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Sample records for alleviates short-term cyclosporin

  1. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2'-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  2. Inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptors with eplerenone alleviates short-term cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Thomsen; Jensen, Boye L; Marcussen, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    and renal function. BP was measured on-line in conscious rats. RESULTS: CsA significantly increased systolic BP: 139 +/- 4 versus 134 +/- 2 mmHg, reduced body weight gain: -5 +/- 6 versus 36 +/- 7 g, glomerular filtration rate (GFR): 1.02 +/- 0.16 versus 2.64 +/- 0.27 ml/min, renal blood flow (RBF): 5.......3 +/- 2.4 versus 13.5 +/- 2.1 ml/min and lithium clearance (C(Li+)): 0.16 +/- 0.04 versus 0.26 +/- 0.07 ml/min compared to controls. These changes were prevented by simultaneous EPL treatment: systolic BP, 130 +/- 4 mmHg; weight gain, 53 +/- 7 g; GFR, 1.67 +/- 0.26 ml/min; RBF, 12.3 +/- 2.1 ml/min and C...

  3. Alleviating extreme poverty in Chile: The short term effects of Chile Solidario

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of an anti-poverty program, Chile Solidario, during its first two years of operation. We find that the program tends to increases significantly their take-up of cash assistance programs and of social programs for housing and employment, and to improve education and health outcomes for participating households. There is no evidence that the participation to employment program translates into improved employment or income outcomes in the short term. Finally, we p...

  4. Quercetin alleviates inflammation after short-term treatment in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharya; Ghosh, Santinath; Majumdar, Subrata; Dey, Sanjit

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) which ultimately trigger inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) and its active component quercetin in preventing NF-κB-mediated inflammation raised by short-term HFD. Quercetin was found to be one of the major flavonoid components from HPLC of MoLE. Swiss mice were fed for 15 days on HFD, both with or without MoLE/quercetin. The antioxidant profile was estimated from liver homogenate. NF-κB and some relevant inflammatory markers were evaluated by immunoblotting, RT-PCR and ELISA. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower antioxidant profile and higher lipid peroxidation was found in HFD group compared to control (P < 0.05). Increased nuclear import of NF-κB and elevated expressions of pro-inflammatory markers were further manifestations in the HFD group. All these changes were reversed in the MoLE/quercetin-treated groups with significant improvement of antioxidant activity compared to the HFD group. MoLE was found to be rich in polyphenols and both MoLE and quercetin showed potent free radical and hydroxyl radical quenching activity. Thus, the present study concluded that short-term treatment with MoLE and its constituent quercetin prevent HFD-mediated inflammation in mice. PMID:23644882

  5. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  6. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  7. Treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; Song, Wook; Jun, Tae-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra is a key pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic dopaminergic neuronal cell death and fiber loss in the nigrostriatum, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. Parkinson’s rats were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using stereotaxic instrument. Four weeks after 6-OH...

  8. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  9. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  10. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  11. Short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity ameliorates the suppressed expression of key β-cell factors under diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Naoki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Takebe, Satomi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Kaneto, Hideaki; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-11-27

    Alleviation of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia improves pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how the expression alterations of key β-cell factors are altered by the short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity or lipotoxicity. We treated db/db mice for one week with empagliflozin and/or bezafibrate to alleviate glucotoxicity and/or liptotoxicity, respectively. The gene expression levels of Pdx1 and Mafa, and their potential targets, insulin 1, Slc2a2, and Glp1r, were higher in the islets of empagliflozin-treated mice, and levels of insulin 2 were higher in mice treated with both reagents, than in untreated mice. Moreover, compared to the pretreatment levels, Mafa and insulin 1 expression increased in empagliflozin-treated mice, and Slc2a2 increased in combination-treated mice. In addition, empagliflozin treatment enhanced β-cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Our date clearly demonstrated that the one-week selective alleviation of glucotoxicity led to the better expression levels of the key β-cell factors critical for β-cell function over pretreatment levels, and that the alleviation of lipotoxicity along with glucotoxicity augmented the favorable effects under diabetic conditions. PMID:26471305

  12. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  13. Cyclosporine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmic cyclosporine is used to increase tear production in people with dry eye disease. Cyclosporine is in a class of medications ... immunomodulators. It works by decreasing swelling in the eye to allow for tear production.

