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Sample records for alley cropping system

  1. Introduction of Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Parmadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the efforts to preserve the sources of vegetarian, soil, and water is to rehabilitate the land and soil conservation. The aim of this rehabilitation is increasing and maintaining the produtivity of the land, so it can be preserved and used optimally. Therefore, it is necessary to a  develop a variety of good soil conservation, such as vegetative method and civil engineering. To find an appropriate technology, so it is necessary to develop some alternatives of soil conservation technique that are mainly implemented at dry land with its slope of more than 15% in the upstream area of discharge. One of the most suitable soil conservation technique today is Alley Cropping. Based on the research (trial and error in some areas, Alley Cropping could really provide a positive result in terms of erotion controlling and running off and maintain the land productivity. In addition, the technique is more easly operated and spends a cheaper cost than making a bench terrace.

  2. Soil carbon stabilization and turnover at alley-cropping systems, Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinski, T.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil aggregates. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and turnover are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster turnover of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.

  3. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  4. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  5. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  6. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  7. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosyst

  8. Determinants of Flemingia congesta and Dactyladenia barteri mulch decomposition in alley-cropping systems in the humid tropics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrot, J.; Brussaard, L.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of soil macrofauna, micro-environment and mulch quantity were investigated on an acid Ultisol in a high-rainfall area in S.E. Nigeria, using litterbags or littertubes with leaves from the trees of an alley cropping system with t Flemingia congesta or t Dactyladenia barteri as hedgerow specie

  9. Phenotypic nutrient up-take differences in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Machakos, Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Alley cropping of Cassia siamea and maize was studied insemi-arid Kenya for soil fertility improvement. Katumani composite maize was planted except in the short rains of 1988 (SR88) when a hybrid variety was sown. Therefore the grain yield per row increased differently in the alley cropped maize (CM). Sole maize (SM) and CM yields were higher in SR88 than in the long rains of 1988 (LR88) by 62% and 38%, while yields from the same treatments in LR89 were only 21% and 45% of those in SR88. These differences in relative maize yields are attributed to differences between the two maize varieties in competition under nutrient stress conditions.

  10. Economic analysis of a simulated alley cropping system for semi-arid conditions, using micro computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Returns were simulated for the semi-arid areas in Mackakos District, Kenya (bimodal rainfall distribution, 600 mm/yr) comparing the present system (maize and beans intercropped twice a year) with a Leucaena leucocephala hedgerow system. Although some of the assumptions contain a large element of uncertainty, the results were promising enough for the system to be considered further. 4 references.

  11. System performance analysis of an alley-cropping system in Western Kenya and its explanation by nutrient balances and uptake processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, S.; Otieno, H.; Atta-Krah, A.N.; Niang, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    Alley-cropping has successively been overestimated and despised, due to unrealistic expectations of this ¿more natural¿ type of agriculture and the disappointment thereafter, when the negative effects of trees on crops became evident over time. In this paper we examine the performance and underlying

  12. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosango, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  13. Frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico em argissolo vermelho-amarelo sob sistema de aleias Oxidizable organic carbon fractions of an ultisol under an alley cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Loss

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O aporte de matéria orgânica ao solo via leguminosas em sistemas de aleias pode ser uma alternativa para o uso sustentável do trópico úmido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o aporte de matéria orgânica facilmente oxidável proveniente da combinação de resíduos de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas em sistemas de condução de culturas em aleias sob Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram avaliadas duas espécies de leguminosas de alta qualidade de resíduos - leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan, e duas espécies de baixa qualidade de resíduos - sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana e acácia (Acacia mangium, combinadas entre si, nos seguintes tratamentos: sombreiro + guandu; leucena + guandu; acácia + guandu; sombreiro + leucena; leucena + acácia e testemunha sem leguminosa. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0-5 e 5-10 cm, nas entrelinhas. Foi quantificado e fracionado o C orgânico total (COT, estratificado em quatro frações (F1, F2, F3 e F4 com graus decrescentes de oxidação. As áreas com sombreiro/leucena, acácia/leucena e acácia/guandu apresentaram os maiores teores de COT (0-5 cm, e a área testemunha, os menores (5-10 cm. A maior proporção do COT estava nas frações F1+F2; a área testemunha teve os menores teores de C nessas frações. O tratamento acácia/guandu apresentou maiores teores de C na fração F1 nas duas profundidades. O tratamento leucena/guandu apresentou as maiores proporções do COT nas frações F3 + F4. Os resultados indicam que, no cultivo em sistema de aleias, a combinação de leguminosas de alta e baixa qualidade de resíduos (acácia/guandu favorece o aumento de matéria orgânica facilmente decomponível, enquanto o uso de leguminosas de alta qualidade de resíduos favorece maiores proporções de C somente nas frações mais resistentes (F3 + F4.The input of organic matter to the soil by legumes in alley cropping systems may be an alternative for a

  14. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  15. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

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    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  16. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

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    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições dos tratamentos: aléias de sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana, ingá (Inga edulis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e uma testemunha sem aléias. Foram avaliadas a remobilização de carbono e nitrogênio, massa de grãos, massa de mil grãos e competição interespecífica entre as cultivares de milho e as leguminosas. A produção de grãos foi maior nas parcelas com C. fairchildiana e L. leucocephala. A produtividade do híbrido de milho foi superior à da variedade em todos os tratamentos. A produtividade e a massa de mil grãos de milho não são negativamente afetadas pela distância da linha da leguminosa arbórea. Esse estudo conclui que o sistema de aléias com leguminosas arbóreas é uma alternativa importante ao manejo sustentável dos agroecossistemas no tropico úmido. Além disso, nessa região a produtividade em grãos na cultura do milho é favorecida no sistema de aléias preeestabelecidas com as leguminosas arbóreas sombreiro, ingá e leucena e pela utilização de genótipos eficientes no aproveitamento do nitrogênio, cujo sincronismo entre a liberação e a absorção do N aplicado por meio das leguminosas deve ser aprimorado.Alley cropping has been recommended as alternative land use to slash-and-burn agriculture in humid tropics. However, interespecific competition between cash crop and hedgerow can reduce this potential. This study aimed to evaluate the

  17. Avaliação de um sistema de cultivo em aléias em um argissolo franco-arenoso da região amazônica Evaluation of an alley cropping system under humid tropical conditions of the amazon region

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    Emanoel Gomes de Moura

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available No trópico úmido, a construção e manutenção da fertilidade dos solos são os maiores desafios dos que se dedicam à implantação de sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar um sistema de cultivo em aléias com guandu, associado à adição anual de calcário e de K, em um Argissolo de textura franco-arenosa, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do uso desse sistema como alternativa ao corte e queima na agricultura do trópico úmido. Foram utilizados, como leguminosa, o guandu (Cajanus cajan e a cultura do milho. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T = testemunha, com solo desnudo; G2, G2,5 e G3, tratamentos com fileiras de guandu nos espaçamentos de 2, 2,5 e 3 m, respectivamente; G2K, G2,5K e G3K, tratamentos com guandu nos mesmos espaçamentos mais K; G2C, G2,5C e G3C, tratamentos com guandu mais calagem; G2KC, G2,5KC e G3KC, tratamentos com guandu mais K e calagem. A cobertura e o equilíbrio de nutrientes do solo foram os mais importantes fatores que influenciaram a produtividade do milho no sistema de cultivo em aléias com guandu; portanto, eles devem ser considerados como fundamentais para o manejo sustentável dos Argissolos de textura franco-argilosa do trópico úmido.In the humid tropics the buildup and maintenance of soil fertility are major challenges in terms of sustainability of agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate an alley cropping system with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan on an Alfisol, with annual application of lime and potassium, with special concern regarding the viability of this system as an alternative to slash and burn practiced in tropical agriculture. Pigeon pea and maize (Zea mays were planted in the experiment with the following treatments: T = control, with bare soil; G2, G2.5 and G3 = treatments with pigeon pea, spacing between lines of 2, 2.5 and 3 m, respectively; G2K, G2.5K and G3K = pigeon pea, same spacing, plus potassium; G2C, G2.5C and G3C = pigeon pea

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  19. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  20. Relative impacts of key drivers on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorduijn, S. L.; Smettem, K. R. J.; Vogwill, R.; Ghadouani, A.

    2009-11-01

    Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Re-establishing deep-rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape is one technique for managing land degradation. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width versus alley width) for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. Groundwater at the site is shallow (agroforestry system. It is concluded that declining annual rainfall is the principal control on hydrograph response at the site, whilst perennial biomass development has a lesser impact on water table depth.

  1. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  2. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  3. Relative impacts of key drivers on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghadouani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Re-establishing deep-rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape is one technique for managing land degradation. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width versus alley width for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. Groundwater at the site is shallow (<3 m and of poor quality (pH 3–5, Ec 2.1–45.9 mS cm−1 so root water uptake from the saturated zone is limited.

    Simple hydrograph analysis could not separate treatment effects on the water table response. Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that 20–30% of the variability in the water table data over the 12 year study period was attributable to the alley farming experiment. To futher investigate the effect of the experiment on groundwater response, additional hydrograph analysis was conducted to compare the trends in the control piezometers in relation to those located within the belts. A difference of 0.9 m was observed between the mean groundwater levels in the control piezometers and the mean levels in the perennial belt piezometers. For a mean specific yield of 0.03 m3 m−3 (standard deviation of 0.03 m3 m−3 this equates to an additional average annual water use of 27 mm yr−1 (standard deviation of 33 mm yr−1 by the

  4. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  5. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.;

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reaso...

  6. Grain legumes in organic cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Dr. Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Grain legumes are valuable protein and energy sources in animal feeds and in human diets low in meat. Furthermore, grain legumes strongly benefit the cropping system, via biological fixation of atmospheric N2 - a fundamental process for maintaining soil fertility in organic farming systems. Other positive effects in the crop rotations are recycled N-rich crop residues and the break-crop effect in cereals-rich rotations. However, yield variability in grain legumes is well known and related to...

  7. Sustainability of Switchgrass Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass that is native to the eastern two thirds of temperate North America. It has been used for conservation purposes and as a pasture grass since the 1940’s. It is currently being developed as a cellulosic biomass energy crop because it can produ...

  8. CropIrri: A Decision Support System for Crop Irrigation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Feng, Liping

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A field crop irrigation management decision-making system (CropIrri) was developed based on the soil water balance model, crop phenology model, root growth model, crop water production function, and irrigation management model. The irrigation plan is made through predicating of soil water content in root zone and daily crop water requirement using historical and forecasting weather data, measured real time soil moisture data. CropIrri provided four decision modes of no...

  9. In Fond Memory of Rewi Alley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengWanzhen

    2004-01-01

    Rewi Alley passed away on December 27, 1987 at the age of ninety. News of his demise came as a great shock to me, then on a diplomatic assignment in Washington, D.C. where I was serving as press counsellor of the Chinese Embassy.Even to this day I still deeply regret for not being able to attend his funeral service to bid final farewell to this great New Zealander who was not only an unflinching peace fighter but also a true internationalist who dedicated almost his entire life and who cherished boundless sympathy and love for China and the Chinese people.

  10. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate how...... improvement of NUE traits of individual crops affects the succeeding crops and the NUE of the crop rotation. Based on experimental results parameterization was altered for different types of improved NUE in the EU-Rotate_N model, e.g. through higher N harvest index, reduced litter loss or improved root depth...... penetration rate. The different ways of improving NUE have different effects on the cropping system, affecting either N uptake, the ability of the crop to hold on to N already taken up, or the fraction of crop N being harvested. Due to the different modes of action, the model simulations show...

  11. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate how...... is analyzed for the whole cropping system. The environmental conditions, crop choices and management will all affect the fate of the N left in the soil, and whether this will contribute mainly to leaching loss or be used for production in later crops. As an example, increasing pre-crop fertilization was shown...... to affect the leaching after the following oilseed rape crop with up to 50 kg N ha-1 taken up before it was lost to the environment when pre-crop fertilization as well as root depth penetration rate was high. All in all, the simulations illustrate the concept of NUE as the result of interactions between...

  12. Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

  13. Cumulative and residual effects of potato cropping system management strategies on crop and soil health parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and crop management practices can greatly affect parameters related to soil health, as well as crop productivity and disease development, and may provide options for more sustainable production. Different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific management goals of soil conservation (SC...

  14. Soil Carbon Stocks in Two Hybrid Poplar-Hay Crop Systems in Southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiara Winans

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree-based intercropping (TBI systems, consisting of a medium to fast-growing woody species planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, are a potential sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. TBI systems contribute to farm income in the long-term by improving soil quality, as indicated by soil carbon (C storage, generating profits from crop plus tree production and potentially through C credit trading. The objectives of the current study were: (1 to evaluate soil C and nitrogen (N stocks in soil depth increments in the 0–30 cm layer between tree rows of nine-year old hybrid poplar-hay intercropping systems, to compare these to C and N stocks in adjacent agricultural systems; and (2 to determine how hay yield, litterfall and percent total light transmittance (PTLT were related to soil C and N stocks between tree rows and in adjacent agricultural systems. The two TBI study sites (St. Edouard and St. Paulin had a hay intercrop with alternating rows of hybrid poplar clones and hardwoods and included an adjacent agricultural system with no trees (i.e., the control plots. Soil C and N stocks were greater in the 0–5 cm depth increment of the TBI system within 1 m of the hardwood row, to the west of the poplar row, compared to the sampling point 1 m east of poplar at St. Edouard (p = 0.02. However, the agricultural system stored more soil C than the nine-year old TBI system in the 20–30 cm and 0–30 cm depth increments. Accumulation of soil C in the 20–30 cm depth increment could be due to tillage-induced burial of non-harvested crop residues at the bottom of the plow-pan. Soil C and N stocks were similar at all depth increments in TBI and agricultural systems at St. Paulin. Soil C and N stocks were not related to hay yield, litterfall and PTLT at St. Paulin, but hay yield and PTLT were significantly correlated (R = 0.87, p < 0.05, n = 21, with lower hay yield in proximity to trees in the TBI system and similar hay

  15. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  16. The impact of new energy crops on weed flora diversification in energy cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glemnitz, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite various options in energy cropping for the diversification of agricultural land use, such as the introduction of new crops, in practice, there is a one-sided orientation toward the use of maize as biogas feedstock in Germany. One reason, why they are not yet introduced in practice, is that for most of them neither the agricultural feasibility nor their ecological and economic benefit could be clearly shown to the farmers up to now. As part of the research projects “Site-adapted Cropping Systems for Energy Crops” (EVA, and “Optimized energy cropping systems for the sustainable biogas production (Upscaling” the effects of three new energy crops have been tested under real farm conditions in two different regions in the northern part of Germany. The large scale field trial consisted of the comparison of the following energy crops: 0- maize as reference crop, 1- perennial Silphie (Silphium perfoliatum, 2- Szarvasi grass (Agropyron elongatum, and 3-perennial wild flower mixture. The trail has been investigated regarding the following effects: α-diversity at the plot scale, contribution to the β-diversity among the crops and species composition. The results suggest that the integration of the new perennial energy crop might contribute to an essential weed diversity enhancement. Weed flora diversity was between 2-4 times higher in most of the cases in the new energy crops compared to maize.

  17. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern institutions established

  18. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop

  19. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  20. Divesting in crop diversity: trade-offs of modern cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, P.

    2013-12-01

    Since the advent of the Green Revolution in the 1960's, agriculture has experienced great advances in yield, seed genetics and management. This focus on increased yields and production came at the cost of many marginal, traditional crops because they could no longer compete with the bountiful harvests of massive mono-culture food systems. In the modern agricultural world, three staple crops are responsible for 46% of global agricultural production on 33% of global harvested area. Further, seventeen crops account for 73% of global crop production and use 58% of global harvested area. How has the distribution of individual crops today changed from before the Green Revolution began, and what are the broader implications of these changes for our food systems?

  1. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  2. Cropping system effects on wind erosion potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion of soil is a destructive process impacting crop productivity and human health and safety. The mechanics of wind erosion and soil properties that influence erosion are well understood. Less well-studied are the effects that cropping intensity has upon those soil properties. We collected ...

  3. Optimization of Korean crop storage insulation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongho Yoon [Taejon National Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Taejon (Korea); Euyjoon Lee [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Passive Solar Research Team, Taejon (Korea); Krarti, Moncef [Colorado Univ., CEAE Dept., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2003-05-01

    With the increasing concerns with the quality and the safety of foods, several standards and guidelines have been developed to improve the design, construction and operation of storage warehouses. Several cool storage buildings have been constructed in Korea during the last decade. However, there are no specific standards or guidelines for energy use reduction in refrigerated structures. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of various insulation systems on the total cooling load of the cool storage structures with particular consideration given to the product thermal mass to find optimal insulation thicknesses for each envelope component for various climatic locations in Korea. An energy analysis model was developed using the DOE-2.1E program. To determine the optimal configuration for the storage building insulation system, life cycle cost analysis was conducted. The selection of optimal insulation configuration for each climatic location is based on various criteria including cost and energy minimization. The results presented in this paper provide easy to use design guidelines to select the optimal insulation thickness for crop storage facilities in Korea. (Author)

  4. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  5. A multi-adaptive framework for the crop choice in paludicultural cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The conventional cultivation of drained peatland causes peat oxidation, soil subsidence, nutrient loss, increasing greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity reduction. Paludiculture has been identified as an alternative management strategy consisting in the cultivation of biomass on wet and rewetted peatlands. This strategy can save these habitats and restore the ecosystem services provided by the peatlands both on the local and global scale. This paper illustrates the most important features to optimise the crop choice phase which is the crucial point for the success of paludiculture systems. A multi-adaptive framework was proposed. It was based on four points that should be checked to identify suitable crops for paludicultural cropping system: biological traits, biomass production, attitude to cultivation and biomass quality. The main agronomic implications were explored with the help of some results from a plurennial open-field experimentation carried out in a paludicultural system set up in the Massaciuccoli Lake Basin (Tuscany, Italy and a complete example of the method application was provided. The tested crops were Arundo donax L., Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deuter, Phragmites australis L., Populus×canadensis Moench. and Salix alba L. The results showed a different level of suitability ascribable to the different plant species proving that the proposed framework can discriminate the behaviour of tested crops. Phragmites australis L. was the most suitable crop whereas Populus×canadensis Moench and Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deuter (in the case of biogas conversion occupied the last positions in the ranking.

  6. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  7. Soil Erosion of Various Farming Systems in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBIN; ZHANGTAOLIN; 等

    1996-01-01

    In order to optimise land use systems,to prevent erosion-induced degradation and to restore the degraded red soils in subtropical China,five cropping systems and four agrforestry systems were conducted in red soils with a slope of 7° from 1993 to 1995,The results showed that erosion risk period occurred from Aproil to June,and the annual runoff and and the losses of soil and nutrients with sediment were alarming for two conventional farming systems,whereas they were negligible for the farming systems with ridge tillage.Enrichment ratios of the lost soils from erosion erer more than 1.20 for all nutrients with much higher values for hydrolysable N and organic matter.Compared with the control,the alley cropping systems also distinctly decreased runoff by 30% or 50%.However,the coverage of soil surface varied with alley cropping systems for the competition of nutrients and soil water,which made a profound difference in runoff.The cropping systems of sweet potato intercropped with soybean,the alley cropping systems and the measures of mulching and ridge tillage were the alternatives for red soil reclamation so as to prevent erosion-induced degradation.

  8. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  9. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  10. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2013-01-01

    In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all...... aestivum L.) in four experimental cropping systems established in 1997 on three soil types. Three of the four systems were under organic management. Topsoil N, depth of the A horizon, and cumulated inputs of N since 1997 were determined at plot level. Labile soil N pools [mineral N, potentially...

  11. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO INCORPORATE BIOFUEL CROPS INTO CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MALAWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beston Bille Maonga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data, this study analysed the critical and significant socioeconomic factors with high likelihood to determine smallholder farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha into cropping systems in Malawi. Employing desk study and multi-stage random sampling technique a sample of 592 households was drawn from across the country for analysis. A probit model was used for the analysis of determinants of jatropha adoption by smallholder farmers. Empirical findings show that education, access to loan, bicycle ownership and farmers’ expectation of raising socioeconomic status are major significant factors that would positively determine probability of smallholder farmers’ willingness to adopt jatropha as a biofuel crop on the farm. Furthermore, keeping of ruminant herds of livestock, long distance to market and fears of market unavailability have been revealed to have significant negative influence on farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha. Policy implications for sustainable crop diversification drive are drawn and discussed.

  12. Robust cropping systems to tackle pests under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Barzman, Marco; Booij, Kees

    2015-01-01

    approaches involving extension and other stakeholders will help meet the challenge of developing more robust cropping systems; (5) farmers can take advantage of Web 2.0 and other new technologies to make the exchange of updated information quicker and easier; (6) cooperation between historically...... compartmentalized experts in plant health and crop protection could help develop anticipation strategies; and (7) the current decline in skilled crop protection specialists in Europe should be reversed, and shortcomings in local human and financial resources can be overcome by pooling resources across borders......., cropping systems, and pests; (2) the unpredictable adaptation of pests to a changing environment primarily creates uncertainty and projected changes do not automatically translate into doom and gloom scenarios; (3) faced with uncertainty, policy, research, and extension should prepare for worst...

  13. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  14. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S; Hill, Jason D; Chase, Craig A; Johanns, Ann M; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003-2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems.

  15. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Davis

    Full Text Available Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003-2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems.

  16. Effects of potato-cotton cropping systems and nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W T; Weingartner, D P; Dickson, D W

    2000-09-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used.

  17. Nuances and nuisances : crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: crop production, intensification, extensification, farming systems, tradeoff analysis, maize, legume, manure, fertiliser, southern Africa Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop

  18. Crop protection in European maize-based cropping systems: Current practices and recommendations for innovative Integrated Pest Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadisa, V.P.; Sattin, M.; Weide, van der R.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Maize-based cropping systems (MBCSs), with different frequency of maize in the crop sequence, are common in European arable systems. Pesticide use differs according to the type of active ingredients and target organisms in different regions. Within the EU Network of Excellence ENDURE, two expert-bas

  19. Residual Influence of Early Season Crop Fertilization and Cropping System on Growth and Yield of Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Makinde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In assessing fertilizer effects to sustain an intensive cropping system, the residual effects of fertilizer applied to preceding maize on the growth and yield of cassava and the effects of intercropping with soybean were studied in field experiments at Ibadan, Nigeria. Approach: Maize, established in April was fertilized using either organic manure or inorganic fertilizer or a mixture of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Organic manure was an equal mixture of domestic waste collected from a composted refuse dumping site applied at l0 t ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer was 150kg N supplied as urea and 50 kg P ha-1 as Single Super phosphate fertilizer. The mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment was 5 tonnes organic manure and 75kg N+25 kg P ha-1. Cassava was established in June and soybean planted in July, after harvesting maize. Results: Organic fertilizer treatment gave the tallest plants of 53 cm. Plants from sole inorganic fertilizer and from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers had comparable heights but were significantly lower than plants from sole organic fertilizer application. Organic fertilizer application gave the highest seed yield of 481 kg ha-1 that was significantly higher than 380 kg ha-1 observed from a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Stover yield followed the same trend as seed yield. Cassava plant height was increased with fertilization but was reduced with intercropping. Sole organic fertilization had the tallest plants. Plant leaf area was neither significantly affected by fertilizer type nor cropping system. Fresh root yield was significantly reduced by 16% with soybean intercropping. Sole organic fertilizer application gave the highest yields of 22 tons ha-1 in sole crop and 18 tons ha-1 in intercrop with soybean. Conclusion: Cultivating an early season maize crop, followed by a cassava-soybean intercrop is more

  20. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of multiple cropping systems on upland red soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqin HUANG; Xiuying LIU; Longwang LIU; Fang YE; Mingling ZHANG; Yanhong SHU

    2008-01-01

    According to the principles and methods of ecology and system engineering,we set up an evaluation indicator system for multi-component and multiple crop-ping systems,evaluated the comprehensive benefits of multi-component and multiple cropping systems using grey relation clustering analysis and screened out the opti-mized model based on research done in the upland red soil in Jiangxi Agricultural University from 1984 to 2004.The results show that the grey relation degree of "cabbage/ potato/maize-sesame" was the highest among 23 multi-component and multiple cropping systems and was clustered into the optimized system.This indicates that "cabbage/potato/maize - sesame" can bring the best social,economic and ecological benefits,increase product yield and farmers' income and promote sustainable development of agricultural production.Therefore,it is suitable for promotion on upland red soil.The grey rela-tion degree of "canola/Chinese milk vetch/maize/mung bean/maize" was second,which is suitable for imple-mentation at the city outskirts.In conclusion,these two planting patterns are expected to play important roles in the reconstruction of the planting structure and optimiza-tion of the planting patterns on upland red soil.

  2. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  3. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values c

  4. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  5. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  6. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  7. NEW TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE - CROP SYSTEMS WITHOUT SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan GRAD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied new system of agriculture - crop systems without soil. The culture systems without soil can be called also the hydroponic systems and now in Romania are not used only sporadically. In other countries (USA, Japan, the Netherlands, France, UK, Denmark, Israel, Australia, etc.. they represent the modern crop technology, widely applied to vegetables, fruits, fodder, medicinal plants and flowers by the experts in this area. In the world, today there are millions of hectares hydroponics, most of the vegetables, herbs, fruits of hypermarkets are coming from the culture systems without soil. The process consists of growing plants in nutrient solutions (not in the ground, resorting to an complex equipment, depending on the specifics of each crop, so that the system can be applied only in the large farms, in the greenhouses, and not in the individual households. These types of culture systems have a number of advantages and disadvantages also. Even if today's culture systems without soil seem to be the most modern and surprising technology applied in plant growth, the principle is very old. Based on him were built The Suspended Gardens of the Semiramis from Babylon, in the seventh century BC, thanks to him, the population from the Peru”s highlands cultivates vegetables on surfaces covered with water or mud. The peasant households in China, even today use the millenary techniques of the crops on gravel. .This hydroponic agriculture system is a way of followed for Romanian agriculture too, despite its high cost, because it is very productive, ecological, can cover, by products, all market demands and it answer, increasingly, constraints of urban life. The concept of hydroponics agriculture is known and appreciated in Romania also, but more at the theory level.

  8. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  9. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  10. Illicit crops: A look from the national accounts system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucía Bazzani C.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the evolution of illicit crops in Colombia through the National Accounts System, which provides a basis for the study of transactions and the use of the product in an economy. Through the input-output methodology it is shown that, thanks to the drug policy action developed by the national government, its importance in generation of value added has been changing and decreasing over time.

  11. Direct and indirect impacts of crop-livestock organization on mixed crop-livestock systems sustainability: a model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneessens, I; Veysset, P; Benoit, M; Lamadon, A; Brunschwig, G

    2016-11-01

    Crop-livestock production is claimed more sustainable than specialized production systems. However, the presence of controversial studies suggests that there must be conditions of mixing crop and livestock productions to allow for higher sustainable performances. Whereas previous studies focused on the impact of crop-livestock interactions on performances, we posit here that crop-livestock organization is a key determinant of farming system sustainability. Crop-livestock organization refers to the percentage of the agricultural area that is dedicated to each production. Our objective is to investigate if crop-livestock organization has both a direct and an indirect impact on mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) sustainability. In that objective, we build a whole-farm model parametrized on representative French sheep and crop farming systems in plain areas (Vienne, France). This model permits simulating contrasted MC-L systems and their subsequent sustainability through the following indicators of performance: farm income, production, N balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (/kg product) and MJ consumption (/kg product). Two MC-L systems were simulated with contrasted crop-livestock organizations (MC20-L80: 20% of crops; MC80-L20: 80% of crops). A first scenario - constraining no crop-livestock interactions in both MC-L systems - permits highlighting that crop-livestock organization has a significant direct impact on performances that implies trade-offs between objectives of sustainability. Indeed, the MC80-L20 system is showing higher performances for farm income (+44%), livestock production (+18%) and crop GHG emissions (-14%) whereas the MC20-L80 system has a better N balance (-53%) and a lower livestock MJ consumption (-9%). A second scenario - allowing for crop-livestock interactions in both MC20-L80 and MC80-L20 systems - stated that crop-livestock organization has a significant indirect impact on performances. Indeed, even if crop-livestock interactions permit

  12. Designing Cropping Systems for Metal-Contaminated Sites: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ye-Tao; CHEN Tong-Bin; G. ECHEVARRIA; T. STERCKEMAN; M. O. SIMONNOT; J. L. MOREL; DENG Teng-Hao-Bo; WU Qi-Hang; WANG Shi-Zhong; QIU Rong-Liang; WEI Ze-Bin; GUO Xiao-Fang; WU Qi-Tang; LEI Mei

    2012-01-01

    Considering that even contaminated soils are a potential resource for agricultural production,it is essential to develop a set of cropping systems to allow a safe and sustainable agriculture on contaminated lands while avoiding any transfer of toxic trace elements to the food chain.In this review,three main strategies,i.e.,phytoexclusion,phytostabilization,and phytoextraction,are proposed to establish cropping systems for production of edible and non-edible plants,and for extraction of elements for industrial use.For safe production of food crops,the selection of low-accumulating plants/cultivars and the application of soil amendments are of vital importance.Phytostabilization using non-food energy and fiber plants can provide additional renewable energy sources and economic benefit with minimum cost of agriculturai measures.Phytoextracting trace elements (e.g.,As,Cd,Ni,and Zn) using hyperaccumulator species is more suitable for slightly and moderately polluted sites,and phytomining of Ni from serpentine soils has shown a great potential to extract Ni-containing bio-ores of economic interests.We conclude that appropriate combinations of soil types,plant species/cultivars,and agronomic practices can restrict trace metal transfer to the food chain and/or extract energy and metals of industrial use and allow safe agricultural activities.

  13. Multifactorial biogeochemical monitoring of linden alley in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Vadim; Khushvakhtova, Sabsbakhor; Tyutikov, Sergey; Danilova, Valentina; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The ecological and biogeochemical assessment of the linden alley within the Kosygin Street was conducted by means of an integrated comparative study of soils, their chemical composition and morphological parameters of leaf linden. For this purpose 5 points were tested within the linden alley and 5 other points outside the highway. In soils, water extract of soil, leaf linden the content of Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Co Mo, Cr and Se were determined by AAS and spectrofluorimetric method [1]. Macrocomponents (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, sulphates, chlorides), pH and total mineralization of water soil extract were measured by generally accepted methods. Thio-containing compounds in the leaves were determined by HPLC-NAM spectrofluorometry [2]. On level content of trace elements the soils of "contaminated" points different from background more high concentrations of lead, manganese, iron, selenium, strontium and low level of zinc. Leaf of linden from contaminated sites characterized by an increase of lead, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, chromium, and a sharp decrease in the level of manganese and strontium. Analysis of the aqueous extracts of the soil showed a slight decrease in the pH value in the "control" points and lower content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and total mineralization of the water soil extract. The phytochelatins test in the leaves of linden was weakly effective and the degree of asymmetry of leaf lamina too. The most differences between the variants were marked by the degree of pathology leaves (chlorosis and necrosis) and the content of pigments (chlorophyll and carotene). The data obtained reflect the impact of the application of de-icing salts and automobile emissions. References 1. Ermakov V.V., Danilova V.N., Khyshvakhtova S.D. Application of HPLC-NAM spectrofluorimtry to determination of sulfur-containing compounds in the environmental objects// Science of the biosphere: Innovation. Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov, 2014. P. 10

  14. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C...

  15. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  16. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  17. Mapping Cropping Practices of a Sugarcane-Based Cropping System in Kenya Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mulianga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent past, there has been a growing concern on the need for mapping cropping practices in order to improve decision-making in the agricultural sector. We developed an original method for mapping cropping practices: crop type and harvest mode, in a sugarcane landscape of western Kenya using remote sensing data. At local scale, a temporal series of 15-m resolution Landsat 8 images was obtained for Kibos sugar management zone over 20 dates (April 2013 to March 2014 to characterize cropping practices. To map the crop type and harvest mode we used ground survey and factory data over 1280 fields, digitized field boundaries, and spectral indices (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI were computed for all Landsat images. The results showed NDVI classified crop type at 83.3% accuracy, while NDWI classified harvest mode at 90% accuracy. The crop map will inform better planning decisions for the sugar industry operations, while the harvest mode map will be used to plan for sensitizations forums on best management and environmental practices.

  18. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2010-01-01

    crops, respectively. Nevertheless, SOC levels in 2008 were similar across systems. The cumulative soil respiration for the period February to August 2008 ranged between 2 and 3 t CO2–C ha-1 and was correlated (r = 0.95) with average C inputs. In the organic cropping systems, pig slurry application......: total soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, microbial biomass N (MBN), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), and levels of potential ammonium oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA). In situ measurements of soil heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration and nitrous oxide emissions were...... and inclusion of catch crops generally increased soil respiration, PMN and PAO. At field capacity, relative gas diffusivity at 0–5 cm depth was >50% higher in the organic than the inorganic fertilizer-based system (P

  19. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Andújar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group

  20. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-12-13

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  1. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...... systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...... strategies that seek to maintain the status quo through management actions that reduce perturbations due to CC; ii) Resilience strategies requiring systemic adaptation at field and farm level for increasing the adaptive capacity after a climate disturbance; iii) Transformative strategies addressing needs...

  2. Development of a Vehicle-Mounted Crop Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zhen-jiang; SUN Hong; LI Min-zan; ZHANG Feng; LI Xiu-hua

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor plant chlorophyll content in real-time, a new vehicle-mounted detection system was developed to measure crop canopy spectral characteristics. It was designed to work as a wireless sensor network with one control unit and one measuring unit. The control unit included a personal digital assistant (PDA) device with a ZigBee wireless network coordinator. As the coordinator of the whole wireless network, the control unit was used to receive, display and store all the data sent from sensor nodes. The measuring unit consisted of several optical sensor nodes. All the sensor nodes were mounted on an on-board mechanical structure so that the measuring unit could collect the canopy spectral data while moving. Each sensor node contained four optical channels to measure the light radiation at the wavebands of 550, 650, 766, and 850 nm. The calibration tests veriifed a good performance in terms of the wireless transmission ability and the sensor measurement precision. Both stationary and moving ifeld experiments were also conducted in a winter wheat experimental ifeld. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll content and vegetation index, and several estimation models of the chlorophyll content were established. The highest R2 of the estimation models was 0.718. The results showed that the vehicle-mounted crop detection system has potential for ifeld application.

  3. Wireless computer vision system for crop stress detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of soil water deficits, crop water stress, and biotic stress from disease or insects is important for optimal irrigation scheduling and water management. Crop spectral reflectances provide a means to quantify visible and near infrared thermal crop stress, but in-situ measurements can be cu...

  4. The successive alleys test of anxiety in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Robert M J

    2013-06-17

    The plus-maze was derived from the early work of Montgomery. He observed that rats tended to avoid the open arms of a maze, preferring the enclosed ones. Handley, Mithani and File et al. performed the first studies on the plus-maze design we use today, and in 1987 Lister published a design for use with mice. Time spent on, and entries into, the open arms are an index of anxiety; the lower these indices, the more anxious the mouse is. Alternatively, a mouse that spends most of its time in the closed arms is classed as anxious. One of the problems of the plus-maze is that, while time spent on, and entries into, the open arms is a fairly unambiguous measure of anxiety, time in the central area is more difficult to interpret, although time spent here has been classified as "decision making". In many tests central area time is a considerable part of the total test time. Shepherd et al. produced an ingenious design to eliminate the central area, which they called the "zero maze". However, although used by several groups, it has never been as widely adopted as the plus-maze. In the present article I describe a modification of the plus-maze design that not only eliminates the central area but also incorporates elements from other anxiety tests, such as the light-dark box and emergence tests. It is a linear series of four alleys, each having increasing anxiogenic properties. It has given similar results to the plus-maze in general. Although it may not be more sensitive than the plus-maze (more data is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached on this point), it provides a useful confirmation of plus-maze results which would be useful when, for example, only a single example of a mutant mouse was available, as, for example, in ENU-based mutagenesis programs.

  5. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop.

  6. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  7. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programmes based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional non-inversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption...... is mostly higher as compared to plough-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in non-inversion tillage systems and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems...

  8. Crop response of aerobic rice and winter wheat to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a double cropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, X.Q.; Zhang, H. Y.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; J. Yu; Xie, G.H.; Bouman, B.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the aerobic rice system, adapted rice cultivars are grown in non-flooded moist soil. Aerobic rice may be suitable for double cropping with winter wheat in the Huai River Basin, northern China plain. Field experiments in 2005 and 2006 were conducted to study the response of aerobic rice and winter wheat to sequential rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in aerobic rice—winter wheat (AR-WW) and winter wheat—aerobic rice (WW-AR) cropping sequences. Fertilizer treatments con...

  9. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  10. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F;

    2015-01-01

    management. There were significant effects on annual N concentration and NO3single bondN leaching of location, rotation, previous crop and crop cover during autumn and winter. The relative effects of temperature and precipitation differed between seasons and cropping systems. A sensitivity analysis revealed......The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction...

  11. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effects of combinations of cropping systems and nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, W S; Brodie, B B; Good, J M

    1974-07-01

    The population density of Meloidogyne incognita was significantly reduced in land that was fallowed or cropped to crotalaria, marigold, bermudagrass, or bahiagrass. The rate of population decline caused by different cropping systems was influenced by initial population densities. Crotalaria, marigold, and bare fallow were about equally effective in reducing the density of M. incognita below dctectable lcvels, usually requiring 1-3 yr. Bahiagrass and bcrmudagrass required 4-5 yr or longer to reduce M. incognita below a detectable level. A high population density of Trichodorus christiei developed in land cropped 5 yr to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, okra, and marigold. Population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Xiphinema americanum increased in land cropped to crotalaria or bermudagrass. Belonolabnus Iongicaudatus was detected only in land cropped to bermudagrass, The effectiveness of nematicides in reducing M. incognita infection was rclatcd to nematode population density resulting from 5 yr of different cropping systems. Treatment with aldicarb reduced M. incognita below detectable levels following all cropping systems; treatment with ethoprop following all cropping systems except okra, treatment wflh ethylene dibromide following bahiagrass or fallow; and treatment with DBCP only after 5 yr of fallow. Tomato transplant growth was affected .by both cropping systems and nematicide treatment. Transplants grown after crotalaria and bahiagrass were significantly larger than those grown after other crops. Also, treatment with aldicarb and ethoprop significantly increased transplant size.

  12. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  13. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Joannon, A; Gibon, A

    2012-10-01

    Intensification and specialisation of agriculture in developed countries enabled productivity to be improved but had detrimental impacts on the environment and threatened the economic viability of a huge number of farms. The combination of livestock and crops, which was very common in the past, is assumed to be a viable alternative to specialised livestock or cropping systems. Mixed crop-livestock systems can improve nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs and generate economies of scope at farm level. Most assumptions underlying these views are based on theoretical and experimental evidence. Very few assessments of their environmental and economic advantages have nevertheless been undertaken in real-world farming conditions. In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of the environmental and economic performances of mixed crop-livestock farms v. specialised farms among the farm population of the French 'Coteaux de Gascogne'. In this hilly region, half of the farms currently use a mixed crop-livestock system including beef cattle and cash crops, the remaining farms being specialised in either crops or cattle. Data were collected through an exhaustive survey of farms located in our study area. The economic performances of farming systems were assessed on 48 farms on the basis of (i) overall gross margin, (ii) production costs and (iii) analysis of the sensitivity of gross margins to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs. The environmental dimension was analysed through (i) characterisation of farmers' crop management practices, (ii) analysis of farm land use diversity and (iii) nitrogen farm-gate balance. Local mixed crop-livestock farms did not have significantly higher overall gross margins than specialised farms but were less sensitive than dairy and crop farms to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs considered. Mixed crop-livestock farms had lower costs than crop farms, while beef farms had the lowest costs as they are grass

  14. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  15. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  16. Maximum soil organic carbon storage in Midwest U.S. cropping systems when crops are optimally nitrogen-fertilized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daniel W.; Helmers, Matthew J.; Miguez, Fernando E.; Olk, Daniel C.; Sawyer, John E.; Six, Johan; Castellano, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is uncertain. Here, we clarify the impact of N fertilization on SOC in typical maize-based (Zea mays L.) Midwest U.S. cropping systems by accounting for site-to-site variability in maize yield response to N fertilization. Within continuous maize and maize-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems at four Iowa locations, we evaluated changes in surface SOC over 14 to 16 years across a range of N fertilizer rates empirically determined to be insufficient, optimum, or excessive for maximum maize yield. Soil organic C balances were negative where no N was applied but neutral (maize-soybean) or positive (continuous maize) at the agronomic optimum N rate (AONR). For continuous maize, the rate of SOC storage increased with increasing N rate, reaching a maximum at the AONR and decreasing above the AONR. Greater SOC storage in the optimally fertilized continuous maize system than in the optimally fertilized maize-soybean system was attributed to greater crop residue production and greater SOC storage efficiency in the continuous maize system. Mean annual crop residue production at the AONR was 22% greater in the continuous maize system than in the maize-soybean system and the rate of SOC storage per unit residue C input was 58% greater in the monocrop system. Our results demonstrate that agronomic optimum N fertilization is critical to maintain or increase SOC of Midwest U.S. cropland. PMID:28249014

  17. Effects of Cropping System Change for Paddy Field with Double Harvest Rice on the Crops Growth and Soil Nutrient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the cropping system change for paddy field with double harvest rice on crops growth and soil nutrient in red soil were studied. The results indicated that the economic benefit and the ratio of the output to input were all increased in terms of the market price for the crops under various treatments. The greatest economic benefit was obtained in the treatment of paddy-upland rotation, and the corresponding economic benefit was increased by 34.7, 21.4, and 2.2% in comparison with that of control (rice-rice-astragali), pasture, and upland cropping treatments. The economic benefits in pasture and upland cultivation treatments were increased by 11.0 and 31.8%, respectively, when compared with that of the control treatment (CK). The ratio of output to input in pasture, paddy-upland rotation, and upland cropping treatments was enhanced by 0.9, 0.6, and 0.3, respectively, in comparison with that of control. To grow pasture is beneficial for improving soil fertility since the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and available phosphorus are all enhanced significantly. However, the concentrations of the soil available nitrogen, the total potassium, the available potassium were somewhat reduced in all the treatments, suggesting that increasing the input of nitrogen,particularly potassium, was necessary under the present fertilization level. Based on the conditions of fertility, climate,cultivation, and management of paddy field with double harvest rice in red soil regions, it is feasible to alter the cultivation system of paddy field with bad irrigation condition. In particular, cultivation systems such as pasture and paddy-upland rotation can be selected to extend because better economic benefit and improvement of soil fertility in the purpose region were obtained.

  18. Intellectualized Identifying and Precision Control System for Horticultural Crop Diseases Based on Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hongxin; Yang, Yuwang; Pei, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wenyu; Ge, Daokuo; Sha, Yiran; Zhang, Weixin; Fu, Kunya; Liu, Yan; Chen, Yuli; Dai, Hongjun; Zhang, Hainan

    2012-01-01

    International audience; To explore small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing identifying technology for horticultural crop diseases, and to combine it with small UAV spraying, the peach leaf blade was taken as material, the peach shot-hole disease was taken as object for spectral capture, and the intellectualized identifying and precision control system for horticultural crop diseases were developed, mainly including the identifying system for horticultural crop diseases, spraying pe...

  19. "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40˚-50˚) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50˚-60˚) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60˚, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46˚ south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44˚ north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59˚ north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44˚ north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70˚ north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10439 - dance

  20. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, N.; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2010-01-01

    . The main objective of this study was to compare nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) within three organic and one conventional cropping system that differed in type of fertilizer, presence of catch crops and proportion of N2-fixing crops. The study......Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year...... was replicated in two identical long-term crop rotation experiments on sandy loam soils under different climatic conditions in Denmark (Flakkebjerg—eastern Denmark and Foulum—western Denmark). The conventional rotation received 165–170 kg N ha−1 in the form of NH4NO3, while the organic rotations received 100...

  1. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  2. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and cover cropping systems on sorghum grain characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The practice of no-till farming has become an increasingly popular cropping system, due to increased water and soil conservation. Recently, cover cropping has been added to the system to aid in weed prevention and also increase soil fertility. The objective of this study was to determine the effect ...

  3. A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prototype microcontroller-based system was developed to automate the measurement and recording of soil-moisture status and canopy-, air-, and soil-temperature levels in cropped fields. Measurements of these conditions within the cropping system are often used to assess plant stress, and can assis...

  4. Evaluation of Learning Group Approaches for Fostering Integrated Cropping Systems Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Hana; Simmons, Steve; Jordan, Nicholas; Nelson, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Cropping systems management requires integration of multiple forms of knowledge, practice, and learning by farmers, extension educators, and researchers. We evaluated the outcomes of participation in collaborative learning groups organized to address cropping systems and, specifically, challenges of integrated weed management. Groups were…

  5. Rice in cropping systems - Modelling transitions between flooded and non-flooded soil environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Probert, M.E.; Buresh, R.J.; Meinke, H.B.; Suriadi, A.; Dobermann, A.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Timsina, J.

    2012-01-01

    Water shortages in many rice-growing regions, combined with growing global imperatives to increase food production, are driving research into increased water use efficiency and modified agricultural practices in rice-based cropping systems. Well-tested cropping systems models that capture interactio

  6. Increasing Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Corn in Midwestern Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Hatfield

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N loss from agricultural systems raises concerns about the potential impact of farming practices on environmental quality. N is a critical input to agricultural production. However, there is little understanding of the interactions among crop water use, N application rates, and soil types. This study was designed to quantify these interactions in corn (Zea mays L. grown in production-size fields in central Iowa on the Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association. Seasonal water use varied by soil type and N application rate. Yield varied with N application rate, with the highest average yield obtained at 100 kg ha-1. N use efficiency (NUE decreased with increasing N application rates, having values around 50%. Water use efficiency (WUE decreased as N fertilizer rates increased. Analysis of plant growth patterns showed that in the low organic matter soils (lower water-holding capacities, potential yield was not achieved because of water deficits during the grain-filling period. Using precipitation data coupled with daily water use throughout the season, lower organic matter soils showed these soils began to drain earlier in the spring and continued to drain more water throughout the season. The low NUE in these soils together with increased drainage lead to greater N loss from these soils. Improved management decisions have shown that it is possible to couple water use patterns with N application to increase both WUE and NUE.

  7. Can subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) be a competitive irrigation system in the Great Plains region for commodity crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as with all microirrigation systems is typically only used on crops with greater value. In the U.S. Great Plains region, the typical irrigated crops are the cereal and oil seed crops and cotton. These crops have less economic revenue than typical microirrigated cro...

  8. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  9. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    Full Text Available We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus; sunflower (Heliantus annuus intercropped with Urochloa ruziziensis; corn (Zea mays intercropped with Urochloa; and corn; fodder radish; or wheat (Triticum aestivum as sole crops. The subplots were the years: 2008 and 2009. Determinations consisted of total organic C, labile and resistant C, total N, microbial biomass C and N, the C/N ratio of soil organic matter, and the microbial quotient (qMic, besides microbiological and biochemical attributes, assessed only in 2009. The attributes significantly changed with the winter crops, especially the multicropping of cover crops and fodder radish, as well as effect of years. Despite stimulating the microbiological/biochemical activity, fodder radish cropping decreased the soil C in the second year, likewise the wheat cropping. The multicropping of cover crops in winter is an option for management in the establishment of no-till system, which contributes to increase the concentrations of C and stimulate the soil microbiological/biochemical activity.

  10. The Effects of Winter Cover Crops and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on some Soil Fertility Aspects and Crop Yield in an Organic Production System of Ocimum basilicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jahan; M.B Amiri; J Shabahang; Ahmadi, F; F. Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture systems emphasized on the on-farm inputs likes use of biofertilizers, crop rotation and cover crops. This experiment was conducted in a split plots arrangement with two factors based on randomized complete block design with three replications during years 2009-2010, at Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The main factor consisted of cultivation and no cultivation of cover crops in autumn. The sub factor was biofertilizer application with four levels, inclu...

  11. Resource flows, crops and soil fertility management in smallholder farming systems in semi-arid Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.; Twomlow, S.J.; Dimes, J.P.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Poor soil fertility and erratic rains are major constraints to crop production in semi-arid environments. In the smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa, these constraints are manifested in frequent crop failures and endemic food insecurity. We characterized a semi-arid smallholder farming

  12. Impacts of organic conservation tillage systems on crops, weeds, and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agrichemicals are used for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made t...

  13. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  14. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  15. Integrated crop-livestock systems: a key to sustainable intensification in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, A.J.; Tarawali, S.A.; Thorne, P.J.; Valbuena, D.F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed crop-livestock systems provide livelihoods for a billion people and produce half the world’s cereal and around a third of its beef and milk. Market orientation and strong and growing demand for food provide powerful incentives for sustainable intensification of both crop and livestock enterpri

  16. Understanding cropping systems in the semi-arid environments of Zimbabwe: options for soil fertility management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.

    2007-01-01

    African smallholder farmers face perennial food shortages due to low crop yields. The major cause of poor crop yields is soil fertility decline. The diversity of sites and soils between African farming systems isgreat,therefore strategies to solve soil fertility problems sho

  17. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...

  18. Cover Crop and Liquid Manure Effects on Soil Quality Indicators in a Corn Silage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to a lack of surface residue and organic matter inputs, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) silage production is one of the most demanding cropping systems imposed on our soil resources. In this study, our objective was to determine if using cover/companion crops and/or applying low-solids liquid dair...

  19. Energy balance of five fodder cropping systems in the irrigated lowlands of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensification has recently become an important option in Western European agriculture, driven both by economic considerations (product surpluses together with the fact that developed countries cropping systems have been heavily relying on fossil energy and growing public concern on the possible adverse effects of intensive farming on the environment and human health. The adoption of rational fodder crop rotations, with the rediscovery of the beneficial effect of the meadow, is viewed as a possible mean to reduce the impact of farming systems in the lowlands of Northern Italy, characterised by highly intensive cropping and animal husbandry. For this reason our study examines the effects of crop rotation on the energy balance during 1985-2007 period in a long-term crop rotation trial in Northern Italy comparing five fodder crop systems, different in the degree of crop intensification and for the presence or absence of the meadow: a 1-year continuous cereal double cropping (R1; a 3-year rotation (R3; a 6-year rotation (R6; a permanent meadow (PM; and a continuous grain maize cropping (CM. Each rotation was subjected to two input treatments, defined as high (mostly used in lowlands of northern Italy and low (input reduction of ca. 30% respectively, in terms of nutrient levels, herbicide doses, and soil tillage methods. The crop rotations exerted a marked influence on the energy balance. The most efficient rotations in terms of net energy production energy efficiency have been characterized by reduced length and presence of maize and catch-crops.

  20. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    ), and moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test......, penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K...... in terms of greater MWD, VESS, WSA, aggregate tensile strength, and rupture energy. Five years of using a cover crop alleviated plow pan compaction at the 20- to 40-cm depth by reducing penetration resistance. A significant interaction between tillage and cover crop treatments indicated the potential...

  1. Effect of intercropping period management on runoff and erosion in a maize cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, Eric; Bielders, C L

    2010-01-01

    The management of winter cover crops is likely to influence their performance in reducing runoff and erosion during the intercropping period that precedes spring crops but also during the subsequent spring crop. This study investigated the impact of two dates of destruction and burial of a rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cover crop on runoff and erosion, focusing on a continuous silage maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Thirty erosion plots with various intercrop management options were monitored for 3 yr at two sites. During the intercropping period, cover crops reduced runoff and erosion by more than 94% compared with untilled, post-maize harvest plots. Rough tillage after maize harvest proved equally effective as a late sown cover crop. There was no effect of cover crop destruction and burial dates on runoff and erosion during the intercropping period, probably because rough tillage for cover crop burial compensates for the lack of soil cover. During two of the monitored maize seasons, it was observed that plots that had been covered during the previous intercropping period lost 40 to 90% less soil compared with maize plots that had been left bare during the intercropping period. The burial of an aboveground cover crop biomass in excess of 1.5 t ha(-1) was a necessary, yet not always sufficient, condition to induce a residual effect. Because of the possible beneficial residual effect of cover crop burial on erosion reduction, the sowing of a cover crop should be preferred over rough tillage after maize harvest.

  2. Analysis of methane yields from energy crops and agricultural by-products and estimation of energy potential from sustainable crop rotation systems in EU-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Alexander; Leonhartsberger, Christian; Amon, Barbara; Amon, Thomas [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Division of Agricultural Engineering, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Peter; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-04-15

    Currently an increasing demand for renewable energy can be observed. A part of this demand could be covered by the production of energy from agrarian biomass. Due to the limited availability of arable land, food and feed production are starting to compete for agrarian resources. A way out of this dilemma is to develop concepts that are based on otherwise unused agrarian biomass like straw and include new technologies for the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this paper, the energy potentials of two different cropping systems are compared. In the energy-based crop rotation system all crops were used either for biogas or ethanol production. In the biorefinery-based approach, the various crops were used in cascades for the production of food as well as feed. Experimental laboratory work and field trials were combined to calculate energy and biomass yields of the crops under investigation. The results demonstrate that steam explosion pretreatment of wheat straw led to a 30% increase in the specific methane yield. The calculated energy output of the biorefinery-based crop rotation system amounted to a total of 126 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. Extrapolating this energy output to the total arable land of the EU-27 member states, 13,608 PJ of energy could be produced. Therefore, biorefinery-based crop rotation systems could provide approximately three times more energy to the European population than energy-based crop rotation systems. (orig.)

  3. Comparative Economic Study of Mixed and Sole Cassava Cropping Systems in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Ajayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural economists continue to argue if mixed or sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable and in terms of yield and returns to farmers particularly for Nigeria which is the world’s largest producer of the crop. The study was carried out to analyse the economics comparatively of mixed and sole cassava cropping systems in Nigeria. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Field data collection was conducted between March and April, 2014. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred and eighty (480 respondents across the six major cassava-producing states in Nigeria (Benue, Cross Rivers, Enugu, Kogi, Ondo, and Oyo. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and comparative budgetary analysis. The study showed that mixed cropping system is more male-dominated than sole cropping system. The study also revealed that sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable than mixed cassava cropping system while the later provides opportunities of all-year-round farm incomes to serve as a better poverty- alleviating mechanism.

  4. Supply of wood-based bioenergy sources by means of agro-forestry systems; Bereitstellung von holzartigen Bioenergietraegern durch Agroforstsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christian; Quinkenstein, Ansgar; Freese, Dirk [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenschutz und Rekultivierung; Baerwolff, Manuela [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Because of the initiated energy revolution and the associated increasing demand for woody biomass in Germany, the production of woody crops on agricultural sites is increasingly gaining in importance. In this context, agroforestry systems provide a promising option to cultivate simultaneously fast growing tree species and annual crops on the same field and to produce woody biomass and conventional products at the same time. Agroforestry systems in which hedgerows of fast growing tree species are established on agricultural sites in a regular pattern are called as alley cropping systems (ACS). These can be managed as low input systems and thus provide several ecological benefits. The cultivation of trees results in an enhanced humus accumulation in the soil and affects the quality of surface as well as percolating waters in a positive way. Additionally, ACS alter the microclimatic conditions at the site, from which the conventional crops cultivated in the alleys between the tree stripes benefit. However, from an economic point of view the production of woody crops with ACS is not generally preferable to conventional agriculture. The positive effects of ACS are most pronounced on marginal sites and, consequently, ACS are currently economically unfavorable compared to conventional agriculture on fertile soils. However, on unfertile, dry sites, such as can be found at a large scale in the Lusatian post-mining landscapes, ACS can be an ecologically and economically promising land-use alternative.

  5. Sustainability issues on rice–wheat cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Bhatt

    2016-03-01

    In this review, an attempt was made to highlight different issues resulted from the practise of intensive rice–wheat cropping sequence of the region, which must be considered while framing and implementing any integrated approach/project such as conservation agriculture for improving the productions, profits and sustainability of RWCS in the region.

  6. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...... plots) included direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H), and moldboard plowing (MP). The cover crop treatments were subplot with cover crop (+CC) and without cover crop (−CC). Minimally disturbed soil cores were taken from the 4- to 8-, 12- to 16-, and 18- to 27-cm depth intervals...... in the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18- to 27-cm...

  7. Integrating insect-resistant GM Crops in pest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, GM cotton and maize with insect resistance were grown on 12.1 and 20.1 million hectares in 9 and 13 countries, respectively. These insect resistant GM crops produce various Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and provide highly selective and effective control of lepidopteran and col...

  8. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  9. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  10. Impacts of Organic Zero Tillage Systems on Crops, Weeds, and Soil Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Carr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting zero tillage and other conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agri-chemicals are relied on for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made to eliminate tillage completely when growing several field crops organically. Vegetative mulch produced by killed cover crops in organic zero tillage systems can suppress annual weeds, but large amounts are needed for adequate early season weed control. Established perennial weeds are not controlled by cover crop mulch. Integrated weed management strategies that include other cultural as well as biological and mechanical controls have potential and need to be incorporated into organic zero tillage research efforts. Market crop performance in organic zero tillage systems has been mixed because of weed, nutrient cycling, and other problems that still must be solved. Soil quality benefits have been demonstrated in comparisons between organic conservation tillage and inversion tillage systems, but studies that include zero tillage treatments are lacking. Research is needed which identifies agronomic strategies for optimum market crop performance, acceptable levels of weed suppression, and soil quality benefits following adoption of organic zero tillage.

  11. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China's Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops.

  12. Information Collection System of Crop Growth Environment Based on the Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Guangyu; ZHANG; Ningbo; LU

    2013-01-01

    Based on the technology of Internet of things, for the issues of large amount data acquisition and difficult real time transport in the data acquisition of crop growth environment, this paper designs one information collection system for crop growth environment. Utilizing the range free location mechanism which defines the node position and GEAR routing mechanism give solutions to the problems of node location, routing protocol applications and so on. This system can realize accurate and automatic real time collection, aggregation and transmission of crop growth environment information, and can achieve the automation of agricultural production, to the maximum extent.

  13. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B. Ella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed. In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC at 0- 5-cm depth for all CAPS treatments generally increased with time while SOC under the plow-based system tended to decline over time for both the high (120, 60 and 60 kg N P K ha-1 and moderate (60-30-30 kg N P K ha-1 fertility levels. The cropping system with maize + Stylosanthes guianensis in the first year followed by Stylosanthes guianensis and fallow in the second year, and the cassava + Stylosanthes guianensis exhibited the highest rate of SOC increase for high and moderate fertility levels, respectively. After one, two, and three cropping seasons, plots under CAPS had significantly higher soil residual water content (RWC than under plow-based systems. Results of this study suggest that conservation agriculture has a positive impact on soil quality, while till systems negatively impact soil characteristics.

  14. Biomass storage, decision support systems, and expert systems in crop production and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural production depends on obtaining and efficiently using the necessary resources. Producers must have access to information that will allow them to select among alternative resource inputs and farming practices. This dissertation covers research into the storage of alternative biomass energy crops and the progression into developing integrated, interactive computer based information systems to support agricultural decisions. Biomass could be a significant source of energy and industrial feedstocks. Storing moist biomass between harvest and conversion can lead to degradation and loss of the material. Data on the storage characteristics of corn cobs and corn silage was obtained over two seasons. The results of studies on corn cob storage in outside piles indicated that up to 33% of the available energy and 43% of the available pentosans were lost during 18 months storage. Studies of corn silage preservation showed that 0.5% sulfur dioxide effectively reduced losses of water soluble sugars. The storage research indicated that integrated biomass energy systems with the conversion of silages to ethanol and utilizing crop residues for heat are feasible. The development of decision support systems (DDS) and expert systems (ES) offers great potential for effective transfer of technology from researchers to farmers. A crop planning DSS was constructed on an integrated spreadsheet framework with interactive screen inputs and numerical and graphical outputs.

  15. Nutrient cycling in a cropping system with potato, spring wheat, sugar beet, oats and nitrogen catch crops. II. Effect of catch crops on nitrate leaching in autumn and winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Nitrate Directive of the European Union (EU) forces agriculture to reduce nitrate emission. The current study addressed nitrate emission and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate from cropping systems with and without the cultivation of catch crops (winter rye: Secale cereale L. and forage rape:

  16. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems in Colorado. American Chemical Society Symposium Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is essential in most irrigated cropping systems to optimize crop yields and economic returns. Application of inorganic N fertilizers to these cropping systems generally results in increased nitrous oxide (N2O-N) emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions resulting from the appli...

  17. Crop monitoring & yield forecasting system based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and process-based crop growth model: Development and validation in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and timely information on rice crop growth and yield helps governments and other stakeholders adapting their economic policies and enables relief organizations to better anticipate and coordinate relief efforts in the wake of a natural catastrophe. Such delivery of rice growth and yield information is made possible by regular earth observation using space-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology combined with crop modeling approach to estimate yield. Radar-based remote sensing is capable of observing rice vegetation growth irrespective of cloud coverage, an important feature given that in incidences of flooding the sky is often cloud-covered. The system allows rapid damage assessment over the area of interest. Rice yield monitoring is based on a crop growth simulation and SAR-derived key information, particularly start of season and leaf growth rate. Results from pilot study sites in South and South East Asian countries suggest that incorporation of SAR data into crop model improves yield estimation for actual yields. Remote-sensing data assimilation into crop model effectively capture responses of rice crops to environmental conditions over large spatial coverage, which otherwise is practically impossible to achieve. Such improvement of actual yield estimates offers practical application such as in a crop insurance program. Process-based crop simulation model is used in the system to ensure climate information is adequately captured and to enable mid-season yield forecast.

  18. Modeling nitrogen and water management effects in a wheat-maize double-cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Q; Ma, L; Yu, Q; Malone, R W; Saseendran, S A; Ahuja, L R

    2008-01-01

    Excessive N and water use in agriculture causes environmental degradation and can potentially jeopardize the sustainability of the system. A field study was conducted from 2000 to 2002 to study the effects of four N treatments (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha(-1) per crop) on a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) double cropping system under 70 +/- 15% field capacity in the North China Plain (NCP). The root zone water quality model (RZWQM), with the crop estimation through resource and environment synthesis (CERES) plant growth modules incorporated, was evaluated for its simulation of crop production, soil water, and N leaching in the double cropping system. Soil water content, biomass, and grain yield were better simulated with normalized root mean square errors (NRMSE, RMSE divided by mean observed value) from 0.11 to 0.15 than soil NO(3)-N and plant N uptake that had NRMSE from 0.19 to 0.43 across these treatments. The long-term simulation with historical weather data showed that, at 200 kg N ha(-1) per crop application rate, auto-irrigation triggered at 50% of the field capacity and recharged to 60% field capacity in the 0- to 50-cm soil profile were adequate for obtaining acceptable yield levels in this intensified double cropping system. Results also showed potential savings of more than 30% of the current N application rates per crop from 300 to 200 kg N ha(-1), which could reduce about 60% of the N leaching without compromising crop yields.

  19. Integrated crop-livestock systems − a key to sustainable intensification in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Duncan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed crop-livestock systems provide livelihoods for a billion people and produce half the world’s cereal and around a third of its beef and milk. Market orientation and strong and growing demand for food provide powerful incentives for sustainable intensification of both crop and livestock enterprises in smallholders’ mixed systems in Africa. Better exploitation of the mutually reinforcing nature of crop and livestock systems can contribute to a positive, inclusive growth trajectory that is both ecologically and economically sustainable. In mixed systems, livestock intensification is often neglected relative to crops, yet livestock can make a positive contribution to raising productivity of the entire farming system. Similarly, intensification of crop production can pay dividends for livestock and enhance natural resource management, especially through increased biomass availability. Intensification and improved efficiency of livestock production mean less greenhouse gases per unit of milk and more milk per unit of water. This paper argues that the opportunities and challenges justify greater investment in research for development to identify exactly where and how ‘win-win’ outcomes can be achieved and what incentives, policies, technologies and other features of the enabling environment are needed to enable sustainable, integrated and productive mixed crop-livestock systems.

  20. Biomass productivity and radiation utilisation of innovative cropping systems for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jiao, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    for biomass production, and compare their performance with traditional cropping systems commonly used in northern European agriculture. Measurements of biomass yield from 2012 to 2015 at two Danish sites differing in soil type and climatic conditions were conducted in three main cropping systems: i) optimised...... rotation of annual crops (maize, beet, hemp/oat, triticale, winter rye and winter rapeseed), ii) perennial crops intensively fertilised (festulolium, reed canary, cocksfoot and tall fescue), low-fertilised (miscanthus) or unfertilised (grass-legume mixtures) and iii) traditional systems (continuous...... on biodiversity. The fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (fIpar), the accumulated intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (Ipar) and the radiation use efficiency (RUE) were determined from canopy radiations measured biweekly for three years. These results showed a higher annual...

  1. Development of a growth model-based decision support system for crop management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; TANG Liang; LIU Xiaojun; TIAN Yongchao; YAO Xia; CAO Weixing

    2007-01-01

    A growth model-based decision support system for crop management (GMDSSCM) was developed,which integrates process-based models of four different crops-wheat,rice,rape and cotton-and realized decision support function,thus facilitating the simulation and application of the crop models for different purposes.The individual models include six sub models for simulating phase development,organ formation,biomass production,yield and quality formation,soil-crop water relations and nutrient (N,P,K)balance.The implemented system can be used for evaluating individual and comprehensive management strategies based on the results of crop growth simulation under various environments and different genotypes.A stand-alone edition (GMDSSCMA) was established on VC++ and VB platforms by adopting the characteristics of object-oriented and component-based software and with the effective integration and coupling of the growth prediction and decision-making functions.A web-based system (GMDSSCMw) was then further developed on the .net platform using C# language.These GMDSSCM systems have realized dynamic prediction of crop growth and decision making on cultural management,and thus should be helpful for the construction and application of informational and digital fanning system.

  2. Crop yield network and its response to changes in climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    Crop failure (reduction in crop yield) due to extreme weather and climate change could lead to unstable food supply, reflecting the recent globalization in world agricultural production. Specifically, in several major production countries producing large amount of main cereal crops, wheat, maize, soybean and rice, abrupt crop failures in wide area are significantly serious for world food supply system. We examined the simultaneous changes in crop yield in USA, China and Brazil, in terms of the changes in climate system such as El Nino, La nina and so on. In this study, we defined a crop yield networks, which represent the correlation between yearly changes in crop yields and climate resources during the crop growing season in two regions. The climate resources during the crop growing season represents here the average temperature and the accumulated precipitation during the crop growing season of a target crop. As climate data, we used a reanalysis climate data JRA-25 (Japan Meteorological Agency). The yearly changes in crop yields are based on a gridded crop productivity database with a resolution of 1.125 degree in latitude/longitude (Iizumi et al. 2013). It is constructed from the agriculture statistics issued by local administrative bureau in each country, which covers the period during 1982 to 2006 (25 years). For the regions being lack of data, the data was interpolated referring to NPP values estimated by satellite data. Crop yield network is constructed as follows: (1) let DY(i,y) be negative difference in crop yield of year y from the trend yield at grid i; (2) define the correlation of the differences Cij(y) = DY(i, y) DY(j, y); (3) if Cij(y) > Q, then grids i and j are mutually linked for a threshold value Q. Links between grids make a crop yield network. It is here noted that only negative differences are taken into account because we focused on the lean year cases (i.e. yields of both grids were lower than those in the long-term trend). The arrays of

  3. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  4. A brief survey of computerized expert systems for crop protection being used in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Chakraborty; Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years, a plethora of computerized expert systems has been developed for various sectors of agriculture in India. The availability of low-cost computers, agricultural knowledge and information technology professionals are the principal reasons for the development of so many agricultural expert systems. Among all agricultural expert systems, the expert systems for crop protection need special mention. These expert systems are meant to be used by farmers and other persons without much experience of using computers. Hence, special care must be taken while developing them. The current paper develops a taxonomy for the expert systems for crop protection and briefly discusses four such expert systems for crop protection being used in India.

  5. Organic fertilization for soil improvement in a vegetable cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Micheline; De Rocker, Erwin; De Reycke, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Vegetable Research Centre East-Flanders Karreweg 6, 9770 Kruishoutem, Belgium A long term trial for soil improvement by organic fertilization was carried out in Kruishoutem from 2001 till 2010 in a vegetable rotation (carrots - leek - lettuce (2/year) - cauliflower (2/year) - leek - carrots - lettuce (2/year) - cauliflower (2/year) - leek and spinach). The trial compared yearly applications of 30 m²/ha of three types of compost (green compost, vfg-compost and spent mushroom compost) with an untreated object which did not receive any organic fertilization during the trial timescale. The organic fertilization was applied shortly before the cropping season. Looking at the soil quality, effects of organic fertilization manifest rather slow. The first four years after the beginning of the trial, no increase in carbon content of the soil is detectable yet. Although, mineralization of the soil has increased. The effect on the mineralization is mainly visible in crops with a lower N uptake (e.g. carrots) leading to a higher nitrate residue after harvest. Effects on soil structure and compaction occur rather slowly although, during the first two cropping seasons compost applications increase the water retention capacity of the soil. Compost increases the pH of the soil from the first year on till the end of the trial in 2010. Thus, organic fertilization impedes acidification in light sandy soils. Also soil fertility benefits from compost by an increase in K-, Ca- and Mg- content in the soil from the second year on. After 10 years of organic fertilization, yield and quality of spinach were increased significantly (porganic fertilization.

  6. Census parcels cropping system classification from multitemporal remote imagery: a proposed universal methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%.

  7. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integrated in the cropping system as a form of rotation, cassava contributes significantly to maintenance of soil fertility, and thus large scale production of cassava for industrial use can contribute to poverty reduction in an environmentally responsive way. This paper discusses the role of cassava cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability and industrialization.

  8. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU ASTIKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Astiko W, Fauzi MT, Sukartono. 2016. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 66-70. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on maize in sandy soil is expected to have positive implications for the improvement of AMF population and nutrient uptake. However, how many increases in the AMF population and nutrient uptake in the second cycle of a certain cropping system commonly cultivated by the farmers after growing their corn crop have not been examined. Since different cropping systems would indicate different increases in the populations of AMF and nutrient uptake. This study aimed to determine the population AMF and nutrient uptake on the second cropping cycle of corn-based cropping systems which utilized indigenous mycorrhizal fungi on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For that purpose, an experiment was conducted at the Akar-Akar Village in Bayan Sub-district of North Lombok, designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design, with four replications and six treatments of cropping cycles (P0 = corn-soybean as a control, in which the corn plants were not inoculated with AMF; P1 = corn-soybean, P2 = corn-peanut, P3 = corn-upland rice, P4 = corn-sorghum, and P5 = corn-corn, in which the first cycle corn plants were inoculated with AMF. The results indicated that the mycorrhizal populations (spore number and infection percentage were highest in the second cycle sorghum, achieving 335% and 226% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control. Increased uptake of N, P, K and Ca the sorghum plants at 60 DAS of the second cropping cycle reached 200%; 550%; 120% and 490% higher than in the control. The soil used in this experiment is rough-textured (sandy loam, so it is relatively low in water holding capacity and high porosity.

  9. A GPS Backpack System for Mapping Soil and Crop Parameters in Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J. V.; Lebars, J. M.

    Farmers are having to gather increasing amounts of data on their soils and crops. Precision agriculture metre-by-metre is based on a knowledge of the spatial variation of soil and crop parameters across a field. The data has to be spatially located and GPS is an effective way of doing this. A backpack data logging system with GPS position tagging is described which has been designed to aid a fanner in the manual collection of data.

  10. Understanding cropping systems in the semi-arid environments of Zimbabwe: options for soil fertility management

    OpenAIRE

    Ncube, B.

    2007-01-01

    African smallholder farmers face perennial food shortages due to low crop yields. The major cause of poor crop yields is soil fertility decline. The diversity of sites and soils between African farming systems isgreat,therefore strategies to solve soil fertility problems should suit the opportunities and problems encountered in the different climatic regions. This thesis characterizes the semi-arid regions of south-western Zimbabwe and explores some of the strategies that can be used to provi...

  11. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species.

  12. Effects of crop species richness on pest-natural enemy systems based on an experimental model system using a microlandscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, ZiHua; Shi, PeiJian; Men, XingYuan; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between crop richness and predator-prey interactions as they relate to pest-natural enemy systems is a very important topic in ecology and greatly affects biological control services. The effects of crop arrangement on predator-prey interactions have received much attention as the basis for pest population management. To explore the internal mechanisms and factors driving the relationship between crop richness and pest population management, we designed an experimental model system of a microlandscape that included 50 plots and five treatments. Each treatment had 10 repetitions in each year from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that the biomass of pests and their natural enemies increased with increasing crop biomass and decreased with decreasing crop biomass; however, the effects of plant biomass on the pest and natural enemy biomass were not significant. The relationship between adjacent trophic levels was significant (such as pests and their natural enemies or crops and pests), whereas non-adjacent trophic levels (crops and natural enemies) did not significantly interact with each other. The ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass was the highest in the areas of four crop species that had the best biological control service. Having either low or high crop species richness did not enhance the pest population management service and lead to loss of biological control. Although the resource concentration hypothesis was not well supported by our results, high crop species richness could suppress the pest population, indicating that crop species richness could enhance biological control services. These results could be applied in habitat management aimed at biological control, provide the theoretical basis for agricultural landscape design, and also suggest new methods for integrated pest management.

  13. Effect of tillage practices on soil properties and crop productivity in wheat-mungbean-rice cropping system under subtropical climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Khairul; Islam, Md Monirul; Salahin, Nazmus; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0-15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept).

  14. Substrate Cultivation of Chrysanthemum: Plant performance in 6 cropping systems and the effect of parameters associated with root environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Blok, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chrysanthemum is an important greenhouse crop in Holland and is still cultivated in soil. To prevent the emission of nutrients and crop protecting agents, an emission:free cropping system should be developed. This experiment was conducted to that purpose. The objectives of this experiment we

  15. Characteristics of nitrogen balance in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaopu; Luo, Yongxia; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from vegetable cropping systems has become a significant environmental issue in China. In this study, estimation of N balances in both open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China was established. Results showed that the total N input in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in 2010 was 5.44 and 2.60 Tg, respectively. Chemical fertilizer N input in the two cropping systems was 201 kg N ha(-1) per season (open-air) and 478 kg N ha(-1) per season (greenhouse). The N use efficiency (NUE) was 25.9 ± 13.3 and 19.7 ± 9.4% for open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems, respectively, significantly lower than that of maize, wheat, and rice. Approximately 30.6% of total N input was accumulated in soils and 0.8% was lost by ammonia volatilization in greenhouse vegetable system, while N accumulation and ammonia volatilization accounted for 19.1 and 11.1%, respectively, of total N input in open-air vegetable systems.

  16. Effects of contrasting catch crops on nitrogen availability and nitrous oxide emissions in an organic cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, Søren O; Sørensen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    crops. The effect of two catch crop management strategies was also tested: autumn harvest of the catch crop versus incorporation of whole-crop residues by spring ploughing. LBCCs accumulated 59–67 kg N ha−1 in their tops, significantly more than those of the non-LBCC, 32–40 kg N ha−1. Macro...... of catch crops, especially LBCCs, tended to reduce crop yield. The annual N2O emissions were comparable across treatments except for fodder radish, which had the highest N2O emission, and also the highest average yield-scaled N2O emission, at 499 g N2O-N Mg−1 grain. Although the sampling strategy employed...

  17. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact.

  18. General description and operation of the agro-environmental system: Crop management modeling. [Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, E.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Input for a data management system to provide farmers with information to improve crop management practices in Virginia requires monitoring of control crops at field stations, crop surveys derived from remotely sensed aircraft data, meteorological data from synchronous satellites, and details of local agricultural conditions. Presently models are under development for determining pest problems, water balance in the soil, stages of plant maturity, and optimum planting date. The status of the Cerospora leafspot model for peanut crop management is considered. Other models under development planned relate to Cylindtocladium Blackrot and Sclerotinia blight of peanuts, cyst nematode (Globerdena solanacearum) of tobacco, and red crown rot of soybeans. A software for program for estimating precipitation and solar radiation on a statewise basis is also being developed.

  19. Grazing management in an integrated crop-livestock system: soybean development and grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Robinson Kunrath

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrazing livestock in integrated crop-livestock systems can cause impacts in the subsequent crop cycle. Aiming to investigate how grazing could affect soybean, the 9th crop cycle of a pasture/soybean rotation was assessed. Treatments were grazing intensities (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm of sward height applied since 2001 in a mixed of oat and annual ryegrass; and an additional no grazing area as control. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Grazing affected soybean population and the mass of individual nodules (P0.05. Soybean yield showed differences among treatments, but no difference was found between grazed and non-grazed areas. Grazing intensities impact the coverage and frequency of weeds (P>0.05. In conclusion, grazing intensity impacts different parameters of soybean yield and development, but only the grazing intensity of 10 cm can jeopardize the succeeding soybean crop.

  20. Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities. PMID:27695462

  1. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; Dickson, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  2. The Effects of Winter Cover Crops and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on some Soil Fertility Aspects and Crop Yield in an Organic Production System of Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture systems emphasized on the on-farm inputs likes use of biofertilizers, crop rotation and cover crops. This experiment was conducted in a split plots arrangement with two factors based on randomized complete block design with three replications during years 2009-2010, at Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The main factor consisted of cultivation and no cultivation of cover crops in autumn. The sub factor was biofertilizer application with four levels, included 1-Nitroxin® (containing Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillum spp., 2-Biophosphorous® (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 3-Nitroxin® + Biophosphorous® and 4-Control. Results showed that most characteristics, e.g. seed yield and harvest index were increased with no cover crop cultivation. However in control treatment, the biological yield, seed yield and harvest index were more than biofertilizeres treatments, as Nitroxin® and Biophosphorous® ranked after the control. Amongst the biofertilizers, Biophosphorus® had the most positive effects. The maximum grain weight was obtained from Nitroxin®+ Biophosphorous® treatment. The interaction effects of biofertilizer and cover crops were significant among some characteristics. The results showed that the interaction between biofertilizers and no cover crop cultivation was significant, as use of the biofertilizers especially Nitroxin® and Biophosphorous® in no cover crop condition increased the amounts of biological yield and seed yield.

  3. ROLE OF ALLELOPATHY IN THE STIMULATORY AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF HAIRY VETCH COVER CROP RESIDUE IN NO-TILLAGE SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can provide multiple benefits to sustainable cropping systems including building soil organic matter, controlling soil and nutrient losses from fields, moderating radiation and moisture exchange, releasing nutrients for subsequent crops, and suppressing weed and pest populations. Many o...

  4. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  5. Management of herbicide resistance in wheat cropping systems: learning from the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael J; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Herbicide resistance continues to escalate in weed populations infesting global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops, threatening grain production and thereby food supply. Conservation wheat production systems are reliant on the use of efficient herbicides providing low-cost, selective weed control in intensive cropping systems. The resistance-driven loss of herbicide resources combined with limited potential for new herbicide molecules means greater emphasis must be placed on preserving existing herbicides. For more than two decades, since the initial recognition of the dramatic consequences of herbicide resistance, the challenge of introducing additional weed control strategies into herbicide-based weed management programmes has been formidable. Throughout this period, herbicide resistance has expanded unabated across the world's wheat production regions. However, in Australia, where herbicide resources have become desperately depleted, the adoption of harvest weed seed control is evidence, at last, of a successful approach to sustainable weed management in wheat production systems. Growers routinely including strategies to target weed seeds during crop harvest, as part of herbicide-based weed management programmes, are now realising significant weed control and crop production benefits. When combined with an attitude of zero weed tolerance, there is evidence of a sustainable weed control future for wheat production systems. The hard-learned lessons of Australian growers can now be viewed by global wheat producers as an example of how to stop the continual loss of herbicide resources in productive cropping systems.

  6. Designing a new cropping system for high productivity and sustainable water usage under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongfei; Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Lu, Dianjun; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2017-02-01

    The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L.) cropping system that replaced the traditional winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) –summer maize system. The M-M system improved yield by 14–31% compared with the conventionally managed wheat-maize system, and achieved similar yield compared with the incrementally adapted wheat-maize system with the optimized cultivars, planting dates, planting density and water management. More importantly, water usage was lower in the M-M system than in the wheat-maize system, and the rate of water usage was sustainable (net groundwater usage was ≤150 mm yr‑1). Our study indicated that systematic assessment of adaptation and cropping system scale have great potential to address the multiple food supply challenges under changing climatic conditions.

  7. Dynamics of Phenol Degrading-Iron ReducingBacteria{1mm in Intensive Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate theeffects of cropping season, nitrogen fertilizer input and aeratedfallow on the dynamics of phenol degrading-iron reducingbacteria (PD-IRB) in tropical irrigated rice ({ Oryza sativa L.)systems. The PD-IRB population density was monitored at different stagesof rice growth in two cropping seasons (dry and early wet) in acontinuous annual triple rice cropping system under irrigated condition.In this system, the high nitrogen input (195 and 135 kg N ha-1 indry and wet seasons, respectively) plots and control plots receiving noN fertilizer were compared to investigate the effect of nitrogen rate onpopulation size. The phenol degrading-iron reducing bacteria (PD-IRB)were abundant in soils under cropping systems of tropical irrigatedrice. However, density of the bacterial populations varied with ricegrowth stages. Cropping seasons, rhizosphere, and aerated fallow couldaffect the dynamics of PD-IRB. In the field trial, viable counts ofPD-IRB in the topsoil layer (15 cm) ranged between 102 and 108cells per gram of dry soil. A steep increase in viable counts during thesecond half of the cropping season suggested that the population densityof PD-IRB increased at advanced crop-growth stages. Population growth ofPD-IRB was accelerated during the dry season compared to the wet season.In the greenhouse experiment, the adjacent aerated fallow revealed 1-2orders of magnitude higher in most probable number (MPN) of PD-IRB thanthe wet fallow treated plots. As a prominent group of Fe reducingbacteria, PD-IRB predominated in the rhizosphere of rice, since maximumMPN of PD-IRB (2.62108 g-1 soil) was found in rhizospheresoil. Mineral N fertilizer rates showed no significant effect on PD-IRBpopulation density.

  8. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    calculated based on total land area was only 63% of conventional yields. Differences in quality parameters of the harvested crops, i.e. nutrient content, dry matter content or damages by pests or diseases were few and not systematic, whereas clear effects on nutrient balances and nitrogen leaching indicators...... of the organic rotation, both relying on green manures and catch crops grown during the autumn after the main crop as their main source of soil fertility, and the O3 system further leaving rows of the green manures to grow as intercrops between vegetable rows to improve the conditions for biodiversity...

  9. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  10. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  11. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-05-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China.

  12. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  13. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal soil depth without restriction for rice root elongation

  14. Regional modelling of nitrate leaching from Swiss organic and conventional cropping systems under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calitri, Francesca; Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Zaccone, Claudio; Spiess, Ernst; Herrera, Juan; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Organic cropping systems have been promoted as a sustainable alternative to minimize the environmental impacts of conventional practices. Relatively little is known about the potential to reduce NO3-N leaching through the large-scale adoption of organic practices. Moreover, the potential to mitigate NO3-N leaching and thus the N pollution under future climate change through organic farming remain unknown and highly uncertain. Here, we compared regional NO3-N leaching from organic and conventional cropping systems in Switzerland using a terrestrial biogeochemical process-based model DayCent. The objectives of this study are 1) to calibrate and evaluate the model for NO3-N leaching measured under various management practices from three experiments at two sites in Switzerland; 2) to estimate regional NO3-N leaching patterns and their spatial uncertainty in conventional and organic cropping systems (with and without cover crops) for future climate change scenario A1B; 3) to explore the sensitivity of NO3-N leaching to changes in soil and climate variables; and 4) to assess the nitrogen use efficiency for conventional and organic cropping systems with and without cover crops under climate change. The data for model calibration/evaluation were derived from field experiments conducted in Liebefeld (canton Bern) and Eschikon (canton Zürich). These experiments evaluated effects of various cover crops and N fertilizer inputs on NO3-N leaching. The preliminary results suggest that the model was able to explain 50 to 83% of the inter-annual variability in the measured soil drainage (RMSE from 12.32 to 16.89 cm y-1). The annual NO3-N leaching was also simulated satisfactory (RMSE = 3.94 to 6.38 g N m-2 y-1), although the model had difficulty to reproduce the inter-annual variability in the NO3-N leaching losses correctly (R2 = 0.11 to 0.35). Future climate datasets (2010-2099) from the 10 regional climate models (RCM) were used in the simulations. Regional NO3-N leaching

  15. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  16. Fuzzy multi attributive comparison of tillage crop and manure management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the best alternative between cropping system options is often complicated by disparities in research results due to differences between years as a result of seasonal variability. The economic cost of the systems further complicates the determination of best alternative for sustainable c...

  17. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego N. Chavarría

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.

  18. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Crop-Growth Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Yao, Lili; Zhang, Jingchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Tai, Xiuxiang

    2017-03-03

    In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW). By carrying out three-dimensional numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics, spatial distributions were obtained for the UAV down-wash flow fields on the surface of the crop canopy. Based on the flow-field characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a UAV-borne crop-growth sensor was designed. Our field experiments show that the monitoring system has good dynamic stability and measurement accuracy over the range of operating altitudes of the sensor. The linear fitting determination coefficients (R²) for the output RVI value with respect to LNA, LAI, and LDW are 0.63, 0.69, and 0.66, respectively, and the Root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 1.42, 1.02 and 3.09, respectively. The equivalent figures for the output NDVI value are 0.60, 0.65, and 0.62 (LNA, LAI, and LDW, respectively) and the RMSEs are 1.44, 1.01 and 3.01, respectively.

  19. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  20. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarría, D.N.; Verdenelli, R.A.; Muñoz, M.J.; Conforto, C.; Restovich, S.B.; Andriulo, A.E.; Meriles, J.M.; Vargas-Gil, S.

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC) as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation) during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) which weresown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1) and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2), with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield. (Author)

  1. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  2. A Web Based Sweet Orange Crop Expert System using Rule Based System and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.M.S.Prasad Babu,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have a prominent place among popular and exclusively grown tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Their nature ,multifold nutritional and medicinal values have made them so important. Sweet Orange Crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Sweet Orange Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, Programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Sweet Orange Information System and the other is Sweet Orange Crop Expert System where information system, the user can get all the static information about different species, Diseases, Symptoms, chemical controls, Preventions, Pests, Virus of Sweet Orange fruits and plants. In Advisory System , the user is having an interaction with the expert system online; the user has to answer the questions asked by the Expert System. Depends on the response by the user the expert system decides the disease and displays its control measureof disease. This Sweet Orange Crop Information Expert System deals with different varieties of Sweet Crop, Identification of various diseases generally occurs to Sweet Orange crop based on the symptoms.

  3. Crop discrimination in Northern China with double cropping systems using Fourier analysis of time-series MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingwei, Zhang; Qingbo, Zhou; Zhongxin, Chen; Jia, Liu; Yong, Zhou; Chongfa, Cai

    2008-12-01

    Crop identification is the basis of crop monitoring using remote sensing. Remote sensing the extent and distribution of individual crop types has proven useful to a wide range of users, including policy-makers, farmers, and scientists. Northern China is not merely the political, economic, and cultural centre of China, but also an important base for grain production. Its main grains are wheat, maize, and cotton. By employing the Fourier analysis method, we studied crop planting patterns in the Northern China plain. Then, using time-series EOS-MODIS NDVI data, we extracted the key parameters to discriminate crop types. The results showed that the estimated area and the statistics were correlated well at the county-level. Furthermore, there was little difference between the crop area estimated by the MODIS data and the statistics at province-level. Our study shows that the method we designed is promising for use in regional spatial scale crop mapping in Northern China using the MODIS NDVI time-series.

  4. Multiple criteria analysis of remotely piloted aircraft systems for monitoring the crops vegetation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, L.; Luculescu, M. C.; Zamfira, S. C.; Boer, A. L.; Pop, S.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) used for monitoring the crops vegetation status. The study focuses on two types of RPAS, namely the flying wing and the multi-copter. The following criteria were taken into account: technical characteristics, power consumption, flight autonomy, flight conditions, costs, data acquisition systems used for monitoring, crops area and so on. Based on this analysis, advantages and disadvantages are emphasized offering a useful tool for choosing the proper solution according to the specific application conditions.

  5. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  6. TropGENE-DB, a multi-tropical crop information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Raboin, Louis Marie; Lartaud, Marc; Lagoda, Pierre; Courtois, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    TropGENE-DB, is a crop information system created to store genetic, molecular and phenotypic data of the numerous yet poorly documented tropical crop species. The most common data stored in TropGENE-DB are information on genetic resources (agro-morphological data, parentages, allelic diversity), molecular markers, genetic maps, results of quantitative trait loci analyses, data from physical mapping, sequences, genes, as well as the corresponding references. TropGENE-DB is organized on a crop basis with currently three running modules (sugarcane, cocoa and banana), with plans to create additional modules for rice, cotton, oil palm, coconut, rubber tree, pineapple, taro, yam and sorghum. The TropGENE-DB information system is accessible for consultation via the internet at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. Specific web consultation interfaces have been designed to allow quick consultations as well as complex queries.

  7. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. as cash-cover crop in an organic vegetable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna LENZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest. 

  8. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  9. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  10. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information system and modeling for estimating crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Luis Alonso

    This thesis explores various aspects of the use of remote sensing, geographic information system and digital signal processing technologies for broad-scale estimation of crop yield in Kansas. Recent dry and drought years in the Great Plains have emphasized the need for new sources of timely, objective and quantitative information on crop conditions. Crop growth monitoring and yield estimation can provide important information for government agencies, commodity traders and producers in planning harvest, storage, transportation and marketing activities. The sooner this information is available the lower the economic risk translating into greater efficiency and increased return on investments. Weather data is normally used when crop yield is forecasted. Such information, to provide adequate detail for effective predictions, is typically feasible only on small research sites due to expensive and time-consuming collections. In order for crop assessment systems to be economical, more efficient methods for data collection and analysis are necessary. The purpose of this research is to use satellite data which provides 50 times more spatial information about the environment than the weather station network in a short amount of time at a relatively low cost. Specifically, we are going to use Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based vegetation health (VH) indices as proxies for characterization of weather conditions.

  11. Food Yields and Nutrient Analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mt.Pleasant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have studied The Three Sisters, a traditional cropping system of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, from multiple perspectives. However, there is no research examining food yields, defined as the quantities of energy and protein produced per unit land area, from the cropping system within Iroquoia. This article compares food yields and other nutrient contributions from the Three Sisters, comprised of interplanted maize, bean and pumpkin, with monocultures of these same crops. The Three Sisters yields more energy (12.25 x 106 kcal/ha and more protein (349 kg/ha than any of the crop monocultures or mixtures of monocultures planted to the same area. The Three Sisters supplies 13.42 people/ha/yr. with energy and 15.86 people/ha/yr. with protein. Nutrient contents of the crops are further enhanced by nixtamalization, a traditional processing technique where maize is cooked in a high alkaline solution. This process increases calcium, protein quality, and niacin in maize.

  12. The Development of a Remote Sensor System and Decision Support Systems Architecture to Monitor Resistance Development in Transgenic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacas, Joseph; Glaser, John; Copenhaver, Kenneth; May, George; Stephens, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that "significant benefits accrue to growers, the public, and the environment" from the use of transgenic pesticidal crops due to reductions in pesticide usage for crop pest management. Large increases in the global use of transgenic pesticidal crops has reduced the amounts of broad spectrum pesticides used to manage pest populations, improved yield and reduced the environmental impact of crop management. A significant threat to the continued use of this technology is the evolution of resistance in insect pest populations to the insecticidal Bt toxins expressed by the plants. Management of transgenic pesticidal crops with an emphasis on conservation of Bt toxicity in field populations of insect pests is important to the future of sustainable agriculture. A vital component of this transgenic pesticidal crop management is establishing the proof of concept basic understanding, situational awareness, and monitoring and decision support system tools for more than 133650 square kilometers (33 million acres) of bio-engineered corn and cotton for development of insect resistance . Early and recent joint NASA, US EPA and ITD remote imagery flights and ground based field experiments have provided very promising research results that will potentially address future requirements for crop management capabilities.

  13. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  14. Systems biology-based approaches toward understanding drought tolerance in food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramsandra; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-03-01

    Economically important crops, such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and other food crops are affected by even small changes in water potential at important growth stages. Developing a comprehensive understanding of host response to drought requires a global view of the complex mechanisms involved. Research on drought tolerance has generally been conducted using discipline-specific approaches. However, plant stress response is complex and interlinked to a point where discipline-specific approaches do not give a complete global analysis of all the interlinked mechanisms. Systems biology perspective is needed to understand genome-scale networks required for building long-lasting drought resistance. Network maps have been constructed by integrating multiple functional genomics data with both model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula, and various food crops, such as rice and soybean. Useful functional genomics data have been obtained from genome-wide comparative transcriptome and proteome analyses of drought responses from different crops. This integrative approach used by many groups has led to identification of commonly regulated signaling pathways and genes following exposure to drought. Combination of functional genomics and systems biology is very useful for comparative analysis of other food crops and has the ability to develop stable food systems worldwide. In addition, studying desiccation tolerance in resurrection plants will unravel how combination of molecular genetic and metabolic processes interacts to produce a resurrection phenotype. Systems biology-based approaches have helped in understanding how these individual factors and mechanisms (biochemical, molecular, and metabolic) "interact" spatially and temporally. Signaling network maps of such interactions are needed that can be used to design better engineering strategies for improving drought tolerance of important crop species.

  15. Long-term effects of cropping system on N2O emission potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Ambus, Per; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    systems, it showed higher N2O evolution at all three matric potentials. Estimates of relative gas diffusivity (DP/D0) in soil from the four cropping systems indicated that C input affected soil aeration. Soil from the two cropping systems with highest C input showed N2O evolution at DP/D0 in excess of 0...

  16. Soil physical properties and grape yield influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in vineyards is a conservation practice with the purpose of reducing soil erosion and improving the soil physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate cover crop species and management systems on soil physical properties and grape yield. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil, on a Haplic Cambisol, in a vineyard established in 1989, using White and Rose Niagara grape (Vitis labrusca L. in a horizontal, overhead trellis system. The treatments were established in 2002, consisting of three cover crops: spontaneous species (SS, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and annual rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. (MC. Two management systems were applied: desiccation with herbicide (D and mechanical mowing (M. Soil under a native forest (NF area was collected as a reference. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with three replications. The soil physical properties in the vine rows were not influenced by cover crops and were similar to the native forest, with good quality of the soil structure. In the inter-rows, however, there was a reduction in biopores, macroporosity, total porosity and an increase in soil density, related to the compaction of the surface soil layer. The M system increased soil aggregate stability compared to the D system. The treatments affected grapevine yield only in years with excess or irregular rainfall.

  17. The "Grignon Model"; Qualitative Assessment of Maize Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohanec, M.; Messéan, A.; Scatasta, S.;

    An important goal of the SIGMEA project is to develop computer-based decision support systems (DSS) for the assessment of the......An important goal of the SIGMEA project is to develop computer-based decision support systems (DSS) for the assessment of the...

  18. Beijing Alley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiXiaoke

    2004-01-01

    There are many distinguished artists with work in residence at Beijing's Creation Gallery, but there is one worthy of particular mention - gallery founder Li Xiaoke. Through his work, Li successfully unites elements of western art with traditional Chinese ideas and art theories. His favorite places of inspiration are old Beijing, Tibet, and southern China.

  19. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Desjardins, Raymond L., E-mail: ray.desjardins@agr.gc.ca [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Worth, Devon E. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Zentner, Robert [Swift Current Research Station, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada); Malhi, Sukhdev S. [Melfort Research Farm, PO Box 1240, Melfort, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} decreased on average the emissions of N{sub 2}O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO{sub 2} emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N{sub 2}O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact.

  20. Comparison of Two Chamber Methods for Measuring Soil Trace-gas Fluxes in Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, B. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from soils are often measured using trace-gas flux chamber techniques without a standardized protocol, raising concerns about measurement accuracy and consistency. To address this, we compared measurements from non-steady-state non-through-flow (NTF) chambers with a non-steady-state through-flow (TF) chamber system in three bioenergy cropping systems located in Wisconsin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of NTF flux calculation method and deployment time on flux measurements. In all cropping systems, when NTF chambers were deployed for 60 min and a linear (LR) flux calculation was used, soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were, on average, 18% and 12% lower, respectively, than fluxes measured with a 15 min deployment. Fluxes calculated with the HMR method, a hybrid of non-linear and linear approaches, showed no deployment time effects for CO2 and N2O and produced 27-32% higher CO2 fluxes and 28-33% higher N2O fluxes in all crops than the LR approach with 60 min deployment. Across all crops, CO2 fluxes measured with the TF chamber system were higher by 24.4 to 84.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, than fluxes measured with NTF chambers using either flux calculation method. These results suggest NTF chamber deployment time should be shortened if the LR approach is used though detection limits should be considered, and the HMR approach may be more appropriate when long deployment times are necessary. Significant differences in absolute flux values with different chamber types highlight the need for significant effort in determining the accuracy of methods or alternative flux measurement technologies. N2O fluxes with chamber deployment time for (a) all crops (switchgrass, corn, hybrid poplar) using both linear (LR) and HMR flux calculation methods, (b) each crop individually using LR approach, and (c) each crop individually using HMR approach. Given are seasonal (May-August) means + standard error. Letters indicate significant differences among deployment times

  1. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Jennifer Pc; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N; Elich, Tedd

    2010-09-08

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration.

  2. Exploring profit - Sustainability trade-offs in cropping systems using evolutionary algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVoil, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Hammer, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Models that implement the bio-physical components of agro-ecosystems are ideally suited for exploring sustainability issues in cropping systems. Sustainability may be represented as a number of objectives to be maximised or minimised. However, the full decision space of these objectives is usually v

  3. Soil N mineralization in a dairy production system with grass and forage crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.; Hilhorst, G.J.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil N mineralization in the experimental intensive dairy farming system ‘De Marke’ on a dry sandy soil in the Netherlands. We hypothesized that knowledge of the effects of crop rotation on soil N mineralization and of the spatial and temporal variability of soil

  4. An analysis of an ethanol-based, whole-crop refinery system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Zhang; Shanying Hu; Dingjiang Chen; Bing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Bio-fuel can be used to help transition from a petroleum-based society to a bio-based society. Ever since the China Development and Reform Commission suspended the approval of crop processing programs, second-generation bio-ethanol research and industrialization processes have attracted significant attention. In 2020, bio-ethanol production is predicted to reach 10 million tons. Currently, there are a few domestic enterprises that have established different scaled pilot or demonstration bases for cellulosic ethanol, which reduce the cost of ethanol by continuously improving pretreatment and hydrolysis techniques. In the next three years, these enterprises will realize large-scale commercial production. Given the practical problems in cellulosic ethanol plant construc-tion and operation (e.g., marketing price variation and difficulties in feedstock col ection), this paper began with the concept of a“whole-crop refinery”and presented a solution to the integration of industry and agriculture as well as multi-crop refining. This paper then took the whole-crop refining system of corn as an example and pre-sented an analysis of the logistics, energy flow, and economical efficiency of the system. The results demonstrated that the integrated system could properly reduce the required fixed investments in production equipment, shared utilities, and wastewater treatment facilities, as wel as reduction of energy consumption. Although the proposed system has several problems, it brings the long-term goal of large-scale commercial application closer than ever.

  5. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  6. Improving resource use efficiency in rice-based cropping systems: experimentation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Key words:        Nitrogen; Yield; Rice; Wheat; Environment; Simulation; Soil; Organic matter; Water; Denitrification   To cope with the projected increase in food demand and increased environmental concerns, rice-based cropping systems combining high resource use efficiencies and high yields will b

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.K.; Su, F.; Ju, X.T.; Gao, B.; Oenema, O.; Christie, P.; Huang, B.X.; Jiang, R.F.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment, rec

  8. Sustainable agriculture for a dynamic world: Forage-Crop-Livestock systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands Research Laboratory is focused on development and delivery of improved technologies, strategies, and planning tools for integrated crop-forage-livestock systems under variable climate, energy, and market conditions. The GRL research p...

  9. Surface N Balances in Agricultural Crop production systems in China for the period 1980-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, B.; Shen, R.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface nitrogen (N) balances for China's crop production systems were estimated using statistical data collected from 1980 to 2004 at the national and provincial scale and from 1994 to 1999 at the county level. There was a surplus N balance throughout these periods, but the surplus was nearly stabl

  10. Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

  11. Soil quality index as affected by different cropping systems in northwestern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, J A; Bhat, A G; Kirmai, N A; Wani, J A; Lone, Aabid H; Ganie, Mumtaz A; Dar, G I H

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson's interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health.

  12. Broccoli Cultivar Performance under Organic and Conventional Management Systems and Implications for Crop Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Juvik, J.A.; Hutton, M.G.; Myers, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if present commercial broccoli cultivars meet the diverse needs of organic management systems, such as adaptation to low N input, mechanical weed management, and no chemical pesticide use, and to propose the selection environments for crop improvement for organic production, we compared

  13. Radio/antenna mounting system for wireless networking under row-crop agriculture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-colle...

  14. Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems. An agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, J.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow t

  15. Root system architecture: opportunities and constraints for genetic improvement of crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dorlodot, Sophie; Forster, Brian; Pagès, Loïc; Price, Adam; Tuberosa, Roberto; Draye, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    Abiotic stresses increasingly curtail crop yield as a result of global climate change and scarcity of water and nutrients. One way to minimize the negative impact of these factors on yield is to manipulate root system architecture (RSA) towards a distribution of roots in the soil that optimizes water and nutrient uptake. It is now established that most of the genetic variation for RSA is driven by a suite of quantitative trait loci. As we discuss here, marker-assisted selection and quantitative trait loci cloning for RSA are underway, exploiting genomic resources, candidate genes and the knowledge gained from Arabidopsis, rice and other crops. Nonetheless, efficient and accurate phenotyping, modelling and collaboration with breeders remain important challenges, particularly when defining ideal RSA for different crops and target environments.

  16. Much Improved Irrigation Use Efficiency in an Intensive Wheat-Maize Double Cropping System in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in a wheat-maize double cropping system are influenced by short and uneven rainfalls in the North China Plain (NCP). A 2-year experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation on soil water balance, crop yield and WUE to improve irrigation use efficiency in the cropping system. Soil water depletion (△SWS)by crop generally decreased with the increase of irrigation and rainfall, while △SWS for the whole rotation was relatively stable among these irrigation treatments. High irrigations in wheat season increased initial soil moisture and △SWS for subsequent maize especially in the drought season. Initial soil water influenced mainly by the irrigation and rainfall in the previous crop season, is essential to high yield in such cropping systems. Grain yield decreased prior to evapotranspiration(ET) when ET reached about 300 mm for wheat, while maize showed various WUEs with similar seasonal ET. For whole rotation, WUE declined when ET exceeded about 650 mm. These results indicate great potential for improving irrigation use efficiency in such wheat-maize cropping system in the NCP. Based on the present results, reasonable irrigation schedules according to different annual rainfall conditions are presented for such a cropping system.

  17. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  18. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional cereal-based cropping systems under different management, soil and climate factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Báez, D;

    2015-01-01

    -based cropping systems. Forage maize was grown in a conventional dairy system at Mabegondo (NW Spain) and wheat and barley in organic and conventional crop rotations at Foulum (NW Denmark). These two European sites represent agricultural areas with high and low to moderate emission levels, respectively. Field...

  19. Soil microbial substrate properties and microbial community responses under irrigated organic and reduced-tillage crop and forage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B; Stahl, Peter D; Norton, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil

  20. Integrated weed management systems with herbicide-tolerant crops in the European Union: lessons learnt from home and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Devos, Yann; Beckie, Hugh J; Owen, Micheal D K; Tillie, Pascal; Messéan, Antoine; Kudsk, Per

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally bred (CHT) and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have changed weed management practices and made an important contribution to the global production of some commodity crops. However, a concern is that farm management practices associated with the cultivation of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops further deplete farmland biodiversity and accelerate the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Diversification in crop systems and weed management practices can enhance farmland biodiversity, and reduce the risk of weeds evolving herbicide resistance. Therefore, HT crops are most effective and sustainable as a component of an integrated weed management (IWM) system. IWM advocates the use of multiple effective strategies or tactics to manage weed populations in a manner that is economically and environmentally sound. In practice, however, the potential benefits of IWM with HT crops are seldom realized because a wide range of technical and socio-economic factors hamper the transition to IWM. Here, we discuss the major factors that limit the integration of HT crops and their associated farm management practices in IWM systems. Based on the experience gained in countries where CHT or GMHT crops are widely grown and the increased familiarity with their management, we propose five actions to facilitate the integration of HT crops in IWM systems within the European Union.

  1. Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCHINI, J. C.; Crispino, C.C.; de Souza, R. A.; Torres, E; HUNGRIA, M.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record This article attempts to recognize soil parameters that can be used to monitor soil quality under different crop and soil management systems. The rates of CO2 emissions (soil respiration) were affected by variations in the sampling period, as well as in soil management and crop rotation. Considering all samples, CO2 emissions were 21% greater in conventional tillage. Soil microbial biomass was also influenced by sampling period and soil management, but not by crop rota...

  2. Establishment of a system based on universal multiplex-PCR for screening genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-03-01

    The rapid development of many genetically modified (GM) crops in the past two decades makes it necessary to introduce an alternative strategy for routine screening and identification. In this study, we established a universal multiplex PCR detection system which will effectively reduce the number of reactions needed for sample identification. The PCR targets of this system include the six most frequently used transgenic elements: cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) terminator, the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene, the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 epsps) gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4, and the phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene. According to the AGBIOS database, the coverage of this detection system is 93% of commercial GM crops. This detection system could detect all certified reference materials (CRMs) at the 1.0% level. The correct combination of all the CRM amplicon patterns proved the specificity of this multiplex PCR system. Furthermore, the amplicon patterns of this multiplex PCR detection system could be used as an index of classification which will narrow the range of possible GM products. The simulation result of this multiplex PCR detection system on all commercialized 139 GM products in the AGBIOS database showed that the maximum number of PCR reactions needed to identify an unknown sample can be reduced to 13. In this study, we established a high-throughput multiplex PCR detection system with feasible sensitivity, specificity, and cost. By incorporating this detection system, the routine GM crop-detection process will meet the challenges resulting from a rapid increase in the number of GM crops in the future.

  3. Decomposition, contribution and soil organic matter balances of crop residues and vermicompost in maize-based cropping systems in southwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soil fertility depletion is one of the main concerns of the farmers in the Costa Chica, Mexico. The current crop management exacerbates nutrient cycling unbalances and threatens the sustainability of the common maize production systems. It is necessary to supply the soil with organic sources. Field

  4. Regional application of a cropping systems simulation model: crop residue retention in maize production systems of Jalisco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.D.; White, J.W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bakker, E.J.; Rabbinge, R.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure the productivity of smallholder maize production systems in Central America, increased attention must be paid to conserving soil and water resources. Various stakeholders from national agricultural research services (NARS), networks, non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and research inst

  5. Distribution of atrazine in a crop-soil-groundwater system at Baiyangdian Lake area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the concentration distribution and environmentalfate of atrazine in a crop-soil-groundwater system at Baiyangdian Lake area of North China were studied. The concentration of the herbicide in spatial and vertical soils, and in roots, stem, leaf, corncob and kernel of corn, and in groundwater were measured by HPLC. The results showed that the variation of spatial concentration of atrazine in soil can be described by first-order kinetics equation which has a half-life of 360 days and a rate constant of 0.0019d-1. The vertical variation of atrazine concentration with soil depth follows the exponential decay law. After 120 days following atrazine application, the mass distributions of this herbicide in crop-soil-groundwater system are 71% in soil, 20% in groundwater and 1% in crop respectively, and 8% due to loss by degradation or often removal processes. The order of atrazine concentration in every part of corn crop is in roots>in corncob>in kernel of corn>in leaf.

  6. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  7. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  8. Experiences and Research Perspectives on Sustainable Development of Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems in the Chengdu Plain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jia-guo; CHI Zhong-zhi; JIANG Xin-lu; TANG Yong-lu; ZHANG Hong

    2010-01-01

    The rice and wheat cropping pattern is one of the main cropping systems in the world.A large number of research results showed that successive cropping of rice and wheat resulted in a series of problems such as hindering nutrition absorption,gradual degeneration of soil fertility,decline of soil organic matter,and increased incidence of diseases and pests.In China,especially in the Chengdu plain where rice-wheat cropping system is practiced,productivity and soil fertility was enhanced and sustained.This paper reviews the relevant data and experiences on rice-wheat cropping in the Chengdu Plain from 1977 to 2006.The principal sustainable strategies used for rice-wheat cropping systems in Chengdu Plain included: 1)creating a favorable environment and viable rotations; 2)balanced fertilization for maintenance of sustainable soil productivity; 3)improvement of crop management for higher efficiency; and 4)use the newest cultivars and cultivation techniques to upgrade the production level.Future research is also discussed in the paper as: 1)the constant topic: a highly productive and efficient rice-wheat cropping system for sustainable growth; 2)the future trend: simplified cultivation techniques for the rice-wheat cropping system; 3)the foundation: basic research for continuous innovation needed for intensive cropping.It is concluded that in the rice-wheat cropping system,a scientific and reasonable tillage/cultivation method can not only avoid the degradation of soil productivity,but also maintain sustainable growth in the long run.

  9. Response of soil nutrients to different cropping systems in the oasis of arid land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wenqiang; LUO Geping; CHEN Xi

    2006-01-01

    In the process of transformation of tropic rain forest and semi-arid grassland to farmland, the soil degradation usually occurs. But the transformation of arid desert to oasis is likely to differ from that of tropic rain forest and semi-arid grassland. Taking an alluvial plain oasis as a study case, the oasis soil properties during the process of the transformation of different cropping systems have been investigated and evaluated. Selected cropping systems consist of saline tolerance crop (STC), food crop (FC), melon and vegetables (MV), Economic plants-cotton (EP-C),economic plants-grape (EP-G), Economic plants-Hop (EP-H). Surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in 1982, 1999 and 2003. Soil, organic matter (OM), and available N (AN), available P (AP) and available K (AK) were determined for each soil sample. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the soil property data. The transformation of cropping systems in the Sangong River watershed was affected directly by the policy, law and market. The soil OM contents experienced a decline during 1982-1999, then a rise during 1999-2003. AN, AP and AK contents increased significantly with cultivated time.Soil OM tends to decrease during the conversion from STC and FC to cotton but increase during the conversion from the cotton to the grape. The soil OM was increased gradually with the cultivation time, so the oasis soil presented carbon sink, which indicates that human activities was reasonable and favorable for improvement of the oasis-ecosystem.

  10. Cloud Cover Assessment for Operational Crop Monitoring Systems in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaque Daniel Rocha Eberhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of optical remote sensing data to identify, map and monitor croplands is well recognized. However, clouds strongly limit the usefulness of optical imagery for these applications. This paper aims at assessing cloud cover conditions over four states in the tropical and sub-tropical Center-South region of Brazil to guide the development of an appropriate agricultural monitoring system based on Landsat-like imagery. Cloudiness was assessed during overlapping four months periods to match the typical length of crop cycles in the study area. The percentage of clear sky occurrence was computed from the 1 km resolution MODIS Cloud Mask product (MOD35 considering 14 years of data between July 2000 and June 2014. Results showed high seasonality of cloud occurrence within the crop year with strong variations across the study area. The maximum seasonality was observed for the two states in the northern part of the study area (i.e., the ones closer to the Equator line, which also presented the lowest averaged values (15% of clear sky occurrence during the main (summer cropping period (November to February. In these locations, optical data faces severe constraints for mapping summer crops. On the other hand, relatively favorable conditions were found in the southern part of the study region. In the South, clear sky values of around 45% were found and no significant clear sky seasonality was observed. Results underpin the challenges to implement an operational crop monitoring system based solely on optical remote sensing imagery in tropical and sub-tropical regions, in particular if short-cycle crops have to be monitored during the cloudy summer months. To cope with cloudiness issues, we recommend the use of new systems with higher repetition rates such as Sentinel-2. For local studies, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs might be used to augment the observing capability. Multi-sensor approaches combining optical and microwave data can be another

  11. The development of a computerized crop-specific drought monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourens, U.W.; Jager, J.M. de [Univ. of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Agrometeorology

    1995-12-31

    A near real-time crop-specific drought monitoring system (DMS) that combines crop modeling and a Geographical Information System (GIS) has been developed in South Africa. The system is intended for use in decision support by resource managers concerned with drought aid. The condition of maize, wheat and rangeland can presently be monitored in the DMS. The system is a spatially distributed system with individual simulations being run for areas covering approximately 14 km{sup 2}. Values of the weather elements used to drive the models are obtained through interpolation of ground observations and processing of weather satellite imagery. Monitoring is undertaken throughout a production season, with updates provided on a fortnightly basis. Predictions of expected yield at the end of the season are made by using observed data up to the current date and completing the season with surrogate historical weather data. Appropriate surrogate scenarios are chosen based on the current season. After each monitoring run, simulated yield predictions for the season are compared with expected long-term yields of the crop produced in a particular region. A drought index class is assigned based on this comparison. Maps and tabulated information are produced in the GIS showing the spatial distribution of drought stricken areas and the intensity of drought in these areas. The maps and tables are distributed to government institutions and agricultural cooperatives.

  12. Scope for improved eco-efficiency varies among diverse cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Peter S; Liang, Wei-li; Twomlow, Stephen; Holzworth, Dean P; Dimes, John P; McClelland, Tim; Huth, Neil I; Chen, Fu; Hochman, Zvi; Keating, Brian A

    2013-05-21

    Global food security requires eco-efficient agriculture to produce the required food and fiber products concomitant with ecologically efficient use of resources. This eco-efficiency concept is used to diagnose the state of agricultural production in China (irrigated wheat-maize double-cropping systems), Zimbabwe (rainfed maize systems), and Australia (rainfed wheat systems). More than 3,000 surveyed crop yields in these three countries were compared against simulated grain yields at farmer-specified levels of nitrogen (N) input. Many Australian commercial wheat farmers are both close to existing production frontiers and gain little prospective return from increasing their N input. Significant losses of N from their systems, either as nitrous oxide emissions or as nitrate leached from the soil profile, are infrequent and at low intensities relative to their level of grain production. These Australian farmers operate close to eco-efficient frontiers in regard to N, and so innovations in technologies and practices are essential to increasing their production without added economic or environmental risks. In contrast, many Chinese farmers can reduce N input without sacrificing production through more efficient use of their fertilizer input. In fact, there are real prospects for the double-cropping systems on the North China Plain to achieve both production increases and reduced environmental risks. Zimbabwean farmers have the opportunity for significant production increases by both improving their technical efficiency and increasing their level of input; however, doing so will require improved management expertise and greater access to institutional support for addressing the higher risks. This paper shows that pathways for achieving improved eco-efficiency will differ among diverse cropping systems.

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions in cover crop-based corn production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian Wesley

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas; the majority of N2O emissions are the result of agricultural management, particularly the application of N fertilizers to soils. The relationship of N2O emissions to varying sources of N (manures, mineral fertilizers, and cover crops) has not been well-evaluated. Here we discussed a novel methodology for estimating precipitation-induced pulses of N2O using flux measurements; results indicated that short-term intensive time-series sampling methods can adequately describe the magnitude of these pulses. We also evaluated the annual N2O emissions from corn-cover crop (Zea mays; cereal rye [Secale cereale], hairy vetch [Vicia villosa ], or biculture) production systems when fertilized with multiple rates of subsurface banded poultry litter, as compared with tillage incorporation or mineral fertilizer. N2O emissions increased exponentially with total N rate; tillage decreased emissions following cover crops with legume components, while the effect of mineral fertilizer was mixed across cover crops.

  14. The beginnings of crop phosphoproteomics: exploring early warning systems of stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eRampitsch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines why a knowledge of plant protein phosphorylation events is important in devising strategies to protect crops from both biotic and abiotic stresses, and why proteomics should be included when studying stress pathways. Most of the achievements in elucidating phospho-signalling pathways in biotic and abiotic stress are reported from model systems: while these are discussed, this review attempts mainly to focus on work done with crops, with examples of achievements reported from rice, maize, wheat, grape, Brassica, tomato and soy bean after cold acclimation, hormonal and oxidative H2O2 treatment, salt stress, mechanical wounding or pathogen challenge. The challenges that remain to transfer this information into a format that can be used to protect crops against biotic and abiotic stresses are enormous. The tremendous increase in the speed and ease of DNA sequencing is poised to reveal the whole genomes of many crop species in the near future, which will facilitate phosphoproteomics and phosphogenomics research.

  15. Effect of cropping systems in no-till farming on the quality of a Brazilian Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio de Freitas Seben Junior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The no-till system with complex cropping sequences may improve the structural quality and carbon (C sequestration in soils of the tropics. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cropping sequences after eight years under the no-till system on the physical properties and C sequestration in an Oxisol in the municipality of Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A randomized split-block design with three replications was used. The treatments were combinations of three summer cropping sequences - corn/corn (Zea mays L. (CC, soybean/soybean (Glycine max L. Merryll (SS, and soybean-corn (SC; and seven winter crops - corn, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L., pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Soil samples were taken at the 0-10 cm depth after eight years of experimentation. Soil under SC and CC had higher mean weight diameter (3.63 and 3.55 mm, respectively and geometric mean diameter (3.55 and 2.92 mm of the aggregates compared to soil under SS (3.18 and 2.46 mm. The CC resulted in the highest soil organic C content (17.07 g kg-1, soil C stock (15.70 Mg ha-1, and rate of C sequestration (0.70 Mg ha-1 yr-1 among the summer crops. Among the winter crops, soil under pigeon pea had the highest total porosity (0.50 m³ m-3, and that under sunn hemp had the highest water stable aggregates (93.74 %. In addition, sunn hemp did not differ from grain sorghum and contained the highest soil organic C content (16.82 g kg-1 and also had the highest rate of C sequestration (0.67 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The soil resistance to penetration was the lower limit of the least limiting water range, while the upper limit was air-filled porosity for soil bulk densities higher than 1.39 kg dm-3 for all cropping sequences. Within the SC sequence, soil under corn and pigeon pea increased least limiting water

  16. Carbon sequestration in maize and grass dominant cropping systems in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vreken, Philippe; Gobin, Anne; Merckx, Roel

    2014-05-01

    Sources of soil organic matter (SOM) input to the soil in agro-ecosystems are typically crop residues. The question arises how removing crop residues from a field influences soil carbon sequestration. We investigated four long-term maize and grass dominant cropping systems each with a different residue management. Under silage maize (SM) all stover is removed from the field and only a stubble remains, whereas under grain maize (GM) only the grains are harvested and all stover is returned to the soil. Fields with a history of at least 15 consecutive years of either SM (with or without a second annual crop of Italian ryegrass) or GM, and fields under permanent grass were selected from a geodatabase that covers 15 years of crop rotation for all of the ca. 500,000 agricultural fields in Flanders. For each cropping system 10 fields were sampled (40 in total) following the area-frame randomized soil sampling (AFRSS) protocol (Stolbovoy et al., 2007). For 6 out of 10 fields only the topsoil was sampled (0-30 cm), whereas for the 4 other fields both topsoil and subsoil (30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) were sampled. The total soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content and the stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) were determined for each soil sample. From each field 1 topsoil sample was fractionated by the Zimmermann fractionation procedure (Zimmermann et al., 2007) which distinguishes between 5 different SOC fractions (POM, DOC, silt and clay associated SOC, chemically resistant SOC, SOC associated with sand fraction). Besides analysis of the SOC and nitrogen content of each fraction, the origin of the carbon was determined through isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Although there was no significant difference between SM and GM regarding the total SOC stock for the upper 30 cm (ca. 75 à 80 Mg C.ha-1), fields under continuous GM contained in the 0-30 cm layer 60% more maize-derived C4-SOC as compared to fields under continuous SM (ca. 14 and 9 Mg C.ha-1 respectively). Significant

  17. Surface runoff from manured cropping systems assessed by the paired-watershed method, part 1: P, N, and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of P, N, and sediment via runoff from crop fields can contribute to degradation of surface waters. We established a paired-watershed study in central Wisconsin to evaluate surface runoff losses of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens from different manure/crop/tillage management systems for ...

  18. A novel integrated cropping system for efficient grain production, improved soil quality, and enhanced beneficial arthropod communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity by using broad strips (corridors or skip rows) that promote highly efficient use of solar radiation and ambient carbon dioxide by C-4 plants including corn. Field trials in 2013 and 2014 showed that yields of selected c...

  19. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolain, N.M.; Charles, R.; Wirth, J.; Schwarz, J.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bonin, L.; Jensen, P.K.; Kudsk, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduc

  20. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  1. DYNAMIC MODEL OF CROP GROWTH SYSTEM AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CROP GROWTH PROCESS UNDER THE MULTI-ENVIRONMENT EXTERNAL FORCE ACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自珍; 王万雄; 徐彩琳

    2003-01-01

    According to the biomechanic theory and method, the dynamic mechanism of crop growth under the external force action of multi-environment factors (light, temperature, soil and nutrients etc.) was comprehensively explored. Continuous-time Markov (CTM) approach was adopted to build the dynamic model of the crop growth system and the simulated numerical method. The growth rate responses to the variation of the external force and the change of biomass saturation value were studied. The crop grew in the semiarid area was taken as an example to carry out the numerical simulation analysis, therefore the results provide the quantity basis for the field management. Comparing the dynamic model with the other plant growth model, the superiority of the former is that it displays multi-dimension of resource utilization by means of combining macroscopic with microcosmic and reveals the process of resource transition. The simulation method of crop growth system is advanced and manipulated. A real simulation result is well identical with field observational results.

  2. Farming system design for innovative crop-livestock integration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraine, M; Duru, M; Nicholas, P; Leterme, P; Therond, O

    2014-08-01

    The development of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) is a major challenge for the ecological modernisation of agriculture but appears difficult to implement at a large scale. A participatory method for ICLS design has been developed and implemented in 15 case studies across Europe, representing a range of production systems, challenges, constraints and resources for innovation. Local stakeholders, primarily farmers, but also cooperatives, environmental-association representatives and natural-resource managers, were involved in the identification of challenges and existing initiatives of crop-livestock integration; in the design of new options at field, farm and territory levels; and then in qualitative multicriteria assessment of these options. A conceptual framework based on a conceptual model (crops, grasslands, animals) was developed to act as a boundary object in the design step and invite innovative thinking in 'metabolic' and 'ecosystemic' approaches. A diversity of crops and grasslands interacting with animals appeared central for designing sustainable farming systems at the territory level, providing and benefitting from ecosystem services. Within this diversity, we define three types of integrated systems according to their degrees of spatial and temporal coordination: complementarity, local synergy, territorial synergy. Moreover, the options for cooperation and collective organisation between farmers and other stakeholders in territories to organise and manage this diversity of land use revealed opportunities for smart social innovation. The qualitative multicriteria assessment identified farmer workload as the main issue of concern while demonstrating expected benefits of ICLS simultaneously for economic, agronomic, environmental and social criteria. This study concludes that participatory design of ICLS based on a generic multi-level and multi-domain framework and a methodology to deal with a local context can identify new systems to be tested

  3. Methodological discussion for interdisciplinary project on the effects of climatic variability on cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa-Morocho, M.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Campus of International Excellence Moncloa (CEI, 2009) is a joint project of the Universities Complutense (UCM) and Politécnica of Madrid (UPM) which aims to promote connectivity between both of them in a context of scientific excellence. Within this framework an interdisciplinary doctoral Thesis is being developed, whose methodological line is presented here to collect the comments from the international scientific community. The aim of the Thesis is to assess the effect of the climatic variability in the agricultural systems of the Iberian Peninsula. It takes place between the group of agricultural systems (AgSystems) of the UPM and the TROPA group of Climatic Variability of the UCM. The provisional methodology consists on using time series of simulated crop yields and to correlate the monthly deviations with different atmospheric and oceanic anomalous fields in order to characterize the climate variability patterns affecting the fluctuations in productivity. We use observed data of climate reanalysis, general circulation models and crop simulation models. We have identified a common tool to connect both modeling disciplines: MATLAB software is used to program the functions used in data processing, for both climate and agricultural data. In this paper the methodological scheme will be shown. Both the potentials and synergies that we are finding between the group of modelers of climate and cropping systems, as well as the problems and methodological points to be resolved will be specified. We invite researchers with similar experiences to contribute to this discussion.

  4. The Development and Application of Crop Evaluation System Based on GRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since it was proposed, grey system theory has attracted the attention of scientific researchers and scholars. And it also has been widely used in many fields and solved a large number of practical problems in production, life, and scientific research. With the development and popularization of computer science and network technology, this traditional mathematical model can be applied more simply and efficiently to solve practical problems. Firstly, this paper, to implement steps of grey relational analysis, has made the exclusive analysis and has made the simple introduction to grey relational analysis characteristics. Then, based on grey relational theory and ASP.NET technology, the crop evaluation system is developed. Lastly, by using Excel and the crop evaluation system, the paper carries out a comprehensive evaluation about eight features of Fuji apple, which is from nine different producing areas, respectively. The experiment results show that the crop evaluation system is effective and could greatly improve the work efficiency of the researcher and expand the application scope.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Kang; Su, Fang; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Gao, Bing; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Huang, Bin-Xiang; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat-maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment, recommended fertilization, with and without straw and manure applications, and nitrification inhibitor and slow release urea. Application of N fertilizer slightly decreased CH4 uptake by soil. Direct N2O emissions derived from recommended urea application was 0.39% of the annual urea-N input. Both straw and manure had relatively low N2O emissions factors. Slow release urea had a relatively high emission factor. Addition of nitrification inhibitor reduced N2O emission by 55%. We conclude that use of nitrification inhibitors is a promising strategy for N2O mitigation for the intensive wheat-maize double cropping systems.

  6. Effect of management systems and cover crops on organic matter dynamics of soil under vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production in conservation tillage has increased in Brazil, with positive effects on the soil quality. Since management systems alter the quantity and quality of organic matter, this study evaluated the influence of different management systems and cover crops on the organic matter dynamics of a dystrophic Red Latosol under vegetables. The treatments consisted of the combination of three soil tillage systems: no-tillage (NT, reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT and of two cover crops: maize monoculture and maize-mucuna intercrop. Vegetables were grown in the winter and the cover crops in the summer for straw production. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected between the crop rows in three layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m twice: in October, before planting cover crops for straw, and in July, during vegetable cultivation. The total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, oxidizable fractions, and the carbon fractions fulvic acid (C FA, humic acid (C HA and humin (C HUM were determined. The main changes in these properties occurred in the upper layers (0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m where, in general, TOC levels were highest in NT with maize straw. The MBC levels were lowest in CT systems, indicating sensitivity to soil disturbance. Under mucuna, the levels of C HA were lower in RT than NT systems, while the C FA levels were lower in RT than CT. For vegetable production, the C HUM values were lowest in the 0.05-0.10 m layer under CT. With regard to the oxidizable fractions, the tillage systems differed only in the most labile C fractions, with higher levels in NT than CT in the 0.0-0.05 m layer in both summer and winter, with no differences between these systems in the other layers. The cabbage yield was not influenced by the soil management system, but benefited from the mulch production of the preceding maize-mucuna intercrop as cover

  7. Soil denitrifier community size changes with land use change to perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen A.; Deen, Bill; Dunfield, Kari E.

    2016-10-01

    Dedicated biomass crops are required for future bioenergy production. However, the effects of large-scale land use change (LUC) from traditional annual crops, such as corn-soybean rotations to the perennial grasses (PGs) switchgrass and miscanthus, on soil microbial community functioning is largely unknown. Specifically, ecologically significant denitrifying communities, which regulate N2O production and consumption in soils, may respond differently to LUC due to differences in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) inputs between crop types and management systems. Our objective was to quantify bacterial denitrifying gene abundances as influenced by corn-soybean crop production compared to PG biomass production. A field trial was established in 2008 at the Elora Research Station in Ontario, Canada (n  =  30), with miscanthus and switchgrass grown alongside corn-soybean rotations at different N rates (0 and 160 kg N ha-1) and biomass harvest dates within PG plots. Soil was collected on four dates from 2011 to 2012 and quantitative PCR was used to enumerate the total bacterial community (16S rRNA) and communities of bacterial denitrifiers by targeting nitrite reductase (nirS) and N2O reductase (nosZ) genes. Miscanthus produced significantly larger yields and supported larger nosZ denitrifying communities than corn-soybean rotations regardless of management, indicating large-scale LUC from corn-soybean to miscanthus may be suitable in variable Ontario climatic conditions and under varied management, while potentially mitigating soil N2O emissions. Harvesting switchgrass in the spring decreased yields in N-fertilized plots, but did not affect gene abundances. Standing miscanthus overwinter resulted in higher 16S rRNA and nirS gene copies than in fall-harvested crops. However, the size of the total (16S rRNA) and denitrifying bacterial communities changed differently over time and in response to LUC, indicating varying controls on these communities.

  8. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions. PMID:26442005

  9. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  10. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan eStewart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species, typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  11. Effects of crop residue on soil and plant water evaporation in a dryland cotton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, R. J.; Baumhardt, R. L.

    1996-03-01

    Dryland agricultural cropping systems emphasize sustaining crop yields with limited use of fertilizer while conserving both rain water and the soil. Conservation of these resources may be achieved with management systems that retain residues at the soil surface simultaneously modifying both its energy and water balance. A conservation practice used with cotton grown on erodible soils of the Texas High Plains is to plant cotton into chemically terminated wheat residues. In this study, the partitioning of daily and seasonal evapotranspiration ( E t) into soil and plant water evaporation was compared for a conventional and a terminated-wheat cotton crop using the numerical model ENWATBAL. The model was configured to account for the effects of residue on the radiative fluxes and by introducing an additional resistance to latent and sensible heat fluxes derived from measurements of wind speed and vapor conductance from a soil covered with wheat-stubble. Our results showed that seasonal E t was similar in both systems and that cumulative soil water evaporation was 50% of E t in conventional cotton and 31% of E t in the wheat-stubble cotton. Calculated values of E t were in agreement with measured values. The main benefit of the wheat residues was to suppress soil water evaporation by intercepting irradiance early in the growing season when the crop leaf area index (LAI) was low. In semiarid regions LAI of dryland cotton seldom exceeds 2 and residues can improve water conservation. Measured soil temperatures showed that early in the season residues reduced temperature at 0.1 m depth by as much as 5°C and that differences between systems diminished with depth and over time. Residues increased lint yield per unit of E t while not modifying seasonal E t and reducing cumulative soil water evaporation.

  12. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Volk, Timothy [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Abrahamson, Lawrence [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shuren, Richard [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Stanton, Brian [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Posselius, John [Case New Holland, New Holland, PA (United States); McArdle, Matt [Mesa Reduction Engineering and Processing, Inc., Auburn, NY (United States); Karapetyan, Samvel [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Patel, Aayushi [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shi, Shun [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Zerpa, Jose [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Biomass for biofuels, bioproducts and bioenergy can be sourced from forests, agricultural crops, various residue streams, and dedicated woody or herbaceous crops. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC), like willow and hybrid poplar, are perennial cropping systems that produce a number of environmental and economic development benefits in addition to being a renewable source of biomass that can be produced on marginal land. Both hybrid poplar and willow have several characteristics that make them an ideal feedstock for biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy; these include high yields that can be obtained in three to four years, ease of cultivar propagation from dormant cuttings, a broad underutilized genetic base, ease of breeding, ability to resprout after multiple harvests, and feedstock composition similar to other sources of woody biomass. Despite the range of benefits associated with SRWC systems, their deployment has been restricted by high costs, low market acceptance associated with inconsistent chip quality (see below for further explanation), and misperceptions about other feedstock characteristics (see below for further explanation). Harvesting of SRWC is the largest single cost factor (~1/3 of the final delivered cost) in the feedstock supply system. Harvesting is also the second largest input of primary fossil energy in the system after commercial N fertilizer, accounting for about one third of the input. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the harvesting system has the potential to reduce both cost and environmental impact. At the start of this project, we projected that improving the overall efficiency of the harvesting system by 25% would reduce the delivered cost of SRWC by approximately $0.50/MMBtu (or about $7.50/dry ton). This goal was exceeded over the duration of this project, as noted below.

  13. Eleven-year results on soft and durum wheat crops grown in an organic and in a conventional low input cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eleven-year results on yields and apparent balances of organic matter and nitrogen (N are reported for soft and durum wheat crops grown in the BIOSYST long-term experiment for the comparison between an organic and a conventional low-input system in Central Italy. The N supply to organic wheat consisted of 40 kg N ha–1 as poultry manure plus the supposed residual N left by green manures carried out before the preceding summer vegetable, while the N supply to conventional wheat consisted of 80 kg N ha–1 as mineral fertilisers, split in two applications of 40 kg ha–1 each, at tillering and pre-shooting. In every year, above ground biomass and N accumulation of each wheat species, including weeds, and the partitioning between grain yield and crop residues were determined. Apparent dry matter and N balances were calculated at the end of each crop cycle by taking into account the amounts of dry matter and N supplied to the system as fertilisers, and those removed with grain yield. Soft wheat yielded more than durum wheat. For both species, grain yield and protein content were more variable across years and generally lower in the organic than in the conventional system. In both systems, grain yield of both species resulted negatively correlated with fall-winter rainfall, likely for its effect on soil N availability. Both species caused a lower return of biomass and a higher soil N depletion in the organic than in the conventional system. Our experiment confirmed that winter wheat can help exploit the soil N availability and reduce N leaching in fall winter, especially after summer vegetables, but in stockless or stock-limited organic systems it needs to be included in rotations where soil fertility is restored by fall winter green manures to be carried out before summer crops.

  14. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Non-Chemical Weed Management in Reduced Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolan, N.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-01-01

    expansion of reduced tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticide use and promote crop protection programmes based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Non-inversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products and herbicide...... consumption appears to be slightly higher as compared to plough based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and stickywilly often constitute the principal weed problems when the soil is not inverted because crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign...

  15. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient in weighing lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate quantification of crop evapotranspiration (ET) is critical in optimizing irrigation water productivity, especially, in the semiarid regions of the world where limited rainfall is supplemented by irrigation for profitable crop production. In this context, cropping system models are potential...

  16. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries.

  17. Spatial decision support system to evaluate crop residue energy potential by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Humberto; Castro, Liliana; Gauthier-Maradei, Paola; Rodríguez De La Vega, Reynel

    2016-11-01

    Implementing anaerobic digestion (AD) in energy production from crop residues requires development of decision tools to assess its feasibility and sustainability. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) was constructed to assist decision makers to select appropriate feedstock according to biomethanation potential, identify the most suitable location for biogas facilities, determine optimum plant capacity and supply chain, and evaluate associated risks and costs. SDSS involves a spatially explicit analysis, fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, and statistical and optimization models. The tool was validated on seven crop residues located in Santander, Colombia. For example, fique bagasse generates about 0.21millionm(3)CH4year(-1) (0.329m(3)CH4kg(-1) volatile solids) with a minimum profitable plant of about 2000tonyear(-1) and an internal rate of return of 10.5%. SDSS can be applied to evaluate other biomass resources, availability periods, and co-digestion potential.

  18. Response of cassava, maize and egusi melon in a three crop intercropping system at Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ojore Ijoyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted from April to December, during the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons, at the Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria to evaluate the yield response of cassava, maize and egusi melon in a three crop intercropping system and to assess the advantage of the intercropping system. Sole cassava, sole maize, sole egusi melon and the intercrop of cassava, maize and egusi melon constituted the treatments. The four treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results obtained showed that in a cassava, maize and egusi melon mixture, intercropping did not significantly (P≤0.05 affect maize yield, however, intercrop yield of cassava was significantly (P≤0.05 depressed by 23.2 % and 31.0 % respectively, in 2010 and 2011, compared to that obtained from monocropped cassava. In addition, intercrop yield of egusi melon was significantly (P≤0.05 depressed by 34.8 % and 31.6 % respectively, in 2010 and 2011, compared to that produced from monocropped egusi melon. Total intercrop yield was greater than the component crop yields. Intercropping cassava, maize and egusi melon gave land equivalent ratio (LER values of 2.51 and 2.47 respectively, in years 2010 and 2011, indicating that higher productivity per unit area was achieved by growing the three crops together than by growing them separately. With these LER values, 60.2 % and 59.5 % of lands were saved respectively, in 2010 and 2011, which could be used for other agricultural purposes.

  19. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  20. Residual soil nitrate content and profitability of five cropping systems in northwest Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiteman, Matthew A.; Vos, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    Many communities in the Midwestern United States obtain their drinking water from shallow alluvial wells that are vulnerable to contamination by NO3-N from the surrounding agricultural landscape. The objective of this research was to assess cropping systems with the potential to produce a reasonable return for farmers while simultaneously reducing the risk of NO3-N movement into these shallow aquifers. From 2009 to 2013 we conducted a field experiment in northwest Iowa in which we evaluated five cropping systems for residual (late fall) soil NO3-N content and profitability. Soil samples were taken annually from the top 30 cm of the soil profile in June and August, and from the top 180 cm in November (late fall). The November samples were divided into 30 cm increments for analysis. Average residual NO3-N content in the top 180 cm of the soil profile following the 2010 to 2013 cropping years was 134 kg ha-1 for continuous maize (Zea mays L.) with a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop, 18 kg ha-1 for perennial grass, 60 kg ha-1 for a three year oat (Avena sativa L.)-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-maize rotation, 85 kg ha-1 for a two year oat/red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)-maize rotation, and 90 kg ha-1 for a three year soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize rotation. However, residual NO3-N in the 90 to 180 cm increment of the soil profile was not significantly higher in the oat-alfalfa-maize cropping system than the perennial grass system. For 2010 to 2013, average profit ($ ha-1 yr-1) was 531 for continuous corn, 347 for soybean-winter wheat-maize, 264 for oat-alfalfa-maize, 140 for oat/red clover-maize, and -384 (loss) for perennial grass. Considering both residual soil NO3-N and profitability data, the oat-alfalfa-maize rotation performed the best in this setting. However, given current economic pressures widespread adoption is likely to require changes in public policy. PMID:28248976

  1. Effect of Cropping System and Contouring or Download Sowing on Soil Water Erosion under no Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioti, J.; Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Barbosa, F. T.; Ramos, J. C.; Werner, R. S.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Tanaka, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    Water erosion is the main responsible factor of soil and water losses, thus also causing soil degradation, especially on agricultural land, and it is also one factor of degradation outside the place of the origin of erosion. No tillage agriculture has been practiced in the last few decades for the purposes of water erosion control in various regions of Brazil. However, it has been shown that no tillage does not adequately control water erosion unless other complementary conservationist practices such as contour tillage or terracement. Although the erosion problem is widely recognized, there are still difficulties in estimating their magnitude, the environmental impact and the economic consequences, especially when it occurs in a conservation system like no tillage. The aim of this study was to quantify runoff and soil losses by water erosion under five different soil tillage treatments at Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. A field study was carried out using a rotating-boom rainfall simulator with 64 mmh-1 rainfall intensity for 90 minutes. Four rainfall tests were applied over the experimental period, one in each of the successive soybean and maize crop stages. Both soil cover by surface crop residue and soil cover by soybean and maize plant canopy were measured immediately before each rainfall test. Soil and water losses were smaller when sowing in contour than when sowing downslope. Contouring has promoted an average reduction of 42% in soil losses and 20% in water losses. Maize crop has promoted an average reduction of 19% in soil losses and 12% in water losses, in relation to the soybean crop. Therefore runoff rates and soil losses were higher in the downslope plots and in the soybean crop. Soil cover by previous crop residue was an important factor for reducing soil losses. Runoff rates were influenced by the soil water content before each rainfall test (R2= 0.78). The highest runoff occurred during the third simulated rainfall test, with the 83% of the

  2. TECHNOLOGY OF UNDERCROWN MICROIRRIGATION OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE FORMATION OF THEIR THE ROOT SYSTEM AND CONTOUR MOISTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Olgarenko V. I.; Olgarenko I. V.; Olgarenko G. V.; Mishchenko N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the new technical solutions and the technology of undercrown micro-irrigation of horticultural crops, taking into account the formation of their root system and circuit humidification

  3. Rice proteomics: a model system for crop improvement and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Sang Gon; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2014-03-01

    Rice proteomics has progressed at a tremendous pace since the year 2000, and that has resulted in establishing and understanding the proteomes of tissues, organs, and organelles under both normal and abnormal (adverse) environmental conditions. Established proteomes have also helped in re-annotating the rice genome and revealing the new role of previously known proteins. The progress of rice proteomics had recognized it as the corner/stepping stone for at least cereal crops. Rice proteomics remains a model system for crops as per its exemplary proteomics research. Proteomics-based discoveries in rice are likely to be translated in improving crop plants and vice versa against ever-changing environmental factors. This review comprehensively covers rice proteomics studies from August 2010 to July 2013, with major focus on rice responses to diverse abiotic (drought, salt, oxidative, temperature, nutrient, hormone, metal ions, UV radiation, and ozone) as well as various biotic stresses, especially rice-pathogen interactions. The differentially regulated proteins in response to various abiotic stresses in different tissues have also been summarized, indicating key metabolic and regulatory pathways. We envision a significant role of rice proteomics in addressing the global ground level problem of food security, to meet the demands of the human population which is expected to reach six to nine billion by 2040.

  4. Soil Organic N Forms and N Supply as Affected by Fertilization Under Intensive Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-Chun; WANG Guang-Huo; XIE Weng-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Changes of soil organic nitrogen forms and soil nitrogen supply under continuous rice cropping system were investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, China. The fertilizer treatments included combination of P-K, N-K, N-P, and N-P-K as well as the control. After six years of continuous double-rice cropping, total soil N and hydrolysable N contents remained stable in plots with N treatments, while the hydrolysable N contents were substantially reduced in those plots without N application. Compared to the unbalanced fertilization treatments, P and K increased the percentage of hydrolysable ammonium N in the total soil N with the balanced application of N, and also maintained higher rice grain yields and nitrogen uptake. Grain yield was positively correlated with total N uptake (r = 0.875**),hydrolysable N (r = 0.608**), hydrolysable ammonium N (r = 0.560**) and the hydrolysable unknown N (r = 0.417**). Total N uptake was positively correlated with hydrolysable N (r = 0.608**), hydrolysable ammonium N (r = 0.440**)and hydro lysable unknown N (r = 0.431**). Soil nutrient depletion and/or unbalanced fertilization to rice crop reduced N content in soil microbial biomass, and therefore increased C/N ratio, suggesting a negative effect on the total microbial biomass in the soil.

  5. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  6. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  7. Crop systems and plant roots can modify the soil water holding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussan, Claude; Cousin, Isabelle; Berard, Annette; Chabbi, Abad; Legendre, Laurent; Czarnes, Sonia; Toussaint, Bruce; Ruy, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    At the interface between atmosphere and deep sub-soil, the root zone plays a major role in regulating the flow of water between major compartments: groundwater / surface / atmosphere (drainage, runoff, evapotranspiration). This role of soil as regulator/control of water fluxes, but also as a supporting medium to plant growth, is strongly dependent on the hydric properties of the soil. In turn, the plant roots growing in the soil can change its structure; both in the plow layer and in the deeper horizons and, therefore, could change the soil properties, particularly hydric properties. Such root-related alteration of soil properties can be linked to direct effect of roots such as soil perforation during growth, aggregation of soil particles or indirect effects such as the release of exudates by roots that could modify the properties of water or of soil particles. On an another hand, the rhizosphere, the zone around roots influenced by the activity of root and associated microorganisms, could have a high influence on hydric properties, particularly the water retention. To test if crops and plant roots rhizosphere may have a significant effect on water retention, we conducted various experiment from laboratory to field scales. In the lab, we tested different soil and species for rhizospheric effect on soil water retention. Variation in available water content (AWC) between bulk and rhizospheric soil varied from non-significant to a significant increase (to about 16% increase) depending on plant species and soil type. In the field, the alteration of water retention by root systems was tested in different pedological settings for a Maize crop inoculated or not with the bacteria Azospirillum spp., known to alter root structure, growth and morphology. Again, a range of variation in AWC was evidenced, with significant increase (~30%) in some soil types, but more linked to innoculated/non-innoculated plants rather than to a difference between rhizospheric and bulk soil

  8. The Effects of Climate Change on the Planting Boundary and Potential Yield for Different Rice Cropping Systems in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; LIU Zhi-juan; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; XIE Wen-juan; CHEN Fu

    2014-01-01

    Based on climate data from 254 meteorological stations, this study estimated the effects of climate change on rice planting boundaries and potential yields in the southern China during 1951-2010. The results indicated a signiifcant northward shift and westward expansion of northern boundaries for rice planting in the southern China. Compared with the period of 1951-1980, the average temperature during rice growing season in the period of 1981-2010 increased by 0.4°C, and the northern planting boundaries for single rice cropping system (SRCS), early triple cropping rice system (ETCRS), medium triple cropping rice system (MTCRS), and late triple cropping rice system (LTCRS) moved northward by 10, 30, 52 and 66 km, respectively. In addition, compared with the period of 1951-1980, the suitable planting area for SRCS was reduced by 11%during the period of 1981-2010. However, the suitable planting areas for other rice cropping systems increased, with the increasing amplitude of 3, 8, and 10%for ETCRS, MTCRS and LTCRS, respectively. In general, the light and temperature potential productivity of rice decreased by 2.5%. Without considering the change of rice cultivars, the northern planting boundaries for different rice cropping systems showed a northward shift tendency. Climate change resulted in decrease of per unit area yield for SRCS and the annual average yields of ETCRS and LTCRS. Nevertheless, the overall rice production in the entire research area showed a decreasing trend even with the increasing trend of annual average yield for MTCRS.

  9. Influence of Crop Management and Environmental Factors on Wolf Spider Assemblages (Araneae: Lycosidae) in an Australian Cotton Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Dalila; Whitehouse, Mary E A; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-02-01

    Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are the most abundant ground-hunting spiders in the Australian cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) agroecosystems. These spiders have potential in controlling pest bollworms, Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in minimum-tilled fields. A study was carried out during a wet growing season (2011-2012) in Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia, to determine how different crop rotations and tillage affect wolf spider assemblages in cotton fields. Spider abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between simple plots (no winter crop) and complex plots (cotton-wheat Triticum aestivum L.-vetch Vicia benghalensis L. rotation). However, the wolf spider biodiversity, as expressed by the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson's indices, was significantly higher in complex plots. Higher biodiversity reflected a more even distribution of the most dominant species (Venatrix konei Berland, Hogna crispipes Koch, and Tasmanicosa leuckartii Thorell) and the presence of more rare species in complex plots. T. leuckartii was more abundant in complex plots and appears to be sensitive to farming disturbances, whereas V. konei and H. crispipes were similarly abundant in the two plot types, suggesting higher resilience or recolonizing abilities. The demographic structure of these three species varied through the season, but not between plot types. Environmental variables had a significant effect on spider assemblage, but effects of environment and plot treatment were overshadowed by the seasonal progression of cotton stages. Maintaining a high density and even distribution of wolf spiders that prey on Helicoverpa spp. should be considered as a conservation biological control element when implementing agronomic and pest management strategies.

  10. Greenhouse gas flux and crop productivity after 10 years of reduced and no tillage in a wheat-maize cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shenzhong; Wang, Yu; Ning, Tangyuan; Zhao, Hongxiang; Wang, Bingwen; Li, Na; Li, Zengjia; Chi, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007-10/2008 and 10/2008-10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha(-1) year(-1) of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha(-1) yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system.

  11. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  12. Soil chemical atributtes on brachiaria spp in integrated crop livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated crop-livestock systems have attracted more interest in the last few years due to their capacity of improving stability and sustainability of agricultural systems when compared to more specialized production ones. The crop-livestock integration is an effective technique, but complex to maintain pasture productivity and its recovery, whose efficiency depends on soil physical management and its chemical fertility. Regarding the soil fertility, the corrective practices generally begin with the liming due to the high acidity of most Brazilian soils and low levels of Ca and Mg in the exchange complex and high Al saturation. In areas of crop-livestock systems, liming corrects the surface acidity potential. However, this practice can leave the subsoil with excess aluminum and lack of calcium, which inhibit root growth and affect the absorption of water and nutrients. The application of gypsum allows the improvement of the subsoil, reducing Al saturation and increasing levels of calcium and sulfur. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the soil chemical properties of a Haplorthox soil in integrated crop-livestock system (ICL with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Piatã, Brachiaria ruziziensis with gypsum and liming application. This study was conducted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa/SP, a pasture established on a soil with medium texture (61.4% sand, silt 14.6% and 24.0% clay. The treatment plots consisted on integration crop-livestock (ICL cultivated - maize and B. Marandu,  ICL - maize and B. ruziziensis, ICL - maize and B. Piatã and an untreated control group (control - without liming and fertilization grazed pasture throughout the year, located immediately adjacent to the ICL evaluation, which was cultivated for 25 years with B. brizantha cv. Marandu. All pastures were desiccated in October with glyphosate-based herbicide (4 liters per hectare. Then gypsum (1.2 Mg ha-1 and liming (1.2 Mg ha-1 were applied

  13. Radio/Antenna Mounting System for Wireless Networking under Row-Crop Agriculture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Fisher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-collection procedures, power management, and communication protocols, little information related to physical deployment issues has been reported. To achieve acceptable wireless transmission capability, the radio/antenna must be positioned properly relative to the ground surface or crop canopy to minimize degradation of the radio signal, usually requiring the mounting of the radio/antenna above the canopy. This results in the presence of obstacles to normal agricultural equipment traffic and production operations and potential damage to the wireless monitoring system. A simple and rugged radio/antenna mounting system was designed which could be subjected to encounters with agricultural equipment without suffering physical damage. The mounting system was deployed and tested, and operated successfully following repeated encounters with various agricultural machines and implements. The radio/antenna mount is simple and inexpensive to fabricate using locally available components.

  14. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  15. Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vadakattu

    2013-04-01

    Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a

  16. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  17. Controlled Drainage As Measure to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in a Wheat Cropping System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Hvid, Søren Kolind; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    Subsurface drainage of soil to avoid water logging is a prerequisite for crop cultivation for a large proportion of the agricultural land, and approximately 50% of the Danish agricultural area is artificially drained. Multifunctional drain systems can be effective measures to reduce losses...... of nutrients, such as Controlled Drainage (CD). With CD the water table of drained fields is raised or lowered by adjusting the drain pipe outlet elevation. By restricting drain flow at times when drainage is not needed, the overall volume of water flow is reduced, more soil moisture is available...

  18. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  19. Ghg and Aerosol Emission from Fire Pixel during Crop Residue Burning Under Rice and Wheat Cropping Systems in North-West India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Prasenjit; Sreekesh, S.; Kulshrestha, Umesh

    2016-10-01

    Emission of smoke and aerosol from open field burning of crop residue is a long-standing subject matter of atmospheric pollution. In this study, we proposed a new approach of estimating fuel load in the fire pixels and corresponding emissions of selected GHGs and aerosols i.e. CO2, CO, NO2, SO2, and total particulate matter (TPM) due to burning of crop residue under rice and wheat cropping systems in Punjab in north-west India from 2002 to 2012. In contrasts to the conventional method that uses RPR ratio to estimate the biomass, fuel load in the fire pixels was estimated as a function of enhanced vegetation index (EVI). MODIS fire products were used to detect the fire pixels during harvesting seasons of rice and wheat. Based on the field measurements, fuel load in the fire pixels were modelled as a function of average EVI using second order polynomial regression. Average EVI for rice and wheat crops that were extracted through Fourier transformation were computed from MODIS time series 16 day EVI composites. About 23 % of net shown area (NSA) during rice and 11 % during wheat harvesting seasons are affected by field burning. The computed average fuel loads are 11.32 t/ha (±17.4) during rice and 10.89 t/ha (±8.7) during wheat harvesting seasons. Calculated average total emissions of CO2, CO, NO2, SO2 and TPM were 8108.41, 657.85, 8.10, 4.10, and 133.21 Gg during rice straw burning and 6896.85, 625.09, 1.42, 1.77, and 57.55 Gg during wheat burning. Comparison of estimated values shows better agreement with the previous concurrent estimations. The method, however, shows its efficiency parallel to the conventional method of estimation of fuel load and related pollutant emissions.

  20. Soil attributes under different crop management systems in an Amazon Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elessandra Laura Nogueira Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSoil biological properties have a high potential for use in assessing the impacts of crop systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of cropping systems on the biological attributes of an oxisol in the Amazonian state of Pará. The treatments consisted of approximately 20-year-old secondary vegetation, recovered pasture, no-tillage systems (NT maintained for 4 and 8 years after planting with corn (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L., and conventional tillage (CT systems every 2 years after planting with rice (Oryza sativa L. and soybean. The microbial biomass to nitrogen ratio was higher in the NT system (0.68 mg kg–1, and the NT system had greater microbial NT8. Thus, the contributions of organic matter from straw improved the soil quality in these areas. The total organic carbon (TOC content was greater in the secondary forest and CT areas (46.7 and 48.0 mg kg–1, respectively, potentially due to the higher amounts of organic matter and organic matter mineralization in these areas. However, the largest TOC stocks were observed in the pasture, which corresponded with greater carbon storage (63.5 Mg ha–1. By contrast, the no-till systems were not efficient for storing C, with concentrations of 5.0 and 5.3 Mg ha–1 in NT-4 and NT-8, respectively. These results may reflect the short period that these systems were adopted and the vast microbial activity that was observed in these areas, with microbial quotients of 8.03 and 10.41% in NT-4 and NT-8, respectively.

  1. Integrated numerical model of nitrogen transportation, absorption and transformation by two-dimension in soil-crop system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qi; SHU Yan; QI Yong-qiang; ZHANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    A series of simulation experiments of nitrogen transportation, absorption and transformation were conducted, and the different cropping patterns of winter wheat and wastewater irrigation plans were taken into consideration. Based on the experiments, an integrated model of crop growth, roots distribution, water and nitrogen absorption by roots, water and nitrogen movement and transformation in soilcrop system by two-dimension was developed. Parameters and boundary conditions were identified and an effective computing method for optimizing watering and wastewater irrigating plans was provided.

  2. Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification, the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C

  3. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  4. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent.

  5. How can we harness quantitative genetic variation in crop root systems for agricultural improvement?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher N. Topp; Adam L. Bray

    2016-01-01

    Root systems are a black box obscuring a comprehensive understanding of plant function, from the ecosystem scale down to the individual. In particular, a lack of knowledge about the genetic mechanisms and environmental effects that condition root system growth hinders our ability to develop the next generation of crop plants for improved agricultural productivity and sustainability. We discuss how the methods and metrics we use to quantify root systems can affect our ability to understand them, how we can bridge knowledge gaps and accelerate the derivation of structure-function relationships for roots, and why a detailed mecha-nistic understanding of root growth and function will be important for future agricultural gains.

  6. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.

  7. Coexistence between conventional, organic and GM crops production: the Portuguese system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabolli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the way of Portugal is addressing the issue of the coexistence between conventional, organic and Genetically Modified (GM) crops production. In the EU, no form of agriculture, be it conventional, organic or transgenic, should be excluded. Farmers are free to choose the production type they prefer, without being forced to change patterns already established in the area and without spending more resources. Farmers' choice of growing GM or non-GM crops depends not only on technical aspects related to the productivity gains and agronomic benefits to be gained from adopting this technology, but also on consumers' preferences. Today only few Member States have adopted specific legislation on coexistence. Portugal was one of the first European Country that, in 2005, adopted a coexistence law and it has implemented one of the most complete systems of coexistence regulation. Today Portugal has a well-balanced regime based on free choice for consumers and growers. It has a coexistence system complete regulation and farmers who wish to cultivate GM maize must fulfill with national coexistence legislation that includes the following compulsory rules: participate in specific coexistence training courses, register the cultivation area, inform by written notification about their intent to cultivate GM, apply measures of coexistence, among others.

  8. Catch crop biomass production, nitrogen uptake and root development under different tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2012-01-01

    Catch crops are generally regarded as an efficient tool to reduce nitrate leaching. However, the benefits need to be balanced against potential adverse effects on the main crop yields. The objectives of the study were to study three contrasting catch crops, that is, dyer’s woad (DW) (Isatis...

  9. Roots Withstanding their Environment : Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koevoets, Iko T; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J Theo M; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as obse

  10. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  11. Abundance and distribution of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. grown in single- and mixed-cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanitta Pankeaw

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the abundance and distribution of thrips in a farmer’s mangosteen orchard by comparing single- andmixed-cropping systems at Nakhon Sri Thammarat province, the main planting area in southern Thailand, between April2005 and January 2006. A monitoring program at two-week-intervals was done to measure the number of thrips by usingtwenty yellow sticky traps per each cropping system. The mean number (223.5±23.4 thrips/trap of thrips throughout theperiod of study in the monocrop mangosteen sites was significantly (P<0.01 higher than 69.1±8.3 thrips/trap in the mixedcropmangosteen sites. Scarring on the fruit surfaces damaged by thrips was visually quantified, with average percentages ofscarring 32.2% and 19.8% in the mono- and mixed-cropping systems, respectively. Distribution of thrips in the upper andlower halves of the plant canopy in the four cardinal directions was studied by assessing scarring on the fruit surfaces. Thepercentage of scarring occurring in the upper canopy was significantly (P<0.01 higher than in the lower canopy. In thesingle-crop system, the average percentages of scarring were 46.6% and 25.4% on the upper and lower canopies, respectively.In the mixed-cropping system results obtained were similar to those in the single cropping system, with 31.5% and 20.4% onthe upper and lower canopies, respectively. The severity of damage to the fruits caused by thrips seemed to be higher in theNorth and East directions than in the South and West. In conclusion, mixed-cropping mangosteen orchards are recommendedfor reducing fruit damage caused by thrips. Fruits occurring on the upper canopy, in the North and East sides, should beunderlined for thrip control to meet the criteria for high quality mangosteen production from the south of Thailand.

  12. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.;

    2008-01-01

    in Denmark over three consecutive cropping seasons including dual grain legume (pea, faba bean and lupin)-barley intercropping as compared to the respective sole crops (SC). Yield stability of intercrops (IC) was not greater than that of grain legume SC, with the exception of the IC containing faba bean....... Faba bean and lupin had lower yield stability than pea and fertilized barley. However, the different IC used environmental resources for plant growth up to 50% (LER=0.91-1.51) more effectively as compared to the respective SC, but with considerable variation over location, years and crops. The SC...... was comparable; however, it tended to be the highest in sole cropped faba bean, lupin and unfertilized barley, where the application of urea to barley reduced the weed infestation by around 50%. Reduction in disease was observed in all IC systems compared to the corresponding SC, with a general disease reduction...

  13. Assessment of an Operational System for Crop Type Map Production Using High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Satellite Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop area extent estimates and crop type maps provide crucial information for agricultural monitoring and management. Remote sensing imagery in general and, more specifically, high temporal and high spatial resolution data as the ones which will be available with upcoming systems, such as Sentinel-2, constitute a major asset for this kind of application. The goal of this paper is to assess to what extent state-of-the-art supervised classification methods can be applied to high resolution multi-temporal optical imagery to produce accurate crop type maps at the global scale. Five concurrent strategies for automatic crop type map production have been selected and benchmarked using SPOT4 (Take5 and Landsat 8 data over 12 test sites spread all over the globe (four in Europe, four in Africa, two in America and two in Asia. This variety of tests sites allows one to draw conclusions applicable to a wide variety of landscapes and crop systems. The results show that a random forest classifier operating on linearly temporally gap-filled images can achieve overall accuracies above 80% for most sites. Only two sites showed low performances: Madagascar due to the presence of fields smaller than the pixel size and Burkina Faso due to a mix of trees and crops in the fields. The approach is based on supervised machine learning techniques, which need in situ data collection for the training step, but the map production is fully automatic.

  14. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Management on Soil Ecological Quality in Hybrid Rice Double-Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO MIN; XIE XIAOMEI; A. SUBHANI

    2003-01-01

    The mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pesticide, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, were applied alone or in combination and the soil sampling was done at different growth stages during the crop cycle to study the changes in soil organic matter, microbial biomass and their activity parameters in a paddy soil with different nutrient and pest management practices in a hybrid rice double-cropping system. A consistent increase in the electron transport system (ETS) activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or with pesticides increased ETS activity, while a decline of ETS activity was noticed with pesticides alone as compared with the control. Nearly an increasing trend in soil phenol content was observed with the progression of crop growth stages, while the usage of pesticides alone caused maximum increments in the soil phenol content. The soil protein content was found nearly stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops taken. But notable changes were noticed at different growth stages probably because of fluctuations in moisture and temperature at particular stages, which might have their effects on N mineralization. Marked depletions in the phospholipid content were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also produced slight changes, in which a higher decline was noticed with pesticide application alone compared with the control.

  15. Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

  16. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from irrigated cropping systems as influenced by legumes, manure and fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Irrigated crops in Alberta require higher inputs of nitrogen (N) than rainfed crops. The aim of the study was to determine emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from the soils of irrigated cropping systems that used inorganic fertilizer N at a site in Alberta. The study measured carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) levels in order to determine net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and soil in selected treatments was measured in order to compare the effects of contrasting N inputs. Fluxes were measured bi-weekly from spring 2001 to spring 2004. The time period included annual and perennial legume crops; the termination of a perennial forage crop; manure application; and 2 growing seasons of test crops. Soil surface fluxes were measured using PVC chambers equipped with thermocouples. Gas samples were measured using gas chromatography. A linear least squares method was used to calculate gas concentrations. Results showed that soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production rates were intertwined after legume production or manure application, but decoupled during early spring bursts of N{sub 2}O production. Higher soil CO{sub 2} emissions with alfalfa and manure-amended soils suggested that soil oxygen consumption during high CO{sub 2} emission periods may promote N{sub 2}O emissions. Appreciable proportions of N{sub 2}O were emitted outside the growing season. Results suggested that N{sub 2}O leakage is an inevitable hazard of crop production. The study highlighted the importance of understanding and quantifying N{sub 2}O emissions from intensive cropping systems. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil, water, soil microbes, and solar energy are the main sources that sustain life on this planet. Without them working in concert, neither plants nor animals would survive. Considering the efficiency of animal production targets, soil must be protected and improved. Therefore, through our sustainable integrated crop and livestock research, we are studying animal and soil interactions from the soil to the plate. Integrating beef cattle systems into a diverse cropping system is providing a living laboratory for education beyond the traditional classroom setting. To establish the living learning laboratory at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, a five-crop rotation was established that included adapted cool and warm season grasses and broadleaf crops. The crop rotation is: sunflower > hard red spring wheat > fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop > Corn (85-95 day varieties) > field pea-barley intercrop. Sunflower and spring wheat are harvested for cash crop income in the rotation. Livestock integration occurs when yearling steers that had previously grazed perennial pastures until mid-August graze field pea-barley and subsequently unharvested corn. Average grazing days for field pea-barley and unharvested corn is 30 and 70 days, respectively. At the end of the grazing period, the yearling steers average 499-544 kg and are moved to a feedlot and fed an additional 75 days until slaughter. Maximizing grazing days and extending the grazing season through integration with the cropping system reduces custom feeding costs and enhances animal profit. Beef cows do not require high quality feed after their calves have been weaned. Therefore, gestating beef cows are an ideal animal to graze cover crops and crop aftermath (residue) after yearling steer grazing and farming operations have been completed. Extending the grazing season for beef cows by grazing cover crops and residues reduces winter feed cost, which is one of the

  18. Evaluation of a handling system for ley crop used in biogas production. Capacities and costs for a centralised system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagstroem, Lena

    2005-07-01

    Within the Vaextkraft project in Vaesteraas, Sweden, biogas is to be produced out of ley crop and organic waste. The aim of this study has been to estimate the capacities within the handling system used for the ley crop harvest, and the resources needed. For this purpose a model in the form of a calculation program in Excel was built. The model makes it possible to vary parameters such as transport system design, distance from fields to storage, dry matter content and yield. The results showed that it is essential to match the capacities between chopper and transport to minimise the time and cost connected to the harvest. To avoid creating costly bottlenecks in the Vaextkraft case the transport system has to consist of at least two trucks with trailers. The estimates made with the model suggests that the distance to storage is strongly linked to the dimensioning of the transport system, whereas the number of fields and their size has a lesser impact on harvest time and cost. Variation of the dry matter yield from a base scenario had an impact on the cost for harvesting, but not on the choice of transport system. The model couldn't detect any reliable differences in total costs due to the variation of dry matter content between 25-45%. The choice of chopping machinery in the Vaextkraft project leads to small timeliness costs. Together with a reasonable choice of transport system they will only constitute a few percent of the total costs for harvesting.

  19. The Crop Risk Zones Monitoring System for resilience to drought in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, Patrizio; Rocchi, Leandro; De Filippis, Tiziana; Tarchiani, Vieri; Bacci, Maurizio; Toscano, Piero; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Rapisardi, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Food security is still one of the major concerns that Sahelian populations have to face. In the Sahel, agriculture is primarily based on rainfed crops and it is often structurally inadequate to manage the climatic variability. The predominantly rainfed cropping system of Sahel region is dependent on season quality on a year-to-year basis, and susceptible to weather extremes of droughts and extreme temperatures. Low water-storage capacity and high dependence on rainfed agriculture leave the agriculture sector even more vulnerable to climate risks. Crop yields may suffer significantly with either a late onset or early cessation of the rainy season, as well as with a high frequency of damaging dry spells. Early rains at the beginning of the season are frequently followed by dry spells which may last a week or longer. As the amount of water stored in the soil at this time of the year is negligible, early planted crops can suffer water shortage stresses during a prolonged dry spell. Therefore, the choice of the sowing date is of fundamental importance for farmers. The ability to estimate effectively the onset of the season and potentially dangerous dry spells becomes therefore vital for planning rainfed agriculture practices aiming to minimize risks and maximize yields. In this context, advices to farmers are key drivers for prevention allowing a better adaptation of traditional crop calendar to climatic variability. In the Sahel, particularly in CILSS (Permanent Interstates Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel) countries, national Early Warning System (EWS) for food security are underpinned by Multidisciplinary Working Groups (MWGs) lead by National Meteorological Services (NMS). The EWSs are mainly based on tools and models utilizing numeric forecasts and satellite data to outlook and monitor the growing season. This approach is focused on the early identification of risks and on the production of information within the prescribed time period for decision

  20. Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2008-04-01

    Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution.

  1. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Ellouze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils.

  2. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  3. Effect of Rice—Based Cropping System on Organic Matter Status in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOYONGLAN; YANGDONGPING; 等

    1997-01-01

    A long-term simulation experiment was carred out to study the effect of rice-based cropping system,green manure and ground-water level on soil organic matter.Soil organic matter content increased when upland soil was puddled and cropped under submerged conditions.Among all treatments,soil organic matter contents in the treatments of rice-rice-flooded fallow in winter(WF)were the highest,those in the treatments of rice-rice-astragalus(WG) came the seond,and those in the treatments of rice-rice-rape(WR). were the lowest At the same rate of green manur application,the degrees of organo-mineral compleing in soils of treatments WG and WR were higher than those of treatment WF.After 9-year rice cultivation, the state of combination of humus in heavy fraction varied with treatments.The relative content of loosely bonded humus decreased in the order of WR>WG>WF,and it correlated significantly with Se availability.

  4. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F3. pH values were 5.2-5.7 under DMC, 4.9-5.3 under DS and TS and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were higher in the control sample and DMC than in the other systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low pH values.

  5. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409

  6. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  7. Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

  8. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pineros; Pierre-Luc Pradier; Nathanael M Shaw; Ithipong Assaranurak; Susan R McCouch; Craig Sturrock; Malcolm Bennett; Leon V Kochian; Brandon G Larson; Jon E Shaff; David J Schneider; Alexandre Xavier Falcao; Lixing Yuan; Randy T Clark; Eric J Craft; Tyler W Davis

    2016-01-01

    A plant’s ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architec-ture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyp-ing software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimen-sional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions.

  9. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-02-22

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  10. Physical quality of an Oxisol under an integrated crop-livestock-forest system in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Lucas de Sousa Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical quality is an important factor for the sustainability of agricultural systems. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and soil organic carbon in a Typic Acrudox under an integrated crop-livestock-forest system. The experiment was carried out in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Treatments consisted of seven systems: integrated crop-livestock-forest, with 357 trees ha-1 and pasture height of 30 cm (CLF357-30; integrated crop-livestock-forest with 357 trees ha-1 and pasture height of 45 cm (CLF357-45; integrated crop-livestock-forest with 227 trees ha-1 and pasture height of 30 cm (CLF227-30; integrated crop-livestock-forest with 227 trees ha-1 and pasture height of 45 cm (CLF227-45; integrated crop-livestock with pasture height of 30 cm (CL30; integrated crop-livestock with pasture height of 45 cm (CL45 and native vegetation (NV. Soil properties were evaluated for the depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm. All grazing treatments increased bulk density (r b and penetration resistance (PR, and decreased total porosity (¦t and macroporosity (¦ma, compared to NV. The values of r b (1.18-1.47 Mg m-3, ¦ma (0.14-0.17 m³ m-3 and PR (0.62-0.81 MPa at the 0-10 cm depth were not restrictive to plant growth. The change in land use from NV to CL or CLF decreased soil organic carbon (SOC and the soil organic carbon pool (SOCpool. All grazing treatments had a similar SOCpool at the 0-10 cm depth and were lower than that for NV (17.58 Mg ha-1.

  11. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  12. Quantifying nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane cropping systems: Optimum sampling time and frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Steven; Wang, Weijin; Salter, Barry; Halpin, Neil

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil are often measured using the manual static chamber method. Manual gas sampling is labour intensive, so a minimal sampling frequency that maintains the accuracy of measurements would be desirable. However, the high temporal (diurnal, daily and seasonal) variabilities of N2O emissions can compromise the accuracy of measurements if not addressed adequately when formulating a sampling schedule. Assessments of sampling strategies to date have focussed on relatively low emission systems with high episodicity, where a small number of the highest emission peaks can be critically important in the measurement of whole season cumulative emissions. Using year-long, automated sub-daily N2O measurements from three fertilised sugarcane fields, we undertook an evaluation of the optimum gas sampling strategies in high emission systems with relatively long emission episodes. The results indicated that sampling in the morning between 09:00-12:00, when soil temperature was generally close to the daily average, best approximated the daily mean N2O emission within 4-7% of the 'actual' daily emissions measured by automated sampling. Weekly sampling with biweekly sampling for one week after >20 mm of rainfall was the recommended sampling regime. It resulted in no extreme (>20%) deviations from the 'actuals', had a high probability of estimating the annual cumulative emissions within 10% precision, with practicable sampling numbers in comparison to other sampling regimes. This provides robust and useful guidance for manual gas sampling in sugarcane cropping systems, although further adjustments by the operators in terms of expected measurement accuracy and resource availability are encouraged. By implementing these sampling strategies together, labour inputs and errors in measured cumulative N2O emissions can be minimised. Further research is needed to quantify the spatial variability of N2O emissions within sugarcane cropping and to develop

  13. Field-based estimates of global warming potential in bioenergy systems of Hawaii: Crop choice and deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level bal...

  14. Quantifying N response and N use efficiency in Rice-Wheat (RW) cropping systems under different water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Q.; Keulen, van H.; Hengsdijk, H.; Weixing, C.; Bindraban, P.S.; Dai, T.; Jiang, D.

    2009-01-01

    About 0·10 of the food supply in China is produced in rice¿wheat (RW) cropping systems. In recent decades, nitrogen (N) input associated with intensification has increased much more rapidly than N use in these systems. The resulting nitrogen surplus increases the risk of environmental pollution as w

  15. A Preliminary Study on Systems Engineering-Based Method for the Evaluation of Allelopathic Potential in Crops and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Sheng-peng; MA Yong-qing

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to assess and analyze the total allelopathic potential of crop germplasm and to test this method on four winter wheat accessions commonly planted in the Loess Plateau. A systems engineering model was developed and used to evaluate the total allelopathic potential of crop cultivars. In addition, a method for quantifying the total allelopathic potential in crop accessions was presented. Total allelopathic potential of four winter wheat accessions from the Loess Plateau was estimated and compared using a systems theory approach. The model assessed allelopathic potential in different parts of the plants from the time wheat turned green in spring until maturity. Results from these models indicated that the four wheat accessions had very weak allelopathic potential. Allelopathic potential declined in the order Xiaoyan 22 > Ningdong 1 > Fengchan 3 > Bima 1. This system engineering evaluation method allows for the assessment of allelopathic potential among crop varieties. It will help plant breeders to select and develop allelopathic crop accessions that combine weed suppression properties with agronomic traits related to yield and quality.

  16. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; LIAO Min; LIU Wei-ping; Susanne KLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport system activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growth stages.

  17. 冷巷的被动降温原理及其启示%The Principles of Passive-cooling Alley and Its Inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓扬; 仲德崑

    2011-01-01

    A field study of thermal environment is carried out on narrow alleys of three residential buildings to analyze the principles of passive-cooling alley. The main technical strategies can be concluded as: narrow alley with sunshade and ventilation, the ground and wall as heat sink, and night ventilation. Its inspiration on architectural design is also discussed.%通过对三处民居的窄巷进行热环境实测.剖析冷巷的被动降温原理,总结其主要技术策略为:遮阳通风的窄通道、蓄冷墙及地面、夜间通风.同时论述了这些技术策略对建筑设计的启示.

  18. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  19. Effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and DMPP on nitrous oxide emission, crop yield and nitrogen uptake in a wheat–maize cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of nitrification inhibitors together with ammonium-based fertilizers is proposed as a potent method to decrease nitrous oxide (N2O emission while promoting crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in fertilized agricultural fields. To evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitors, we conducted year-round measurements of N2O fluxes, yield, aboveground biomass, plant carbon and nitrogen contents, soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon contents and the main environmental factors for urea (U, urea + dicyandiamide (DCD and urea + 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP treatments in a wheat–maize rotation field. The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated to be 4.49 ± 0.21, 2.93 ± 0.06 and 2.78 ± 0.16 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for the U, DCD and DMPP treatments, respectively. Therefore, the DCD and DMPP treatments significantly decreased the annual emissions by 35% and 38%, respectively (p 2O emissions. When the emissions presented clearly temporal variations, high-frequency measurements or optimized sampling schedule for intermittent measurements would likely provide more accurate estimations of annual cumulative emission and treatment effect. The application of nitrification inhibitors significantly increased the soil inorganic nitrogen content (p 2O emission from the wheat–maize cropping system.

  20. Effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and DMPP) on nitrous oxide emission, crop yield and nitrogen uptake in a wheat-maize cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Wang, K.; Zheng, X.

    2013-04-01

    The application of nitrification inhibitors together with ammonium-based fertilizers is proposed as a potent method to decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emission while promoting crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in fertilized agricultural fields. To evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitors, we conducted year-round measurements of N2O fluxes, yield, aboveground biomass, plant carbon and nitrogen contents, soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon contents and the main environmental factors for urea (U), urea + dicyandiamide (DCD) and urea + 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) treatments in a wheat-maize rotation field. The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated to be 4.49 ± 0.21, 2.93 ± 0.06 and 2.78 ± 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for the U, DCD and DMPP treatments, respectively. Therefore, the DCD and DMPP treatments significantly decreased the annual emissions by 35% and 38%, respectively (p regulated the seasonal fluctuation of N2O emissions. When the emissions presented clearly temporal variations, high-frequency measurements or optimized sampling schedule for intermittent measurements would likely provide more accurate estimations of annual cumulative emission and treatment effect. The application of nitrification inhibitors significantly increased the soil inorganic nitrogen content (p emission from the wheat-maize cropping system.

  1. MICROBIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS UNDER AN INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Scaramal da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLs are a viable strategy for the recovery and maintenance of soil characteristics. In the present study, an ICL experiment was conducted by the Instituto Agronômico do Paraná in the municipality of Xambre, Parana (PR, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of various grazing intensities. The objective of the present study was to quantify the levels of microbial biomass carbon (MBC and soil enzymatic activity in an ICL of soybean (summer and Brachiaria ruziziensis (winter, with B. ruziziensis subjected to various grazing intensities. Treatments consisted of varying pasture heights and grazing intensities (GI: 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm (GI-10, GI-20, GI-30, and GI-40, respectively and a no grazing (NG control. The microbial characteristics analysed were MBC, microbial respiration (MR, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the activities of acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, arylsuphatase, and cellulase, and fluorescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis. Following the second grazing cycle, the GI-20 treatment (20-cm - moderate grazing intensity contained the highest MBC concentrations and lowest qCO2 concentrations. Following the second soybean cycle, the treatment with the highest grazing intensity (GI-10 contained the lowest MBC concentration. Soil MBC concentrations in the pasture were favoured by the introduction of animals to the system. High grazing intensity (10-cm pasture height during the pasture cycle may cause a decrease in soil MBC and have a negative effect on the microbial biomass during the succeeding crop. Of all the enzymes analyzed, only arylsuphatase and cellulase activities were altered by ICL management, with differences between the moderate grazing intensity (GI-20 and no grazing (NG treatments.

  2. Tradeoffs between vigor and yield for crops grown under different management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic Milas, Anita; Keller Vincent, Robert; Romanko, Matthew; Feitl, Melina; Rupasinghe, Prabha

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing can provide an effective means for rapid and non-destructive monitoring of crop status and biochemistry. Monitoring pattern of traditional vigor algorithms generated from Landsat 8 OLI satellite data represents a robust method that can be widely used to differentiate the status of crops, as well as to monitor nutrient uptake functionality of differently treated seeds grown under different managements. This study considers 24 factorial parcels of winter wheat in 2013, corn in 2014, and soybeans in 2015, grown under four different types of agricultural management. The parcels are located at the Kellogg Biological Station, Long-Term Ecological Research site in the State of Michigan USA. At maturity, the organic crops exhibit significantly higher vigor and significantly lower yield than conventionally managed crops under different treatments. While organic crops invest in their metabolism at the expense of their yield, the conventional crops manage to increase their yield at the expense of their vigor. Landsat 8 OLI is capable of 1) differentiating the biochemical status of crops under different treatments at maturity, and 2) monitoring the tradeoff between crop yield and vigor that can be controlled by the seed treatments and proper conventional applications, with the ultimate goal of increasing food yield and food availability, and 3) distinguishing between organic and conventionally treated crops. Timing, quantity and types of herbicide applications have a great impact on early and pre-harvest vigor, maturity and yield of conventionally treated crops. Satellite monitoring using Landsat 8 is an optimal tool for coordinating agricultural applications, soil practices and genetic coding of the crop to produce higher yield as well as have early crop maturity, desirable in northern climates.

  3. Discrimination rice cropping systems using multi-temporal Proba-V data in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chang, Ly-Yu; Chiang, Shou-Hao; Lau, Khin-Va

    2016-04-01

    Rice is considered a main source of livelihoods for several billions of people worldwide and plays an important role in the economy of many Asian countries. More than just a food source, rice production is regarded as one of the most important components to maintaining political stability and is also a national subject of economic policy due to domestic food consumption and grain exports. Vietnam is globally one of the largest rice producers and suppliers with more than 80% of the exported rice amount produced from the Mekong River Delta. This delta is one of the three deltas in the world most vulnerable to the climate change, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Thus, spatiotemporal information of rice cropping systems is important for agricultural management to ensure food security and rice grain exports. Coarse resolution satellite data such as MODIS demonstrates the applicability for rice mapping at a large scale. However, the use of MODIS data for such a monitoring purpose still reveals a challenging task due to mixed-pixel issues. The Proba-V satellite launched on 7 May 2013 is a potential candidate for this monitoring purpose because the data include four spectral bands (blue, red, near-infrared and mid-infrared) with a swath of 2,285 km with a spatial resolution of 100 m and temporal resolution of 5 days. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of multi-temporal Proba-V data for mapping rice cropping systems in Mekong Delta River, South Vietnam. The data were processed for 2014-2015 rice cropping seasons, following three main steps: (1) construction of smooth time-series NDVI data, (2) classification of rice cropping systems using crop phenological metrics, and (3) accuracy assessment of the mapping results. The results indicated that the smooth time-series NDVI profiles characterized the temporal spectral responses of rice fields through different growing stages of rice plant, which was critically important for understanding rice crop

  4. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [SUNY ESF; Volk, Timothy [SUNY ESF

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  5. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  6. Georeferenced scanning system to estimate the leaf wall area in tree crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Moral-Martínez, Ignacio; Arnó, Jaume; Escolà, Alexandre; Sanz, Ricardo; Masip-Vilalta, Joan; Company-Messa, Joaquim; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-04-10

    This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA). Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA) is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution), as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU) time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  7. Georeferenced Scanning System to Estimate the Leaf Wall Area in Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del-Moral-Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA. Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution, as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  8. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  9. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEXiao-mei; LIAOMin; LIUWei-ping; SusanneKLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolyrJc bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport svstem activit), was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growrh stages

  10. Plants + microbes: Innovative food crop systems that also clean air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. It is known that most biogeochemical cycles have a microbial link, and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, have long been established. Wetland plants and soil/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of all kinds of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and root microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an extraordinary adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. It is known that tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and machines enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes can are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors which operate without the need for human direction. We will

  11. Life-cycle phosphorus management of the crop production–consumption system in China, 1980–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huijun [School of Earth Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Yuan, Zengwei, E-mail: yuanzw@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gao, Liangmin [School of Earth Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Zhang, Ling [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Yongliang [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for agriculture and also a pollutant capable of causing eutrophication. The possibility of a future P scarcity and the requirement to improve the environment quality necessitate P management to increase the efficiency of P use. This study applied a substance flow analysis (SFA) to implement a P management procedure in a crop production–consumption (PMCPC) system model. This model determined the life-cycle P use efficiency (PUE) of the crop production–consumption system in China during 1980–2012. The system includes six subsystems: fertilizer manufacturing, crop cultivation, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural consumption, and urban consumption. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of the subsystems were identified and quantified using data from official statistical databases, published literature, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed that the total PUE of the crop production–consumption system in China was low, notably from 1980 to 2005, and increased from 7.23% in 1980 to 20.13% in 2012. Except for fertilizer manufacturing, the PUEs of the six subsystems were also low. The PUEs in the urban consumption subsystem and the crop cultivation subsystem were less than 40%. The PUEs of other subsystems, such as the rural consumption subsystem and the livestock breeding subsystem, were also low and even decreased during these years. Measures aimed to improve P management practices in China have been proposed such as balancing fertilization, disposing livestock excrement, adjusting livestock feed, changing the diet of residents, and raising the waste disposal level, etc. This study also discussed several limitations related with the model and data. Conducting additional related studies on other regions and combining the analysis of risks with opportunities may be necessary to develop effective management strategies. - Highlights: • A model of P management of the crop production–consumption system

  12. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  13. Impact of Tillage and Fertilizer Application Method on Gas Emissions in a Corn Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. SMITH; D. WATTS; T. WAY; H. TORBERT; S. PRIOR

    2012-01-01

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas ernissions from soil.This study was conducted to determine the impact of fertilizer sources,land management practices,and fertilizer placement methods on greenhouse gas (CO2,CH4,and N2O) emissions.A new prototype implement developed for applying poultry litter in subsurface bands in the soil was used in this study.The field site was located at the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center in the Appalachian Plateau region of northeast Alabama,USA,on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy,siliceous,subactive,thermic Typic Hapludults).Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4),and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions followed GRACEnet (greenhouse gas reduction through agricultural carbon enhancement network) protocols to assess the effects of different tillage (conventional vs.no-tillage) and fertilizer placement (subsurface banding vs.surface application) practices in a corn (Zea mays L.) cropping system.Fertilizer sources were urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN),ammonium nitrate (AN) and poultry litter (M) applied at a rate of 170 kg ha -1 of available N.Banding of fertilizer resulted in the greatest concentration of gaseous loss (CO2 and N2O) compared to surface applications of fertilizer.Fertilizer banding increased CO2 and N2O toss on various sampling days throughout the season with poultry litter banding emitting more gas than UAN banding.Conventional tillage practices also resulted in a higher concentration of CO2 and N2O loss when evaluating tillage by sampling day.Throughout the course of this study,CH4 flux was not affected by tillage,fertilizer source,or fertilizer placement method.These results suggest that poultry litter use and banding practices have the potential to increase greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Brachypodium distachyon as a model system for studies of copper transport in cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-il eJung

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient that performs a remarkable array of functions in plants including photosynthesis, cell wall remodeling, flowering, and seed set. Of the world's major cereal crops, wheat, barley, and oat are the most sensitive to Cu deficiency. Cu deficient soils include alkaline soils, which occupy approximately 30% of the world’s arable lands, and organic soils that occupy an estimated 19% of arable land in Europe. We used Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium as a proxy for wheat and other grain cereals to initiate analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying their increased susceptibility to Cu deficiency. In this report, we focus on members of the CTR/COPT family of Cu transporters because their homologs in A. thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated in Cu-limited conditions and are involved either in Cu uptake from soils into epidermal cells in the root, or long-distance transport and distribution of Cu in photosynthetic tissues. We found that of five COPT proteins in brachypodium, BdCOPT3 and BdCOPT4 localize to the plasma membrane and are transcriptionally upregulated in roots and leaves by Cu deficiency. We also found that BdCOPT3, BdCOPT4, and BdCOPT5 confer low affinity Cu transport, in contrast to their counterparts in A. thaliana that confer high affinity Cu transport. These data suggest that increased sensitivity to Cu deficiency in some grass species may arise from lower efficiency and, possibly, other properties of components of Cu uptake and tissue partitioning systems and reinforce the importance of using brachypodium as a model for the comprehensive analyses of Cu homeostasis in cereal crops.

  15. Surface N Balances in Agricultural Crop Production Systems in China for the Period 1980-2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bo; SHEN Run-Ping; A.F.BOUWMAN

    2008-01-01

    Surface nitrogen (N) balances for ChinEs crop production systems was estimated using statistical data collected from 1980 to 2004 at the national and provincial scale and from 1994 to 1999 at the county level.There was a surplus N balance throughout these periods,but the surplus was nearly stable in recent years.Projections using nonseasonal Box-Jenkins model or exponential models show that the N surplus for the total cultivated land in China was likely to increase from 142.8 kg ha-1 in 2004 to 168.6 kg ha-1 in 2015.The N balance surplus in the more developed southeastern provinces was the largest,and was slightly less in the central region,which caused the nitrate pollution in the ground water.The N surplus was much less in the western and northern provinces because of lower synthetic fertilizer inputs.The region with high N risk includes Beijing Municipality and Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Fujian,Guangdong,Hubei,and Shandong provinces for 2002-2004.The projections suggested that 15 provinces (or municipalities) in the middle and southeastern part of China except Jiangxi and Shanxi provinces would become the high-risk region by 2015.The level of economic development,transportation,and labor force condition had an important effect on the N balance surplus at the county level,but the last two factors showed remarkable impact at the provincial level.To decrease the nonpoint pollution (Npp) risk from crop production,the authors suggested to reduce the target level for national grain self-sufficiency to 90%-95% and change the regional structure of grain production by moving some of the future grain production from the high Npp risk areas of eastern China to parts of the central and western provinces where the Npp risk was much less.

  16. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M.; Butler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick-stemmed species such as energy cane (Saccharum ssp.), Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum), and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering-economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per-hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or track. For 50% moisture content, in-field costs using trucks in the field (options 0 and 1) are $3.72-$5.99/dry Mg ($3.37-$5.43/dt) for a farmer and $3.09-$3.64/dry Mg ($2.81- $3.30/dt) for custom operators. However, slopes and wet field conditions may not permit trucks to enter the field. Direct-cut harvest systems using wagons to haul silage to trucks waiting at the field edge (option 2) are $8.52-$11.94/dry Mg ($7.73-$10.83/dt) for farmers and $7.20-$7.36/dry Mg ($6.53-$6.68/dt) for custom operators. Based on four round trips per 8-hour day, 50% and 70% moisture silage, truck transport costs are $8.37/dry Mg ($ 7.60/dt) and $13.98/dry Mg ($12.68/dt), respectively. Lower yields, lower hours of machine use, or a higher discount rate result in higher costs.

  17. Prioritizing stream types according to their potential risk to receive crop plant material--A GIS-based procedure to assist in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops and systemic insecticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kuhn, Ulrike; Bundschuh, Mirco; Naegele, Caroline; Elsaesser, David; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Oehen, Bernadette; Hilbeck, Angelika; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Hofmann, Frieder

    2016-03-15

    Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status--an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress--and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed

  18. Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, R J

    2008-02-12

    Eco-efficiency is concerned with the efficient and sustainable use of resources in farm production and land management. It can be increased either by altering the management of individual crop and livestock enterprises or by altering the land-use system. This paper concentrates on the effects of crop sequence and rotation on soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. The potential importance of mixed farming involving both crops and livestock is stressed, particularly when the systems incorporate biological nitrogen fixation and manure recycling. There is, however, little evidence that the trend in developed countries to farm-level specialization is being reduced. In some circumstances legislation to restrict diffuse pollution may provide incentives for more diverse eco-efficient farming and in other circumstances price premia for produce from eco-efficient systems, such as organic farming, and subsidies for the provision of environmental services may provide economic incentives for the adoption of such systems. However, change is likely to be most rapid where the present systems lead to obvious reductions in the productive potential of the land, such as in areas experiencing salinization. In other situations, there is promise that eco-efficiency could be increased on an area-wide basis by the establishment of linkages between farms of contrasting type, particularly between specialist crop and livestock farms, with contracts for the transfer of manures and, to a lesser extent, feeds.

  19. Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Griffin, Timothy S; Olanya, O Modesto; Halloran, John M; He, Zhongqi

    2011-01-01

    Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation, soil improvement, disease suppression, and a status quo standard rotation control, were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial community characteristics. The status quo system (SQ) consisted of barley underseeded with red clover followed by potato (2-year). The soil-conserving system (SC) featured an additional year of forage grass and reduced tillage (3-year, barley/timothy-timothy-potato). The soil-improving system (SI) added yearly compost amendments to the SC rotation, and the disease-suppressive system (DS) featured diverse crops with known disease-suppressive capability (3-year, mustard/rapeseed-sudangrass/rye-potato). Each system was also compared with a continuous potato control (PP) and evaluated under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Data collected over three potato seasons following full rotation cycles demonstrated that all rotations reduced stem canker (10 to 50%) relative to PP. The SQ, SC, and DS systems reduced black scurf (18 to 58%) relative to PP; SI reduced scurf under nonirrigated but not irrigated conditions; and scurf was lower in DS than all other systems. The SQ, SC, and DS systems also reduced common scab (15 to 45%), and scab was lower in DS than all other systems. Irrigation increased black scurf and common scab but also resulted in higher yields for most rotations. SI produced the highest yields under nonirrigated conditions, and DS produced high yields and low disease under both irrigation regimes. Each cropping system resulted in distinctive changes in soil microbial community characteristics as represented by microbial populations, substrate utilization, and fatty acid methyl-ester (FAME) profiles. SI tended to increase soil moisture, microbial populations, and activity, as well result in higher proportions of monounsaturated FAMEs and the FAME biomarker for mycorrhizae (16:1

  20. Effects of cover crops on the nitrogen fluxes in a silage maize production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Dijk, van W.; Groot, de W.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Rye and grass cover crops can potentially intercept residual soil mineral nitrogen (SMN), reduce overwinter leaching, transfer SMN to next growing seasons and reduce the fertilizer need of subsequent crops. These aspects were studied for 6 years in continuous silage maize cv. LG 2080 production syst

  1. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done for the…

  2. Soil pH and exchangeable cation responses to tillage and fertilizer in dryland cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers can lead to soil acidification and other chemical changes that can lower fertility. Here, we present near-surface (0-7.6 cm) soil chemistry data from 16 years of two different crop rotations in the US northern Great Plains: (1) continuous crop (CC; spring w...

  3. Sustainability assessment of crop protection systems: SustainOS methodology and its application for apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouron, P.; Heijne, B.; Naef, A.; Strassemever, J.; Haver, F.; Avilla, J.

    2012-01-01

    Crop protection in general and apple crop protection in particular often rely on pesticides, although several alternative pest management measures are available. In this context European agricultural policy requires the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) by 2014. Within IPM, more tha

  4. Exploring options for improving water and nitrogen use efficiency in crop production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, W.

    2015-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors in global crop production. However, the optimization of water and N use is often studied separately, and the interactions between water and N use in crop production are often neglected. Lack of systematic

  5. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done…

  6. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51, the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  7. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  8. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  9. Water uptake in crop growth models for land use systems analysis: II. Comparison of three simple approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.W.; Driessen, P.M.; Rabbinge, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses water uptake by roots as calculated in summary crop growth models for use at the land use systems level. Simple comparative exercises were carried out using three models. The results show considerable differences in daily and cumulative water uptake. One model calculates moistur

  10. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  11. Evaluation benefits of rainwater harvesting using infiltration pits in rainfed cropping systems: Preliminary results from Rushinga district, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.; Chimweta, M.; Nyagumbo, I.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Occurrence of dry spells during the rainfall season is the major cause of crop failure in semi-arid areas. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is regarded as a viable option for mitigating these dry spells. However, benefits of most RWH systems have not been adequately quantified. The objective of t

  12. Relationships of crop and soil management systems to meteorological variables and potato diseases on a Russet burbank cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop, soil and water management systems may alter microclimatic conditions and affect plant growth and pest dynamics. However, the extent to which meteorological variables of potato canopy may be impacted in a humid temperate region has not been adequately ascertained. Field plots of a Russet Burban...

  13. [Effects of different multiple cropping systems on paddy field weed community under long term paddy-upland rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Xu, Ning; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Based on a long term field experiment, this paper studied the effects of different multiple cropping systems on the weed community composition and species diversity under paddy-upland rotation. The multiple cropping rotation systems could significantly decrease weed density and inhibited weed growth. Among the rotation systems, the milk vetch-early rice-late maize --> milk vetchearly maize intercropped with early soybean-late rice (CCSR) had the lowest weed species dominance, which inhibited the dominant weeds and decreased their damage. Under different multiple cropping systems, the main weed community was all composed of Monochoia vaginalis, Echinochloa crusgalli, and Sagittaria pygmae, and the similarity of weed community was higher, with the highest similarity appeared in milk vetch-early rice-late maize intercropped with late soybean --> milk vetch-early maize-late rice (CSCR) and in CCSR. In sum, the multiple cropping rotations in paddy field could inhibit weeds to a certain extent, but attentions should be paid to the damage of some less important weeds.

  14. Climate change predicted to negatively influence surface soil health of dryland cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key indicator of agricultural productivity and overall soil health. Currently, dryland cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW) span a large gradient in mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP). These climatic drivers are major determinants ...

  15. Fertilizer {sup 15}N balance in a coffee cropping system: a case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenilli, Tatiele Anete Bergamo [Universidade Regional de Blumenau (URB), SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: tfenilli@furb.br; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny Oliveira Santos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica do Solo]. E-mails: klaus@cena.usp.br; osny@cena.usp.br; Favarin, Jose Laercio [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Silva, Adriana Lucia [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fazenda Santo Antonio]. E-mail: adriana.silva@ctc.com.br; Timm, Luis Carlos [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural]. E-mail: lcartimm@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-15

    Knowledge about the fate of fertilizer nitrogen in agricultural systems is essential for the improvement of management practices in order to maximize nitrogen (N) recovery by the crop and reduce N losses from the system to a minimum. This study involves fertilizer management practices using the {sup 15}N isotope label applied in a single rate to determine the fertilizer-N balance in a particular soil-coffee-atmosphere system and to deepen the understanding of N plant dynamics. Five replicates consisting of plots of about 120 plants each were randomly defined within a 0.2 ha coffee plantation planted in 2001, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Nine plants of each plot were separated in sub-plots for the {sup 15}N balance studies and treated with N rates of 280 and 350 kg ha-1 during 2003/2004 and 2004/ 2005, respectively, both of them as ammonium sulfate enriched to a {sup 15}N abundance of 2.072 atom %. Plant shoots were considered as separate parts: the orthotropic central branch, productive branches, leaves of productive branches, vegetative branches, leaves of vegetative branches and fruit. Litter, consisting of dead leaves accumulated below the plant canopy, was measured by the difference between leaves at harvest and at the beginning of the following flowering. Roots and soil were sampled down to a depth of 1.0 at intervals of 0.2 m. Samples from the isotopic sub-plots were used to evaluate total N and {sup 15}N, and plants outside sub-plots were used to evaluate dry matter. Volatilization losses of NH{sub 3} were estimated using special collectors. Leaching of fertilizer-N was estimated from deep drainage water fluxes and {sup 15}N concentrations of the soil solution at 1 m soil depth. At the end of the 2-year evaluation, the recovery of {sup 15}N applied as ammonium sulfate was 19.1 % in aerial plant parts, 9.4 % in the roots, 23.8 % in the litter, 26.3 % in the fruit and 12.6 % remaining in the 0-1.0 m soil profile. Annual leaching and volatilization losses were

  16. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  17. Rice Crop Field Monitoring System with Radio Controlled Helicopter Based Near Infrared Cameras Through Nitrogen Content Estimation and Its Distribution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop field monitoring system with radio controlled helicopter based near infrared cameras is proposed together with nitrogen content estimation method for monitoring its distribution in the field in concern. Through experiments at the Saga Prefectural Agricultural Research Institute: SPARI, it is found that the proposed system works well for monitoring nitrogen content in the rice crop which indicates quality of the rice crop and its distribution in the field in concern. Therefore, it becomes available to maintain the rice crop fields in terms of quality control.

  18. Ideotype root architecture for efficient nitrogen acquisition by maize in intensive cropping systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The use of nitrogen(N) fertilizers has contributed to the production of a food supply sufficient for both animals and humans despite some negative environmental impact.Sustaining food production by increasing N use efficiency in intensive cropping systems has become a major concern for scientists,environmental groups,and agricultural policymakers worldwide.In high-yielding maize systems the major method of N loss is nitrate leaching.In this review paper,the characteristic of nitrate movement in the soil,N uptake by maize as well as the regulation of root growth by soil N availability are discussed.We suggest that an ideotype root architecture for efficient N acquisition in maize should include(i) deeper roots with high activity that are able to uptake nitrate before it moves downward into deep soil;(ii) vigorous lateral root growth under high N input conditions so as to increase spatial N availability in the soil;and(iii) strong response of lateral root growth to localized nitrogen supply so as to utilize unevenly distributed nitrate especially under limited N conditions.

  19. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 2: model verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The experimental and predicted performance data of a heat pump dryer system is reported. Chopped alfalfa was dried in a cabinet dryer in batches and also by emulating continuous bed drying using two heat pumps operating in parallel. Results showed that alfalfa was dried from an initial moisture content of 70% (wb) to a final moisture content of 10% (wb). The batch drying took about 4.5 h while continuous bed drying took 4 h to dry the same amount of material. The average air velocity inside the dryer was 0.36 m s{sup -1}. Low temperatures (30-45{sup o}C) for safe drying of specialty crops were achieved experimentally. The heat pump drying system used in this study was about 50% more efficient in recovering the latent heat from the dryer exhaust compared to the conventional dryers. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) was maximum when relative humidity stayed above 40%. The dryer was shown to be capable of SMER of between 0.5 and 1.02 kg kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. It was concluded that continuous bed drying is potentially a better option than batch drying because high process air humidity ratios at the entrance of the evaporator and constant moisture extraction rate and specific moisture extraction rate values can be maintained. An uncertainty analysis confirmed the accuracy of the model. (author)

  20. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  1. Delivering sustainable crop protection systems via the seed: exploiting natural constitutive and inducible defence pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John A; Aradottír, Gudbjorg I; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A; Hooper, Antony M; Midega, Charles A O; Jones, Huw D; Matthes, Michaela C; Napier, Johnathan A; Pittchar, Jimmy O; Smart, Lesley E; Woodcock, Christine M; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-05

    To reduce the need for seasonal inputs, crop protection will have to be delivered via the seed and other planting material. Plant secondary metabolism can be harnessed for this purpose by new breeding technologies, genetic modification and companion cropping, the latter already on-farm in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary metabolites offer the prospect of pest management as robust as that provided by current pesticides, for which many lead compounds were, or are currently deployed as, natural products. Evidence of success and promise is given for pest management in industrial and developing agriculture. Additionally, opportunities for solving wider problems of sustainable crop protection, and also production, are discussed.

  2. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe;

    2014-01-01

    cereals (barley and wheat) caused the highest population increases (up to eightfold), especially when preceded by grass-clover. Winter rye and potatoes with ridging cultivations were neutral to the E. repens population. Cultivations between crops were necessary to diminish the infestation and were......-year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without...

  3. Global warming likely reduces crop yield and water availability of the dryland cropping systems in the U.S. central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...

  4. A Hydroponic System for Purification of Anaerobically Treated Dairy Manure and Production of Wheat as a Nutritional Forage Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic system was developed and used for purification of an anaerobically treated dairy manure and production of forage crops. The effect of light duration, seeding rate and wastewater application rate on the crop yield and pollution potential reduction were studied. The results indicated that a wheat forage crop can be produced in 21 days from germination to harvest in this system and removal efficiencies of up to 89.9, 94.6, and 86.7 % can be achieved for the total solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonium nitrogen, respectively. Increasing the wastewater application rate increased the crop yield and decreased the pollutants removal efficiencies. A treatment combination of wastewater application rate of 900 mL/day, a seeding rate of 400 g and a light duration of 12 hours gave the best results for crop yield (3.65 kg of wheat/tray. A total possible yield of 3160 tonnes per hectare per year can be achieved with the system (with thirteen harvests per year. This is more than 98 times greater than the yield obtainable from a field grown conventional forage of 245 tonnes per hectare per year. At the optimum forage production, removal efficiencies of 75.7, 85.9 and 75.6% were achieved for the solids, COD, ammonium nitrogen, respectively. A nitrate nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L was found in the effluent from the hydroponic system. This is below the Canadian Environmental and Health Guidelines of 10 mg/L.

  5. Assessment of Cropping System Diversity in the Fergana Valley Through Image Fusion of Landsat 8 and SENTINEL-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, D.; Kuhn, J.; Conrad, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the transitioning agricultural societies of the world, food security is an essential element of livelihood and economic development with the agricultural sector very often being the major employment factor and income source. Rapid population growth, urbanization, pollution, desertification, soil degradation and climate change pose a variety of threats to a sustainable agricultural development and can be expressed as agricultural vulnerability components. Diverse cropping patterns may help to adapt the agricultural systems to those hazards in terms of increasing the potential yield and resilience to water scarcity. Thus, the quantification of crop diversity using indices like the Simpson Index of Diversity (SID) e.g. through freely available remote sensing data becomes a very important issue. This however requires accurate land use classifications. In this study, the focus is set on the cropping system diversity of garden plots, summer crop fields and orchard plots which are the prevalent agricultural systems in the test area of the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. In order to improve the accuracy of land use classification algorithms with low or medium resolution data, a novel processing chain through the hitherto unique fusion of optical and SAR data from the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-1 platforms is proposed. The combination of both sensors is intended to enhance the object's textural and spectral signature rather than just to enhance the spatial context through pansharpening. It could be concluded that the Ehlers fusion algorithm gave the most suitable results. Based on the derived image fusion different object-based image classification algorithms such as SVM, Naïve Bayesian and Random Forest were evaluated whereby the latter one achieved the highest classification accuracy. Subsequently, the SID was applied to measure the diversification of the three main cropping systems.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF CROPPING SYSTEM DIVERSITY IN THE FERGANA VALLEY THROUGH IMAGE FUSION OF LANDSAT 8 AND SENTINEL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the transitioning agricultural societies of the world, food security is an essential element of livelihood and economic development with the agricultural sector very often being the major employment factor and income source. Rapid population growth, urbanization, pollution, desertification, soil degradation and climate change pose a variety of threats to a sustainable agricultural development and can be expressed as agricultural vulnerability components. Diverse cropping patterns may help to adapt the agricultural systems to those hazards in terms of increasing the potential yield and resilience to water scarcity. Thus, the quantification of crop diversity using indices like the Simpson Index of Diversity (SID e.g. through freely available remote sensing data becomes a very important issue. This however requires accurate land use classifications. In this study, the focus is set on the cropping system diversity of garden plots, summer crop fields and orchard plots which are the prevalent agricultural systems in the test area of the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. In order to improve the accuracy of land use classification algorithms with low or medium resolution data, a novel processing chain through the hitherto unique fusion of optical and SAR data from the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-1 platforms is proposed. The combination of both sensors is intended to enhance the object´s textural and spectral signature rather than just to enhance the spatial context through pansharpening. It could be concluded that the Ehlers fusion algorithm gave the most suitable results. Based on the derived image fusion different object-based image classification algorithms such as SVM, Naïve Bayesian and Random Forest were evaluated whereby the latter one achieved the highest classification accuracy. Subsequently, the SID was applied to measure the diversification of the three main cropping systems.

  7. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  8. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite; Altamiro de Souza Lima Ferraz Junior; Emanoel Gomes de Moura; Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos c...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (psystem. Measurements of soil organic carbon contents before and three years after introduction of upland crop rotations indicated a SOC loss for the R-M system, while for the other

  10. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Butler, J. [Butler (James), Tifton, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.

  11. Mercury Pollution of Soil—Crop System in Acid precipitation Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOUSHU-SEN; QINGCHANG-LE

    1995-01-01

    In acid precipitation area of Chongqing suburb the average of Hg in soil rose from 0.158mg/kg in 1984 to 0.20mg/kg in 1989,and Hg content of crops grown on these soils increased too.Both soil and vegetable Hg came mainly from power plant emission.which caused Hg and acid precipitiation pollution in environment and the Hg pollution of water,crops and milk in the area.

  12. Optimizing water and nitrogen inputs for winter wheat cropping system on the Loess Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuPing FU; QuanJiu WANG; XinLei SHEN; Jun FAN

    2014-01-01

    Optimal use of water and fertilizers can enhance winter wheat yield and increase the efficiencies of water and fertilizer usage in dryland agricultural systems. In order to optimize water and nitrogen (N) management for winter wheat, we conducted field experiments from 2006 to 2008 at the Changwu Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences on the Loess Plateau, China. Regression models of wheat yield and evapotranspiration (ET) were established in this study to evaluate the water and fertilizer coupling effects and to determine the optimal coupling domain. The results showed that there was a positive effect of water and N fertilizer on crop yield, and optimal irrigation and N inputs can significantly increase the yield of winter wheat. In the drought year (2006-2007), the maximum yield (Ymax) of winter wheat was 9.211 t/hm2 for the treatment with 324 mm irriga-tion and 310 kg/hm2 N input, and the highest water use efficiency (WUE) of 16.335 kg/(hm2⋅mm) was achieved with 198 mm irrigation and 274 kg/hm2 N input. While in the normal year (2007-2008), the maximum winter wheat yield of 10.715 t/hm2 was achieved by applying 318 mm irrigation and 291 kg/hm2 N, and the highest WUE was 18.69 kg/(hm2⋅mm) with 107 mm irrigation and 256 kg/hm2 N input. Crop yield and ET response to irrigation and N inputs followed a quadratic and a line function, respectively. The optimal coupling domain was determined using the elas-ticity index (EI) and its expression in the water-N dimensions, and was represented by an ellipse, such that the global maximum WUE (WUEmax) and Ymax values corresponded to the left and right end points of the long axis, respectively. Considering the aim to get the greatest profit in practice, the optimal coupling domain was represented by the lower half of the ellipse, with the Ymax and WUEmax on the two end points of the long axis. Overall, we found that the total amount of irrigation for winter wheat should not exceed 324 mm. In

  13. Soil Management Practices to Improve Nutrient-use Efficiencies and Reduce Risk in Millet-based Cropping Systems in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koala, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility and moisture deficit are among the main constraints to sustainable crop yields in the Sahel. A study therefore, was conducted at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Sadore in Niger to test the hypothesis that integrated soil husbandry practices consisting of manure, fertilizer and crop residues in rotational cropping systems use organic and mineral fertilizes efficiently, thereby resulting in higher yields and reduced risk. Results from an analysis of variance showed that choice of cropping systems explained more than 50% of overall variability in millet and cowpea grain yields. Among the cropping systems, rotation gave higher yields than sole crop and intercropping systems and increased millet yield by 46% without fertilizer. Rainfall-use efficiency and partial factor productivity of fertilizer were similarly higher in rotations than in millet monoculture system. Returns from cowpea grown in cowpea-millet rotation without fertilizer and the medium rates of fertilizers (4 kg P.ha-1 + 15 kg N.ha-1 were found to be most profitable in terms of high returns and low risk, principally because of a higher price of cowpea than millet. The study recommends crop diversification, either in the form of rotations or relay intercropping systems for the Sahel as an insurance against total crop failure.

  14. EVOLUTIONS OF A BLACK-GRASS POPULATION SUBMITTED TO DIVERSE CROP SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, F; Matrheeuws, L; Verbiest, M

    2014-01-01

    Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. The first case of resistance in Belgium was reported by Eelen et al. (1996). Since then, monitoring showed that resistant black-grass was not confined to restricted areas anymore and that all usually effective modes of action could be subject to resistance issue (Henriet and Maréchal, 2009). There is no report that agrochemical companies will soon bring a new mode of action effective against grasses on the market, in a close future. It is therefore important to preserve the still effective actives by integrating them into global weeding strategies. A long-lasting trial was set up in order to study the evolution of a black-grass population when submitted to diverse crop systems. Several factors were studied such as rotation (quadri-annual-bisannual-monoculture winter wheat), sowing date (standard date or delayed), cultivation (inversion tillage or not) and herbicide treatments. During three years, each time winter wheat occurred in the rotation, each plot gets the same factorial combination (rotation excepted). In untreated plots, black-grass head counting's showed no differences between tillage or not and bisannual or quadri-annual rotation. On the other hand, number of black-grass heads was higher in standard sowing date and monoculture than in delayed sowing date and other rotations, respectively. The general efficacy of the herbicide treatments was decreasing over the years.

  15. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-07-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg{sup -}1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg{sup -}1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg{sup -}1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg{sup -}1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non

  17. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Rongyan; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM) and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN) contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR)/cotton-rapeseed (CR) rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile), intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles), and high (90th percentile) levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C) and N (POM-N) contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN) contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively) than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively). Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials) in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  18. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  19. Influence of Cropping System Intensity on Dry Matter Yield and Nitrogen Concentration in Different Parts of Soybean Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudija Carović

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-year investigations were conducted within the three-year maize-soybean-wheat crop rotation with the aim to assess the influence of two cropping systems, conditionally marked as high-input and reduced-input systems, on soybean dry matter yield and nitrogen concentration in its different plant parts. The high-input system was characterized by: ploughing at 30-32 cm, fertilization with 80 kg N and 130 P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1, weed control based on oxasulfuron and, if required, a corrective treatment with propachizafop and bentazone. The reduced-input system involved: ploughing at 20-22 cm, fertilization with a total of 40 kg N and 130 kg P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1, and only oxasulfuron-based weed control. Investigations involved two soybean genotypes: L 940596 and L 910631, vegetation group I. An identical monofactorial trial with four replications was set up in each cropping system. Cropping system intensity had a positive effect on leaf and stem dry matter mass in 2002, and on leaf and stem nitrogen concentration, whereas it had no effect on pod dry matter, seed yield and seed nitrogen concentrations in either year. The highest leaf dry matter was recorded in R4 development stage and that of stem and pod without seeds in R7 development stage. In both trial years, the highest nitrogen concentrations in leaf and stem were recorded in R1 development stage. In both trial years, higher pod nitrogen concentration was achieved in R4 development stage than in the R7 stage.

  20. Effect of biochar and liming on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a temperate maize cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesised mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize cropping system, we set up a field trial with a 20t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment (pH 6.5), and a control treatment without any addition (pH 6.1). An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg N ha-1 in three applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg N ha-1 as ammonium nitrate. Cumulative N2O emissions were 52 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.27) because of the large variability in the data set. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. There is no evidence that reduced N2O emissions with biochar relative to the control is solely caused by a higher soil pH.

  1. Analysis of energy consumption in lowland rice-based cropping system of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chee Wan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient energy is needed in the right form and at the right time for adequate crop production. One way to optimize energy consumption in agriculture is to determine the efficiency of methods and techniques used. With the current increase in world population, energy consumption needs effective planning. That is, the input elements need to be identified in order to prescribe the most efficient methods for controlling them. This study was undertaken in order to determine the direct and indirect energy consumption of field operations in a lowland rice production system of Malaysia. Field time, fuel and other energy requirements were measured for the tillage, planting, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting operations performed. Energy analysis carried out revealed the highest average operational energy consumption was for tillage (1747.33 MJ ha-1 which accounted for about 48.6% of the total operational energy consumption (3595.87 MJ ha-1, followed by harvesting (1171.44 MJ ha-1, 32.6% and planting (562.91 MJ ha-1, 15.7%. Fertilizing and pesticide spraying did not make any significant contributions to the operational energy consumption. Based on energy sources, fuel was the main consumer of direct energy with 2717.82 MJha-1 (22.2%, and fertilizer recording the highest indirect energy consumption of 7721.03 MJha-1 (63.2%. Human labour, pesticides, seeds and indirect energy for machinery use had marginal importance, contributing only 0.2%, 0.6%, 6.8% and 6.9%, respectively to the total energy consumption (12225.97 MJha-1. Average grain yield was 6470.8 kg ha-1, representing energy output of 108321.75 MJha-1, that is, 96095.78 MJ net energy gain or 8.86 MJ output per MJ input. Energy input per kilogram grain yield was 1.89 MJkg-1. The results of the study indicate energy gain in the lowland rice production system of Malaysia.

  2. Evaluation of certain crop residues for carbohydrate and protein fractions by cornell net carbohydrate and protein system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarulu Swarna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four locally available crop residues viz., jowar stover (JS, maize stover (MS, red gram straw (RGS and black gram straw (BGS were evaluated for carbohydrate and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein (CNCP system. Lignin (% NDF was higher in legume straws as compared to cereal stovers while Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC (% DM followed the reverse trend. The carbohydrate fractions A and B1 were higher in BGS while B2 was higher in MS as compared to other crop residues. The unavailable cell wall fraction (C was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers. Among protein fractions, B1 was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers while B2 was higher in cereal stovers as compared to legume straws. Fraction B3 largely, bypass protein was highest in MS as compared to other crop residues. Acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP (% CP or unavailable protein fraction C was lowest in MS and highest in BGS. It is concluded that MS is superior in nutritional value for feeding ruminants as compared to other crop residues.

  3. Mapping the sensitivity of citrus crops to freeze stress using a geographical information system in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zabihi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus, a cold-sensitive plant, often suffers from low temperature, which seriously affects citrus productivity. Environmental constraint factors have mixed impacts on horticulture that differ among the areas, periods and crops. This study presents a statistical analysis to investigate the freeze stress (FS conditions and morphometry, especially altitude and minimum temperature on citriculture at a regional scale. Based on the temperature isolines map and topography, this paper highlights the impact of altitude and minimum temperature on the citrus crop production using geographic information system (GIS techniques, statistical analysis and climatic data in Ramsar, Iran over a period of 30 years from 1980 to 2010. This study shows that the suitability varies in relation to the critical temperature and concludes that both minimum temperature and altitude have significant negative impact on citrus crop production. Climate change, in particular, occurring cold fronts in recent years during the citrus harvest time have been complicating this issue and increased the importance of freezes stress (FS. The results highlight that citrus crop orchards were more strongly affected by the minimum temperature, and along with the elevation ranges theses are major challenging factors.

  4. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Managements on Substrate Utilization Pattern of Soil Microbial Population in Hybrid Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the combined effect of nutrient and pest managements on soil biomass phospholipid contents, functional biodiversity and substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial populations in hybrid rice cropping system. The mineral N, P and K fertilizers (as urea, calcium superphosphate and KCl respectively) were incorporated at 100, 25, and 100 kg ha-1, respectively, and the various pesticides were applied at the recommended rates. The results of the experiment demonstrated a decline in the microbial abundance and soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents with the advancement of crop growth, and significant changes in substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial population studied were observed with different management practices and at different growth stages. The principal component analysis (PGA) using all 95-carbon sources (BIOLOG plates) gave good differentiation among the treatments, indicating that they have different patterns of carbon utilization under different habitats. The data showed that diversity in microbial community continuously changed with the progression in crop stage, particularly at physiological maturity (PM) stage that was evident from the utilization of different carbon sources at various crop stages.

  5. A bio-economic farm household model to assess cropping systems in the Rift valley of Ethiopia : towards climate smart agriculture: do food security and mitigration goals match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators

  6. Crop production without fossil fuel: production systems for tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen based on biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlgren, Serina

    2009-12-15

    With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate different systems for biomass-based production of tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen fertilisers, which at present are the two largest fossil energy carriers in Swedish agriculture. The land use, energy input and environmental load of the systems were calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Two categories of renewable tractor fuel were studied: first generation fuels and second generation fuels, the latter defined as fuels not yet produced on a commercial scale. An organic farm self-sufficient in tractor fuel was modelled. Raw material from the farm was assumed to be delivered to a large fuel production facility and fuel transported back to the farm, where it was utilised. In general, the second generation renewable fuels had higher energy balance and lower environmental impact than the first generation fuels. However all systems studied reduced the use of fossil fuels to a great extent and lowered the contribution to global warming. The land needed to be set aside for tractor fuel varied between 2% and 5% of the farm's available land. Two major routes for biomass-based production of mineral nitrogen for conventional agriculture were studied, one based on anaerobic digestion and one on thermochemical gasification of biomass. The crops studied were able to produce between 1.6 and 3.9 tonnes N per hectare in the form of ammonium nitrate. The use of fossil fuel for ammonium nitrate production was 35 MJ per kg N in the fossil reference scenario, but only 1-4 MJ per kg N in the biomass systems. The contribution to global warming can be greatly reduced by the biomass systems, but there is an increased risk of eutrophication and acidification. It is clear that the agricultural sector has great potential to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to lower the emissions of greenhouse

  7. Long-term dynamics of soil C and N in intensive rice-based cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP): A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shibu, M.E.; Keulen, van H.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a summary model for the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen under varying weather, crop and soil conditions to investigate the role of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in yield formation in rice-based cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). The model consists of three modules: so

  8. Nutrient management over extended cropping periods in the shifting cultivation system of south-west Côte d'Ivoire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuler, van H.

    1996-01-01

    Intensification of food crop production in shifting cultivation systems can contribute to protection of tropical forest. For such an intensification knowledge of soil fertility and its dynamics is essential. It was tested whether intensification could be achieved by extending the cropping period in

  9. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shiny; Henderson, Shannon; Reinhold, Dawn

    2014-05-01

    Commonly used in personal care products, triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are two chemicals with antimicrobial properties that have recently been recognized as environmental contaminants with the potential to adversely affect human health. The objective of the study described herein was to evaluate the potential of food crops to uptake TCC and TCS. Eleven food crops, grown in hydroponic nutrient media, were exposed to a mixture of 500 μg L(-1) TCC and TCS. After 4 weeks of exposure, roots accumulated 86-1,350 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials and shoots had accumulated 0.33-5.35 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials. Translocation from roots to shoots was less than 1.9 % for TCC and 3.7 % for TCS, with the greatest translocation for TCC observed for pepper, celery, and asparagus and for TCS observed for cabbage, broccoli, and asparagus. For edible tuber- or bulb-producing crops, the concentrations of both TCC and TCS were lower in the tubers than in the roots. Exposure calculations using national consumption data indicated that the average exposure to TCC and TCS from eating contaminated crops was substantially less than the exposure expected to cause adverse effects, but exceeded the predicted exposure from drinking water. Exposure to antimicrobials through food crops would be substantially reduced through limiting consumption of beets and onions.

  10. Yield and apparent dry matter and nitrogen balances for muskmelon in a long-term comparison between an organic and a conventional low input cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Farneselli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine-year yields and apparent balances of dry matter and nitrogen (N are reported for muskmelon cultivated in a long-term comparison trial between an organic and a conventional low input system in Central Italy. In every year, yield, above ground biomass and N accumulation of each cash crop, green manure and weeds, and the partitioning between marketable yield and crop residues were determined. Apparent dry matter and nitrogen balances were calculated at the end of each crop cycle by taking into account the amounts of dry matter and ex novo N supplied to the system as green manure legume Ndfa (i.e., an estimate of N derived from the atmosphere via symbiotic fixation and fertilisers, and those removed with marketable yield. Differences between systems varied across years. On average, organic muskmelon yielded 16% less than the conventional one, while the fruit quality was similar in the two cropping systems. Fruit ripening began one week later and it was more scaled than in the crop grown conventionally. This was the consequence of a slow initial growth of the organic crop, due to inadequate green manure N total supply or timing of N release. Moreover such a wide spaced crop (0.5 plants m–2, in rows 2 m apart was not efficient in intercepting N released from green manure biomass incorporated broadcast. Compared to the conventional crop management, the organic crop management resulted in much higher organic matter supply to the soil and in higher residual N after harvest. Thus, the choice of cultivating wheat just after melon to prevent postharvest residual N loss appears a key strategy especially in organic systems. Fall-winter green manure crops contributed to the self-sufficiency of the organic system by supplying muskmelon with either N absorbed from the soil or ex novo legume Ndfa.

  11. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop

  12. Can Crops with Greater Rooting Systems Improve Nitrogen Retention and Mitigate Emissions of Nitrous Oxide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decock, Charlotte; Lee, Juhwan; Barthel, Matti; Mikita, Chris; Wilde, Benjamin; Verhoeven, Elizabeth; Hund, Andreas; Abiven, Samuel; Friedli, Cordula; Conen, Franz; Mohn, Joachim; Wolf, Benjamin; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that crops with deeper root systems could improve agricultural sustainability, because scavenging of nitrogen (N) in the subsoil would increase overall N retention and use efficiency in the system. However, the effect of plant root depth and root architecture on N-leaching and emissions of the potent greenhouse N2O remains largely unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of plant rooting depth on N-cycling and N2O production and reduction within the plant-soil system and throughout the soil profile. We hypothesized that greater root depth and root biomass will (1) increase N use efficiency and decrease N losses in the form of N leaching and N2O emissions; (2) increase N retention by shifting the fate of NH4+ from more nitrification toward more plant uptake and microbial immobilization; and (3) increase the depth of maximum N2O production and decrease the ratio of N2O:(N2O+N2) in denitrification end-products. To test these hypotheses, 4 winter wheat cultivars were grown in lysimeters (1.5 m tall, 0.5 m diameter, 3 replications per cultivar) under greenhouse conditions. Each lysimeter was equipped with an automated flux chamber for the determination of N2O surface fluxes. At 7.5, 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm depth, sampling ports were installed for the determination of soil moisture contents, as well as the collection of soil pore air and soil pore water samples. We selected two older and two newer varieties from the Swiss winter wheat breeding program, spanning a 100-year breeding history. The selection was based on previous experiments indicating that the older varieties have deeper rooting systems than the newer varieties under well watered conditions. N2O fluxes were determined twice per day on a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer interfaced with the automated flux chambers. Once per week, we determined concentrations of mineral N in pore water and of CO2 and N2O in the pore air. For mineral N and N2O, also natural abundance isotope deltas

  13. Integrating local knowledge with experimental research: case studies on managing cropping systems in Italy and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Allan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of agricultural systems is currently challenged by many complex agro-environmental issues. These are characterized by an incomplete understanding of the situation and the problems that arise, and the conflicting opinions that result, issues over boundaries that are often difficult to define, and controversy over the multiple goals and uncertain outcomes. Added to these characteristics, we also have the slow and often inadequate uptake and implementation of research outcomes in this complex, real world. In order to improve sustainability of agro-ecosystems, agronomic research must move away from the linear research approaches and extension practices adopted so far that have focused purely on biophysical agroecosystems. The theoretical operational space of agronomic research must be transformed by considering agronomic issues as part of a broader social-agro-ecosystem. One aspect of this transformation is the inclusion of knowledge collected on a local level with the participation of farmers on the ground. The integration of local experiential knowledge with traditional agronomic research is by necessity based on the participation of many different stakeholders and there can be no single blueprint for how best to develop and use the input received. However, agronomists and policy advisors require general guidelines drawn up from actual experience in order to accelerate positive agronomic change. We address this need through a comparative analysis of two case studies; one involves multi-stakeholder research in a cropping system in the dairy district of Arborea, Sardinia, Italy. The central question was: How can high crop production be maintained while also achieving the EU target water quality and minimizing the production costs? The second case is a multi-stakeholder soil health project from south-eastern Australia. Here the central question was: How can soil decline be prevented and reversed in this district, and soils

  14. Developing a Satellite Based Automatic System for Crop Monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift Valley, A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucciani, Roberto; Laneve, Giovanni; Jahjah, Munzer; Mito, Collins

    2016-08-01

    The crop growth stage represents essential information for agricultural areas management. In this study we investigate the feasibility of a tool based on remotely sensed satellite (Landsat 8) imagery, capable of automatically classify crop fields and how much resolution enhancement based on pan-sharpening techniques and phenological information extraction, useful to create decision rules that allow to identify semantic class to assign to an object, can effectively support the classification process. Moreover we investigate the opportunity to extract vegetation health status information from remotely sensed assessment of the equivalent water thickness (EWT). Our case study is the Kenya's Great Rift valley, in this area a ground truth campaign was conducted during August 2015 in order to collect crop fields GPS measurements, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll samples.

  15. Combined Spectral and Spatial Modeling of Corn Yield Based on Aerial Images and Crop Surface Models Acquired with an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Geipel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming (PF management strategies are commonly based on estimations of within-field yield potential, often derived from remotely-sensed products, e.g., Vegetation Index (VI maps. These well-established means, however, lack important information, like crop height. Combinations of VI-maps and detailed 3D Crop Surface Models (CSMs enable advanced methods for crop yield prediction. This work utilizes an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS to capture standard RGB imagery datasets for corn grain yield prediction at three early- to mid-season growth stages. The imagery is processed into simple VI-orthoimages for crop/non-crop classification and 3D CSMs for crop height determination at different spatial resolutions. Three linear regression models are tested on their prediction ability using site-specific (i unclassified mean heights, (ii crop-classified mean heights and (iii a combination of crop-classified mean heights with according crop coverages. The models show determination coefficients \\({R}^{2}\\ of up to 0.74, whereas model (iii performs best with imagery captured at the end of stem elongation and intermediate spatial resolution (0.04m\\(\\cdot\\px\\(^{-1}\\.Following these results, combined spectral and spatial modeling, based on aerial images and CSMs, proves to be a suitable method for mid-season corn yield prediction.

  16. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Tree - Grass Inter-Cropping System in the Humid Tropics of Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Daumas, Salvador

    2000-01-01

    This work aimed to contribute to the understanding of tree - grass inter-cropping interactions so that the productivity and sustainability of extensive livestock husbandry can be increased. The work was carried out in the context of a small farm in Oaxaca, Mexico, where increases in productivity are limited by shortage of capital and where the tree component would be used as green manure. It is difficult to investigate the effectiveness of such a system by only using conventional field trials...

  17. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 1: development of a simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This research is concerned with the technology of heat pump assisted drying of specialty crops. A simplified procedure for modelling the performance of a low temperature heat pump dryer was developed. The system modelled consists of a vapour compression heat pump coupled to a continuous cross flow bed dryer. The model takes into account the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena taking place in the heat pump and dryer circuits. (author)

  18. Carbon Dynamics of Bioenergy Cropping Systems Compared to Conventional Cotton Cropping Systems in the Southern Cotton Belt Region of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, N.; Sharma, S.; Casey, K.; Maas, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    We are facing an unprecedented challenge in securing America's energy future. To address this challenge, increased biofuel crop production is needed. Second-generation biofuels are made from the by-products of intensive agriculture or from less-intensive agriculture on more marginal lands. The Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt can play a significant role in this effort through a change from more conventional crops (like continuous cotton) to second-generation biofuel feedstocks (biomass sorghum and perennial grasses). We have established eddy covariance flux towers in producer fields in the Southern High Plains region. Among the four land uses compared, the net carbon uptake was the highest for the biomass sorghum field. During the year 2014, the biomass sorghum field gained approximately 672 gC m-2y-1. The next highest carbon uptake was recorded for the Old World Bluestem grass field, which was approximately 301 gC m-2y-1. The dominant land use in the region is cotton. While the forage sorghum and grass fields acted as net carbon sinks, the irrigated cotton field acted as a net carbon source to the atmosphere during the same period. The irrigated cotton field exhibited a net carbon loss of approximately 246 gC m-2y-1. In contrast, the dryland cotton field acted as a net carbon sink, with a total uptake of approximately 58 g C m-2y-1. The net primary production of the irrigated cotton field was higher than that of the dryland cotton field, yet the irrigated field was a significant carbon source to the atmosphere. This was due to conventional tillage practices combined with irrigation which enhanced the ecosystem respiration significantly compared to the dryland field. In 2014, an early spring cold front caused poor germination of seeds in the majority of the cotton fields in the region, including the eddy covariance site. This site was re-planted on 9 June, which shortened the growing season for cotton. This was also a contributing factor to this field being a net

  19. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Fe Hondrade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant, the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley.

  20. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazegui, Francisco; Duque, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E.; Mundt, Christopher C.; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.

    2017-01-01

    Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant), the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley. PMID:28194318

  1. Rhizo-lysimetry: facilities for the simultaneous study of root behaviour and resource use by agricultural crop and pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberbach Philip L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizo-lysimeters offer unique advantages for the study of plants and their interactions with soils. In this paper, an existing facility at Charles Sturt University in Wagga Wagga Australia is described in detail and its potential to conduct both ecophysiological and ecohydrological research in the study of root interactions of agricultural crops and pastures is quantitatively assessed. This is of significance to future crop research efforts in southern Australia, in light of recent significant long-term drought events, as well as potential impacts of climate change as predicted for the region. The rhizo-lysimeter root research facility has recently been expanded to accommodate larger research projects over multiple years and cropping rotations. Results Lucerne, a widely-grown perennial pasture in southern Australia, developed an expansive root system to a depth of 0.9 m over a twelve month period. Its deeper roots particularly at 2.05 m continued to expand for the duration of the experiment. In succeeding experiments, canola, a commonly grown annual crop, developed a more extensive (approximately 300% root system than wheat, but exhibited a slower rate of root elongation at rates of 7.47 x 10–3 m day–1 for canola and 1.04 x10–2 m day–1 for wheat. A time domain reflectometry (TDR network was designed to accurately assess changes in soil water content, and could assess water content change to within 5% of the amount of water applied. Conclusions The rhizo-lysimetry system provided robust estimates of root growth and soil water change under conditions representative of a field setting. This is currently one of a very limited number of global research facilities able to perform experimentation under field conditions and is the largest root research experimental laboratory in the southern hemisphere.

  2. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-12-02

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI.

  3. Quantitative understanding of the performance of upland rice – cover legume cropping systems in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akanvou, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: upland rice, relay intercropping, modelling, cover crops, improved fallow.Reducing the long fallow period by replacing the natural fallow with fast growing legume species to improve soil fertility, control weeds or to grow additional forage necessitate selection of suitable species for tho

  4. Implications of Perennial Biomass Energy Cropping Systems for Pasture and Forage Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents large source of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. With new technologies and processes for biomass production and conversion approaching commercial reality forages could once again fuel agriculture. Some of the most extens...

  5. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  6. Partial balance of nitrogen in a maize cropping system in humic nitisol of Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimetu, J.M.; Mugendi, D.N.; Bationo, A.; Palm, C.A.; Mutuo, P.K.; Kihara, J.; Nandwa, S.; Giller, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    The application of nitrogen in a soil under agricultural production is subject to several pathways including de-nitrification, leaching and recovery by an annual crop. This is as well greatly influenced by the management practices, nitrogen source and soil conditions. The main objective of this stud

  7. Tillage and Composting Strategies to Maximize Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen in Maize-based Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal crop yields vary drastically between developed and developing nations. In developing nations, a lack of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer often limits yields. Low-cost soil management strategies that increase biologically available soil organic matter can reduce farmer reliance on synthetic N...

  8. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  9. TOTAL CARBON STOCK IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM HAVING CROP ROTATION IN TARAI REGION OF NORTHERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tariyal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon pools are important in maintaining soil productivity and influencing the CO2 loading into the atmosphere. Agricultural soils can mitigate the problem of carbon concentration increase in atmosphere if proper management practices are involved. In the present study, total carbon stock in crops and soil was analyzed for two years along with crop rotation practice to observe its impact on the carbon pool. For that two agricultural fields C12 and D7 were incorporated with different crop rotations for two years and on the basis of this SOC, Total Carbon, soil respiration and carbon stock were measured. In the end of the study C12 showed higher biomass carbon stock (2.61 t ha-1 as compared to D7 (1.98 t ha-1 and also higher total carbon stock (plant+soil (40.09 t ha-1 as compared to D7 (38.30 t ha-1. Results prove that agriculture can not only be the source but also an effective sink if it is properly managed with different crop rotation practices and also with no-till practice.

  10. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  11. Broccoli Microgreens: A Mineral-Rich Crop That Can Diversify Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn F.

    2017-01-01

    Current malnourishment statistics are high and are exacerbated by contemporary agricultural practices that damage the very environments on which the production of nutritious food depends. As the World’s population grows at an unprecedented rate, food systems must be revised to provide adequate nutrition while minimizing environmental impacts. One specific nutritional problem that needs attention is mineral (e.g., Fe and Zn) malnutrition, which impacts over two-thirds of the World’s people living in countries of every economic status. Microgreens, the edible cotyledons of many vegetables, herbs, and flowers, is a newly emerging crop that may be a dense source of nutrition and has the potential to be produced in just about any locale. This study examined the mineral concentration of broccoli microgreens produced using compost-based and hydroponic growing methods that are easily implemented in one’s own home. The nutritional value of the resulting microgreens was quantitatively compared to published nutritional data for the mature vegetable. Nutritional data were also considered in the context of the resource demands (i.e., water, fertilizer, and energy) of producing microgreens in order to gain insights into the potential for local microgreen production to diversify food systems, particularly for urban areas, while minimizing the overall environmental impacts of broccoli farming. Regardless of how they were grown, microgreens had larger quantities of Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn than the vegetable. However, compost-grown (C) microgreens had higher P, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na, and Cu concentrations than the vegetable. For eight nutritionally important minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Na), the average C microgreen:vegetable nutrient ratio was 1.73. Extrapolation from experimental data presented here indicates that broccoli microgreens would require 158–236 times less water than it does to grow a nutritionally equivalent amount of mature vegetable in the fields of

  12. Modeling & Analysisng of Economic Behaviour of Insurance Acceptance of Wheat crop by using of Thinking System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid balali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainability and precarious conditions of agricultural production have caused this sector be associated with risk . Crops insurance is efficient tool for controlling and reducing production and market risk and stabilizing farmers' income. In this study, the thinking system approach by using of I Think software is used for analyzing and modeling of the effects of different alternatives of policies on wheat insurance acceptance. The results show that the decision making process of insurance acceptance is function of some variables including of probability of brooz khesarat, amount of brooz khesarat, share of farmer’s insurance payment, gross return of fermers and maximum tahood of bimegar payments. Also, by increasing of the probability of brooz khesarat the number of insurance acceptance will increaseal production have caused this sector be associated with risk . Crops insurance is efficient tool for controlling and reducing production and market risk and stabilizing farmers' income. In .

  13. Root-knot Nematode Management and Yield of Soybean as Affected by Winter Cover Crops, Tillage Systems, and Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, N A; Parker, M B

    1987-01-01

    Management of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean as affected by winter small grain crops or fallow, two tillage systems, and nematicides was studied. Numbers of M. incognita did not differ in plots planted to wheat and rye. Yields of soybean planted after these crops also did not differ. Numbers of M. incognita were greater in fallow than in rye plots, but soybean yield was not affected by the two treatments. Soybean yields were greater in subsoil-plant than in moldboard plowed plots. Ethylene dibromide reduced nematode population densities more consistently than aldicarb and phenamiphos. Also, ethylene dibromide increased yields the most and phenamiphos the least. There was a positive correlation (P = 0.001) of seed size (weight of 100 seeds) with yield (r = 0.79), indicating that factors affecting yield also affected seed size.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEMS UPON THE SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOME ARABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor RUSU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L., soyabean (Glycine hispida L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The weed encroachment is minimum for the conventional ploughing tillage technology. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control.

  15. Multi crop model climate risk country-level management design: case study on the Tanzanian maize production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Future climate projections indicate that a very serious consequence of post-industrial anthropogenic global warming is the likelihood of the greater frequency and intensity of extreme hydrometeorological events such as heat waves, droughts, storms, and floods. The design of national and international policies targeted at building more resilient and environmentally sustainable food systems needs to rely on access to robust and reliable data which is largely absent. In this context, the improvement of the modelling of current and future agricultural production losses using the unifying language of risk is paramount. In this study, we use a methodology that allows the integration of the current understanding of the various interacting systems of climate, agro-environment, crops, and the economy to determine short to long-term risk estimates of crop production loss, in different environmental, climate, and adaptation scenarios. This methodology is applied to Tanzania to assess optimum risk reduction and maize production increase paths in different climate scenarios. The simulations carried out use inputs from three different crop models (DSSAT, APSIM, WRSI) run in different technological scenarios and thus allowing to estimate crop model-driven risk exposure estimation bias. The results obtained also allow distinguishing different region-specific optimum climate risk reduction policies subject to historical as well as RCP2.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. The region-specific risk profiles obtained provide a simple framework to determine cost-effective risk management policies for Tanzania and allow to optimally combine investments in risk reduction and risk transfer.

  16. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  17. Development of a decision support system for crop disease monitoring, surveillance and prediction in Bomet county, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, O. M.

    2015-12-01

    The study proposes to use Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing techniques to spatially model Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease in maize growing areas in Kenya. Results from this work will be used for prediction, monitoring and to guide intervention on MLN. This will minimize maize yield losses resulting from MLN infestation and thus safeguard the livelihoods of maize farmers in Kenya. MLN was first reported in Kenya in September 2011 in Bomet county. It then subsequently spread to other parts in Kenya. Maize crops are susceptible to MLN at all growth stages. Once infected the only option left for the farmers is to burn their maize plantations. Infection rate and damage is very high affecting yields and sometimes causing complete loss of maize yield.The modelling exercise will cover the period prior to and after the incidence of MLN. Specifically, the analysis will integrate spatio-temporal information on maize phenology and field surveys with the intention of delineating the extent of MLN infestation and the degree of damage as a result of MLN. Additionally, the task will identify potential predisposing factors leading to MLN resurgence and spread and to predict potential areas where MLN is likely to spread and to estimate the potential impact of MLN on the farm holders. The area of study for this task will be Bomet County. Historical and current environmental and spatial indicators including temperature, rainfall, soil moisture, vegetation health and crop cover will be fed into a model in order to determine the main factors that aide the occurrence and the spread of MLN. Multi-spectral image processing will be used to produce indices to study maize crop health whilst image classification techniques will be used to identify crop cover clusters by differentiating the variations in spectral signatures in the area of study and hence distinguish infected, unaffected maize crops and other crop cover classes. Variables from these indicators will then be

  18. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  19. The Effect of Tillage System and Crop Rotation on Soil Microbial Diversity and Composition in a Subtropical Acrisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Triplett

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural management alters physical and chemical soil properties, which directly affects microbial life strategies and community composition. The microbial community drives important nutrient cycling processes that can influence soil quality, cropping productivity and environmental sustainability. In this research, a long-term agricultural experiment in a subtropical Acrisol was studied in south Brazil. The plots at this site represent two tillage systems, two nitrogen fertilization regimes and three crop rotation systems. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the archaeal and bacterial composition was determined from phylum to species level in the different plot treatments. The relative abundance of these taxes was correlated with measured soil properties. The P, Mg, total organic carbon, total N and mineral N were significantly higher in the no-tillage system. The microbial diversity was higher in the no-tillage system at order, family, genus and species level. In addition, overall microbial composition changed significantly between conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. Anaerobic bacteria, such as clostridia, dominate in no-tilled soil as well as anaerobic methanogenic archaea, which were detected only in the no-tillage system. Microbial diversity was higher in plots in which only cereals (oat and maize were grown. Soil management influenced soil biodiversity on Acrisol by change of composition and abundance of individual species.

  20. CROPS Clever Robots for Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU-funded CROPS project robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit
    and fruit vegetables. The robots are being designed to harvest crops, such as greenhouse vegetables, apples,
    grapes and for canopy spraying in orchards and for precision target sp

  1. Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Trnka, M; Kersebaum, K C;

    2011-01-01

    The studies on anthropogenic climate change performed in the last decade over Europe show consistent projections of increases in temperature and different patterns of precipitation with widespread increases in northern Europe and decreases over parts of southern and eastern Europe. In many...... countries and in recent years there is a tendency towards cereal grain yield stagnation and increased yield variability. Some of these trends may have been influenced by the recent climatic changes over Europe. A set of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires on perceived risks and foreseen impacts...... incidents of heat waves and droughts without possibilities for effectively shifting crop cultivation to other parts of the years. A wide range of adaptation options exists in most European regions to mitigate many of the negative impacts of climate change on crop production in Europe. However, considering...

  2. [Effects of planting system on soil and water conservation and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Da-Bing; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Kai

    2010-06-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to study the effects of wheat/maize/soybean with total no-tillage and mulching (NTM), wheat/maize/soybean with part no-tillage and part mulching (PTM), wheat/maize/soybean with total tillage without mulching (TWM), and wheat/maize/ sweet potato with total tillage without mulching (TWMS) on the soil and water conservation, soil fertility, and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China. The average soil erosion amount and surface runoff of NTM were significantly lower than those of the other three planting systems, being 1189 kg x hm(-2) and 215 m3 x hm(-2), and 10.6% and 84.7% lower than those of TWMS, respectively. The soil organic matter, total N, available K and available N contents of NTM were increased by 15.7%, 18.2%, 55.2%, and 25.9%, respectively, being the highest among the test planting systems. PTM and TWM took the second place, and TWMS pattern had the least. NTM had the highest annual crop output value (18809 yuan x hm(-2)) and net income (12619 yuan x hm(-2)) in three years, being 2.2% -20.6% and 3.8% -32.9% higher than other three planting systems, respectively. In a word, the planting system wheat/maize/soybean was more beneficial to the water and soil conservation and the improvement of soil fertility and crop output value, compared with the traditional planting system wheat/maize/sweet potato.

  3. Soil carbon storage and stratiifcation under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong-du; ZHANG Hai-lin; S Batsile Dikgwatlhe; XUE Jian-fu; QIU Kang-cheng; TANG Hai-ming; CHEN fu

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientiifc community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different til age systems and residue management on distribution, storage and stratiifcation of SOC, and the yield of rice under double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in the southern China. A til age experiment was conducted in the southern China during 2005–2011, including plow til age with residue removed (PT0), plow til age with residue retention (PT), rotary til age with residue retention (RT), and no-til with residue retention on the surface (NT). The soil samples were obtained at the harvesting of late rice in October of 2005, 2007 and 2011. Multiple-year residue return application signiifcantly increased rice yields for the two rice-cropping systems;yields of early and late rice were higher under RT than those under other til age systems in both years in 2011. Compared with PT0, SOC stocks were increased in soil under NT at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm depths by 33.8, 4.1, 6.6, and 53.3%, respectively, in 2011. SOC stocks under RT were higher than these under other til age treatments at 0–30 cm depth. SOC stocks in soil under PT were higher than those under PT0 in the 0–5 and 20–30 cm soil layers. Therefore, crop residues played an important role in SOC management, and improvement of soil quality. In the 0–20 cm layer, the stratiifcation ratio (SR) of SOC fol owed the order NT>RT>PT>PT0;when the 0–30 cm layer was considered, NT also had the highest SR of SOC, but the SR of SOC under PT was higher than that under RT with a multiple-year til age practice. Therefore, the notion that conservation til age lead to higher SOC stocks and soil quality than plowed systems requires cautious scrutiny. Nevertheless, some beneifts associated with RT system present a greater

  4. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

  5. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ahmed

    Full Text Available Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR. The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1 on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  6. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1)) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1) and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1). Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  7. A simulation model-assisted study on water and nitrogen dynamics and their effects on crop performance in the wheat-maize system I:The model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Weili; L(U) Hongzhan; WANG Guiyan; D.J.Connor; G.M.Rimmington

    2007-01-01

    Based on data collected from field experiments,a comprehensive model was built on the Ithink (a registered trademark of iSee Systems) platform to simulate the dynamics of water and nitrogen,and crop performance in the winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system of the North China plain.The model,consisting of seven sub models,i.e.weather generator,phenology,biomass,dry matter partitioning,water balance,nitrogen balance,and nitrogen absorption and partitioning,well reflects water and nitrogen use and their relationship with crop yield under field conditions.A vertical water movement equation is employed in the water balance sub model to account for movement between layers.Crop transpiration and soil evaporation are simulated separately according to potential evaporation,crop cover and a soil water deficit coefficient.Soil evaporation is from the surface layer only while crop transpiration comprises the total amount of water absorbed by the root system from all soil layers.The model considers that nitrogen transformations,transfers and uptake are fulfilled by root systems.Transformation of nitrogen as mineralization,fixation and denitrification are responsive to soil moisture and temperature.Nitrogen movement is simulated with a convection-dispersion equation with nitrate as the soil solute.Nitrogen absorption and partitioning sub model includes the effects of water and nitrogen supply,crop nitrogen demand and nitrogen content in various crop organs.The model can be used to simulate crop yield,water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies and water-nitrogen leaching to specific soil layers in different water and nitrogen management practices.

  8. Soil Fertility Status under Different Tree Cropping System in a Southwestern Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement O. OGUNKUNLE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree cropping has been known to bring about changes in edaphic component among other components of the ecosystem through their interactions with the soil and soil faunas. Premised on this, this study assessed the effects of sole cropping of teak and intercropping of cocoa and kola on the soil fertility status. The study was carried out using stratified-randomed sampling technique for the study plots in all the sampling sites. Three sampling sites consisting of four (4-4oo m2 sampling plots each were established in which vegetation and some soil parameters were assessed. Results analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of leaves decomposition of cocoa and kola improved the organic matter content of the soil under the cocoa/kola site. Considerable improvement in soil fertility was enjoyed in the cocoa/kola site due to the large girth sizes and basal area of trees present in the cocoa/kola site while soil under the sole cropping of teak was impoverished. The degradation effects was due to the high rate of nutrient uptake of the teak, organic matter content was high in the forest site (9.12% and cocoa/kola site (7.34 while the least was in the teak site (3.04%. A very strong correlation existed between organic matter content and some vegetation parameters.

  9. BAGGING TECHNIQUE: WATER CATCHMENT SYSTEM FOR RESIDUAL MOISTURE CROPS USED BY PRODUCERS MASIACA, SONORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Sánchez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the southeast of Sonora as in most of the State, land is unproductive due to its arid and semi-arid land, if it does not have small or large irrigation facilities. Where economic conditions are reduced, producers need to develop techniques that help to overcome the erraticity in the availability of water, especially for irrigation. That's why Mays Indian and Masiaca community private producers from Sonora have developed a technique for harvesting from water of avenues of the intermittent streams near their plots, and once the ground has the adequate humidity conditions they can establish crops of their interest, so it is possible to obtain acceptable harvest in corn, peas, sorghum and safflower. However, these producers face a series of problems related primarily to the lack of rain; lack of credit support for the construction or maintenance of the required facilities; lack of profitability of crops established there, the abandonment of agricultural land, erosion of knowledge, etc. The analysis of this study can draw the following conclusions: The bagging technique is feasible if there are heavy rains, with the presence of cyclones, in October; the acceptable harvest obtained in established crops is largely due to the contribution of organic matter derived from the Avenues; the organizational levels observed are simple and operational.

  10. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wang

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia monoculture system (JRMS, a wheat (Triticum aestivum monoculture system (TAMS, and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  11. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  12. A preliminary approach for modelling the effects of cropping systems on the dynamics of broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa in interaction with the non-parasitic weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current decrease in herbicide use may increase and diversify weed flora in crops as well as companion bioagressors spreading via weeds. Among these bioagressors is Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel, a parastic plant which is very harmful on oilseed rape. The objective of the present work was to develop a new model (called PheraSys of the effects of cropping systems on parasite dynamics, in interaction with non-parasitic weed hosts. The structure of this first model version was based on models developed for other parasitic plants and on FlorSys which quantifies the effects of cropping systems on non-parasitic weed flora. PheraSys was parametrized with preliminary values from literature and expert opinion, connected to FlorSys for weed host predictions and used to simulate parasite dynamics in a few contrasting cropping systems

  13. Comparative study of rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses and examination of the effects of salt accumulation under different cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Mi-Seon; Son, Jin-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2017-03-01

    This study compared rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under a paddy-upland (rice-pepper) rotational system (PURS) and a monoculture repeated cropping system (RCS) and examined adverse effects of high salinity on soil properties. The following soil properties were analyzed: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentration of four cations (Na, Ca, Mg, and K), total nitrogen, and organic matter content. Rhizobacterial communities were analyzed using culture-based and culture-independent (pyrosequencing) methods. In addition, all culturable bacteria isolated from each soil sample were tested for traits related to plant growth promotion. The EC of rhizospheric soils was 5.32-5.54 dS/m for the RCS and 2.05-2.19 dS/m for the PURS. The culture-based method indicated that the bacterial communities and bacterial characteristics were significantly more diverse in the PURS soil than in the RCS soil. The pyrosequencing data also indicated that the richness and diversity of bacterial communities were greater in the PURS soil. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in soil samples under both cropping systems. However, Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes were more prevalent in the RCS soil, while the PURS soil contained a greater number of Chloroflexi. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that soil EC was significantly positively correlated with the abundance of Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes and negatively correlated with the abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Deltaproteobacteria. This is the first study on the rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under two different cropping systems using both culture- and pyrosequencing-based methods.

  14. Optimization approach to LED crop illumination inside a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Zhigalova, Tatiana; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Kochetova, Galina; Konovalova, Irina

    Artificial lighting sources for growing plants can be efficiently used to control gas exchange and preserve the necessary closure of internal matter turnover in the atmosphere of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). However, the lighting sources contribute strongly to the equivalent mass of a CELSS. Thus, the choice of an optimal plant lighting regime largely determines the efficiency of the artificial ecosystem. Lighting systems based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now considered the most promising for space applications (Massa et al., 2006). Many types of LEDs have been developed in recent years. Because of this, the problem of optimizing a lighting source for space vegetation chambers has become more difficult: we need to optimize more parameters (such as emission spectrum, light intensity, frequency of light pulses and the shape of the lighting field inside a vegetation chamber), and in a wider range of values. In this presentation we discuss approaches to optimizing the emission spectrum of a lighting source for the use in space applications, including CELSS. One of the benefits of LEDs is their narrow-band emission spectrum, which allows us to construct a lighting source with an optimal spectrum for plant growth and production. A number of experiments have shown that the reaction of plants to a narrow-band emission spectrum of LEDs is highly species-specific and affects many processes in plants. Adding a small amount of far red light to red and blue quanta increased biomass in radish and lettuce (Tamulaitis et al., 2005). Adding blue and near UV light of different wavelengths to red light decreased total sugar content in lettuce (Urbonavičiūtė et al., 2007) and Chinese cabbage (Avercheva et al., 2009). Supplemental green light improved the nutrition quality of some lettuce varieties: decreased nitrate content and increased ascorbic acid content (Samuoliene et al., 2012). It has also been shown that changes in lighting spectrum can lead

  15. Residual effect of soil tillage on water erosion from a Typic Paleudalf under long-term no-tillage and cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastrângello Enívar Lanzanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the chief causes of agricultural land degradation. Practices of conservation agriculture, such as no-tillage and cover crops, are the key strategies of soil erosion control. In a long-term experiment on a Typic Paleudalf, we evaluated the temporal changes of soil loss and water runoff rates promoted by the transition from conventional to no-tillage systems in the treatments: bare soil (BS; grassland (GL; winter fallow (WF; intercrop maize and velvet bean (M+VB; intercrop maize and jack bean (M+JB; forage radish as winter cover crop (FR; and winter cover crop consortium ryegrass - common vetch (RG+CV. Intensive soil tillage induced higher soil losses and water runoff rates; these effects persisted for up to three years after the adoption of no-tillage. The planting of cover crops resulted in a faster decrease of soil and water loss rates in the first years after conversion from conventional to no-tillage than to winter fallow. The association of no-tillage with cover crops promoted progressive soil stabilization; after three years, soil losses were similar and water runoff was lower than from grassland soil. In the treatments of cropping systems with cover crops, soil losses were reduced by 99.7 and 66.7 %, compared to bare soil and winter fallow, while the water losses were reduced by 96.8 and 71.8 % in relation to the same treatments, respectively.

  16. Effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and DMPP on nitrous oxide emission, crop yield and nitrogen uptake in a wheat-maize cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of nitrification inhibitors together with ammonium-based fertilizers is proposed as a potent method to decrease nitrous oxide (N2O emission while promoting yield and nitrogen use efficiency in fertilized agricultural fields. To evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitors, we conducted year-round measurements of N2O fluxes, yield, aboveground biomass, plant carbon and nitrogen contents, soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon contents and the main environmental factors for urea (U, urea + dicyandiamide (DCD and urea + 3,4-dimethylpyrazol-phosphate (DMPP treatments in a wheat-maize rotation field. The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated to be 4.49 ± 0.21, 2.93 ± 0.06 and 2.78 ± 0.16 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for the U, DCD and DMPP treatments, respectively. Therefore, the DCD and DMPP treatments decreased the annual emissions by 35% and 38%, respectively. The variations of soil temperature, moisture and inorganic nitrogen content regulated the seasonal fluctuation of N2O emissions. When the emissions presented clearly temporal variations, year-round and high-frequency measurements should be adopted to estimate annual cumulative emissions and treatment effects. The application of nitrification inhibitors increased the soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon availability and shifted the main soil inorganic nitrogen form from nitrate to ammonium. The annual yield, aboveground biomass and nitrogen uptake by aboveground plants increased by 8.5–9.1%, 8.6–9.7% and 10.9–13.2%, respectively, for the DCD and DMPP treatments compared with the U treatment. The results demonstrate the roles the nitrification inhibitors play in enhancing yield and nitrogen use efficiency and reducing N2O emission from the wheat-maize cropping system.

  17. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Meghan N; Crow, Susan E; Meki, Manyowa N; Kiniry, James R; Taylor, Andrew D; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  18. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meki, Manyowa N.; Kiniry, James R.; Taylor, Andrew D.; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield. PMID:28052075

  19. Adaptation to climate change in desertified lands of the marginal regions in Egypt through sustainable crop and livestock diversification systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M. El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from current climate changes, including prolonged drought, land degradation, desertification, and loss of biodiversity, is presenting enormous challenges to achieve food security and eradication of poverty in the marginal regions (about 90%of the total area) of Egypt. In addition to the natural constraints of high temperature, wind erosion, sand dune movement, and recurrent drought, such regions are subjected to improper land and water management. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge, technologies, and experiences to match with the current severe climatic changes. There is a great need for establishing sustainable integrated ecosystem rehabilitation and management programs to overcome such problems in the marginal areas, particularly in the Sinai Peninsula due to its strategic and social importance. A series of research and development programs have been conducted in 2006 to im-prove the livelihoods of smallholders through enhancing the efficient management and utilization of local resources that can cope with the drastic changes of climate in the Sinai Peninsula. An integrated livestock/salt-tolerant fodder crop system was introduced, in 2010 by the project teamwork of Desert Research center, Egypt, to many smallholders in the South Sinai region, where studies were conducted at both the general research and individual farmer levels. The most important results were:(1) adoption of the most salt-tolerant genotypes of three forage crops:pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.); two cereal crops (triticale and barley);and two oil crops:safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and Brassica (Mustard). Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborium), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis L.), fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L.), clumping desert bunchgrass (Panicum turgedum), ryegrass (Lolium perenne) Ray grass, forage shrubs (Kochia indica, Atriplex num-mularia, Sesbania sesban L

  20. Mapping rice cropping systems using Landsat-derived Renormalized Index of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (RNDVI) in the Poyang Lake Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Luguang; Feng, Zhiming; Sheldon, Sage; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    Mapping rice cropping systems with optical imagery in multiple cropping regions is challenging due to cloud contamination and data availability; development of a phenology-based algorithm with a reduced data demand is essential. In this study, the Landsat-derived Renormalized Index of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (RNDVI) was proposed based on two temporal windows in which the NDVI values of single and early (or late) rice display inverse changes, and then applied to discriminate rice cropping systems. The Poyang Lake Region (PLR), characterized by a typical cropping system of single cropping rice (SCR, or single rice) and double cropping rice (DCR, including early rice and late rice), was selected as a testing area. The results showed that NDVI data derived from Landsat time-series at eight to sixteen days captures the temporal development of paddy rice. There are two key phenological stages during the overlapping growth period in which the NDVI values of SCR and DCR change inversely, namely the ripening phase of early rice and the growing phase of single rice as well as the ripening stage of single rice and the growing stage of late rice. NDVI derived from scenes in two temporal windows, specifically early August and early October, was used to construct the RNDVI for discriminating rice cropping systems in the polder area of the PLR, China. Comparison with ground truth data indicates high classification accuracy. The RNDVI approach highlights the inverse variations of NDVI values due to the difference of rice growth between two temporal windows. This makes the discrimination of rice cropping systems straightforward as it only needs to distinguish whether the candidate rice type is in the period of growth (RNDVI0).

  1. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) occurrence and infestation behaviour as influenced by farm type, cropping systems and soil management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabi, Samuel; Karungi, Jeninah; Sigsgaard, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    used on each farm. Mealybug population densities were lower in pineapple–banana intercrop system (27.8) than in a sole pineapple crop (81.8) across seasons. Earthed-up seed beds registered higher mealybug densities (84.1) than flat seed beds (31). Earthed-up seed beds created more favourable...... environment for mealybug multiplication than flat beds. Use of coffee husks as a soil fertility amendment promoted mealybug population build up (83.8) whereas fallowing had a reducing effect (22.7). More indepth studies on the role of soil moisture and soil cover in mealybug population build-up in pineapples...

  2. Effect of Potash Application Patterns on Crop Yields Under Different Cultivation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXIAOQIN; ZHOUJIANMIN

    1999-01-01

    Three patterns of potash application were used in the corn-wheat and rice-wheat rotation experiments,which were conducted in the upland and wetland of Siyang County,northern Jiangsu Provuince,and the wetland of Liyang City,southern Jiangsu Province.The results of 5 cropping seasons(2 seasons/year) showed that the direct response of corn to K was larger than that of wheat,but no difference was found between rice and wheat in Siyang when the total annual amount of K was applied only in one cropping season.However,the response of wheat was much greater than that of rice in Liyang.If potash was applied in the preceding season,the residual effect of K on wheat was larger than that on rice both in Siyang and Liyang,but less than that on corn,The total effect (direct and residual effects)of K applied to corn or rice was greater than that to wheat in Siyang,but that to wheat was greater in Liyang.The direct and total effects of K application in the upland were larger than those in the wetland of siyang;but fro the wetland,the effects were larger in Liyang than in Siyang,especially in the wheat season.The results demonstrated that the most profitable practice to be recommended to the local farmers was to apply a limited amount of potash to only rice or corn but not to wheat.Equally applying half of the total annual amout of K to each of the crops may be advisable in order to lessen possible fertilization risks.

  3. Optimizing wind pumps system for crop irrigation based on wind data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Fernando; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Raúl; Garcia, Jose Luis

    2015-04-01

    Crop irrigation is a major consumer of energy that can be resolved with renewable ones, such as wind, which has experienced recent developments in the area of power generation. Therefore, wind power can play an interesting role in irrigation projects in different areas [1]. A simple methodology has been developed in previous papers for technical evaluation of windmills for irrigation water pumping [2]. This methodology can determine the feasibility of the technology and the levels of daily irrigation demand satisfied by windmills. The present work compared the possibilities of this methodology adjusting the three-hourly wind velocity to the Weibull II distribution function, without considering the time sequence [2], or processing wind data using time series analysis. The study was applied to practical cases of wind pumps for irrigation of crops, both in the outside (corn) and inside greenhouses (tomato). The analysis showed that the use of three hourly time series analysis supplied a more realistic modelling of the situation with a better optimization of the water storage tank of the wind pump facility taking into account the risk of calm periods in which the pumping is null. A factor to consider in this study is available precision of the wind sampling rate. References [1] Díaz-Méndez, R., Adnan Rasheed, M. Peillón, A. Perdigones, R. Sánchez, A.M. Tarquis, José L. García-Fernández. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops: comparison in different socio-economical frameworks. Biosystems Engineering, 128, 21-28, 2014. [2] Peillón, M., Sánchez, R., Tarquis, A.M., García, J.L. The use of wind pumps for greenhouse microirrigation: A case study for tomato in Cuba. Agricultural Water Management, 120, 107-114, 2013.

  4. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Ju, Xiaotang, E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Su, Fang; Meng, Qingfeng [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Oenema, Oene [Wageningen University and Research, Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N{sub 2}O emissions plus CH{sub 4} uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH{sub 4} by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N{sub 2}O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N{sub 2}O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N{sub 2}O + CH{sub 4} emission

  5. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  6. Irrigation Scheduling Using Low Cost Plant Leaf Temperature Sensor Based Water Application System for Increasing Water Productivity of Fruit Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Debnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor was designed and developed to measure the plant leaf temperature and ambient temperature in the kinnow orchard. The developed sensor circuit was then interfaced with the drip irrigation head works for irrigation automation. The microcontroller was programmed on based on leaf-air temperature differential values measured by the developed temperature sensors. The developed system was tested in the field for Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanco crop for its performance. The system maintained the soil moisture content nearer to the field capacity as per the leaf-air temperature differential conditions and used 8 % less water per month per plant compared to the using drip irrigation system. The developed automated system was of low cost which can be afforded by the small and marginal farmers and also easy to install.

  7. Response of soil microbial biomass and community structures to conventional and organic farming systems under identical crop rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschütz, Jürgen; Gattinger, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Schloter, Michael; Fliessbach, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In this study the influence of different farming systems on microbial community structure was analyzed using soil samples from the DOK long-term field experiment in Switzerland, which comprises organic (BIODYN and BIOORG) and conventional (CONFYM and CONMIN) farming systems as well as an unfertilized control (NOFERT). We examined microbial communities in winter wheat plots at two different points in the crop rotation (after potatoes and after maize). Employing extended polar lipid analysis up to 244 different phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) were detected. Higher concentrations of PLFA and PLEL in BIODYN and BIOORG indicated a significant influence of organic agriculture on microbial biomass. Farmyard manure (FYM) application consistently revealed the strongest, and the preceding crop the weakest, influence on domain-specific biomass, diversity indices and microbial community structures. Esterlinked PLFA from slowly growing bacteria (k-strategists) showed the strongest responses to long-term organic fertilization. Although the highest fungal biomass was found in the two organic systems of the DOK field trial, their contribution to the differentiation of community structures according to the management regime was relatively low. Prokaryotic communities responded most strongly to either conventional or organic farming management.

  8. Potential of Underutilized Traditional Vegetables and Legume Crops to Contribute to Food and Nutritional Security, Income and More Sustainable Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Ebert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is under pressure to produce greater quantities of food, feed and biofuel on limited land resources. Current over-reliance on a handful of major staple crops has inherent agronomic, ecological, nutritional and economic risks and is probably unsustainable in the long run. Wider use of today’s underutilized minor crops provides more options to build temporal and spatial heterogeneity into uniform cropping systems and will enhance resilience to both biotic and abiotic stress. Many traditional vegetables and underutilized legume crops are an essential source of vitamins, micronutrients and protein and, thus, a valuable component to attain nutritional security. Vegetables in general are of considerable commercial value and therefore an important source of household income. Significant research, breeding and development efforts are needed for a range of promising crops to convert existing local landraces into competitive varieties with wide adaptation and promising commercial potential. Access to genetic diversity of these selected crops is a pre-condition for success. Three underutilized minor crops—amaranth, drumstick tree, and mungbean—are highlighted and briefly described. All three crops are well-represented in AVRDC’s genebank with substantial inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity, and already have demonstrated their potential for wider adoption and commercial exploitation.

  9. Allometries for Widely Spaced Populus ssp. and Betula ssp. in Nurse Crop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Stark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurse crops of widely spaced pioneer trees are a silvicultural approach to protect the regeneration of frost sensitive target tree species. If overstorey nurse crops are harvested, they can provide additional short-term benefits through increased biomass production, e.g., for bioenergy. However, the intensification of biomass exports from forests might impact negatively on ecosystem nutrient pools. Thus, precise allometric biomass equations are required to quantify biomass and nutrient removals. Since an analysis of published allometric equations developed for typical, dense aspen or birch forests showed that the tree height-to-diameter ratio correlated positively and the proportion of branch biomass negatively with stand density, we developed new allometric biomass equations for widely spaced aspen and birch growing at 4 x 4 m spacing. These equations yielded a root mean squared error of 13% when predicting total aboveground woody biomass for our sample trees. In contrast, the corresponding root mean squared error produced by allometric biomass equations from the literature ranged between 17% to 106% of actual dry biomass. Our results show that specific allometric biomass equations are needed for widely spaced pioneer trees both for accurate estimates of biomass and the nutrients contained within.

  10. Implementation of Sustainable Soil Management Practices to Improve Crop Production in the Different Ethiopian Agro Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Moreno, R.; Gameda, S.; Diaz Alvarez, M. C.; Selasie, Y. G.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture in Ethiopia is one of first priority since close to 10 In this context, the Ethiopian crop production faces to the following soil management challenges: lack of updated soil data, macro and micro nutrient depletion, acidity, salinity and soil surface erosion and crusting. One of the biggest issues is the loss of arable land, above 137 T/yr, reaching during some particularly dried periods until 300 T/yr. In this context, the authors constituted a working group of experts from Spanish and Ethiopian universities, local producers and international and governmental organisms to analyse the problems related to the different agro ecological zones found in Ethiopia and the management practices of different local producers. The study produced the trends to implement in the different areas to improve soil management practices in order to contribute to increase the crop production mainly to achieve food security problems. The analyse produced different working fields for the next years for addressing soil degradation, improving land resources management practices, increasing agricultural productivity, updating the available soil data, developing an international program of education, transferring of knowledge from similar study cases and implementing economical tools to help producers to assure income after severe edapho-climatic events. The practical work and the projects developed for the next period is addressed to smallholder farms belonging to the different 34 agro ecological zones identified in Ethiopia, each of them with very specific environmental, cultural and soil management practices.

  11. State of Technological Development of Crop Production by Rural Territorial Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usenko Lyudmila N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low level of distribution of innovations and technological development in the Russian agriculture exerts a negative influence upon the basic branch of the economy of rural territories – crop production, which, by production factors, possesses the highest potential in the world. Moreover, Russia’s joining WTO has an effect on the strategy of the branch development and disposes to another, innovative way of formation of the competitive agrarian sector of economy. The article uses retrospective analysis of main factors of production and many-sided indicators of financial and economic activity of agriculture in order to assess the state of technological development and innovation potential of the crop industry in Russia. The article draws conclusions about influence of these factors and indicators upon formation and development of the innovative basis of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and identifies potential of its further growth. The article also focuses on interdependence of groups of indicators that form the current picture of the study. The article reveals weaknesses and negative factors that interfere with establishment of the innovative agrarian sector of Russian economy.

  12. Straw return reduces yield-scaled N2O plus NO emissions from annual winter wheat-based cropping systems in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Yan, Guangxuan; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-03-02

    Straw return in combination with synthetic N fertilizer is considered to be beneficial to soil fertility and crop yield. Such practice, however, can considerably modify soil microbial activity and relative C and N availability, both of which are known to regulate soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions. Minimizing these emissions per unit of crop yield is a prerequisite to minimize the environmental footprint of agricultural production and thus, a policy objective. In our study, we quantified N2O and NO emissions and determined fertilizer-N use efficiencies (NUE) and crop yields of two double-cropping (summer maize/Welsh onion-winter wheat) systems with and without straw incorporation in the North China Plain. Relative to the fertilized treatment without straw amendments, straw incorporation showed a significant inhibitory effect on annual N2O emissions from the maize-wheat system (-31%), but no significant effect was observed for the Welsh onion-wheat system. However, straw return significantly reduced annual NO emissions by >30% for both systems. Meanwhile, straw return in both systems significantly increased the NUE and crop yields by 34-47% and 7-16%, respectively, as compared to the treatment without straw additions. Across the double-cropping systems, annual direct emission factors of N2O, NO and N2O+NO were 0.37-0.57%, 0.08-0.78% and 0.57-1.36%, respectively. Furthermore, a negative relationship between direct emission factors of N2O+NO and crop NUE was observed, highlighting the importance of optimizing NUE for reducing environmental risks of a cropping system. When expressing emissions on a yield basis, straw return significantly reduced annual yield-scaled N2O+NO emissions by 15-42% for both systems. Overall, our results show that the combined application of crop straw and synthetic N fertilizer is a promising N management strategy for maximizing crop yields while mitigating N-trace gas emissions.

  13. Sistemas de cultivo, sucessões de culturas, densidade do solo e sobrevivência de patógenos de solo Cropping systems and previous crops on soil density and survival of soil-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Toledo-Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo do solo e de cultivos prévios ao plantio do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre a densidade do solo e as populações de Rhizoctonia spp. e de Fusarium spp. Os cultivos prévios incluíram as leguminosas: guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e crotalária (Crotalaria spectabilis; e as gramíneas: milheto (Pennisetum glaucum cv. BN-2, sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor cv. BR 304, capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e milho (Zea mays consorciado com braquiária. As culturas utilizadas no cultivo prévio foram semeadas nos verões de 2002, 2003 e 2004, e os plantios de feijoeiro, cultivar BRS Valente, foram realizados nos invernos subseqüentes de 2003, 2004 e 2005, com irrigação por pivô central. Os restos culturais dos cultivos eram incorporados ao solo, no plantio convencional, e ficavam à superfície, no plantio direto. De modo geral, as maiores populações de Fusarium spp. e Rhizoctonia spp. e as maiores densidades de solo foram encontradas no solo cultivado em plantio direto. As maiores populações de Rhizoctonia spp. foram observadas em solos mais adensados. As leguminosas geralmente aumentaram populações desses patógenos e devem ser evitadas como culturas prévias ao cultivo do feijoeiro, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. Plantios prévios de gramíneas, em geral, são supressores das populações de Rhizoctonia spp. e de Fusarium spp. no solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of cropping systems and crops cultivated previously to common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on soil density and soil populations of Rhizoctonia spp. and Fusarium spp. Previous crops included the following legumes: Cajanus cajan,Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão and Crotalaria spectabilis; and the following grasses: Pennisetum glaucum (cv. BN-2, millet, Sorghum bicolor

  14. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Brianna E L; Duncan, David S; Oates, Lawrence G; Kucharik, Christopher J; Jackson, Randall D

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18-species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications of 56 kg N ha(-1) in a field-scale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period. We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3(-) concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. Our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.

  15. Mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from corn cropping systems in the Midwestern U.S.: potential and data gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decock, Charlotte

    2014-04-15

    One of the unintended nitrogen (N)-loss pathways from cropland is the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. This study explores the potential of alternative agronomic management practices to mitigate N2O emissions from corn cropping systems in major corn producing regions in the U.S. and Canada, using meta-analysis. The use of the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) in combination with the nitrification inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD) was the only management strategy that consistently reduced N2O emissions, but the number of observations underlying this effect was relatively low. Manure application caused higher N2O emissions compared to the use of synthetic fertilizer N. This warrants further investigation in appropriate manure N-management, particularly in the Lake States where manure application is common. The N2O response to increasing N-rate varied by region, indicating the importance of region-specific approaches for quantifying N2O emissions and mitigation potential. In general, more data collection on side-by-side comparisons of common and alternative management practices, especially those pertaining to N-placement, N-timing, and N-source, in combination with biogeochemical model simulations, will be needed to further develop and improve N2O mitigation strategies for corn cropping systems in the major corn producing regions in the U.S.

  16. Effects and Mechanisms of Oil Cakes on the Growth of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) Under Continuous Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wei-bin; LIU Mo-han; PAN Jie; Wang Jing; LU Wen-long; MA Cheng-cang; WANG Jing-guo; SHEN Yue; GAO Yu-bao

    2003-01-01

    Fxperiments on the effect of soil amendment with rape (Brassica chinensis L. ) seed cake, cot-ton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) seed or sesame (Sesamum indieum L. ) seed cake on the growth of cucumberseedlings under a continuous cropping system were conducted in a greenhouse environment. The results indica-ted that two applications of sesame seed cake (0.1 and 0.5 %, w/w) increased the growth of cucumber, but therape oil cake showed a negative effect at a rate of 1.5% (w/w). The sesame seed cake was separated into four fractious(Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ) according to the polarity, and all four fractious had a positive effect on the growth of cucumbers un-der a continuous cropping system. Fraction number Ⅲii was isolated into 25 proportions by silicon column, and only ole-ic acid, palmitic acid and octadecanoic acid were identified in proportion 10 by GC-MS in which 93.3% was oleic acidand palmitic acid. The oleic acid had a significant and positive effect on cucumber growth under salt stress at the level30 mmol and showed slight resistance to several pathogenic fungi.

  17. Projected benefit-cost analysis of agri-silvicultural system: vegetable crops intercropping with Salix alba (Willow)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijaz Hussain Mir; M.A. Khan

    2008-01-01

    An experiment upon an agri-silvicultural system involving Willow (Salix alba) tree,Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala) and Knol khol (Brassica oleracea var.caularapa) was laid in randomized block designed at farmers' willow field at Shalimar near Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir,Srinagar India during 2005 and 2006.The main plot was divided into sub-spots with 8 m ( 2 m in size each in which four two-year-old willow (Salix alba) trees were at a spacing of 2 m ( 2 m in a sub-spot.The intercrops were maintained at recommended spacing and supplied with recommended doses of fertilizers.The benefit-cost ratio in willow plantation intercropped with vegetable crops of Kale and Knol Khol was analyzed and compared with the benefit-cost ratio of sole willow tree forestry.The results showed that every rupee invested in plantation of agri-silvicultural system generates benefit-cost ratio of 2.78 and 2.79 in case of Willow intercropping with Kale and Willow with Knol khol,respectively,while as for sole crop of willows benefit-cost ratio was calculated to be 2.66.These results provided circumstantial evidence in favour of adopting agroforestry involving willow instead of Sole tree forestry.

  18. Atmospheric dynamics of combined crops of wheat, cowpea, pinto beans in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; Allen, J.; Alling, A.; van Thillo, M.

    A mixed crop consisting of cowpeas pinto beans and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was grown in Laboratory Biosphere a 40 m 3 closed life system equipped with 12000 watts of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5 37 m 2 of soil Similar to earlier reported experiments the concentration of carbon dioxide initially increased to 7860 ppm at 10 days after planting due to soil respiration plus CO 2 contributed from researchers breathing while in the chamber for brief periods before plant growth became substantial fell rapidly as plant growth increased up to 29 days after planting and then was maintained mostly in the range of about 200 -- 3000 ppm with a few excursions by CO 2 injections to feed plant growth Numerous analyses of rate of change of CO 2 concentration at many different concentrations and at many different days after planting reveals a strong dependence of fixation rates on CO 2 concentration In the middle period of growth days 31 -- 61 fixation rates doubled for CO 2 at 450 ppm compared to 270 ppm doubled again at 1000 ppm and increased a further 50 at 2040 ppm High productivity from these crops and the increase of fixation rates with elevated CO 2 concentration supports the concept that enhanced CO2 can be a useful strategy for remote life support systems

  19. Economic and environmental performance of oilseed cropping systems for biodiesel production : existing cultivation practices in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Ecodiesel project aims at a drastic improvement of the GHG emission of current biodiesel production in the EU. If the biodiesel is produced from crops, the way the crop is cultivated at the farm is very important because calculations have shown that the emission from crop cultivation have a larg

  20. Farming Systems Research and Livestock Feed Development : the case of a project on feeding of crop residues in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, J.B.; Kiran Singh,; Boer, de A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of prime agricultural land for cropping and non-agricultural uses in many tropical countries implies that crop residues become more important as a source of feed for livestock. Traditionally, much research on crop residue feeding was done by focusing on laboratory measurements of feed

  1. Performance of oilseed rape in the Clearfield®-system in different cropping intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwabe, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-factorial field experiment should reveal the performance of Clearfield® oilseed rape under different cropping intensities. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station Ihinger Hof in 2014, with cropping intensity as factor 1 and herbicide strategy as factor 2, all treatments sown with variety PT228CL. Treatments of cropping intensities were “normal sowing” (NS; soil inversion tillage tillage, 50 seeds m-2, 12 cm row spacing, “reduced sowing density” (DS; soil inversion tillage, 25 seeds m-2, 25 cm row spacing and striptill (ST; 25 seeds m-2, 25 cm row spacing. The two herbicide strategies were pre-emergence strategy (VAS; application of Colzor® Trio (30 g L-1 Clomazone, 187.5 g L-1 Dimethachlor, 187.5 g L-1 Napropamide one day after sowing and of Agil® S (100 g/L Propaquizafop 3.5 weeks after sowing and Clearfield® strategy (CLS; application of Clearfield®-Vantiga® (375 g L-1 Metazachlor, 125 g L-1 Quinmerac, 6.25 g L-1 Imazamox and Dash® E.C. (345 g L-1 fatty acid methyl ester, 205 g L-1 fatty alcohol alkoxylates, 46 g L-1 oleic acid at the same day as Agil® S. NS resulted in the highest yield (3.9 t ha-1 which was significantly more than obtained by ST (3.6 t ha-1, the least-yielding intensity. There were no significant interactions of the effects. Weed density was highest in DS/CLS and ST/CLS with 12.8 and 13.9 plants m-2, respectively, and thus the two to threefold of the other treatments. The results indicate a lack of efficacy of Clearfield®-Vantiga® under the presumably higher weed pressure in DS and ST, specifically in controlling the weeds Stellaria media and volunteer cereals (in this case: Hordeum vulgare. An economic evaluation will follow.

  2. Long-Term Impact of Soil Management on Microbial Biomass C, N and P in Rice-Based Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 12-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods and fertilization systems on microbial biomass C, N and P of a gray fluvo-aguic soil in rice-based cropping system. Five fertilization treatments were designed under conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT) system: no fertilizer (CK); chemical fertilizer only (CF); combining chemical fertilizer with pig manure (PM); combining chemical fertilizer with crop straw (CS) and fallow (F). The results showed that biomass C, N and P were enriched in the surface layer of no-tilled soil, whereas they distributed relatively evenly in the tilled soil, which might result from enrichment of crop residue, organic manure and mineral fertilizer, and surficial development of root systems under NT. Under the cultivation system, NT had slightly greater biomass C, N and P at 0~5 cm depth, significantly less biomass C, N and P at 5~15 cm depth, less microbial biomass C, N and equivalent biomass P at 15~30 cm depth as compared to CT, indicating that tillage was beneficial for the multiplication of organisms in the plowed layer of soil. Under the fallow system, biomass C, N and P in the surface layer were significantly greater for NT than CT while their differences between the two tillage methods were negligible in the deeper layers. In the surface layer, biomass C, N and P in the soils amended with organic manure combined with mineral fertilizers were significantly greater than those of the treatments only with mineral fertilizers and the control. Soils without fertilizer had the least biomass nutrient contents among the five fertilization treatments. Obviously, the long-term application of organic manure could maintain the higher activity of microorganisms in soils. The amounts of biomass C, N and P in the fallowed soils varied with the tillage methods; they were much greater under NT than under CT, especially in the surface layer, suggesting that the frequent plowing could decrease

  3. Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Quantitative and Qualitative Forage Yield of Maize, Pearl Millet and Sorghum in Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh Khalesro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to compare three summer forage grasses including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor cv. Speedfeed, corn (Zea mayz S.C. 704 and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum cv. Nutrifeed for green chop forage production in double cropping system, a field experiment was conducted at research field of Tarbiat Modares University on 2006 growing season. Treatments were arranged in a split- plot design based on randomized complete blocks with four replications. In this research three forage crops as main factor and nitrogen rates (100, 200 and 300 kg N. ha-1 from the urea source as the sub- plot were studied. Results showed the positive response of crops to nitrogen increment, in such a manner that millet with 300 kg N ha-1 produced 85.8 t ha-1 fresh forage (%20.3 more than sorghum and %30.9 more than corn. Regarding to the sustainable agriculture objects, millet and sorghum with 200 kg N ha-1could be suggested. Forage yield advantages of millet and sorghum to corn was %10 and %12 respectively. They produce 72.4 and 73.5 t ha-1 fresh forage under this treatment. Finally regarding to general advantages of sorghum and millet to corn, especially in unsuitable condition like as drought and poor soil fertility, it seems that changing the corn with sorghum or pearl millet could be an appropriate option. Also decision making for recommending one of sorghum and millet need to more information like qualitative attributes in details and determining animal feeding indices (voluntary intake using in vivo methods. Keywords: Sorghum, Pearl millet, Corn, Nitrogen, Forage, Organic matter, Crud protein

  4. Evaluation of major feed resources in crop-livestock mixed farming systems, southern Ethiopia: Indigenous knowledge versus laboratory analysis results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Gemiyo Talore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of major feed resources was conducted in four crop-livestock mixed farming systems of central southern Ethiopia, with 90 farmers, selected using multi-stage purposive and random sampling methods. Discussions were held with focused groups and key informants for vernacular name identification of feed, followed by feed sampling to analyse chemical composition (CP, ADF and NDF, in-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, and correlate with indigenous technical knowledge (ITK. Native pastures, crop residues (CR and multi-purpose trees (MPT are the major feed resources, demonstrated great variations in seasonality, chemical composition and IVDMD. The average CP, NDF and IVDMD values for grasses were 83.8 (ranged: 62.9–190, 619 (ranged: 357–877 and 572 (ranged: 317–743 g kg^(−1 DM, respectively. Likewise, the average CP, NDF and IVDMD for CR were 58 (ranged: 20–90, 760 (ranged: 340–931 and 461 (ranged: 285–637g kg^(−1 DM, respectively. Generally, the MPT and non-conventional feeds (NCF, Ensete ventricosum and Ipomoea batatas possessed higher CP (ranged: 155–164 g kg^(−1 DM and IVDMD values (611–657 g kg^(−1 DM while lower NDF (331–387 g kg^(−1 DM and ADF (321–344 g kg^(−1 DM values. The MPT and NCF were ranked as the best nutritious feeds by ITK while crop residues were the least. This study indicates that there are remarkable variations within and among forage resources in terms of chemical composition. There were also complementarities between ITK and feed laboratory results, and thus the ITK need to be taken into consideration in evaluation of local feed resources.

  5. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume......–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions...... of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32 to 115 kg ha−1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc.) was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over...

  6. Conversion to No-Till Improves Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Continuous Cover Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbib, Hazzar; Verzeaux, Julien; Nivelle, Elodie; Roger, David; Lacoux, Jérôme; Catterou, Manuella; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric; Tétu, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A two-year experiment was conducted in the field to measure the combined impact of tilling and N fertilization on various agronomic traits related to nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to grain yield in maize cultivated in the presence of a cover crop. Four years after conversion to no-till, a significant increase in N use efficiency N harvest index, N remobilization and N remobilization efficiency was observed both under no and high N fertilization conditions. Moreover, we observed that grain yield and grain N content were higher under no-till conditions only when N fertilizers were applied. Thus, agronomic practices based on continuous no-till appear to be a promising for increasing N use efficiency in maize. PMID:27711154

  7. Forage integration on farming systems in the district of Bayongbong, Garut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on forage integration on farming system was studied at Bayongbong of Garut District, West Java from April 1996 to April 1997. The objective of this study was to increase the availability of food and forage which are cultivated on the same land using alley cropping system. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Were planted on thesame area using randomized block design (RBD with 5 treatments and 3 replications. Elephant grass and gliricidia were planted as live fence. The experimental plot which were cultivated with food crops, giving the following treatment: A. Elephant grass were planted in row with spacing of 0.5 m. B. Both elephant grass and gliricidia were planted in row with spacing of 0.5 In. C. Gliricidia alone were planted in row with spacing of 0.5 m. D. Experimental plot were planted with elephant grass without any life fencing. E. Experimental plot were planted with food crops as a control. Based on planting pattern com were planted on the experimental plot followed by cabbage. Cutting interval for elephant grass was 42 days while gliricidia was 60 days. Fresh and dry weight of elephant grass, gliricidia, corn and cabbage production were recorded. The results showed that there was no significant different on corn and cabbage production between treatment, while elephant grass production was significantly different (P < 0.05 among the treatments. The highest additional production of corn (1.8 kg/m2, and cabbage waste (2.5 kg/2m were found in the treatment. The highest elephant grass production was found in treatment A (5.1 kg/m2 followed by treatment D (4.9 kg/m2 and treatment B (4.1 kg/m2. The highest gliricidia forage production was found in the treatment B (0.6 kg/m2. It was concluded that the integration of forage and crops using alley cropping system on farm system was able to overcome the shortage of forage availability for animal production.

  8. Plant genome editing made easy: targeted mutagenesis in model and crop plants using the CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Khaoula; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Kamoun, Sophien; Nekrasov, Vladimir

    2013-10-11

    Targeted genome engineering (also known as genome editing) has emerged as an alternative to classical plant breeding and transgenic (GMO) methods to improve crop plants. Until recently, available tools for introducing site-specific double strand DNA breaks were restricted to zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). However, these technologies have not been widely adopted by the plant research community due to complicated design and laborious assembly of specific DNA binding proteins for each target gene. Recently, an easier method has emerged based on the bacterial type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) immune system. The CRISPR/Cas system allows targeted cleavage of genomic DNA guided by a customizable small noncoding RNA, resulting in gene modifications by both non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) mechanisms. In this review we summarize and discuss recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas technology in plants.

  9. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-08-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources.

  10. Technical- and Environmental-Efficiency Analysis of Irrigated Cotton-Cropping Systems in Punjab, Pakistan Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R.

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  11. Conservation agriculture impact for soil conservation in maize–wheat cropping system in the Indian sub-Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is considered as a suitable technique for soil erosion control, productivity enhancement, and improved economic benefits. To investigate these issues, an experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions using grass vegetation strip (VS with minimum tillage, organic amendments and weed mulch during June 2007–October 2011 at Dehradun, Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayan region. Results showed that the mean wheat equivalent yield was ~47% higher in the plots under with CA compared with conventional agriculture in a maize–wheat crop rotation. Mean runoff coefficients and soil loss with CA plots were ~45% less and ~54% less than conventional agriculture plots. On average, after the harvest of maize, soil moisture conservation up to 90 cm soil depth for wheat crop was 108% higher under CA than conventional agriculture plots. The net return from the plots with CA was 85% higher, and when expressed net return per tonne of soil loss, it was four and half times higher than conventional practice. Results demonstrate that the suitable CA practice (a grass strip of Palmarosa with applied organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and poultry manure along with weed mulching under conservation tillage enhances system productivity, reduces runoff, soil loss and conserve soil moisture.

  12. Effects and carry-over benefits of nematicides in soil planted to a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Leonard, R A

    1995-12-01

    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg