peter B.
This 2014 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for regulations and basic information, commercial small fruit, grapes, nursery crops, floral crops, turf, and low-management crops and areas.
... to be used primarily as bird and livestock feed. Nurse crop (companion crop). A crop planted into the...: (a) October 10 for North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming; and (b) October 31 for all other states...
Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963
Rajbir, S. Sangwan
Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.
Green, Jerry M
Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
George Frisvold; Jeanne Reeves
Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM) crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to) conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only thro...
Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang
In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)
There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.
Full Text Available As global population increases and demands for food supplies become greater, we face great challenges in providing more products and in larger quantities from less arable land. Crop science has gained increasing importance in meeting these challenges and results of scientific research must be communicated worldwide on a regular basis. In many countries, however, crop scientists have to publish the results of their investigations in national journals with heterogeneous contents and in their native languages. As a consequence, valuable work often remains unknown to scientists elsewhere. As a big country with a large number of crop scientists, China has a wide range of climatic and ecological environments, diverse plant species and cropping systems, and different regional needs for food supplies, which justify the recent decision by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science within the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, to launch a new communication channel, The Crop Journal. The goal of The Crop Journal is to meet an urgent need for a major Asia-based journal that covers the diverse fields of crop science. Our aim is to create a vital and thought-provoking journal that will highlight state-of-the-art original work and reviews by high-profile crop scientists and investigative groups throughout the world — a journal that will respond to the needs of specialists in strategic crop research. We will work with scientific and publishing colleagues worldwide, using The Plant Journal and Crop Science as models, to establish The Crop Journal as a broadly based high quality journal and a premier forum for issues in crop science. The Crop Journal will cover a wide range of topics, including crop genetics, breeding, agronomy, crop physiology, germplasm resources, grain chemistry, grain storage and processing, crop management practices, crop biotechnology, and biomathematics. The journal also encourages the submission of review
Pereira Hamilton Seron
Full Text Available Although silicon is not an essential nutrient, its application is beneficial for plant growth and development. To evaluate silicon sources in relation to agronomic efficiency and economic viability in rice crops (Oryza sativa L., a greenhouse experiment was conducted, Quartzipsamment soil, in a completely randomized experimental design (n = 4. Treatments were 12 silicon sources and a control. Silicon was applied at the rate of 125 kg Si ha-1. Data were compared to a standard response curve for Si using the standard source Wollastonite at rates of 0, 125, 250, 375, and 500 kg Si ha-1. All treatments received CaCO3 and MgCO3 to balance pH, Ca and Mg. One hundred and fifty days after sowing, evaluations on dry matter yield in the above-ground part of plants, grain yield, and Si contents in the soil and plant tissues were performed. Wollastonite had linear response, increasing silicon in the soil and plants with increasing application rates. Differences between silicon sources in relation to Si uptake were observed. Phosphate slag provided the highest Si uptake, followed by Wollastonite and electric furnace silicates which however, did not show differed among themselves. The highest Si accumulation in grain was observed for stainless steel, which significantly differed from the control, silicate clay, Wollastonite, and AF2 (blast furnace of the company 2 slag. Silicate clay showed the lowest Si accumulation in grain and did not differ from the control, AF2 slag, AF1 slag, schist ash, schist, and LD4 (furnace steel type LD of the company 4 slag.
Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich
Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...... ensiling process determines the storage loss and the quality of the final silage and, thus, the possible use of it as a substrate for biogas production. Moreover, silage has been considered as a pre-treatment since it partially hydrolyses organic matter improving cellulose convertibility. Since a large...
Petit, Anne-Noëlle; Fontaine, Florence; Vatsa, Parul; Clément, Christophe; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie
Fungicides are widely used to control pests in crop plants. However, it has been reported that these pesticides may have negative effects on crop physiology, especially on photosynthesis. An alteration in photosynthesis might lead to a reduction in photoassimilate production, resulting in a decrease in both growth and yield of crop plants. For example, a contact fungicide such as copper inhibits photosynthesis by destroying chloroplasts, affecting photosystem II activity and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Systemic fungicides such as benzimidazoles, anilides, and pyrimidine are also phytotoxic, whereas azoles stimulate photosynthesis. This article focuses on the available information about toxic effects of fungicides on photosynthesis in crop plants, highlighting the mechanisms of perturbation, interaction, and the target sites of different classes of fungicides. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
...; oilseeds such as canola, crambe, flaxseed, mustard seed, rapeseed, safflower seed, soybeans, sesame seed, and sunflower seeds; peanuts, pulse crops such as small chickpeas, lentils, and dry peas; dairy...
..., rice, or wheat; honey; mohair; certain oilseeds such as canola, crambe, flaxseed, mustard seed, rapeseed, safflower seed, soybeans, sesame seed, and sunflower seeds; peanuts, pulse crops such as small...
A three-year study is being conducted at the Alberta Research Council (ARC) to assess the impact of ethylene on Alberta's major crop plants. Barley, wheat, canola, field pea and oats are among the crops to be studied. The study is in cooperation with the Alberta Environmental Protection and the petrochemical industry which produces ethylene in their manufacturing process. Ethylene, which can be produced from man-made sources or naturally from crops, has been shown to affect plant yield and growth. The effects can be positive or negative depending on the amount of exposure, the type of plant and its stage of growth. Greenhouses will be used to determine the effects of ethylene emissions on the crops. This controlled environment will allow for the tracking of temperature, light, relative humidity, light intensity, water and nutrients. 1 fig
Davis, S.C.; Boddey, R.M.; Alves, B.J.R.; Cowie, A.L.; George, B.H.; Ogle, S.M.; Smith, P.; Noordwijk, van M.; Wijk, van M.T.
Bioenergy crops are often classified (and subsequently regulated) according to species that have been evaluated as environmentally beneficial or detrimental, but in practice, management decisions rather than species per se can determine the overall environmental impact of a bioenergy production
Zhang, Luming; Song, Mingli; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Xiao; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun
As one of the most basic photo manipulation processes, photo cropping is widely used in the printing, graphic design, and photography industries. In this paper, we introduce graphlets (i.e., small connected subgraphs) to represent a photo's aesthetic features, and propose a probabilistic model to transfer aesthetic features from the training photo onto the cropped photo. In particular, by segmenting each photo into a set of regions, we construct a region adjacency graph (RAG) to represent the global aesthetic feature of each photo. Graphlets are then extracted from the RAGs, and these graphlets capture the local aesthetic features of the photos. Finally, we cast photo cropping as a candidate-searching procedure on the basis of a probabilistic model, and infer the parameters of the cropped photos using Gibbs sampling. The proposed method is fully automatic. Subjective evaluations have shown that it is preferred over a number of existing approaches.
On the basis of a field experiment, selected crops were evaluated for feasibility in producing biomass applicable as raw material for fuels. Both the main products and byproducts of the crops were investigated in the laboratory for qualitative characteristics and were subjected to methanogenic fermentation under mesophilic conditions. The biogas energy potential and gross energy potential were determined. Under the climatic conditions of Northern Europe, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) was found to be a superior energy crop. White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum) and comfrey (Symphytum asperum) can be considered as potential crops for biomass. The agrotechnical and the economic aspects of the biomass production are being subjected to further investigation.
Stavridou, Eleftheria; Young, Scott D.; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian
2007–10 investigated the ability of catch crops (Italian ryegrass, fodder radish and hairy vetch) under different fertiliser regimes to reduce soil Se content in the autumn and to increase its availability in spring to the succeeding crop. Results and Conclusions The catch crops (Italian ryegrass...... and fodder radish) increased water-extractable Se content in the 0.25–0.75msoil layer in only one of the experiments. Selenium uptake by the catch crops varied between 65 and 3263 mg ha−1, depending on species, year and fertilisation treatment; this corresponded to 0.1–3.0% of the water-extractable soil Se......Background and Aims Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans and animals. In order to ensure an optimal concentration of Se in crops, Se fertilisers are applied. Catch crops may be an alternative way to increase Se concentrations in vegetables. Methods Three experiments in Denmark between...
Palacios Rojas, Paola Andrea
Anecdotal evidence suggests that, in stateless regions in Colombia, the establishment of oil palm 1 plantations generates more forced migration than the introduction of coca crops. We provide a theoretical model to study this phenomenon where an agent, allied with the illegal armed group that controls a region, chooses between buying an agricultural good from peasants or producing it himself by evicting farmers from their lands. We compare two crops that differ in their labor intensity. Resul...
Fresh fruits and vegetables are living tissues which are subject to continuous change after harvest leading to senescence, cellular break-down and death. Post harvest losses in quality and quantity of horticultural crops result from physiological, pathological and physical processes, acting separately or in combination. Temperature management, maintenance of proper relative humidity of air, manipulation of storage temperature and exposing to ionizing radiation such as gamma rays enhance the shelf-life of horticultural crops
Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.
Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1 y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production
Tuninetti, M.; Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.
The crop water footprint, CWF, is a useful tool to investigate the water-food nexus, since it measures the water requirement for crop production. Heterogeneous spatial patterns of climatic conditions and agricultural practices have inspired a flourishing literature on the geographic assessment of CWF, mostly referred to a fixed (time-averaged) period. However, given that both climatic conditions and crop yield may vary substantially over time, also the CWF temporal dynamics need to be addressed. As other studies have done, we base the CWF variability on yield, while keeping the crop evapotranspiration constant over time. As a new contribution, we prove the feasibility of this approach by comparing these CWF estimates with the results obtained with a full model considering variations of crop evapotranspiration: overall, the estimates compare well showing high coefficients of determination that read 0.98 for wheat, 0.97 for rice, 0.97 for maize, and 0.91 for soybean. From this comparison, we derive also the precision of the method, which is around ±10% that is higher than the precision of the model used to evaluate the crop evapotranspiration (i.e., ±30%). Over the period between 1961 and 2013, the CWF of the most cultivated grains has sharply decreased on a global basis (i.e., -68% for wheat, -62% for rice, -66% for maize, and -52% for soybean), mainly driven by enhanced yield values. The higher water use efficiency in crop production implies a reduced virtual displacement of embedded water per ton of traded crop and as a result, the temporal variability of virtual water trade is different if considering constant or time-varying CWF. The proposed yield-based approach to estimate the CWF variability implies low computational costs and requires limited input data, thus, it represents a promising tool for time-dependent water footprint assessments.
Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam
Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. http://www.bioinfcpcri.org.
Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip
Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop
Roozeboom, K.; Mahama, G.Y.; Mengel, D.B.; Prasad, P.V. Vara
Metadata only record The contribution of nitrogen (N) by cover crops is an important component of sustainable agriculture and alternative source of N. Legume summer and winter cover crops can decrease inorganic N fertilizer requirements and production costs through symbiotic N2 fixation. It is also vital to make maximum use of the available land during the growing season. However, summer crop yields may be decreased due to shortened length of growing season and risk of water shortage. The ...
Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management
Bloomfield, Justin A; Rose, Terry J; King, Graham J
Maintaining crop production to feed a growing world population is a major challenge for this period of rapid global climate change. No consistent conceptual or experimental framework for crop plants integrates information at the levels of genome regulation, metabolism, physiology and response to growing environment. An important role for plasticity in plants is assisting in homeostasis in response to variable environmental conditions. Here, we outline how plant plasticity is facilitated by epigenetic processes that modulate chromatin through dynamic changes in DNA methylation, histone variants, small RNAs and transposable elements. We present examples of plant plasticity in the context of epigenetic regulation of developmental phases and transitions and map these onto the key stages of crop establishment, growth, floral initiation, pollination, seed set and maturation of harvestable product. In particular, we consider how feedback loops of environmental signals and plant nutrition affect plant ontogeny. Recent advances in understanding epigenetic processes enable us to take a fresh look at the crosstalk between regulatory systems that confer plasticity in the context of crop development. We propose that these insights into genotype × environment (G × E) interaction should underpin development of new crop management strategies, both in terms of information-led agronomy and in recognizing the role of epigenetic variation in crop breeding. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yang, Jing; Shi, Zhu-Feng; Gao, Dong; Liu, Lin; Zhu, You-Yong; Li, Cheng-Yun
Reasonable utilization of natural resource and protection of ecological environment is the foundation for implementing agricultural sustainable development. Biodiversity research and protection are becoming an important issue concerned commonly in the world. Crop disease is one of the important natural disasters for food production and safety, and is also one of the main reasons that confine sustainable development of agricultural production. Large-scale deployment of single highly resistant variety results in reduction of agro-biodiversity level. In this case, excessive loss of agro-biodiversity has become the main challenge in sustainable agriculture. Biodiversity can not only effectively alleviate disease incidence and loss of crop production, but also reduce pollution of agricultural ecological environment caused by excessive application of pesticides and fertilizers to the agricultural ecological environment. Discovery of the mechanism of biodiversity to control crop diseases can reasonably guide the rational deployment and rotation of different crops and establish optimization combinations of different crops. This review summarizes recent advances of research on molecular, physiological, and ecological mechanisms of biodiversity managing crop diseases, and proposes some research that needs to be strengthened in the future.
Devineni, N.; Rising, J. A.
A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the county scale using regional climate covariates is presented in this paper. A new crop specific water deficit index, growing degree days, extreme degree days, and time-trend as an approximation of technology improvements are used as predictors to estimate annual crop yields for each county from 1949 to 2009. Every county in the United States is allowed to have unique parameters describing how these weather predictors are related to yield outcomes. County-specific parameters are further modeled as varying according to climatic characteristics, allowing the prediction of parameters in regions where crops are not currently grown and into the future. The structural relationships between crop yield and regional climate as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All counties are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. The model captures up to 60% of the variability in crop yields after removing the effect of technology, does well in out of sample predictions and is useful in relating the climate responses to local bioclimatic factors. We apply the predicted growing models in a cost-benefit analysis to identify the most economically productive crop in each county.
Full Text Available
Horticultural crops include a wide range of commodities, such as fruits and vegetables that are highly valuable for humanity. They are extensively grown worldwide, and their production can be described as an open and highly complex system affected by many factors, among which we can count weather, soil and cropping system, as well as the interaction between these factors. The aim of environmental physiology is to characterize the interaction between environmental stress and crop response, in order to maximize both yield quantity and quality. This review presents the most recent findings about the effects of the main abiotic environmental factors (light, temperature, and water on whole plant physiology of horticultural crops. Environmental stresses can cause morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in crops, resulting in a strong profit reduction. A clear understanding of environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for improving horticultural practices (irrigation, light management, mineral nutrition, greenhouse design, etc., optimizing photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increasing fruit productivity and crop quality. In addition, the information obtained by ecophysiological studies can be incorporated into breeding programs or agricultural zoning strategies.
Shin, Y.; Lee, T.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.; Jang, W.; Park, S.
We aimed to improve crop productions by providing optimal irrigation water amounts (IWAs) for various soils and crops using the Irrigation & Crop Production (ICP) model under various hydro-climatic regions. We selected the Little Washita (LW 13/21) and Bangdong-ri sites in Oklahoma (United States of America) and Chuncheon (Republic of Korea) for the synthetic studies. Our results showed that the ICP model performed well for improving crop productions by providing optimal IWAs during the study period (2000 to 2016). Crop productions were significantly affected by the solar radiation and precipitation, but the maximum and minimum temperature showed less impact on crop productions. When we considerd that the weather variables cannot be adjusted by artifical activities, irrigation might be the only solution for improving crop productions under drought. Also, the presence of shallow ground water (SGW) table depths higlhy influences on crop production. Although certainties exist in the synthetic studies, our results showed the robustness of the ICP model for improving crop productions under the drought condition. Thus, the ICP model can contribute to efficient water management plans under drought in regions at where water availability is limited.
Nitrate leaching measured below willow and miscanthus is very low from the established crops. Pesticide use in energy crops is low as well.......Nitrate leaching measured below willow and miscanthus is very low from the established crops. Pesticide use in energy crops is low as well....
Griepentrog, H.W.; Nielsen, J.; Olsen, Jannie Maj
The current non-uniform crop spatial distributions of individual cereal plants and widerspaced row crops like maize and sugar beet can limit crop performance because of nonoptimal resource utilization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential influence of two-dimensional crop...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree crops. 1437.306 Section 1437.306... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.306 Christmas tree crops. (a) A Christmas tree is a value loss crop...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible crops and producers. 1416.302 Section 1416... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.302 Eligible crops and producers. (a) A producer must be... crop and is entitled to share in the crop available for marketing from the farm or would have shared...
involve nutrient cycling, consumption and processing of crop residues, and pest management (for both crops and .... Crop residues obtainable from crop production activities in the entire studied populations were majorly from ... road construction, marketing, and water lifting for irrigation. Livestock also provide manure and ...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing tomato crop insurance provisions. 457.160... tomato crop insurance provisions. The Processing Tomato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and... polices: Processing Tomato Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...
Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik
The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production.......The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production....
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. 457.108... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.108 Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. The sunflower seed crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding...
Crop diversity is an urgent issue today in horticulture, which is faced with an erosion of crop variability as monoculture systems dominate crop production throughout the world, particularly in Europe and North America. At the same time there is great interest in indigenous horticultural crops aroun...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be grown...
... insured crop and you plant any insurable acreage of the winter type, you may not change your crop... exists among the policy provisions, the order of priority is as follows: (1) The Catastrophic Risk... an application must be filed and by which you may change your crop insurance coverage for a crop year...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage production crop insurance provisions. 457.117... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.117 Forage production crop insurance provisions. The Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and...
Tropospheric ozone (O3) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is causing significant crop production losses. Currently, O3 concentrations are projected to increase globally, which could have a significant impact on food security. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator modified to include crops (JULES-crop) is used here to quantify the impacts of tropospheric O3 on crop production at the regional scale until 2100. We evaluate JULES-crop against the Soybean Free-Air-Concentration-Enrichment (SoyFACE) experiment in Illinois, USA. Experimental data from SoyFACE and various literature sources is used to calibrate the parameters for soybean and ozone damage parameters in soybean in JULES-crop. The calibrated model is then applied for a transient factorial set of JULES-crop simulations over 1960-2005. Simulated yield changes are attributed to individual environmental drivers, CO2, O3 and climate change, across regions and for different crops. A mixed scenario of RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 climatology and ozone are simulated to explore the implication of policy. The overall findings are that regions with high ozone concentration such as China and India suffer the most from ozone damage, soybean is more sensitive to O3 than other crops. JULES-crop predicts CO2 fertilisation would increase the productivity of vegetation. This effect, however, is masked by the negative impacts of tropospheric O3. Using data from FAO and JULES-crop estimated that ozone damage cost around 55.4 Billion USD per year on soybean. Irrigation improves the simulation of rice only, and it increases the relative ozone damage because drought can reduce the ozone from entering the plant stomata. RCP 8.5 scenario results in a high yield for all crops mainly due to the CO2 fertilisation effect. Mixed climate scenarios simulations suggest that RCP 8.5 CO2 concentration and RCP 2.6 O3 concentration result in the highest yield. Further works such as more crop FACE-O3 experiments and more Crop
Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.
The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern institutions established to evaluate how conservation practices, including cover crops, improve the resilience of Midwest agriculture to future change. Such collaborations can help better quantify long term impacts of conservation practices on the landscape that ultimately lead to more climate-smart management of such agricultural systems.
Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.
Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N
South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.
Khush Gurdev S
Full Text Available Abstract The major scientific advances of the last century featured the identification of the structure of DNA, the development of molecular biology and the technology to exploit these advances. These breakthroughs gave us new tools for crop improvement, including molecular marker-aided selection (MAS and genetic modification (GM. MAS improves the efficiency of breeding programs, and GM allows us to accomplish breeding objectives not possible through conventional breeding approaches. MAS is not controversial and is now routinely used in crop improvement programs. However, the international debate about the application of genetic manipulation to crop improvement has slowed the adoption of GM crops in developing as well as in European countries. Since GM crops were first introduced to global agriculture in 1996, Clive James has published annual reports on the global status of commercialized GM crops as well as special reports on individual GM crops for The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA. His 34th report, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/ GM crops: 2011  is essential reading for those who are concerned about world food security.
Franke, A.C.; Berkhout, E.D.; Iwuafor, E.N.O.; Nziguheba, G.; Dercon, S.; Plas, van der I.; Diels, J.
Integrated crop-livestock farming in the Guinea savanna of West Africa is often assumed to lead to synergies between crop and livestock production, thereby improving the overall productivity and resilience of agricultural production. Whether these synergies actually occur remains poorly studied.
Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert
This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment is global and improves upon earlier research by taking a highresolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc
Shah, Adnan Noor; Iqbal, Javaid; Ullah, Abid; Yang, Guozheng; Yousaf, Muhammad; Fahad, Shah; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hassan, Waseem; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Wang, Leishan; Khan, Aziz; Wu, Yingying
Agricultural production enhancement has been realized by more consumption of fossil energy such as fertilizer and agrochemicals. However, the production provides the present human with sufficient and diversified commodities, but at the same time, deprives in some extent the resources from the future human as well. In the other hand, it is known that synthetic herbicides face worldwide threats to human's health and environment as well. Therefore, it is a great challenge for agricultural sustainable development. The current review has been focussed on various oilseed crop species which launch efficient allelopathic intervention, either with weeds or other crops. Crop allelopathic properties can make one species more persistent to a native species. Therefore, these crops are potentially harmful to both naturalized as well as agricultural settings. On the other side, allelopathic crops provide strong potential for the development of cultivars that are more highly weed suppressive in managed settings. It is possible to utilize companion plants that have no deleterious effect on neighbor crops and can be included in intercropping system, thus, a mean of contributing to agricultural sustainable development. In mixed culture, replacement method, wherein differing densities of a neighbor species are planted, has been used to study phytotoxic/competitive effects. So, to use alternative ways for weed suppression has become very crucial. Allelochemicals have the ability to create eco-friendly products for weed management, which is beneficial for agricultural sustainable development. Our present study assessed the potential of four oilseed crops for allelopathy on other crops and associated weeds.
Wit, de A.J.W.; Diepen, van K.
One of the key challenges for operational crop monitoring and yield forecasting using crop models is to find spatially representative meteorological input data. Currently, weather inputs are often interpolated from low density networks of weather stations or derived from output from coarse (0.5
Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert
This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996–2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid.
Increased biomass crop production is essential for the development of sustainablae bioenergy and bio-product industries that will strengthen rural economies and increase employment in sectors ranging from farming to feedstock transportation to plant construction and operation. Double cropping, a far...
Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.
The response of the whole crop to environmental conditions is a critical factor in agriculture. It can only be understood if the organization of the crop system is taken into account. A popular view in modern science is that genomics (and other `omics¿) will provide knowledge and tools to allow the
Wit, de A.J.W.; Diepen, van C.A.
Uncertainty in spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall in regional crop yield simulations comprises a major fraction of the error on crop model simulation results. In this paper we used an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to assimilate coarse resolution satellite microwave sensor derived soil
Cover crops (CCs) have been heralded for their potential to improve soil properties, retain nutrients in the field, and increase subsequent crop yields yet support for these claims within the state of Illinois remains limited. We assessed the effects of integrating five sets of CCs into a corn-soybe...
Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per
and the United Kingdom included subsequent spring wheat with grass-clover as catch crops. The experiment was repeated over the three cropping seasons of 2003, 2004 and 2005. Irrespective of sites and intercrop design pea–barley intercropping improved the plant resource utilization (water, light, nutrients...
Rusinamhodzi, L.; Wijk, van M.T.; Corbeels, M.; Rufino, M.C.; Giller, K.E.
Decisions to use crop residues as soil cover for conservation agriculture create trade-offs for farmers who own cattle in crop-livestock systems. Trade-offs among soil C, crop and animal and crop productivity were analysed using the NUANCES-FARMSIM (FArm-scale Resource Management SIMulator) dynamic
Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B
Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.
Full Text Available The role of genetically modified (GM crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.
van Heerwaarden, J; van Eeuwijk, F A; Ross-Ibarra, J
The need to protect crop genetic resources has sparked a growing interest in the genetic diversity maintained in traditional farming systems worldwide. Although traditional seed management has been proposed as an important determinant of genetic diversity and structure in crops, no models exist that can adequately describe the genetic effects of seed management. We present a metapopulation model that accounts for several features unique to managed crop populations. Using traditional maize agriculture as an example, we develop a coalescence-based model of a crop metapopulation undergoing pollen and seed flow as well as seed replacement. In contrast to metapopulation work on natural systems, we model seed migration as episodic and originating from a single source per population rather than as a constant immigration from the entire metapopulation. We find that the correlated origin of migrants leads to surprising results, including a loss of invariance of within-deme diversity and a parabolic relationship between F(ST) and migration quantity. In contrast, the effects of migration frequency on diversity and structure are more similar to classical predictions, suggesting that seed migration in managed crop populations cannot be described by a single parameter. In addition to migration, we investigate the effects of deme size and extinction rates on genetic structure, and show that high levels of pollen migration may mask the effects of seed management on structure. Our results highlight the importance of analytically evaluating the effects of deviations from classical metapopulation models, especially in systems for which data are available to estimate specific model parameters.
Full Text Available The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.
Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica
The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular "identity." This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.
Christopher Evan Buddenhagen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.
Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica
The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. PMID:24064605
Full Text Available The estimate of the main crops is fundamental to plan the agricultural sector and for the generation of statistics on the future crops. Among several products of importance in the national agricultural scenery, the rice crop represents an important participation of the total Brazilian grain production. Most of this production is found in the Southern States of the country, mainly in Rio Grande do Sul state, standing for about 47% of the national production. Several producing areas in this state showed a big expansion of this crop in its extreme southern region, not only in the technological development but also in the development of new varieties. The objective of this work was to calculate the area cultivated with flooded rice in the county of Santa Vitória of Palmar, Rio Grande do Sul State, using TM and ETM+ sensors images from the satellites Landsat 5 and 7, respectively. The images were acquired along the crop season in order to define the most favorable period for their acquisition. The multitemporal analysis of the images allowed estimating the flooded rice area in 60.557 ha, underestimating in 1,67% the official data from the IRGA (Rice Institute of Rio Grande do Sul. When analyzed the dates individually the March image showed an excellent result. In the multitemporal analysis, the classifications using the months of November + December and only December obtained satisfactory results and with the advantage to supply a forecast planted area with flooded rice.
Singh, S.S.; Khan, A.R.
The reclamation of salt affected soils needs the addition of soil amendment and enough water to leach down the soluble salts. The operations may also include other simple agronomic techniques to reclaim soils and to know the crops and varieties that may be grown and other management practices which may be followed on such soils (Khan, 2001). The choice of crops to be grown during reclamation of salt affected soils is very important to obtain acceptable yields. This also decides cropping systems as well as favorable diversification for early reclamation, desirable yield and to meet the other requirements of farm families. In any salt affected soils, the following three measures are adopted for reclamation and sustaining the higher productivity of reclaimed soils. 1. Suitable choice of crops, forestry and tree species; 2. Suitable choice of cropping and agroforestry system; 3. Other measures to sustain the productivity of reclaimed soils. (author)
Since the advent of the Green Revolution in the 1960's, agriculture has experienced great advances in yield, seed genetics and management. This focus on increased yields and production came at the cost of many marginal, traditional crops because they could no longer compete with the bountiful harvests of massive mono-culture food systems. In the modern agricultural world, three staple crops are responsible for 46% of global agricultural production on 33% of global harvested area. Further, seventeen crops account for 73% of global crop production and use 58% of global harvested area. How has the distribution of individual crops today changed from before the Green Revolution began, and what are the broader implications of these changes for our food systems?
De Egea, Juana; Mereles, Fátima; Peña-Chocarro, María Del Carmen; Céspedes, Gloria
Paraguay, a country whose economy is based mainly on agriculture and livestock for export, has experienced a major expansion in mechanized crops during the last few decades. Despite being heavily dependent on agriculture, Paraguay has very limited research on crop weeds, in spite of these having a high economic impact on production. This work aims to update and enhance the knowledgebase on the most common weeds affecting productive fields throughout the different ecoregions of Paraguay. We present here the first checklist of crop weeds for the country, which includes a total of 256 taxa (189 species, 10 subspecies, 54 varieties and 3 forms), with the most species-rich families being Poaceae and Asteraceae followed by Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. The list includes three new records for the country. Synonyms, distribution details within Paraguay, habit and a voucher specimen are provided for each taxon.
Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong
Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Sahiti, Naser; Sfishta, Avni; Gramatikov, Plamen
Primary energy mix in Kosovo with 98 % consisting of lignite and only 2 % of water is far from portfolio of primary energy sources which could contribute to a sustainable and environmental friendly energy supply of the country. In order to improve the situation, government is supporting activities in favor of upgrading of electricity production capacities based on Renewable Energy Sources. Corresponding action plans and feed in tariffs are already in place. However, prior to any investment, one needs specific results on available potential. Current study provides results of the analysis of Kosovo potential for energy production by using of agricultural crops. Study is based on national statistics on available agricultural crops in Kosovo and provides results on biomass potential of crops, corresponding energy potential and an assessment of financial cost of energy produced.
Ahmad, Niaz; Mukhtar, Zahid
An alarming increase in the human population necessitates doubling the world food production in the next few decades. Although a number of possible biotechnological measures are under consideration, central to these efforts is the development of transgenic crops to produce more food, and the traits with which plants could better adapt to adverse environmental conditions in a changing climate. The emergence of new tools for the introduction of foreign genes into plants has increased both our knowledge and the capacity to develop transgenic plants. In addition, a better understanding of genetic modifications has allowed us to study the impact that genetically modified crop plants may have on the environment. This article discusses different techniques routinely used to carry out genetic modifications in plants while highlighting challenges with them, which future research must address to increase acceptance of GM crops for meeting food security challenges effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Plants are constantly exposed to potentially pathogenic microbes present in their surrounding environment. Due to the activation of the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI response that largely relies on accurate detection of pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, plants are resistant to the majority of potential pathogens. However, adapted pathogens may avoid recognition or repress plant PTI and resulting diseases significantly affect crop yield worldwide. PTI provides protection against a wide range of pathogens. Reinforcement of PTI through genetic engineering may thus generate crops with broad-spectrum field resistance. In this review, new approaches based on fundamental discoveries in PTI to improve crop immunity are discussed. Notably, we highlight recent studies describing the interfamily transfer of PRRs or key regulators of PTI signalling.