  14. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  15. Short term thermal energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Abhat, A.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reviews the problem of short term thermal energy storage for low temperature solar heating applications. The techniques of sensible and latent heat storage are discussed, with particular emphasis on the latter. Requirements for hot water storage subsystems are provided and the importance of stratification in hot water storage tanks is described. Concerning latent heat storage, both material and heat exchanger aspects are considered in detail. The example of a passively opera...

  16. Retinoids, methotrexate and cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Acitretin alone is efficient (PASI 90: 40%). In responders, it is the best long-term maintenance treatment (up to 29 years of continuous treatment). The main side effect is its teratogenicity in females. It is necessary to begin retinoid treatment at low doses (10 mg/day), increasing the dose step by step, looking for the maximum well-tolerated dose (usually defined as a mild cheilitis). Doses higher than the highest well-tolerated dose are frequently responsible for the Kobner phenomenon. In children, retinoids are very efficient and nearly always well tolerated, but it seems important to never give more than 0.5 mg/kg/day. Methotrexate is the best treatment for severe psoriasis. Given at low doses once a week, it is a safe, cheap, convenient and efficient treatment, if carefully monitored. The main problem is the possible long-term liver toxicity of methotrexate. The risk is very low in patients not at risk (no liver disease). In these cases, liver biopsies are dangerous and useless. In the other cases, the need for liver biopsy is very rare, decided only by the hepatologist, and should be replaced by FibroTest and FibroScan. The old American guidelines should not be followed, and new guidelines are needed. Cyclosporine at low doses is an outstanding emergency treatment. It was first used as the last possible systemic treatment, but long-term continuous treatments are seldom possible due to alterations in kidney functions. A careful follow-up of kidney functions, with measurement of the glomerular filtration rate after each year of cumulative treatment, is necessary. The cyclosporine dose must be calculated according to the theoretical body weight in obese patients to avoid overdosage. Cyclosporine is mainly used now as a short-term treatment that is very efficient for young people, who find this illness particularly difficult. Cyclosporine is not contraindicated during pregnancy. PMID:19710551

  17. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  18. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  19. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases.

  20. Analyzing Short-Term Disability Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houff, James N.; Wiatrowski, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The Bureau of Labour Statistics has combined data on sick leave and sickness and accident insurance. Results show that short-term disability benefits vary by length of service and between the private and public sectors. (Author)

  1. A Study to Evaluate and Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Cyclosporine A 0.5% with Topical Placebo (Artificial Tears in Alleviating the Principal Signs Associated with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Gahlot

    2016-03-01

    The use of topical cyclosporine for treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis should be encouraged to prevent complications associated with the natural course of the disease and prolonged topical use of corticosteroids. Keywords: vernal keratoconjunctivitis, cyclosporine-A, papillary hypertrophy, limbal changes, itching [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 38-41

  2. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  3. Short-term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Alfred K.

    2003-01-01

    where the Department of Informatics and Mathematical Modelling and the Department of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics have been two major participants. The first project entitled Implementing Short-term Prediction at Utilities , founded by the European Commission under the JOULE programme. The second...

  4. 英夫力西和环孢素治疗难治性炎症性肠病的近期疗效比较%Short-term effects of infliximab and cyclosporin as rescue therapy for patients with refractory-IBD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣艳; 范如英; 刘云云; 盛剑秋; 李世荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Infliximab(IFX) and cyclosporin (CsA) as rescue therapy for patients with refractory-IBD.Methods Prospectively and not randomly,18 cases with refractory-IBD were recruited into the study.Of 12 patients with UC,6 cases received IFX; 6 patients took CsA.All of 6 patients with CD were given IFX.Comparing the effect of IFX with CsA at 12 weeks and 30 weeks.Results 5 UC cases responded to IFX and CsA,1 case failed to respond to therapy respectively for both groups at 14 weeks.Of 6 UC cases with IFX 3 were effects and 1 failed,but 4 cases responded and 1 case failed for CsA group at 30 weeks.Of 6 CD cases,3 responded to IFX while 1 case failed at 14 weeks.Of 6 CD cases treated with IFX,4 patients improved,no invalid case was found at 30 weeks.Rash occurred in 2 cases treated with IFX,while among cases treated with CsA,1 developed tatter and 4 had hands tremor.Conclusions As rescue therapy for patients with refractory IBD,IFX and CsA presented the same effectiveness,Patients with good economic conditions had better take the fomer,those with relatively poor economic bear ability might as well choose the latter.%目的 评估英夫力西(IFX)和环孢素(CsA)挽救性治疗难治性炎症性肠病(IBD)患者的治疗效果.方法 前瞻性、非随机收集18例难治性炎症性肠病患者进入观察.12例验证难治性溃疡性结肠炎(UC)患者中,6例应用英夫力西(IFX);6例应用CsA.6例克罗恩病(CD)患者全部用IFX治疗.对比14周和30周的疗效.结果 14周随访时,6例IFX治疗和6例CsA治疗的UC患者中,各有5例有效;1例无效.30周时,6例IFX组f中,3例有效,1例无效;6例CsA组中,4例有效,1例无效.14周随访时,6例CD患者中,3例有效,1例无效.30周时,6例CD患者中,4例有效,没有无效病例.IFX组出现2例皮疹,CsA组l例皮疹,4例手抖.CsA价格较便宜.结论 IFX和CsA挽救性治疗难治性炎症性肠病的疗效相同,建议经济条件较好的患者选用前者,经济

  5. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  6. Binding in short-term visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary E; Treisman, Anne M

    2002-03-01

    The integration of complex information in working memory, and its effect on capacity, shape the limits of conscious cognition. The literature conflicts on whether short-term visual memory represents information as integrated objects. A change-detection paradigm using objects defined by color with location or shape was used to investigate binding in short-term visual memory. Results showed that features from the same dimension compete for capacity, whereas features from different dimensions can be stored in parallel. Binding between these features can occur, but focused attention is required to create and maintain the binding over time, and this integrated format is vulnerable to interference. In the proposed model, working memory capacity is limited both by the independent capacity of simple feature stores and by demands on attention networks that integrate this distributed information into complex but unified thought objects. PMID:11900102

  7. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, M; Brager, G. S.; Arens, Edward A; Bauman, Fred; Benton, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' design grew out of a study of thermal control in a luxury hotel in San Francisco, California, USA. Hotel guests frequently arrive from widely disparate climates and have high expectation so of the thermal environment. Their short-term occupancy (for periods ranging from one day ...

  8. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...... and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings....

  9. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children...

  10. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Joensen, A.; Giebel, G. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  11. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. PMID:24491386

  12. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  13. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  16. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, M. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Brager, G. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Arens, E. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Bauman, F. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Benton, C. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' integrates an infrared occupancy sensor, door switch, radiant temperature sensor, and control logic to optimize room conditions while 'learning' about the occupant's preferred comfort zone. This paper focuses on how the joint requirements of the guests and the hotel management guided the design of the 'comfortstat' for increased occupant satisfaction and lower energy use in the hotel. The concepts are completely generic and could be applied to the design of comfort systems for other types of short-term occupancy. We present control logic flowcharts and typical examples of the action of the hotel 'comfortstat' in response to data received from the physical environment and/or human input. (orig./GL)

  17. Group Processes in Short-Term Group Therapy of Psychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalic, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)

  18. Short Term Gain, Long Term Pain:Informal Job Search Methods and Post-Displacement Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of informal job search methods on the labour market outcomes of displaced workers. Informal job search methods could alleviate short-term labour market difficulties of displaced workers by providing information on job opportunities, allowing them to signal their productivity and may mitigate wage losses through better post-displacement job matching. However if displacement results from reductions in demand for specific sectors/skills, the use of informal job searc...

  19. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  1. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  2. Short-term predictions of solar flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, V. A.

    1990-02-01

    A review of present-day theoretical investigations of the problem of the accumulation and release of energy in solar flares permits advancing the opinion that only individual flare events are described by a concrete model and that a single model alone does not describe the entire diversity of flares. Consideration of the observational data does not permit claiming the existence of a single universal mechanism known today of flare events. It appears possible to treat the problem of prediction in terms of the algebra of logic (Boolean logic) and to compare the truth table with the often-used contingency table. The introduction of a number of very general assumptions permits forming a general approach to the development of predictive schemes and selection of the individual elements of the models and informative criteria. Experimental results are given on the testing of some prediction procedures. The author's procedure of routine short-term prediction of flares on the basis of the methods of instruction on pattern recognition implemented in the form of a set of programs is outlined. The results of the application of this procedure in 1986 - 1988 are presented.

  3. Alleviative effects of green tea polyphenols on cyclosporine A-induced inhibition of vasorelaxation%绿茶多酚可抑制环孢素A所致的血管舒张作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文波; 姚许平; 姜继光

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasorelaxation plays an important role In the occurrence of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxlcity.OBJECTIVE: To observe the alleviative effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on CsA-induced inhibition of vasorelaxation and the underlying mechanisms.METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and evenly divided into four groups: CsA, control, CsA + GTP, and GTP. After 5 weeks of drug treatment, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre) levels were determined. Then the thoracic aorta rings were mounted on a bath system, and acetylcholine was used to induce vasorelaxation. The effects of L-NAME and indomethacin and the denuded vasorelaxation were evaluated.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The BUN and Cre levels in the CsA group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The maximal response (Emax%) for acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the CsA group was significantly lower than that in the control and GTP groups. After pretreatment with L-NAME, vasorelaxation was significantly lower in the CsA,CsA+GTP and GTP groups than in the control group. After pretreatment with indomethacin, vasorelaxation was significantly higher in the control, CsA +GTP, and GTP groups than in the CsA group. The level of nitric oxide metabolites in the vascular tissue in the CsA group was significantly lower compared with other groups. The results demonstrated that CsA can decrease nitric oxide levels in vascular tissues and induce abnormal endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, which is mediated by nitric oxide pathway.%背景:血管舒张在环孢素A所致肾毒性的发生过程中起重要的作用.目的:观察绿茶多酚对环孢素A抑制血管舒张的缓解作用及其机制.方法:SD大鼠随机平均分为4组:环孢素A组、对照组、环孢素A+绿茶多酚组和绿茶多酚组.经5周的药物处理之后,测定大鼠血尿素氮和肌酐水平.将各组大鼠的胸主动脉环放置于水浴系统上,以乙酰胆碱诱发血管舒

  4. Short-Term Periodicities in Solar Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to identify the short-term (few tens of months) periodicities of several solar indices (sunspot number, Caii area and K index, Lyman α, 2800 MHz radio emission, coronal green-line index, solar magnetic field). The procedure used was: from the 3-month running means (3m) the 37-month running means (37m) were subtracted, and the factor (3m - 37m) was examined for several parameters. For solar indices, considerable fluctuations were seen during the ± 4 years around sunspot maxima of cycles 18-23, and virtually no fluctuations were seen in the ± 2 years around sunspot minima. The spacings between successive peaks were irregular but common for various solar indices. Assuming that there are stationary periodicities, a spectral analysis was carried out which indicated periodicities of months: 5.1 5.7, 6.2 7.0, 7.6 7.9, 8.9 9.6, 10.4 12.0, 12.8 13.4, 14.5 17.5, 22 25, 28 (QBO), 31 36 (QBO), 41 47 (QTO). The periodicities of 1.3 year (15.6 months) and 1.7 years (20.4 months) often mentioned in the literature were seen neither often nor prominently. Other periodicities occurred more often and more prominently. For the open magnetic flux estimated by Wang, Lean, and Sheeley (2000) and Wang and Sheeley (2002), it was noticed that the variations were radically different at different solar latitudes. The open flux for 45∘ solar latitudes had variations anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. The open fluxes, interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, all showed periodicities similar to those of solar indices. Many peaks (but not all) matched, indicating that the open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes was at least partially an adequate carrier of the solar characteristics to the interplanetary space and thence for galactic cosmic ray modulation.

  5. Advancement and prospect of short-term numerical climate prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The defects of present methods of short-term numerical climate prediction are discussed in this paper, and four challenging problems are put forward. Considering our under developed computer conditions, we should innovate in the approcuch of numerical climate prediction on the basis of our own achievements and experiences in the field of short-term numerical climate prediction. It is possibly an effective way to settle the present defects of short-term numerical climate prediction.``

  6. Cyclosporin A in psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Heule, Freerk

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAlthough a large therapeutic arsenal of conventional drugs is available to treat patients with psoriasis, a group of patients still exists that fulfill the inherent exclusion criteria or present with subjective or objective side-effects. This necessitates the need for controlled studies with potential new antipsoriatic drugs like cyclosporin A. In this thesis patientoriented studies on the treatment of severe psoriasis vulgaris with systemic low-dose and topical cyclosporin A are ...

  7. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  8. Information exchange between short term and long term operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on the interactions between optimal short term and long term operations of managed water systems. Stochastic Dynamic Programming is used as a framework to find and analyze optimal operations. When considering optimal operations under uncertainty, the short term operations are influenced by the long term optimal policy through the value function of the end-state at the short term horizon. Conversely, the optimal long-term operations are influenced by the value of future decisions, which is partly determined by the short term operations. This leads to a two-way information flow between short and long term operations. The implications of this information flow are discussed.

  9. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  10. Short-term Memory Training in Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一菡

    2015-01-01

    Listening comprehension is a basic skill in English learning.Here,we will talk about the relationship between the short-term memory and listening comprehension, and try to find the way of the short-term memory training to improve the skill of the students in middle school.

  11. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e)...

  12. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  13. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of environmen

  14. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  15. The mind and brain of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A; Berman, Marc G; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the "mind") of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, with special attention to questions of capacity and how--or whether--short-term memory can be separated from long-term memory. Second, we ask how the components of that architecture enact processes of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Third, we describe the debate over the reason about forgetting from short-term memory, whether interference or decay is the cause. We close with a conceptual model tracing the representation of a single item through a short-term memory task, describing the biological mechanisms that might support psychological processes on a moment-by-moment basis as an item is encoded, maintained over a delay with some forgetting, and ultimately retrieved.

  16. Short-Term Debt in International Banking Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Seo

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how a bank run can occur when a bank takes into account short-term capital inflow from abroad. My model is an extension of the Diamond-Dybvig model to include the possibility that short-term liquidity needs can be met by borrowing from abroad. In the model, it is more efficient to meet short-term liquidity needs this way than by holding liquid domestic assets. I show conditions under which a ¡°bad¡± equilibrium exists in which pessimistic foreign investors withhold their i...

  17. Analog VLSI Circuits for Short-Term Dynamic Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chii Liu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term dynamical synapses increase the computational power of neuronal networks. These synapses act as additional filters to the inputs of a neuron before the subsequent integration of these signals at its cell body. In this work, we describe a model of depressing and facilitating synapses derived from a hardware circuit implementation. This model is equivalent to theoretical models of short-term synaptic dynamics in network simulations. These circuits have been added to a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. A cortical model of direction-selectivity that uses short-term dynamic synapses has been implemented with this network.

  18. CONSUMER CONFIDENCE INDICES AND SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Al-Eyd; Ray Barrell; E. Philip Davis

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in examining the potential short-term link between survey-based confidence indicators and real economic activity, notably for macroeconomic policy making. This paper builds on previous studies to establish whether there is a short-term predictive relationship between measures of consumer confidence and actual consumption, which could be used for forecasting, in a range of major industrial countries. It then extends such previous analyses by assessing w...

  19. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M J; Furman, J; Ryan, C; Durrant, J; Kern, E

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  20. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content

    OpenAIRE

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: Higher aro...

  1. Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J.; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory...

  2. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  3. Control of polyspermic fertilization in short-term insemination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hai-xia; Sun Ying-pu

    2011-01-01

    In conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF),since sperm metabolites,granular cells and death spermatozoa may consume lots of energy in the culture medium due to longer co-incubation of oocytes and high concentration spermatozoa.The oocytes are in innutritive environment,which leads to the hardening of oocyte plasma membrane.At the same time,the high levels of estradiol (E2) and progestone (P) produced by granular cells have direct toxic effects to affect embryo cleavage,development and implantation.Therefore,short-term insemination is adopted in more and more reproductive centers.1.Short-term insemination may increase oocyte-utilization rate,high-quality embryo rate and embryo-utilization rate.2.Retention of cumulus cells may reduce polyspermic fertilization rate.Studies have indicated that the polyspermic fertilization rate is significantly higher in cumulus cell-free group than in cumulus cell group.In shortterm insemination,the remaining oocytes should retain cumulus cells to reduce polyspermic fertilization under the circumstance of successful fertilization.3.There is no significant difference in 2PN embryo chromosome abnormality between conventional IVF group and short-term insemination group.4.Short-term insemination may significantly decrease ICSI rate and partial ICSI rate.5.Complete fertilization failure rate significantly decreases in short-term insemination.Short-term insemination reduces unfavourable factors for embryo development,therefore increases high quality embryo rate.If short-term insemination is adopted in IVF,under the circumstance of successful fertilization,the remaining oocytes should retain cumulus cells as much as possible to reduce polyspermic fertilization,improve oocyteutilization rate and optimize IVF outcomes.

  4. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  5. Short-term cardiac memory and mother rotor fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, Ali; Qu, Zhilin; Hayatdavoudi, Ashkan; Lamp, Scott T; Yang, Ming-Jim; Xie, Fagen; Turner, Stephen; Garfinkel, Alan; Weiss, James N

    2007-01-01

    Short-term cardiac memory refers to the effects of pacing history on action potential duration (APD). Although the ionic mechanisms for short-term memory occurring over many heartbeats (also called APD accommodation) are poorly understood, they may have important effects on reentry and fibrillation. To explore this issue, we incorporated a generic memory current into the Phase I Luo and Rudy action potential model, which lacks short-term memory. The properties of this current were matched to simulate quantitatively human ventricular monophasic action potential accommodation. We show that, theoretically, short-term memory can resolve the paradox of how mother rotor fibrillation is initiated in heterogeneous tissue by physiological pacing. In simulated heterogeneous two-dimensional tissue and three-dimensional ventricles containing an inward rectifier K(+) current gradient, short-term memory could spontaneously convert multiple wavelet fibrillation to mother rotor fibrillation or to a mixture of both fibrillation types. This was due to progressive acceleration and stabilization of rotors as accumulation of memory shortened APD and flattened APD restitution slope nonuniformly throughout the tissue. PMID:16891403

  6. Short Term Gain, Long Term Pain. The Effect of Informal Job Search Methods on Post-Displacement Outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Green

    2009-01-01

    Informal job search methods could alleviate short-term labour market difficulties of displaced workers by providing information on job opportu- nities, allowing them to signal their productivity and may mitigate wage losses through better post-displacement job matching. However if dis- placement results from reductions in demand for specific sectors/skills, the use of informal job search methods may increase the risk of job insta- bility. We examine the effect of jobs search methods on post-d...

  7. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  8. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  9. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages. PMID:7754088

  10. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16......,404 Danish workers in the reinforced plastics industry who were hired between 1978 and 1985 and were followed to the end of 1988. Preemployment hospitalization histories for 1977-1984 were ascertained and were related to length of employment between 1978 and 1988. Workers who had been hospitalized prior...... to employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...

  11. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan;

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re......-search of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in the dataset...

  12. Short-Term Shareholders, Bubbles, And CEO Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    John Thanassoulis

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the real economy effects of firms having some shareholders with a short investment horizon on their shareholder register. Short-term shareholders cause management to be concerned with the path of the share price as well as its ultimate value. Such shareholders in an economy lead to bubbles in the prices of key inputs, to the misallocation of firms to risky business models, and to increased costs of capital. For individual firms short-term shareholders induce the Board to r...

  13. A short-term group with drug users in prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Campo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a short term group, according to the viewpoint of group analysis theory. The experience was made in the prison of Sicily. The group was composed by prisoners in the protected area with issues of addiction. The article highlights the usefulness of a work on the Motivation to change through the device of the group. Furthermore, it underlines how much of the work in this context was to encourage participants in the transition to reflection, critical to work on yourself. We walk through fragments of sessions, those were the main themes emerged: the relationship, responsibility, guilt, punishment.Keywords: Addiction, Motivation to change, Short-term group

  14. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle L; Mari Tervaniemi

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during ...

  15. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  16. Attentional priorities and access to short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    2012-01-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance...

  17. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... voluntary pilot program to assess the viability of banks offering short-term loans. The FDIC's SDLG provided... amount is between $300 and $400.\\8\\ \\7\\ FDIC cites that 26 banks in the pilot program made 4,338 loans... appropriate underwriting criteria for STS loans to minimize risk. In developing underwriting criteria, an...

  18. 75 FR 59865 - Short-Term Borrowings Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...., Liquidity Risk Management and Credit Supply in the Financial Crisis, (working paper) (May 2010), available... risk. Given the critical nature of liquidity and funding matters to a financial company's business... Financial Condition and Results of Operations, a comprehensive explanation of its short-term...

  19. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  20. Physical approach to short-term wind power prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Offers an approach to the ultimate goal of the short-term prediction of the power output of winds farms. This book addresses scientists and engineers working in wind energy related R and D and industry, as well as graduate students and nonspecialists researchers in the fields of atmospheric physics and meteorology.

  1. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  2. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  3. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  4. On short-term traffic flow forecasting and its reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Abouaissa, Hassane; Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    International audience Recent advances in time series, where deterministic and stochastic modelings as well as the storage and analysis of big data are useless, permit a new approach to short-term traffic flow forecasting and to its reliability, i.e., to the traffic volatility. Several convincing computer simulations, which utilize concrete data, are presented and discussed.

  5. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide w

  6. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G. Sligte; H.S. Scholte; V.A.F. Lamme

    2008-01-01

    Background: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps ad

  7. A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

    Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

  8. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  9. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  10. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  11. A Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Approach for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the need for university counseling centers (UCCs) to implement brief therapies and describes one such treatment, intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), as a particularly viable therapeutic approach in this setting. Because ISTDP is not appropriate for all students seeking therapy, a careful assessment of the…

  12. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  13. Short-term prediction towards the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2000-01-01

    A new chapter in the continued and exiting story of short-term prediction has begun! The paper will describe a new project funded by the Dnaisn Ministry of Energy where all the Danish utilities (Elkraft, ELsam, Eltra, and SEAS) will participate. The goal of the project is to develop and implement...

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  15. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a s

  16. Somatostatin analogue in short term management of hyperinsulinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, J M; Di Silvio, L; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Five infants with hypoglycaemia due to hyperinsulinism were treated for between three and 11 days with a somatostatin analogue, which raised the mean blood glucose concentration and lowered the glucose requirements in all. Somatostatin analogue appears to be useful in the short term management of these patients.

  17. Integrating short-term and long-term forecasting with reservoir optimisation; Mantaro Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. A.; Lasarte, A.; Butts, M. B.

    2009-04-01

    Operational water management often requires a trade-off between short-term and long-term water demands, where short-term demands are driven for example by hydropower generation and flood protection requirements and the long-term demands by water and irrigation supply, sustainable reservoir management and the seasonal impacts of snow melt or climate. This paper presents an operational decision support system designed to forecast and optimise reservoir operations in both the short-term and long-term. The system has been established for the 20,000 km2 Mantaro river basin located in the high Andes with altitudes ranging from 3500 to nearly 6000 m.a.s.l.. The two main power stations at Tablachaca have a combined capacity of more than 1000 MW that supplies 30% of Peru's electrical energy. In addition, the basin's water resources supply extensive agricultural areas, an urban population and mining activities and sustain important ecological habitats. In this paper, the methodologies used for the integrating short-term and long-term forecasting are presented together with their application to the optimal operation of reservoirs. A key element in the system is the MIKE BASIN modelling tool. The system uses several modelling capabilities of MIKE BASIN: rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydropower production, and river flow routing. The system also takes advantage of long-term forecasts (based on statistical information) and short-term forecasts (based on telemetry data). The continually updated runoff and flow forecasts enter the optimization, which applies the Model Predictive Control principle for MIKE BASIN as the core simulation model. For each optimization, a non-linear program algorithm is used to find the best release strategy. On the basis of the forecasted inflows and the real time data the system suggests to the user from which reservoirs to release water for alleviation of possible forecasted deficits. In addition to the Tablachaca scheme the model accounts for

  18. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  19. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2012-04-01

    The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.

  20. Short-term cortical plasticity induced by conditioning pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Buchgreitz, Line; Wang, Li;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical...... stimulation was applied to the trapezius at pain threshold intensities, and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded with 128 channel EEG. Pain ratings were obtained during glutamate and sham pain injection. Short-term cortical plasticity to electrical stimulation was investigated before, during......, and after homotopic and heterotopic CPM versus control. Peak latencies at N100, P200, and P300 were extracted and the location/strength of corresponding dipole current sources and multiple dipoles were estimated. Homotopic CPM caused hypoalgesia (P = 0.032, 30.6% compared to baseline) to electrical...

  1. Short-term Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, Osmel; Cárdenas, Rolando; Horváth, J E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the potential short-term atmospheric and biospheric influence of Gamma Ray Bursts on the Earth. We focus in the ultraviolet flash at the planet's surface, which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the $\\gamma$ radiation through the atmosphere. This would be the only important short-term effect on life. We mostly consider Archean and Proterozoic eons, and for completeness we also comment on the Phanerozoic. Therefore, in our study we consider atmospheres with oxygen levels ranging from $10^{-5}$ to 1% of the present atmospheric level, representing different moments in the