Ali, Nusrat; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi
RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence specific gene silencing mechanism, triggered by the introduction of dsRNA leading to mRNA degradation. It helps in switching on and off the targeted gene, which might have significant impact in developmental biology. Discovery of RNAi represents one of the most promising and rapidly advancing frontiers in plant functional genomics and in crop improvement by plant metabolic engineering and also plays an important role in reduction of allergenicity by silencing specific plant allergens. In plants the RNAi technology has been employed successfully in improvement of several plant species- by increasing their nutritional value, overall quality and by conferring resistance against pathogens and diseases. The review gives an insight to the perspective use of the technology in designing crops with innovation, to bring improvement to crop productivity and quality.
Porter, John Roy; Christensen, Svend
, mainly atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased and/or varying temperatures. It illustrates an important principle in models of a single cause having alternative effects and vice versa. The second part suggests some features, mostly missing in current crop models, that need to be included......This paper is part review and part opinion piece; it has three parts of increasing novelty and speculation in approach. The first presents an overview of how some of the major crop simulation models approach the issue of simulating the responses of crops to changing climatic and weather variables...... in the future, focussing on extreme events such as high temperature or extreme drought. The final opinion part is speculative but novel. It describes an approach to deconstruct resource use efficiencies into their constituent identities or elements based on the Kaya-Porter identity, each of which can...
Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel
Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional
Full Text Available In the recent years the damage caused by the game animals to the agricultural crops has increased considerably. An immediate cause of this situation is an expanding population of big game, especially wild boar. This increase is primarily due to the changes in agrocenoses, dominated by large area maize cropping. The crop damage is compensated by hunting associations leasing the specific areas. The aim of this paper was to present the costs of the compensation incurred by the lease-holders of the hunting grounds. A cause - effect relationship between greater game damage and increased harvest of the game animals was demonstrated. The analysis was based on the data provided in the Statistical Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office for 2000-2013. The study also indicated a problem of a decline in roe deer population, caused by more intense harvest resulting from farmer compensation claims.
Suryanarayana, T M V
This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...
Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.
Mahfouz, Magdy M.
Site-specific and adaptable DNA binding domains are essential modules to develop genome engineering technologies for crop improvement. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) proteins are used to provide a highly specific and adaptable DNA binding modules. TALE chimeric nucleases (TALENs) were used to generate site-specific double strand breaks (DSBs) in vitro and in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammalian and plant cells. The genomic DSBs can be generated at predefined and user-selected loci and repaired by either the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology dependent repair (HDR). Thus, TALENs can be used to achieve site-specific gene addition, stacking, deletion or inactivation. TALE-based genome engineering tools should be powerful to develop new agricultural biotechnology approaches for crop improvement. Here, we discuss the recent research and the potential applications of TALENs to accelerate the generation of genomic variants through targeted mutagenesis and to produce a non-transgenic GM crops with the desired phenotype.
Flint-Garcia, Sherry A
Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3000 and 10000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced genetic diversity relative to the wild ancestor across the genome, and severely reduced diversity for genes targeted by domestication. The question that remains is whether reduction in genetic diversity has affected crop production today. A case study in maize ( Zea mays ) demonstrates the application of understanding relationships between genetic diversity and phenotypic diversity in the wild ancestor and the domesticate. As an outcrossing species, maize has tremendous genetic variation. The complementary combination of genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) approaches, large HapMap data sets, and germplasm resources is leading to important discoveries of the relationship between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation and the impact of domestication on trait variation.
Björn K Klatt
Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.
Atherton, Keith T.
The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable efforts to select acceptable and robust hybrid offspring. The difficulties of applying traditional toxicological testing and risk assessment procedures to whole foods are discussed along with the evaluation strategies that are used for these new food products to ensure the safety of these products for the consumer
The author notes much higher rates of ethanol production in Brazil and the United States of America than in the European Economic Community. While bioethanol from arable crops makes environmental sense there is, at present, a sizeable difference between the value of fuel ethanol (Pound 100-130/t) and the cost of producing it (Pound 236-Pound 450/t). This gap could be remedied using excise duty. Farmers would like to change crop production but await a political initiative. The technology for bioethanol production still needs some fine tuning, with ETBE (an ether produced from reacting isobutylene with ethanol) being preferred to other methods. (UK)
Full Text Available The International Crop Science Congress (ICSC is a regularly held event allowing crop scientists from around the world to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications. The 7th ICSC was held August 14–19, 2016 in Beijing, China, with the theme “Crop Science: Innovation and Sustainability”. The congress included eight thematic areas: crop germplasm and evolution, crop genetics and genomics, crop biotechnology, breeding and seed production, agronomy and crop physiology, climate change and sustainability, crop quality and processing, and crop production and socioeconomic aspects. As a companion production for this great congress, the nine papers collected in this special issue feature important fields of crop science in China. This editorial first briefly introduces the 7th ICSC, followed by a brief discussion of the current status of, constraints to, and innovations in Chinese agriculture and crop science. Finally, the main scientific points of the papers published in this special issue are surveyed, covering important advances in hybrid rice breeding, minor cereals, food legumes, rapeseed, crop systems, crop management, cotton, genomics-based germplasm research, and QTL mapping. In a section describing future prospects, it is indicated that China faces a full transition from traditional to modern agriculture and crop science.
Sisworo, W.H.; Rasjid, H.
A two seasons field experiment was conducted to study the carry over effect of previous crop on the succeeding crop yield and plan nutrient (N and P) availability. The experiment consisted of eight treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with six resplications. Cropping sequence was studied that was soybean followed by corn and a continuous corn system. The effect of added P to the previous crops on the succeeding crops yield was also observed. Labelled fertilizer were used in the experiment to measure dinitrogen fixation of two soybean varieties and the amount of available nutrient in the soil by using isotopic dilution technique. The result obtained showed that corn yield was significantly influenced by cropping sequence, but available nutrient was not. Corn grown after soybean produced about 22 percent more grain than those of the continuous corn system. The phosphorus applied to the first season crops increased significantly the succeeding corn yield. The highest amount of accumulation in soybean was 81 kg N/h, around 40 percent of the amount was obtained through fixation. (authors). 19 refs.; 8 tabs
Domestication of cereal crops has provided a stable source of food for thousands of years. The extent to which lignocellulosic crops will contribute to the world's renewable energy depends largely on how the new crops will be domesticated. Growing miscanthus as biofuel feedstocks on marginal and degraded land in northern and northwestern China offers an example for developing theoretical framework and practical strategies for energy crop domestication. The domestication should incorporate the highest possible genetic diversity from wild species, focus on the improvement of drought and cold tolerance especially in the stage of crop establishment, increase the efficiencies of water and nutrient uses and photosynthesis, adjust vegetative growing season according to local temperature and precipitation, and reduce or prevent seed production. Positive ecological effects on soil conservation, landscape restoration, carbon sequestration, and hydrological cycles should be maximized, while negative impact on biodiversity needs to be minimized. With the development of other sources of renewable energy, the role of lignocellulosic crops may evolve from primarily energy production to increasingly ecological restoration and biomaterial development. The integration of this new cropping system into the existing agriculture may open a new avenue to the long-term sustainability of our society. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Mann, R.A.; Munir, M.; Haqqani, A.M.
Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)
Full Text Available Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, the CropWatch system has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global, regional, national (thirty-one key countries including China and “sub-countries” (for the nine largest countries. The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both production and exports of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales. The global patterns of crop environmental growing conditions are first analyzed with indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR as well as potential biomass. At the regional scale, the indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation Health Index (VHI, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Cropped Arable Land Fraction (CALF as well as Cropping Intensity (CI. Together, they characterize crop situation, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, cropped areas and crop conditions are integrated to derive food production estimates. For the nine largest countries, CropWatch zooms into the sub-national units to acquire detailed information on crop condition and production by including new indicators (e.g., Crop type proportion. Based on trend analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. The hierarchical approach adopted by CropWatch is the basis of the analyses of climatic and crop conditions assessments published in the quarterly “CropWatch bulletin” which
Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.
This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996-2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid. We have used a grid-based dynamic water balance model to calculate crop water use over time, with a time step of one day. The model takes into account the daily soil water balance and climatic conditions for each grid cell. In addition, the water pollution associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer in crop production is estimated for each grid cell. The crop evapotranspiration of additional 20 minor crops is calculated with the CROPWAT model. In addition, we have calculated the water footprint of more than two hundred derived crop products, including various flours, beverages, fibres and biofuels. We have used the water footprint assessment framework as in the guideline of the Water Footprint Network. Considering the water footprints of primary crops, we see that the global average water footprint per ton of crop increases from sugar crops (roughly 200 m3 ton-1), vegetables (300 m3 ton-1), roots and tubers (400 m3 ton-1), fruits (1000 m3 ton-1), cereals (1600 m3 ton-1), oil crops (2400 m3 ton-1) to pulses (4000 m3 ton-1). The water footprint varies, however, across different crops per crop category and per production region as well. Besides, if one considers the water footprint per kcal, the picture changes as well. When considered per ton of product, commodities with relatively large water footprints are: coffee, tea, cocoa, tobacco, spices, nuts, rubber and fibres. The analysis of water footprints of different biofuels shows that bio-ethanol has a lower water footprint (in m3 GJ-1) than biodiesel, which supports earlier analyses. The crop used matters significantly as well: the global average water footprint of bio-ethanol based on sugar beet amounts to 51 m3 GJ-1
Elkins, Donald M.
Discusses the advantages of using a pretest in introductory agronomy courses. Provides a pretest that has been developed for use in an introductory crops course taught at Southern Illinois University. Includes 25 definitions, 17 true-false and multiple choice questions, and 6 short answer questions. (TW)
Paul R. Adler
Full Text Available The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production.
The fact that in a very short period of 35 years the global population will reach an estimated 9 billion people presents a massive challenge to agriculture: how do we feed all of these people with nutritious food in a sustainable way? At the present time the yields of most of our major crops are sta...
Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Vita, Di A.; Pardossi, A.; Bibbiani, C.; Marzialetti, P.; Balendonck, J.
One of the major production areas in Europe for Hardy Ornamental Nursery Stocks (HONS) is located around Pistoia (Tuscany, Italy). In this area, pot ornamental crops show low water use efficiency (WUE). Main reasons of poor irrigation efficiency are both the inaccurate irrigation scheduling, which
Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others
As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the…
The project Farming with future works with parties with a vested interest to promote sustainable crop protection in practice. Besides developing new knowledge, it spends a good deal of its energy in the embedding of sustainable practices within relevant organisations, businesses and agrarian
El Nino-South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon occurs in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific Ocean and has been noted to account significantly for rainfall variability in many parts of the world, particularly tropical regions. This variability is very important in rainfed crop production and needs to be well understood. Thirty years of ...
Burkhardt, Chris C.
This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…
... definition since (1) the program was understood to be a mandatory program subject to a final construction and..., but were in the construction phases prior to the NOFA, or were facilities that restarted production..., monitoring programs, conversion of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres, the inclusion of crop residues...
This paper examines the impacts of macroeconomic environment on the output performances of perennial crops – namely cocoa, rubber, palm oil and palm kernel in Nigeria. The time series data used for the analysis reveals agricultural policy/programme instability. Ordinary Least Square estimation shows that most ...
After review of the purposes that have in the course of time been served by investigations on aerial water vapour pressure inside and just above plant stands, measured vapour pressure profiles within a maize crop are reported and discussed. Special attention is paid to measured horizontal
Madsen, Kathrine Hauge; Sandøe, Peter
are perceived asrisky because they seem to share certain features: in particular, their long-term effects are unknown andthey are dreaded. Other value questions also come into play. The public seems to be concerned that risksare not outweighed by usefulness, that using HR crops is the wrong path to sustainable...
Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.
Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.
Garrett, Rachael D.; Niles, Meredith; Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana; Dy, Philip; Reis, Julio; Valentim, Judson
The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food
Global warming and associated changes in climate are expected to affect the cli- matic parameters to varying degrees. This in turn would affect the reference ET0. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the role of each climate variable used in the computation of reference crop evapotranspiration (Saxton 1975).
This review of the agronomy of metal crops used in agromining/phytomining summarizes the history of the development of phytomining and the experimental work to identify the agronomic practices most important to high annual nickel yield when hypernickelophore (accumulate over 1% Ni in dry shoots). Th...
The prospects of developing Simmondsia chinensis into a profitable energy-related crop are discussed. Apart from yielding seed oil with lubricating properties, it has potential as a landscape and soil conservation plant. Propagation, spacing, temperature and soil requirements, irrigation, pollination, stand establishment, yields and breeding are considered.
Eric J. Holzmueller; Carl W. Mize
Tree establishment in Iowa can be difficult without adequate weed control. Although herbicides are effective at controlling weeds, they may not be desirable in riparian settings and some landowners are opposed to using them. An alternative to herbicides is the use of forage crops to control weeds. A research project was established in 1998 to evaluate the influence of...
Carlsson, Anders S.; Clayton, David; Toonen, Marcel; Salentijn, E.M.J.
EPOBIO is an international project to realise the economic potential of plant-derived raw materials by designing new generations of bio-based products that will reach the marketplace 10-15 years from now. This report addresses the establishment of industrial crop platforms for oil.
Mueller-Warrant, George W.; Trippe, Kristin M.; Whittaker, Gerald W.; Anderson, Nicole P.; Sullivan, Clare S.
Benefits of converting 11 years of remote sensing classification data into cropping history of agricultural fields included measuring lengths of rotation cycles and identifying specific sequences of intervening crops grown between final years of old grass seed stands and establishment of new ones. Spatial and non-spatial methods were complementary. Individual-year classification errors were often correctable in spreadsheet-based non-spatial analysis, whereas their presence in spatial data generally led to exclusion of fields from further analysis. Markov-model testing of non-spatial data revealed that year-to-year cropping sequences did not match average frequencies for transitions among crops grown in western Oregon, implying that rotations into new grass seed stands were influenced by growers' desires to achieve specific objectives. Moran's I spatial analysis of length of time between consecutive grass seed stands revealed that clustering of fields was relatively uncommon, with high and low value clusters only accounting for 7.1 and 6.2% of fields.
farmers about their smallholder farm management practices. The results of the workshop would guide us in our effort to work with farmers to improve and sustain the land and crop management strategies used in Kayunga and Mukono districts. Approaches and Methods. Project core team. Scientists of Mukono ARDC and a ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Chelates for Micronutrient Nutrition among Crops. B S Sekhon. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 46-53. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0046-0053. Keywords.
As the market for biofortified seed and food grows, farmers increasingly market their excess production to consumers. To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer perceptions, insights, and behaviors around food, agriculture, nutrition and ...
(African Crop Science Journal 1999 7(3) Special Issue: Monograph on geographic shifts in highland cooking banana (Musa, group AAA-EA) production in Uganda: 231-243). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...
Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.
The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 205.107 Section 205.107 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS...
Tanveer, Mohsin; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Hussain, Saddam; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Ashraf, Umair
Climate change, soil degradation, and depletion of natural resources are becoming the most prominent challenges for crop productivity and environmental sustainability in modern agriculture. In the scenario of conventional farming system, limited chances are available to cope with these issues. Relay
Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Molnar, T.A.
Worldwide, extreme climate risks cause stakeholders in food supply chains to search for new risk management tools. In Australia, recently so-called crop yield simulation insurance has been introduced based on an integrated agrometeorological simulation model. Current uptake is relatively low,
Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.
Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...
use of a Popper apparatus . Measurement, which was continued daily throughout the experimental period, provided data for drawdown of the well from beginning to end of experiment. Since pumping was not taking place, crop water requirement was considered to be solely responsible for well drawdown. In the drums ...
Full Text Available In Zambia, every year some parts of the maize fields are abandoned post-planting. Reasons for this are not clearly known. In this paper, we examine the influence of soil and climatic factors on crop abandonment using a six-year (2007–2012 panel data by modeling the planted-to-harvested ratio (a good indicator of crop abandonment using a fractional and linear approach. Therefore, for the first time, our study appropriately (as supported by the model specification tests that favour fractional probit over linear models the fractional nature of crop abandonment. Regression results, which are not very different between the two specifications, indicate that, more than anything, high rainfall immediately after planting and inadequate fertilizer are the leading determinants of crop abandonment. In the agro-ecological region where dry planting takes place, low temperature during planting months negatively affects the harvested area. The results have implications on the sustainability of farming systems in the face of a changing climate.
Contrary to the situation in other crops where the deployment of improved varieties has led to loss of diversity and a narrowing of the genetic base, some kind of domestication of semi-wild yam species is still on going in west African countries, which continually augments the germplasm diversity (Mignouna and Dansi,.
In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...
Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt; Mertz, Ole
forest cover and prepares for REDD+ (reducing deforestation and forest degradation). This paper explores how the recent boom in cash crops is impacting land use and livelihoods of local communities, as well as affecting forest conservation in Hua Meuang District of Huaphan Province in northeastern Laos...
lated metals could supply many of the micronutrient require- ments of plants. These chelates find use in a wide variety of agricultural crops. Applications for chelates vary from fertilizer additives, seed dressing to foliar sprays and hydroponics. Chelates and Chelating Agents. A chelate describes a kind of organic chemical ...
Full Text Available of 10(6) CFU/9 TS and Salmonella spp. of 10(5) CFU/g TS was used for this purpose. Applying different rates of sludge to spinach and carrots resulted in an increase in bacterial and helminth ova count's in crops as the quantity of sludge increased...
The paradox of Genetic Engineering of crops is evident from the unending revolution in the seeding and growth of new multibillion naira industries while it also poses the greatest hazards to life on the planet Earth. Recombination DNA technology is used to insert, delete, transpose and substitute new genes in plants that ...
Khoury, Colin K.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M.M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.
Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems
The need for GM crops is growing rapidly as a consequence of the overriding priority for the sustainable generation of vastly increased food production. Although demands for energy and raw materials from the bioeconomy remain, they may become eclipsed by the quest for more food.
Cassaniti, C.; Romano, D.; Hop, M.E.C.M.; Flowers, T.J.
In the current review we focus on the opportunity to use brackish water in the cultivation of floricultural plants, plants for which, due to their high economic value, growers have traditionally used good quality water for irrigation. Now, even for these crops the use of alternative water sources
Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors in many horticultural crops attribute to overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegeta...
Sanderson, Matt A.; Adler, Paul R.
The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production. PMID:19325783
Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.
This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…
The economic implications of plant density for irrigation water use under saline conditions are investigated, utilizing the involved physical and biological relationships. The analysis considers a single crop and is applied to cotton data. The results suggest that treating plant density as an endogenous control variable has substantial impact on profits and the optimal quantities and qualities of the applied irrigation water.
Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies, and to ensure that knowledge about sound production practices is increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements. The same holds for the design, implementation and monitoring of improved natural resource management that links community initiatives to external expertise. It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.
Haughton, Alison J; Bohan, David A; Clark, Suzanne J; Mallott, Mark D; Mallott, Victoria; Sage, Rufus; Karp, Angela
Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping. The abundance and community compositions of biodiversity indicators in fields of break and cereal crops changed when planted with the dedicated biomass crops, miscanthus and short rotation coppiced (SRC) willow. Weed biomass was consistently greater in the two dedicated biomass crops than in cereals, and invertebrate abundance was similarly consistently higher than in break crops. Using canonical variates analysis, we identified distinct plant and invertebrate taxa and trait-based communities in miscanthus and SRC willows, whereas break and cereal crops tended to form a single, composite community. Seedbanks were shown to reflect the longer term effects of crop management. Our study suggests that miscanthus and SRC willows, and the management associated with perennial cropping, would support significant amounts of biodiversity when compared with annual arable crops. We recommend the strategic planting of these perennial, dedicated biomass crops in arable farmland to increase landscape heterogeneity and enhance ecosystem function, and simultaneously work towards striking a balance between energy and food security.
Bruno Henrique Martins
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Humic substances (HS comprise the passive element in soil organic matter (SOM, and represent one of the soil carbon pools which may be altered by different cover crops and weed control methods. This study aimed to assess HS distribution and characteristics in an experimental coffee crop area subjected to cover crops and cultural, mechanical, and chemical weed control. The study was carried out at Londrina, in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (23°21’30” S; 51°10’17” W. In 2008, seven weed control/cover crops were established in a randomized block design between two coffee rows as the main-plot factor per plot and soil sampling depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm as a split-plot. HS were extracted through alkaline and acid solutions and analyzed by chromic acid wet oxidation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Chemical attributes presented variations in the topsoil between the field conditions analyzed. Cover crop cutting and coffee tree pruning residues left on the soil surface may have interfered in nutrient cycling and the humification process. Data showed that humic substances comprised about 50 % of SOM. Although different cover crops and weed control methods did not alter humic and fulvic acid carbon content, a possible incidence of condensed aromatic structures at depth increments in fulvic acids was observed, leading to an average decrease of 53 % in the E4/E6 ratio. Humin carbon content increased 25 % in the topsoil, particularly under crop weed-control methods, probably due to high incorporation of recalcitrant structures from coffee tree pruning residues and cover crops.
Chu, Yingmin; Shen, Yanjun; Yuan, Zaijian
The North China Plain (NCP) has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP) was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF) of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1) the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI) of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2) the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000-2012) of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3) winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue) accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4) the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat-summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.
Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has a serious shortage of freshwater resources, and crop production consumes approximately 75 % of the region's water. To estimate water consumption of different crops and crop structures in the NCP, the Hebei southern plain (HSP was selected as a study area, as it is a typical region of groundwater overdraft in the NCP. In this study, the water footprint (WF of crop production, comprised of green, blue and grey water footprints, and its annual variation were analyzed. The results demonstrated the following: (1 the WF from the production of main crops was 41.8 km3 in 2012. Winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables were the top water-consuming crops in the HSP. The water footprint intensity (WFI of cotton was the largest, and for vegetables, it was the smallest; (2 the total WF, WFblue, WFgreen and WFgrey for 13 years (2000–2012 of crop production were 604.8, 288.5, 141.3 and 175.0 km3, respectively, with an annual downtrend from 2000 to 2012; (3 winter wheat, summer maize and vegetables consumed the most groundwater, and their blue water footprint (WFblue accounted for 74.2 % of the total WFblue in the HSP; (4 the crop structure scenarios analysis indicated that, with approximately 20 % of arable land cultivated with winter wheat–summer maize in rotation, 38.99 % spring maize, 10 % vegetables and 10 % fruiters, a sustainable utilization of groundwater resources can be promoted, and a sufficient supply of food, including vegetables and fruits, can be ensured in the HSP.
Shopan, J.; Bhuiya, M.S.U.; Kader, M.A.; Hasan, M.K.
An experiment was conducted in five farmers’ field in Dingaputa haor of Purba Tetulia village, Mohangonj Upazila in Netrakona district during the period from 20 July 2010 to 15 May 2011. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of growing short duration vegetable and oil crops in seasonal fallow of Boro rice-Fallow-Fallow cropping patterns in terms of both combined yields and economic performance. Six short duration vegetables such as potato, red amaranth, stem amaranth, sp...
The water stress coefficient (Ks) resulting from deficit irrigation at any one growth stage only of the maize crop were found to range from 0. 74 to 0.83, while deficit irrigation at two or more successive growth stages ranged from 0.68 to 0.77. The crop and water stress coefficients developed from this study could be used in ...
The future of the US agriculture relies on sustainable resource use and income generation for farmers, and maintaining the environmental quality. Hence, farmers are expected to adopt various technologies and practices, such as energy crops, genetically modified crops, and conservation practices. The objective of this study is, by using a multivariate probit model, to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the impact of certain socio-economic factors on adoption of Miscanthus, Roundup Ready® soyb...
Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J
Plant breeders require access to new genetic diversity to satisfy the demands of a growing human population for more food that can be produced in a variable or changing climate and to deliver the high-quality food with nutritional and health benefits demanded by consumers. The close relatives of domesticated plants, crop wild relatives (CWRs), represent a practical gene pool for use by plant breeders. Genomics of CWR generates data that support the use of CWR to expand the genetic diversity of crop plants. Advances in DNA sequencing technology are enabling the efficient sequencing of CWR and their increased use in crop improvement. As the sequencing of genomes of major crop species is completed, attention has shifted to analysis of the wider gene pool of major crops including CWR. A combination of de novo sequencing and resequencing is required to efficiently explore useful genetic variation in CWR. Analysis of the nuclear genome, transcriptome and maternal (chloroplast and mitochondrial) genome of CWR is facilitating their use in crop improvement. Genome analysis results in discovery of useful alleles in CWR and identification of regions of the genome in which diversity has been lost in domestication bottlenecks. Targeting of high priority CWR for sequencing will maximize the contribution of genome sequencing of CWR. Coordination of global efforts to apply genomics has the potential to accelerate access to and conservation of the biodiversity essential to the sustainability of agriculture and food production. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi
The linkage between crop yield and climate variability has been confirmed in numerous studies using statistical approaches. A crucial assumption in these studies is that crop spatial distribution pattern is constant over time. Here, we explore how changes in county-level corn spatial distribution pattern modulate the response of its yields to climate change at the state level over the Contiguous United States. Our results show that corn yield response to climate change varies with crop spatial distribution pattern, with distinct impacts on the magnitude and even the direction at the state level. Corn yield is predicted to decrease by 20~40% by 2050 s when considering crop spatial distribution pattern changes, which is 6~12% less than the estimates with fixed cropping pattern. The beneficial effects are mainly achieved by reducing the negative impacts of daily maximum temperature and strengthening the positive impacts of precipitation. Our results indicate that previous empirical studies could be biased in assessing climate change impacts by ignoring the changes in crop spatial distribution pattern. This has great implications for understanding the increasing debates on whether climate change will be a net gain or loss for regional agriculture.
Full Text Available The conventional cultivation of drained peatland causes peat oxidation, soil subsidence, nutrient loss, increasing greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity reduction. Paludiculture has been identified as an alternative management strategy consisting in the cultivation of biomass on wet and rewetted peatlands. This strategy can save these habitats and restore the ecosystem services provided by the peatlands both on the local and global scale. This paper illustrates the most important features to optimise the crop choice phase which is the crucial point for the success of paludiculture systems. A multi-adaptive framework was proposed. It was based on four points that should be checked to identify suitable crops for paludicultural cropping system: biological traits, biomass production, attitude to cultivation and biomass quality. The main agronomic implications were explored with the help of some results from a plurennial open-field experimentation carried out in a paludicultural system set up in the Massaciuccoli Lake Basin (Tuscany, Italy and a complete example of the method application was provided. The tested crops were Arundo donax L., Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deuter, Phragmites australis L., Populus×canadensis Moench. and Salix alba L. The results showed a different level of suitability ascribable to the different plant species proving that the proposed framework can discriminate the behaviour of tested crops. Phragmites australis L. was the most suitable crop whereas Populus×canadensis Moench and Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deuter (in the case of biogas conversion occupied the last positions in the ranking.
Lati, Ran N; Filin, Sagi; Aly, Radi; Lande, Tal; Levin, Ilan; Eizenberg, Hanan
Weed/crop classification is considered the main problem in developing precise weed-management methodologies, because both crops and weeds share similar hues. Great effort has been invested in the development of classification models, most based on expensive sensors and complicated algorithms. However, satisfactory results are not consistently obtained due to imaging conditions in the field. We report on an innovative approach that combines advances in genetic engineering and robust image-processing methods to detect weeds and distinguish them from crop plants by manipulating the crop's leaf color. We demonstrate this on genetically modified tomato (germplasm AN-113) which expresses a purple leaf color. An autonomous weed/crop classification is performed using an invariant-hue transformation that is applied to images acquired by a standard consumer camera (visible wavelength) and handles variations in illumination intensities. The integration of these methodologies is simple and effective, and classification results were accurate and stable under a wide range of imaging conditions. Using this approach, we simplify the most complicated stage in image-based weed/crop classification models. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.
... with disabilities or who require alternative means for communication (Braille, large print, audio tape... practices, and monoculture and polyculture crop mixes; and (8) The range of eligible crops among project...
Arracacia xanthorrhiza), yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia) and maca (Lepidium meyenii), among the root and tuber crops (Bertram, 1993). Thirdly, crops that used to be very important, at least in certain regions, but whose cultivation has practically ceased.
One of the peaceful applications of atomic energy is in the field of agriculture. It finds application in crop improvement, crop nutrition, crop protection and food preservation. Genetic improvement of crop plants is a continuous endeavor. Success of a crop improvement programme depends on the availability of large genetic variability, which a plant breeder can combine to generate new varieties. In nature, occurrence of natural variability in the form of spontaneous mutations is extremely low (roughly 10 -6 ), which can be enhanced to several fold (approximately 10 -3 ) by using ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. Radiation induced genetic variability in crop plants is a valuable resource from which plant breeder can select and combine different desired characteristics to produce better crop varieties. Crop improvement programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) envisage radiation based induced mutagenesis along with recombination breeding in country's important cereals (rice and wheat), oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean and sunflower), grain legumes (blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea and cowpea), banana and sugarcane
Key words: tropical lowland climate, tropical lowland greenhouse, plastic greenhouse, near infrared radiation (NIR) reflecting plastic, greenhouse climate model, determinate tomato, crop growth, development, truss appearance rate, crop simulation model, INTKAM. The goal of this research
sativum L.), was studied in three field experiments. The effect of catch crop incorporation in the soil on the yield and N accumulation in succeeding crops was also investigated. An aftersown catch crop should be used for pea, since undersown ryegrasses reduced the pea yield. Undersown perennial ryegrass......The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...... or an aftersown catch crop can be used for spring barley. The catch crops had accumulated up to 70 kg N ha-1 at the time of ploughdown in early December. The nitrogen accumulation in catch crops following pea was significantly higher than in the catch crop following barley supplied with 100 kg N ha-1. Barley...
Chen, Yolanda H.; Gols, Rieta; Benrey, Betty
Crop domestication is the process of artificially selecting plants to increase their suitability to human requirements: taste, yield, storage, and cultivation practices. There is increasing evidence that crop domestication can profoundly alter interactions among plants, herbivores, and their
... crop production practices were available to the respondents: adequate crop spacing, optimum plant population, seed dressing, use of fertilizer, use of insecticides, regular weeding, adequate disease control measures, timeliness of planting, yam minisett technology, improved maize varieties, improved cassava varieties,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001 - 2016 consists of annual winter cropped areas for most of India (except the Northeastern states) from 2000-2001 to 2015-2016....
FertilCrop aims at improving soil fertility using synergies provided by improved crop management techniques. The improvement of organic farming systems by building a higher level of soil fertility is important to develop more sustainable agroecosystems that safeguard soils and guarantee unrestrained crop growth. FertilCrop evaluates farming systems that efficiently build soil fertility based on field trials and farm networks in 13 European countries.
Di Falco, Salvatore; Zoupanidou, Elisavet
This paper analyzes the interplay between soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues. We use a large, original, farm-level panel dataset. Findings indicate that both crop biodiversity and soil fertility have positive effects on farmers' revenues. It is also shown that crop biodiversity and soil fertility may act as substitutes. These results provide evidence for the important role of diversity in the resilience of agroecosystems. Crop diversification can be a potential strategy to support productivity when soils are less fertile.
Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing
We model the photo cropping problem as a cascade of attention box regression and aesthetic quality classification, based on deep learning. A neural network is designed that has two branches for predicting attention bounding box and analyzing aesthetics, respectively. The predicted attention box is treated as an initial crop window where a set of cropping candidates are generated around it, without missing important information. Then, aesthetics assessment is employed to select the final crop ...
Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A
Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic a...
Stoate, Chris; Crotty, Felicity
Cover crops can be grown over the autumn and winter ensuring green cover throughout the year. They have been described as improving soil structure, reducing soil erosion and potentially even a form of grass weed control. These crops retain nutrients within the plant, potentially making them available for future crops, as well as increasing soil organic matter. Over the last three years, we have investigated how different cover crop regimes affect soil quality. Three separate experiments over each autumn/winter period have investigated how different cover crops affect soil biology, physics and chemistry, with each experiment building on the previous one. There have been significant effects of cover crops on soil structure, as well as significantly lower weed biomass and increased yields in the following crop - in comparison to bare stubble. For example, the effect of drilling the cover crops on soil structure in comparison to a bare stubble control that had not been driven on by machinery was quantified, and over the winter period the soil structure of the cover crop treatments changed, with compaction reduced in the cover crop treatments, whilst the bare stubble control remained unchanged. Weeds were found in significantly lower biomass in the cover crop mixes in comparison to the bare stubble control, and significantly lower weed biomass continued to be found in the following spring oat crop where the cover crops had been, indicating a weed suppressive effect that has a continued legacy in the following crop. The following spring oats have shown similar results in the last two years, with higher yields in the previous cover crop areas compared to the bare stubble controls. Overall, these results are indicating that cover crops have the potential to provide improvements to soil quality, reduce weeds and improve yields. We discuss the economic implications.
Paarlberg, Robert L.
Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...
The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM) crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance...
Suggests that a definitive court ruling is needed to better define rights and responsibilities related to the First Amendment and libraries' Internet use policies so that libraries can provide a comfortable environment for users while maintaining the law. Discusses filters; court cases; claims of the anti-porn cult; research studies on how much of…
Hope, Marjorie; Young, James
The current non-system for dealing with the mentally disabled is expensive and inefficient and is the primary cause of a substantial proportion of all homelessness. A comprehensive national policy and the delegation of greater administrative responsibilities to private agencies would help to address the problem of the homeless mentally ill. (GC)
DeBusk, Wesley M.
Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.
The study looked at the role of livestock and its interaction with crop production in an integrated crop-livestock farming system in Katsina State. Field data were collected through household survey of 120 respondent located in six villages in Katsina State. The result shows that there was a high level of crop-livestock ...
A theoretical mathematical model for describing crop photosynthetic rate in terms of the weather variables and crop characteristics is proposed. The model utilizes a series of efficiency parameters, each of which reflect the fraction of possible photosynthetic rate permitted by the different weather elements or crop architecture.
Insect pests cause significant damage to crops world-wide. This is despite integrated pest management strategies combining such control measures as chemical control, use of resistant varieties and other measures. Other control measures such as use of genetically modified crops are being adopted. Transgenic crops ...
Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A
Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.
Matthew H Meisner
Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of crop insurance. 400.47 Section 400.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION...; Denial of Benefits § 400.47 Denial of crop insurance. (a) Any person convicted under Federal or State law...
Douglass F. Jacobs; Kim M. Wilkinson
Crop planning is an important but often neglected aspect of successful nursery management. Crop planning enables proper scheduling of the necessary time, materials, labor, and space to produce crops. Many painstaking details, such as the careful design of nursery facilities; working with clients; collecting and propagating seeds and cuttings; and making improvements in...
Cereal crop damage from granivorous birds poses a serious food security problem for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. In this region, farmers may rely on human 'bird scarers' to limit crop damage. Here we report feeding behaviour and crop damage patterns caused by Village Weavers Ploceus cucullatus and ...
The study, was conducted with a view to identify factors influencing the choice of crop production and seasonal cropping activities of the farm households. A multistage random sampling procedure was used to select 200 arable crop farmers across the four operational zones, comprising Abeokuta, Ilaro, Ikenne and Ijebu, ...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section 400.653 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Federal Crop Insurance...
Zegada-Lizarazu, W.E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Cosentino, S.L.; Zatta, A.; Alexopoulou, E.; Monti, A.
The recent policies enacted by the EU foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops. Hence systematized information on new energy crops and cropping strategies is necessary to optimize their production quantitatively and qualitatively and to integrate them into traditional
Producers may be able to improve the competitiveness of cover crop mixtures by selecting species to occupy zones in the cover crop canopy. This suggestion is based on a study where we compared four cover crop treatments, 1, 3, 6, and 9 species mixtures, for biomass production. Treatments were est...
Due to population pressure and rapid urbanization, the former cropping system was no longer sustainable in term of enhancing soil fertility and increased yield of crops. Hence continuous cropping without appropriate soil management leads to deterioration in soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Chinedu et al., ...
Cover crops can provide ecological services and improve the resiliency of annual cropping systems; however, cover crop use is low in corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations in the upper Midwest due to challenges with establishment. Our objective was to compare three planting me...
... mint crop. Cover crop. A small grain crop seeded into mint acreage to reduce soil erosion and wind... produces new mint plants at its tips or nodes. Type. A category of mint identified as a type in the Special... section 1 of the Basic Provisions, will be divided into additional basic units by each mint type...
The economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops is less obvious than in food crops. Most serious direct impact is known for chrysanthemum stunt viroid in chrysanthemum and, to a lesser extent, for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid in the same crop. However, the majority of viroid infect...
Baboons are often reported as the worst crop-raiders in Africa, but there has been little observation of the actual behavioural-ecology of their crop-raiding, especially in West Africa. The paper examines the crop-raiding behaviour of a group of habituated baboons (Gamgam group) near the village of Gashaka on the ...
Continuous cultivation of mono-cropping systems coupled with inorganic fertilizer consumption has led to a decline in soil fertility, negatively influencing crop yields. Poultry litter application and double cropping are two management practices that could be used with conservation tillage to increa...
Keulen, van H.; Schiere, J.B.
Many farmers in tropical and temperate countries manage a mix of crops and animals. In these systems crop residues can be used to feed the animals and the excreta from the animals as nutrients for the crops. Other forms of mixing take place where grazing under fruit-trees keeps the grass short,
Krens, F.A.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Schaart, J.G.; Nijs, den A.P.M.; Rouwendal, G.J.A.
Marker-free transgenic crops confer several advantages over transgenic crops equipped with selection genes coding e.g. for antibiotic resistance. Firstly, the European Union has prepared a guidance document for risk assessment of GM-crops to be introduced in the environment (E.U. Joint Working Group
... which two or more crops are planted in any form of alternating or mixed pattern. Market price—The market...: Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions 1. Definitions AMS. The Agricultural Marketing Service of the... marketing—Sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as...
Biotechnology is currently playing a vital role in the improvement of crop plants generally. This is because of its abil ity to overcome the shortcomings of other conventional practices of crop improvement. This paper therefore considered the two broad aspects of Biotechnology in crop improvement name I); Genetic ...
Biotechnology is currently playing a vital role in the impro\\ ement of crop plants generally. This is ... bio-culture and their various roles in crop improvement and as well. offers suggestions tCl improve access to ..... Under this remarkable method plants have been generated from protoplast in diverse crop species such as ...
Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.
There is strong interplant competition in a crop stand for various limiting resources, resulting in complex compensation and regulation mechanisms along the developmental cascade of the whole crop. Despite decades-long use of principles in system dynamics (e.g. feedback control), current crop models
In the last century, conventional selection and breeding program proved to be highly effective in improving crops against abiotic stresses. Therefore, breeding for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants should be given high research priority as abiotic stresses are the main factor negatively affecting crop growth and ...
Kollas, C.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Nendel, C.; Manevski, K.; Müller, C.; Palosuo, T.; Armas-Herrera, C.; Beaudoin, N.; Bindi, M.; Charefeddine, M.; Conradt, T.; Constantin, J.; Eitzinger, J.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Gaiser, T.; de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G.; Giglio, L.; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffman, H.; Hofmann, M.; Launay, M.; Manderscheid, R.; Mary, B.; Mirschel, W.; Moriondo, M.; Olesen, J. E.; Öztürk, I.; Pacholski, A.; Ripoche-Wachter, D.; Roggero, P. P.; Roncossek, S.; Rötter, R. P.; Ruget, F.; Sharif, B.; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, D.; Waha, K.; Wegehenkel, M.; Weigel, H-J.; Wu, L.
Roč. 70, oct (2015), s. 98-111 ISSN 1161-0301 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : model ensemble * crop simulation models * catch crop * intermediate crop * treatment * Multi-year Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 3.186, year: 2015
Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.
Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in the...
The design, development and test performance evaluation of an integrated of passive solar energy crop drying system was undertaken. The solar crop dryer consists of an imbedded pebble bed solar heat storage unit/solar collector and crop drying chamber measuring 67 cm x 110 cm x 21cm and 50 cm x 90 cm ...
Interaction effects of planting date and cover crop species on cover crop dry weight at termination in Eastern Cape. Province, South Africa. Cover crop dry weight (kg ha. -1. ) 0. 1000. 2000. 3000. 4000. 5000. 6000. 7000. 8000. Barley. Oats. Radish. Rye. Triticale. Vetch. February planted. March planted. April planted. LSD.
This study examined the level of women's participation in sustainable crop farming activities in Ogun state. Determined various sustainable crop farming activities engaged in by women categorised them on the basis of their level of participation and identified various means of improving their level of participation in crop ...
Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.
Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the
The development of measures for improved crop-livestock integration requires an assessment of the present state of crop-livestock interaction and the potential for its improvement. This paper presents a mixed-integer programming model to determine the mix of crop and livestock activities that maximize gross return.
Experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan in 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 cropping seasons to determine the effects of different crop associations and fertilizer types on the weed biomass. The results showed that crop associations did not significantly affect weed density and ...
Shafi, M.; Bakht, J.; Attaullah; Khan, M.A.
Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation
Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael
The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area
Nakano, Y.; Cho, T.; Yano, T.
Much of the work relating canopy temperature to crop water stress has been done in the U. S. A. The leaf-based measurements are time consuming when the fields of the size larger. The measurement of canopy temperature using infrared thermometer is the most promising approach to irrigation scheduling. In this paper, three indices were examined. The first index used only canopy-air temperature differentials. The second index used canopy-air temperature differentials and vapor pressure deficits. The third index used crop water stress index (CWS1). These three indices were evaluated the applicability to irrigation scheduling. The canopy temperature are simulated for progressive soil drying using the continuity equation for water flux in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. With this model, characteristic features of these three indices were mathematically examined
Brune, Philip D; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Ridley, William P; Walker, Kate
The compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment program for these materials. The variety and complexity of genetically engineered traits and modes of action that will be used in GM crops in the near future, as well as our expanded knowledge of compositional variability and factors that can affect composition, raise questions about compositional analysis and how it should be applied to evaluate the safety of traits. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a nonprofit foundation whose mission is to provide science that improves public health and well-being by fostering collaboration among experts from academia, government, and industry, convened a workshop in September 2012 to examine these and related questions, and a series of papers has been assembled to describe the outcomes of that meeting.
Schluttenhofer, Craig; Yuan, Ling
Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids. Methods to manipulate the sex of hemp plants will also be important for optimizing yields of seed, fiber, and cannabinoids. Currently, research into trait improvement is hindered by the lack of molecular techniques adapted to hemp. Here we review how addressing these limitations will help advance our knowledge of plant biology and enable us to fully domesticate and maximize the agronomic potential of this promising crop. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)
Dodd, Ian C; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel
Naturally occurring soil microbes may be used as inoculants to maintain crop yields despite decreased resource (water and nutrient) inputs. Plant symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi alter root aquaporin gene expression and greatly increase the surface area over which plant root systems take up water and nutrients. Soil bacteria on the root surface alter root phytohormone status thereby increasing growth, and can make nutrients more available to the plant. Combining different classes of soil organism within one inoculant can potentially take advantage of multiple plant growth-promoting mechanisms, but biological interactions between inoculant constituents and the plant are difficult to predict. Whether the yield benefits of such inocula allow modified nutrient and water management continues to challenge crop biotechnologists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter
Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Md. Ruhul Amin
Full Text Available The crops that we grow for food need specific climatic conditions to show better performance in view of economic yield. A changing climate could have both beneficial and harmful effects on crops. Keeping the above view in mind, this study is undertaken to investigate the impacts of climate change (viz. changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine on the yield and cropping area of four major food crops (viz. Aus rice, Aman rice, Boro rice and wheat in Bangladesh. Heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent standard error (HAC and feasible generalized least square (FGLS methods were used to determine the climate-crop interrelations using national level time series data for the period of 1972–2010. Findings revealed that the effects of all the climate variables have had significant contributions to the yield and cropping area of major food crops with distinct variation among them. Maximum temperature statistically significantly affected all the food crops’ yield except Aus rice. Maximum temperature also insignificantly affected cropping area of all the crops. Minimum temperature insignificantly affected Aman rice but benefited other three crops’ yield and cropping area. Rainfall significantly benefitted cropping area of Aus rice, but significantly affected both yield and cropping area of Aman rice. Humidity statistically positively contributed to the yield of Aus and Aman rice but, statistically, negatively influenced the cropping area of Aus rice. Sunshine statistically significantly benefitted only Boro rice yield. Overall, maximum temperature adversely affected yield and cropping area of all the major food crops and rainfall severely affected Aman rice only. Concerning the issue of climate change and ensuring food security, the respective authorities thus should give considerable attention to the generation, development and extension of drought (all major food crops and flood (particularly Aman
Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A
In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.
Jones, Harry; Cavazzoni, James; Keas, Paul
New variable environment Modified Energy Cascade (MEC) crop models were developed for all the Advanced Life Support (ALS) candidate crops and implemented in SIMULINK. The MEC models are based on the Volk, Bugbee, and Wheeler Energy Cascade (EC) model and are derived from more recent Top-Level Energy Cascade (TLEC) models. The MEC models simulate crop plant responses to day-to-day changes in photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, carbon dioxide level, temperature, and relative humidity. The original EC model allows changes in light energy but uses a less accurate linear approximation. The simulation outputs of the new MEC models for constant nominal environmental conditions are very similar to those of earlier EC models that use parameters produced by the TLEC models. There are a few differences. The new MEC models allow setting the time for seed emergence, have realistic exponential canopy growth, and have corrected harvest dates for potato and tomato. The new MEC models indicate that the maximum edible biomass per meter squared per day is produced at the maximum allowed carbon dioxide level, the nominal temperatures, and the maximum light input. Reducing the carbon dioxide level from the maximum to the minimum allowed in the model reduces crop production significantly. Increasing temperature decreases production more than it decreases the time to harvest, so productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greater at nominal than maximum temperatures, The productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greatest at the maximum light energy input allowed in the model, but the edible biomass produced per light energy input unit is lower than at nominal light levels. Reducing light levels increases light and power use efficiency. The MEC models suggest we can adjust the light energy day-to- day to accommodate power shortages or Lise excess power while monitoring and controlling edible biomass production.
Noulas, Christos; Tziouvalekas, Miltiadis; Karyotis, Theodore
A basic knowledge of the dynamics of zinc (Zn) in soils, water and plants are important steps in achieving sustainable solutions to the problem of Zn deficiency in crops and humans. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing the relevant aspects of the role of Zn in the soil-water-plant agro biological system: from the origins of Zn in soils and water to soil Zn deficiency distribution and the factors affecting soil Zn availability to plants, therefore to elucidate the strategies potentially help combating Zn deficiency problems in soil-plant-human continuum. This necessitates identifying the main areas of Zn-deficient soils and food crops and treating them with Zn amendments, mainly fertilizers in order to increase Zn uptake and Zn use efficiency to crops. In surface and groundwater, Zn enters the environment from various sources but predominately from the erosion of soil particles containing Zn. In plants is involved in several key physiological functions (membrane structure, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and drought and disease tolerance) and is required in small but nevertheless critical contents. Several high revenue food crops such as beans, citrus, corn, rice etc are highly susceptible to Zn deficiency and biofortification is considered as a promising method to accumulate high content of Zn especially in grains. With the world population continuing to rise and the problems of producing extra food rich in Zn to provide an adequate standard of nutrition to increase, it is very important that any losses in production easily corrected so as Zn deficiencies are prevented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
McGloughlin, Martina Newell
The first generation of biotechnology products commercialized were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits whose value was often opaque to consumers. The coming generations of crop plants can be grouped into four broad areas each presenting what, on the surface, may appear as unique challenges and opportunities. The present and future focus is on continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and abiotic stress resistance in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and "bio-synthetics"; value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production factories for therapeutics and industrial products. From a consumer perspective, the focus on value-added traits, especially improved nutrition, is undoubtedly one of the areas of greatest interest. From a basic nutrition perspective, there is a clear dichotomy in demonstrated need between different regions and socioeconomic groups, the starkest being inappropriate consumption in the developed world and under-nourishment in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Dramatic increases in the occurrence of obesity and related ailments in affluent regions are in sharp contrast to chronic malnutrition in many LDCs. Both problems require a modified food supply, and the tools of biotechnology have a part to play. Developing plants with improved traits involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory and indeed perception hurdles inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex traits modifications. Continuing improvements in molecular and genomic technologies are contributing to the acceleration of product development to produce plants with the appropriate quality traits for the different regions and needs. Crops with improved traits in the pipeline, the evolving technologies and the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead are covered. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The inhabitants of the Third World have to deal with problems such as population explosion, undernourishment, poverty and morbidity. The Green Revolution saved millions of people from hunger through the introduction of specially bred varieties of cereal in combination with mineral fertilization. The transition from the Green Revolution to the Genetic Revolution, which consists in the introduction of transgenic crops prepared using genetic engineering techniques, could represent the future for...
Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel
Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...
Machado, E.C.; Pereira, A.R.; Camargo, M.B.P. de; Fahl, J.I.
The radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, are studied during the period of maximum leaf area index. The coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorved than the near infrared radiation. (M.A.C.) [pt
Sehgal, Gunjan; Gupta, Bindu; Paneri, Kaushal; Singh, Karamjit; Sharma, Geetika; Shroff, Gautam
As the world population increases and arable land decreases, it becomes vital to improve the productivity of the agricultural land available. Given the weather and soil properties, farmers need to take critical decisions such as which seed variety to plant and in what proportion, in order to maximize productivity. These decisions are irreversible and any unusual behavior of external factors, such as weather, can have catastrophic impact on the productivity of crop. A variety which is highly d...
Yang eDong; Yin-Zheng eWang
Seed shattering (or pod dehiscence, or fruit shedding) is essential for the propagation of their offspring in wild plants but is a major cause of yield loss in crops. In the dicot model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, pod dehiscence necessitates a development of the abscission zones along the pod valve margins. In monocots, such as cereals, an abscission layer in the pedicle is required for the seed shattering process. In the past decade, great advances have been made in characterizing the gen...
Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.
Mutations are changes in the hereditary nature of living things. In nature they are ultimately the source of evolution. Scientific methods, mainly the use of radiation, can increase by a hundred thousand times the likelihood of beneficial changes in plants grown for man's use, and provide a tool to break through present limitations in variability. Already there are examples of better crops of wheat, barley, rice, oats, peanuts, soybean and other plants
Full Text Available GM foods have the potential to provide significant benefits for developing countries. Over 800 million people are chronically undernourished, and 180 million children are severely underweight for their age. By 2020, there will be an extra two billion mouths to feed. Ecological approaches that underpin sustainable agriculture (e.g., integrated pest management and participatory approaches that strengthen farmers' own experimentation and decision making are key. Biotechnology will be an essential partner, if yield ceilings are to be raised, if crops are to be grown without excessive reliance on pesticides, and if farmers on less favored lands are to be provided with crops that are resistant to drought and salinity, and that can use nitrogen and other nutrients more efficiently. Over the past 10 years, in addition supporting ecological approaches, the Rockefeller Foundation has funded the training of some 400 developing-country scientists in the techniques of biotechnology. Most of the new crop varieties are the result of tissue culture and marker-aided selection. The Foundation also supports the production of genetically engineered rices, including a new rice engineered for beta carotene (the precursor of Vitamin A in the grain. Some specific steps can be taken by Monsanto that would improve acceptance of plant biotechnology in both the developing and the industrialized worlds: label; disavow gene protection (terminator systems; phase out the use of antibiotic resistance markers; agree (with big seed companies to use the plant variety protection system, rather than patents, in developing countries; establish an independently administered fellowship program to train developing-country scientists in crop biotechnology, biosafety, and intellectual property; donate useful technologies to developing countries; agree to share financial rewards from intellectual property rights on varieties such as basmati or jasmine rice with the countries of origin; and
Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.
"This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...
Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji
Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.
Kamthan, Ayushi; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis
New advances in crop genetic engineering can significantly pace up the development of genetically improved varieties with enhanced yield, nutrition and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetically modified (GM) crops can act as powerful complement to the crops produced by laborious and time consuming conventional breeding methods to meet the worldwide demand for quality foods. GM crops can help fight malnutrition due to enhanced yield, nutritional quality and increased resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, several biosafety issues and public concerns are associated with cultivation of GM crops developed by transgenesis, i.e., introduction of genes from distantly related organism. To meet these concerns, researchers have developed alternative concepts of cisgenesis and intragenesis which involve transformation of plants with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization, respectively. Recombinase technology aimed at site-specific integration of transgene can help to overcome limitations of traditional genetic engineering methods based on random integration of multiple copy of transgene into plant genome leading to gene silencing and unpredictable expression pattern. Besides, recently developed technology of genome editing using engineered nucleases, permit the modification or mutation of genes of interest without involving foreign DNA, and as a result, plants developed with this technology might be considered as non-transgenic genetically altered plants. This would open the doors for the development and commercialization of transgenic plants with superior phenotypes even in countries where GM crops are poorly accepted. This review is an attempt to summarize various past achievements of GM technology in crop improvement, recent progress and new advances in the field to develop improved varieties aimed for better consumer acceptance.
Humber, M. L.; Copati, E.; Sanchez, A.; Sahajpal, R.; Puricelli, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.
Accurate crop production data is fundamental for reducing uncertainly and volatility in the domestic and international agricultural markets. The Agricultural Estimates Department of the Buenos Aires Grain Exchange has worked since 2000 on the estimation of different crop production data. With this information, the Grain Exchange helps different actors of the agricultural chain, such as producers, traders, seed companies, market analyst, policy makers, into their day to day decision making. Since 2015/16 season, the Grain Exchange has worked on the development of a new earth observations-based method to identify winter crop planted area at a regional scale with the aim of improving crop production estimates. The objective of this new methodology is to create a reliable winter crop mask at moderate spatial resolution using Landsat-8 imagery by exploiting bi-temporal differences in the phenological stages of winter crops as compared to other landcover types. In collaboration with the University of Maryland, the map has been validated by photointerpretation of a stratified statistically random sample of independent ground truth data in the four largest producing provinces of Argentina: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, La Pampa, and Santa Fe. In situ measurements were also used to further investigate conditions in the Buenos Aires province. Preliminary results indicate that while there are some avenues for improvement, overall the classification accuracy of the cropland and non-cropland classes are sufficient to improve downstream production estimates. Continuing research will focus on improving the methodology for winter crop mapping exercises on a yearly basis as well as improving the sampling methodology to optimize collection of validation data in the future.
Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro
Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.
Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.
The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets
More than 70 years have passed since radiation was used successfully to generate genetic variation in plants. Since the research on theoretical basis of mutagenesis was performed with a peak in the mid sixties. The result of these investigations led to the formulation of methodological principles in the use of various mutagens for the creation and selection of desired variability. The induced genetic variability has been extensively used for evolution of crop varieties as well as in breeding programmes. More than 1800 varieties of 154 plants species have so far been released for commercial cultivation, of which cereals are at the top, demonstrating the economics of the mutation breeding technique. The most frequently occurring mutations have been the short stature and really maturity. In Pakistan, the use of mutation breeding technique for the improvement of crops has also led to the development of 34 cultivars of cotton, rice, wheat, chickpea, mungbean and rapeseed which have played a significant role in increasing crop production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross breeding programmes, and the breeders in Pakistan have released six varieties of cotton by using an induced mutant as one of the parents. (author)
Belzile, Charles; Belanger, Marie-Christine; Viau, Alain A.; Chamberland, Martin; Roy, Simon
The development of precision farming requires new tools for plant nutritional stress monitoring. An operational fluorescence system has been designed for vegetation status mapping and stress detection at plant and field scale. The instrument gives relative values of fluorescence at different wavelengths induced by the two-excitation sources. Lightinduced fluorescence has demonstrated successful crop health monitoring and plant nutritional stress detection capabilities. The spectral response of the plants has first been measured with an hyperspectral imager using laser-induced fluorescence. A tabletop imaging fluorometer based on flash lamp technology has also been designed to study the spatial distribution of fluorescence on plant leaves. For field based non-imaging system, LED technology is used as light source to induce fluorescence of the plant. The operational fluorescence system is based on ultraviolet and blue LED to induce fluorescence. Four narrow fluorescence bands centered on 440, 520, 690 and 740nm are detected. The instrument design includes a modular approach for light source and detector. It can accommodate as many as four different light sources and six bands of fluorescence detection. As part of the design for field application, the instrument is compatible with a mobile platform equipped with a GPS and data acquisition system. The current system developed by Telops/GAAP is configured for potato crops fluorescence measurement but can easily be adapted for other crops. This new instrument offers an effective and affordable solution for precision farming.
Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Xing; Li, Hui; He, Hai-Bin; Fang, Chang-Xun; Zhang, Ai-Jia; Li, Qi-Song; Chen, Rong-Shan; Guo, Xu-Kui; Lin, Hui-Feng; Wu, Lin-Kun; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Ting; Lin, Rui-Yu; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Lin, Wen-Xiong
Soil rhizospheric metaproteomics is a powerful scientific tool to uncover the interactions between plants and microorganisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study established an extraction method suitable for different soils that could increase the extracted protein content. Close to 1000 separate spots with high reproducibility could be identified in the stained 2-DE gels. Among the spots, 189 spots representing 122 proteins on a 2-DE gel of rice soil samples were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. These proteins mainly originated from rice and microorganisms. They were involved in protein, energy, nucleotide, and secondary metabolisms, as well as signal transduction and resistance. Three characteristics of the crop rhizospheric metaproteomics seemed apparent: (1) approximately one-third of the protein spots could not be identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS, (2) the conservative proteins from plants formed a feature distribution of crop rhizospheric metaproteome, and (3) there were very complex interactions between plants and microorganisms existing in a crop rhizospheric soil. Further functional analysis on the identified proteins unveiled various metabolic pathways and signal transductions involved in the soil biotic community. This study provides a paradigm for metaproteomic research on soil biology.
Sánchez, J. L.; Fraile, R.; de La Madrid, J. L.; de La Fuente, M. T.; Rodríguez, P.; Castro, A.
Between 1986 and 1992 a research project was developed and carried out on hail climatology and the economic repercussions of hail on agriculture in León (northwestern Spain). A target area with an extent of 6825 km2 was defined, within which a network of meteorological observers was established at an average density of 1 per 17 km2. A network of 250 hailpads installed in a grid formation was also laid out over an area of 1000 km2 inside the target area. The frequent occurrence of hailfalls—122 hail days over seven consecutive summers—provided a detailed database and allowed several climatological studies to be made. Crop damage was also closely monitored and quantified. Barley and wheat were selected as crops on which to base an analysis of the relationship between hailfall characteristics and crop damage. As the resistance of plants to hailstones is held to vary according to their physiological state, four different stages of plant growth were defined, beginning with the formation of grain heads.An important conclusion was drawn: the dispersion of percentages of damage always covers the possible variations in resistance caused by the physiological state of the plants. As a result, using only minimal information about hailfall characteristics—namely, the initial reports of observers regarding hailstone size—a working statistical model has successfully been constructed to predict losses to barley and wheat, using data provided by the León hail project.
Meijer, W.J.M.; Mathijssen, E.W.J.M.
Crop growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf area development, light interception and dry matter : radiation quotient in chicory were studied in field and glasshouse trials. Variations in root and inulin yields were related to sowing time, sowing density and cultivar. Retarded growth of first leaves appeared to be a major factor in limiting productivity. Growth of the first leaves was limited by assimilate supply and by low temperatures. Leaf area expansion exhibited a lag of 350 °Cd from emergence. From that point until crop closure, leaf area index increased exponentially with thermal time. Initially, 60 per cent of the dry matter was partitioned to the leaves; this share gradually decreased to about 10 per cent during later stages. The average dry matter: radiation quotient was 2.6 g MJ -1 for total dry matter and 2.4 g MJ -1 for root dry matter. Cultivars differed in early leaf growth, dry matter partitioning and dry matter: radiation quotient. The crop characteristics are compared with literature data for sugar beet and the prospects for breeding improved genotypes are discussed. (author)
Full Text Available Enormous advances in genetics and metabolic engineering have made it possible, in principle, to create new plants and crops with improved yield through targeted molecular alterations. However, while the potential is beyond doubt, the actual implementation of envisioned new strains is often difficult, due to the diverse and complex nature of plants. Indeed, the intrinsic complexity of plants makes intuitive predictions difficult and often unreliable. The hope for overcoming this challenge is that methods of data mining and computational systems biology may become powerful enough that they could serve as beneficial tools for guiding future experimentation. In the first part of this article, we review the complexities of plants, as well as some of the mathematical and computational methods that have been used in the recent past to deepen our understanding of crops and their potential yield improvements. In the second part, we present a specific case study that indicates how robust models may be employed for crop improvements. This case study focuses on the biosynthesis of lignin in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Switchgrass is considered one of the most promising candidates for the second generation of bioenergy production, which does not use edible plant parts. Lignin is important in this context, because it impedes the use of cellulose in such inedible plant materials. The dynamic model offers a platform for investigating the pathway behavior in transgenic lines. In particular, it allows predictions of lignin content and composition in numerous genetic perturbation scenarios.
van der Velde, Marijn; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen; Verheijen, Frank G. A.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael
This paper demonstrates the potential of using Web search volumes for generating crop specific planting and harvesting dates in the USA integrating climatic, social and technological factors affecting crop calendars. Using Google Insights for Search, clear peaks in volume occur at times of planting and harvest at the national level, which were used to derive corn specific planting and harvesting dates at a weekly resolution. Disaggregated to state level, search volumes for corn planting generally are in agreement with planting dates from a global crop calendar dataset. However, harvest dates were less discriminatory at the state level, indicating that peaks in search volume may be blurred by broader searches on harvest as a time of cultural events. The timing of other agricultural activities such as purchase of seed and response to weed and pest infestation was also investigated. These results highlight the future potential of using Web search data to derive planting dates in countries where the data are sparse or unreliable, once sufficient search volumes are realized, as well as the potential for monitoring in real time the response of farmers to climate change over the coming decades. Other potential applications of search volume data of relevance to agronomy are also discussed.
Full Text Available Seed shattering (or pod dehiscence, or fruit shedding is essential for the propagation of their offspring in wild plants but is a major cause of yield loss in crops. In the dicot model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, pod dehiscence necessitates a development of the abscission zones along the pod valve margins. In monocots, such as cereals, an abscission layer in the pedicle is required for the seed shattering process. In the past decade, great advances have been made in characterizing the genetic contributors that are involved in the complex regulatory network in the establishment of abscission cell identity. We summarize the recent burgeoning progress in the field of genetic regulation of pod dehiscence and fruit shedding, focusing mainly on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana with its close relatives and the fleshy fruit species tomato, as well as the genetic basis responsible for the parallel loss of seed shattering in domesticated crops. This review shows how these individual genes are co-opted in the developmental process of the tissues that guarantee seed shattering. Research into the genetic mechanism underlying seed shattering provides a premier prerequisite for the future breeding program for harvest in crops.
Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng
Seed shattering (or pod dehiscence, or fruit shedding) is essential for the propagation of their offspring in wild plants but is a major cause of yield loss in crops. In the dicot model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, pod dehiscence necessitates a development of the abscission zones along the pod valve margins. In monocots, such as cereals, an abscission layer in the pedicle is required for the seed shattering process. In the past decade, great advances have been made in characterizing the genetic contributors that are involved in the complex regulatory network in the establishment of abscission cell identity. We summarize the recent burgeoning progress in the field of genetic regulation of pod dehiscence and fruit shedding, focusing mainly on the model species A. thaliana with its close relatives and the fleshy fruit species tomato, as well as the genetic basis responsible for the parallel loss of seed shattering in domesticated crops. This review shows how these individual genes are co-opted in the developmental process of the tissues that guarantee seed shattering. Research into the genetic mechanism underlying seed shattering provides a premier prerequisite for the future breeding program for harvest in crops.
Priscila de Oliveira
Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.
Goicoechea, Nieves; Antolín, M Carmen
Modern agriculture and horticulture must combine two objectives that seem to be almost mutually exclusive: to satisfy the nutritional needs of an increasing human population and to minimize the negative impact on the environment. These two objectives are included in the Goal 2 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture'. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption. In this context, the use of beneficial rhizospheric microorganisms for improving, not only growth and yield, but also the nutrient quality of crops represents a promising tool that may respond to the challenges for modern agriculture and horticulture and represents an alternative to the genetic engineering of crops. This paper summarizes the state of the art, the current difficulties associated to the use of rhizospheric microorganisms as enhancers of the nutritional quality of food crops as well as the future prospects. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.
Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng
Seed shattering (or pod dehiscence, or fruit shedding) is essential for the propagation of their offspring in wild plants but is a major cause of yield loss in crops. In the dicot model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, pod dehiscence necessitates a development of the abscission zones along the pod valve margins. In monocots, such as cereals, an abscission layer in the pedicle is required for the seed shattering process. In the past decade, great advances have been made in characterizing the genetic contributors that are involved in the complex regulatory network in the establishment of abscission cell identity. We summarize the recent burgeoning progress in the field of genetic regulation of pod dehiscence and fruit shedding, focusing mainly on the model species A. thaliana with its close relatives and the fleshy fruit species tomato, as well as the genetic basis responsible for the parallel loss of seed shattering in domesticated crops. This review shows how these individual genes are co-opted in the developmental process of the tissues that guarantee seed shattering. Research into the genetic mechanism underlying seed shattering provides a premier prerequisite for the future breeding program for harvest in crops. PMID:26157453
Van der Velde, Marijn; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen; Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael; Verheijen, Frank G A
This paper demonstrates the potential of using Web search volumes for generating crop specific planting and harvesting dates in the USA integrating climatic, social and technological factors affecting crop calendars. Using Google Insights for Search, clear peaks in volume occur at times of planting and harvest at the national level, which were used to derive corn specific planting and harvesting dates at a weekly resolution. Disaggregated to state level, search volumes for corn planting generally are in agreement with planting dates from a global crop calendar dataset. However, harvest dates were less discriminatory at the state level, indicating that peaks in search volume may be blurred by broader searches on harvest as a time of cultural events. The timing of other agricultural activities such as purchase of seed and response to weed and pest infestation was also investigated. These results highlight the future potential of using Web search data to derive planting dates in countries where the data are sparse or unreliable, once sufficient search volumes are realized, as well as the potential for monitoring in real time the response of farmers to climate change over the coming decades. Other potential applications of search volume data of relevance to agronomy are also discussed. (letter)
hedgerow trees were pruned periodically to prevent shading, and pruned materials removed from the plots to avoid compounding of nutrients in the alley plots. Soil Sampling: Auger soil samples were randomly taken plot by plot from the alley cropping system before land preparation to form composite samples. The samples ...
Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.
Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop
Hartman, Y.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Uwimana, B.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; van Tienderen, P.H.
Many crops contain domestication genes that are generally considered to lower fitness of crop-wild hybrids in the wild environment. Transgenes placed in close linkage with such genes would be less likely to spread into a wild population. Therefore, for environmental risk assessment of GM crops, it
Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)
For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.
Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala
Evolution of the next-generation clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing tools, ribonucleoprotein (RNA)-guided endonuclease (RGEN) RNPs, is paving the way for developing DNA-free genetically edited crop plants. In this review, I discuss the various methods of RGEN RNPs tool delivery into plant cells and their limitations to adopt this technology to numerous crop plants. Furthermore, focus is given on the importance of developing DNA-free genome edited crop plants, including perennial crop plants. The possible regulation on the DNA-free, next-generation genome-edited crop plants is also highlighted.
Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Kropff, M.J.
Robust crop physiological modelling could become an essential tool in explaining crop behaviour using insights from functional genomics. Current crop models can predict crop performance over a range of environmental conditions. Recently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) information has been
Full Text Available Abstract Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (transgenes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1. Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency. Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop
Full Text Available Introductionin current situation when world is facing massive population, producing enough food and adequate income for people is a big challenge specifically for governors. This challenge gets even harder in recent decades, due to global population growth which was projected to increase to 7.8 billion in 2025. Agriculture as the only industry that has ability to produce food is consuming 90 percent of fresh water globally. Despite of increasing for food demand, appropriate agricultural land and fresh water resources are restricted. To solve this problem, one is to increase water productivity which can be obtain by irrigation. Iran is not only exempted from this situation but also has more critical situation due to its dry climate and inappropriate precipitation distribution spatially and temporally, also uneven distribution of population which is concentrate in small area. The only reasonable solution by considering water resources limitation and also restricted crop area is changing crop pattern to reach maximum or at least same amount of income by using same or less amount of water. The purpose of this study is to assess financial water productivity and optimize farmer’s income by changing in each crop acreage at basin and sub-basin level with no extra groundwater withdrawals, also in order to repair the damages which has enforce to groundwater resources during last decades a scenario of using only 80percent of renewable water were applied and crop area were optimize to provide maximum or same income for farmers. Materials and methodsThe Neyshabour basin is located in northeast of Iran, the total geographical area of basin is 73,000 km2 consisting of 41,000 km2 plain and the rest of basin is mountains. This Basin is a part of Kalshoor catchment that is located in southern part of Binaloud heights and northeast of KavirMarkazi. In this study whole Neyshabour basin were divided into 199 sub-basins based on pervious study.Based on official
H. E. Igbadun
Full Text Available Crop yield-water use models that provide useful information about the exact form of crop response to different amounts of water used by the crop throughout its growth stages and those that provide adequate information for decisions on optimal use of water in the farm were evaluated. Three crop yield models: Jensen (1968, Minhas et al., (1974 and Bras and Cordova (1981 additive type models were studied. Wheat (Triticum aestivum was planted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm during the 1995/96 and 1996/97 irrigation seasons of November to March. The data collected from the field experiments during the 1995/96 planting season were used to calibrate the models and their stress sensitivity factors estimated for four selected growth stages of the wheat crop. The ability of the model to predict grain yield of wheat with the estimated stress sensitivity factors was evaluated by comparing predicted grain yields by each model with those obtained in the field during the 1996/97 season. The three models performed fairly well in predicting grain yields, as the predicted results were not significantly different from the field measured grain yield at 5% level of significance.
Marshall-Colon, Amy; Long, Stephen P.; Allen, Douglas K.; Allen, Gabrielle; Beard, Daniel A.; Benes, Bedrich; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Christensen, A. J.; Cox, Donna J.; Hart, John C.; Hirst, Peter M.; Kannan, Kavya; Katz, Daniel S.; Lynch, Jonathan P.; Millar, Andrew J.; Panneerselvam, Balaji; Price, Nathan D.; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Raila, David; Shekar, Rachel G.; Shrivastava, Stuti; Shukla, Diwakar; Srinivasan, Venkatraman; Stitt, Mark; Turk, Matthew J.; Voit, Eberhard O.; Wang, Yu; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Xin-Guang
Multi-scale models can facilitate whole plant simulations by linking gene networks, protein synthesis, metabolic pathways, physiology, and growth. Whole plant models can be further integrated with ecosystem, weather, and climate models to predict how various interactions respond to environmental perturbations. These models have the potential to fill in missing mechanistic details and generate new hypotheses to prioritize directed engineering efforts. Outcomes will potentially accelerate improvement of crop yield, sustainability, and increase future food security. It is time for a paradigm shift in plant modeling, from largely isolated efforts to a connected community that takes advantage of advances in high performance computing and mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Tools for guiding future crop breeding and engineering, understanding the implications of discoveries at the molecular level for whole plant behavior, and improved prediction of plant and ecosystem responses to the environment are urgently needed. The purpose of this perspective is to introduce Crops in silico (cropsinsilico.org), an integrative and multi-scale modeling platform, as one solution that combines isolated modeling efforts toward the generation of virtual crops, which is open and accessible to the entire plant biology community. The major challenges involved both in the development and deployment of a shared, multi-scale modeling platform, which are summarized in this prospectus, were recently identified during the first Crops in silico Symposium and Workshop. PMID:28555150
Full Text Available Multi-scale models can facilitate whole plant simulations by linking gene networks, protein synthesis, metabolic pathways, physiology, and growth. Whole plant models can be further integrated with ecosystem, weather, and climate models to predict how various interactions respond to environmental perturbations. These models have the potential to fill in missing mechanistic details and generate new hypotheses to prioritize directed engineering efforts. Outcomes will potentially accelerate improvement of crop yield, sustainability, and increase future food security. It is time for a paradigm shift in plant modeling, from largely isolated efforts to a connected community that takes advantage of advances in high performance computing and mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Tools for guiding future crop breeding and engineering, understanding the implications of discoveries at the molecular level for whole plant behavior, and improved prediction of plant and ecosystem responses to the environment are urgently needed. The purpose of this perspective is to introduce Crops in silico (cropsinsilico.org, an integrative and multi-scale modeling platform, as one solution that combines isolated modeling efforts toward the generation of virtual crops, which is open and accessible to the entire plant biology community. The major challenges involved both in the development and deployment of a shared, multi-scale modeling platform, which are summarized in this prospectus, were recently identified during the first Crops in silico Symposium and Workshop.
Atchison, Guy W; Nevado, Bruno; Eastwood, Ruth J; Contreras-Ortiz, Natalia; Reynel, Carlos; Madriñán, Santiago; Filatov, Dmitry A; Hughes, Colin E
The Andean highlands are a hotspot of domestication, yet our understanding of the origins of early Andean agriculture remains fragmentary. Key questions of where, when, how many times, and from what progenitors many Andean crops were domesticated remain unanswered. The Andean lupine crop tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) is a regionally important pulse crop with exceptionally high seed protein and oil content and is the focus of modern breeding efforts, but its origins remain obscure. A large genome-wide DNA polymorphism data set was generated using nextRADseq to infer relationships among more than 200 accessions of Andean Lupinus species, including 24 accessions of L. mutabilis and close relatives. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses were used to identify the likely progenitor of tarwi and elucidate the area and timing of domestication in combination with archaeological evidence. We infer that tarwi was domesticated once in northern Peru, most likely in the Cajamarca region within, or adjacent to the extant distribution of L. piurensis, which is the most likely wild progenitor. Demographic analyses suggest that tarwi split from L. piurensis around 2600 BP and suffered a classical domestication bottleneck. The earliest unequivocal archaeological evidence of domesticated tarwi seeds is from the Mantaro Valley, central Peru ca. 1800 BP. A single origin of tarwi from L. piurensis in northern Peru provides a robust working hypothesis for the domestication of this regionally important crop and is one of the first clear-cut examples of a crop originating in the highlands of northern Peru. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela
In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)
Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation.
Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming
Genetically modified (GM) crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Vaissière, Bernard E; Cane, James H; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Cunningham, Saul A; Kremen, Claire; Tscharntke, Teja
The extent of our reliance on animal pollination for world crop production for human food has not previously been evaluated and the previous estimates for countries or continents have seldom used primary data. In this review, we expand the previous estimates using novel primary data from 200 countries and found that fruit, vegetable or seed production from 87 of the leading global food crops is dependent upon animal pollination, while 28 crops do not rely upon animal pollination. However, global production volumes give a contrasting perspective, since 60% of global production comes from crops that do not depend on animal pollination, 35% from crops that depend on pollinators, and 5% are unevaluated. Using all crops traded on the world market and setting aside crops that are solely passively self-pollinated, wind-pollinated or parthenocarpic, we then evaluated the level of dependence on animal-mediated pollination for crops that are directly consumed by humans. We found that pollinators are essential for 13 crops, production is highly pollinator dependent for 30, moderately for 27, slightly for 21, unimportant for 7, and is of unknown significance for the remaining 9. We further evaluated whether local and landscape-wide management for natural pollination services could help to sustain crop diversity and production. Case studies for nine crops on four continents revealed that agricultural intensification jeopardizes wild bee communities and their stabilizing effect on pollination services at the landscape scale.
Smyth, Stuart J
Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238
Søndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten
This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from...... this study show that more the 60 pct do not expect any or less than 13 EUR increase in gross margins on their farms from adopting GM-crops. This assessment illustrates that the farmers regard the GM-crops more as a way of ‘staying in business” than a technology to increase their profits....
Full Text Available Pulse crops are considered minor on a global scale despite their nutritional value for human consumption. Therefore, they are relatively less extensively studied in comparison with the major crops. The need to improve pulse crop production and quality will increase with the increasing global demand for food security and people's awareness of nutritious food. The improvement of pulse crops will require fully utilizing all their genetic resources. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries of pulse crops are essential genomic resources that have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and enhance molecular breeding in these crops. Here, we review the availability, characteristics, applications, and potential applications of the BAC libraries of pulse crops.
Full Text Available The study was conducted in Southern zone of Tamil Nadu a constituent state of India. One hundred and eighty farmers who had adopted crop insurance schemes were selected through random sampling procedure. The respondents were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire for identifying factors influencing and constraints in adoption of crop insurance schemes. The study revealed that lack of scope for crop diversification and definite crop loss due to adverse climatic condition were the major factors influencing the adoption of crop insurance schemes. The study inferred that lack of compensation from the crop insurance scheme, delayed payment of indemnity, lack of awareness about the scheme and lengthy procedure to avail crop insurance were the major constraints.
Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P
Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of
Rochester, I.J.; Constable, G.A.; MacLeod, D.A.
Mineral nitrogen (N), nitrate and ammonium contents were monitored in N-fertilized soils supporting cotton crops to provide information on the nitrification, mineralization and immobilization processes operating in the soil. The relative contributions of fertilizer N, previous cotton crop residue N and indigenous soil N to the mineral N pools and to the current crop's N uptake were calculated. After N fertilizer (urea) application, the soil's mineral N content rose rapidly and subsequently declined at a slower rate. The recovery of 15 N-labelled urea as mineral N declined exponentially with time. Biological immobilization (and possibly denitrification to some extent) were believed to be the major processes reducing post-application soil mineral N content. Progressively less N was mineralized upon incubation of soil sampled through the growing season. Little soil N (either from urea or crop residue) was mineralized at crop maturity. Cycling of N was evident between the soil mineral and organic N pools throughout the cotton growing season. Considerable quantities of fertilizer N were immobilized by the soil micro biomass; immobilized N was remineralized and subsequently taken up by the cotton crop. A large proportion of the crop N was taken up in the latter part of the season when the soil mineral N content was low. It is suggested that much of the N taken up by cotton was derived from microbial sources, rather than crop residues. The application of cotton crop residue (stubble) slightly reduced the mineral N content in the soil by encouraging biological immobilization. 15 N was mineralized very slowly from the labelled crop residue and did not contribute significantly to the supply of N to the current crop. Recovery of labelled fertilizer N and labelled crop residue N by the cotton crop was 28% and 1%, respectively. In comparison, the apparent recovery of fertilizer N was 48%. Indigenous soil N contributed 68% of the N taken up by the cotton crop. 33 refs., 1 tab
Production of energy crops in Denmark is more or less non-existent in Denmark at the time being. However, the need for biomass on the other side of year 2005 exceeds the existing biomass resources and a substantial amount of energy crops will be necessary in order to fulfil the goals in Energy 21. The targeted share of the use of renewable energy sources by year 2030 is approximately 30%. Energy crops are seen as the most important new resource in order to create a balanced input mix of renewable in the energy system. The energy crops are mainly seen as fuel in small and medium sized CHP plants and in the big power plants. The Danish energy crop project consists of three main parts: a demonstration part, a research and development part, and an overall assessment part. Based on the results from the project the following overall conclusions can be made: Seen from a strictly market and production economic point of view energy crops will not be competitive in a foreseeable future, neither as a production for farmers nor as a fuel at the utility companies; The costs per GJ of energy crops are still higher than a GJ of straw; The cost difference between annual and perennial energy crops are slightly in favour of perennials, however the conditions on the individual farms should govern the choice between annual and perennial energy crops; Energy crops must be seen as part of an overall environmental scheme covering both agriculture and the energy sector; Given the right production scheme energy crops can be grown on environmental sensitive areas and on most ground water protection areas; Adding the potential sustainability benefits like reduced nutrient leakage and reduced CO 2 emissions energy crops seem to be a sensible and sustainable solution; Due to different handling, storage and fuel characteristics an all year delivery scheme of energy crops should include a mix of different energy crops to keep overall cost down. (BA)
Valverde Arias, Omar; Tarquis, Ana; Garrido, Alberto
It is widely known that extreme climatic phenomena occur with more intensity and frequency. This fact has put more pressure over farming, making agricultural and livestock production riskier. In order to reduce hazards and economic loses that could jeopardize farmer's incomes and even its business continuity, it is very important to implement agriculture risk management plans by governments and institutions. One of the main strategies is transfer risk by agriculture insurance. Agriculture insurance based in indexes has a significant growth in the last decade. And consist in a comparison between measured index values with a defined threshold that triggers damage losses. However, based index insurance could not be based on an isolated measurement. It is necessary to be integrated in a complete monitoring system that uses many sources of information and tools. For example, index influence areas, crop production risk maps, crop yields, claim statistics, and so on. Crop production risk is related with yield variation of crops and livestock, due to weather, pests, diseases, and other factors that affect both the quantity and quality of commodities produced. This is the risk which farmers invest more time managing, and it is completely under their control. The aim of this study is generate a crop risk map of rice that can provide risk manager important information about the status of crop facing production risks. Then, based on this information, it will be possible to make best decisions to deal with production risk. The rice crop risk map was generated qualifying a 1:25000 scale soil and climatic map of Babahoyo canton, which is located in coast region of Ecuador, where rice is one of the main crops. The methodology to obtain crop risk map starts by establishing rice crop requirements and indentifying the risks associated with this crop. A second step is to evaluate soil and climatic conditions of the study area related to optimal crop requirements. Based on it, we can
Smith, T.; McLaughlin, D.
Growing more crops to provide a secure food supply to an increasing global population will further stress land and water resources that have already been significantly altered by agriculture. The connection between production and resource use depends on crop yields and unit evapotranspiration (UET) rates that vary greatly, over both time and space. For regional and global analyses of food security it is appropriate to treat yield and UET as uncertain variables conditioned on climatic and soil properties. This study describes how probability distributions of these variables can be estimated by combining remotely sensed land use and evapotranspiration data with in situ agronomic and soils data, all available at different resolutions and coverages. The results reveal the influence of water and temperature stress on crop yield at large spatial scales. They also provide a basis for stochastic modeling and optimization procedures that explicitly account for uncertainty in the environmental factors that affect food production.
Beston Bille Maonga
Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data, this study analysed the critical and significant socioeconomic factors with high likelihood to determine smallholder farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha into cropping systems in Malawi. Employing desk study and multi-stage random sampling technique a sample of 592 households was drawn from across the country for analysis. A probit model was used for the analysis of determinants of jatropha adoption by smallholder farmers. Empirical findings show that education, access to loan, bicycle ownership and farmers’ expectation of raising socioeconomic status are major significant factors that would positively determine probability of smallholder farmers’ willingness to adopt jatropha as a biofuel crop on the farm. Furthermore, keeping of ruminant herds of livestock, long distance to market and fears of market unavailability have been revealed to have significant negative influence on farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha. Policy implications for sustainable crop diversification drive are drawn and discussed.
Graham, Gary Thomas
Tree fruit, although desirable from a crew nutrition and menu diversity perspective, have long been dismissed as candidate crops based on their long juvenile phase, large architecture, low short-term harvest index, and dormancy requirements. Recent developments in Rapid Cycle Crop Breeding (RCCB) have overcome these historical limitations, opening the door to a new era in candidate crop research. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have developed FT-construct (Flowering Locus T) dwarf plum lines that have a very short juvenile phase, vine-like architecture, and no obligate dormancy period. In a collaborative research effort, NASA and the USDA are evaluating the performance of these FT-lines under controlled environment conditions relevant to spaceflight.
Murrell, Ebony G
Sustainable agricultural practices that are promoted for mitigating climate change have the potential to also improve pest management. The author highlights recent studies that demonstrate effects of climate-mitigating agricultural practices on arthropod pests and predators in agronomic cropping systems. Promising practices for suppressing pests and/or improving biological control include: plant species diversification, especially via the addition of perennial species; cover cropping; tillage practices that retain crop residue; application of organic fertilizers such as compost and manure; and water management practices such as irrigation and sustainable rice intensification. More research is needed that explicitly tests pest and predator responses to agricultural practices under climate change conditions, if these practices are to be effectively promoted and implemented as agricultural pest management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Osborne, T.; Gornall, J.; Hooker, J.; Williams, K.; Wiltshire, A.; Betts, R.; Wheeler, T.
Studies of climate change impacts on the terrestrial biosphere have been completed without recognition of the integrated nature of the biosphere. Improved assessment of the impacts of climate change on food and water security requires the development and use of models not only representing each component but also their interactions. To meet this requirement the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model has been modified to include a generic parametrisation of annual crops. The new model, JULES-crop, is described and evaluation at global and site levels for the four globally important crops; wheat, soybean, maize and rice. JULES-crop demonstrates skill in simulating the inter-annual variations of yield for maize and soybean at the global and country levels, and for wheat for major spring wheat producing countries. The impact of the new parametrisation, compared to the standard configuration, on the simulation of surface heat fluxes is largely an alteration of the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes during the later part of the growing season. Further evaluation at the site level shows the model captures the seasonality of leaf area index, gross primary production and canopy height better than in the standard JULES. However, this does not lead to an improvement in the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The performance of JULES-crop from both an Earth system and crop yield model perspective is encouraging. However, more effort is needed to develop the parametrisation of the model for specific applications. Key future model developments identified include the introduction of processes such as irrigation and nitrogen limitation which will enable better representation of the spatial variability in yield.
Abiotic stresses are major deterrent to sustainable crop production worldwide. Seed germination and early seedling growth are considered as the most critical stages of plant growth under stress conditions. Maximising stress tolerance of crop species by breeding is an integral part of development of strategies for improving sustainable food production under stressed environment but the unprecedented rate at which stress is increasing vis-a-vis the time taken for development of a tolerant variety, necessitates exploring alternate strategies of crop stress management. Seed priming has emerged as a promising crop stress management technique that increases the speed of germination thus ensuring synchronized field emergence of the crop. Magnetopriming (exposure of seeds to magnetic field) is a non invasive physical stimulant used for improving seedling vigour that helps in establishment of crop stand under stress. In our experiments on maize; chickpea and wheat under water deficit and salinity, respectively, improved seed water absorption characteristics resulted in faster hydration of enzymes (amylases, protease and dehydrogenase) leading to early germination and enhanced vigour of seedlings under stress. Increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in faster germinating - magnetoprimed seeds, under both the growing conditions, suggested its role in oxidative signaling during seed germination process. An 'oxidative window' for reactive oxygen species ensured that faster germination rate in magnetoprimed seeds led to vigourous seedlings. Improved root system integrated with higher photosynthetic efficiency and efficient partitioning of Na + increased yield from magnetoprimed seeds under salinity in controlled experiments. Magnetopriming can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for mitigating adverse effects of water deficit and salinity at seed germination and early seedling growth. Unlike other conventional priming techniques it avoids seed hydration and
Claims have been made recently that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies and increased plant disease. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions are: (1) although there is conflicting literature on the effects of glyphosate on mineral nutrition on GR crops, most of the literature indicates that mineral nutrition in GR crops is not affected by either the GR trait or by application of glyphosate; (2) most of the available data support the view that neither the GR transgenes nor glyphosate use in GR crops increases crop disease; and (3) yield data on GR crops do not support the hypotheses that there are substantive mineral nutrition or disease problems that are specific to GR crops. PMID:23013354
Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The uptake of soil-derived N by a test crop (N catch crop) of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown in the autumn was higher after pea than after barley. The N uptake in the test crop was reduced by 27% and 34% after pea and barley residue incorporation, respectively, probably due to N immobilization....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...
Smyth, Stuart; McHughen, Alan
The advent of genetically modified crops in the late 1980s triggered a regulatory response to the relatively new field of plant genetic engineering. Over a 7-year period, a new regulatory framework was created, based on scientific principles that focused on risk mitigation. The process was transparent and deliberately sought the input of those involved in crop development from non-governmental organizations, industry, academia and federal research laboratories. The resulting regulations have now been in place for over a decade, and the resilience of the risk-mitigating regulations is evident as there has been no documented case of damage to either environment or human health.
Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to
Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco
Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deryugina, Tatyana; Konar, Megan
Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, crop insurance may have unintended consequences for water resources sustainability, as the vast majority of freshwater withdrawals go to agriculture. The causal impact of crop insurance on water use in agriculture remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation water withdrawals in the United States. Importantly, we use an instrumental variables approach to establish causality. Our methodology exploits a major policy change in the crop insurance system - the 1994 Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act - which imposed crop insurance requirements on farmers. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, with most coming from groundwater aquifers. We identify farmers growing more groundwater-fed cotton as an important mechanism contributing to increased withdrawals. A 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.624% increase in cotton acreage, or 95,602 acres. These results demonstrate that crop insurance causally leads to more irrigation withdrawals. More broadly, this work underscores the importance of determining causality in the water-food nexus as we endeavor to achieve global food security and water resources sustainability.
Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier
An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks.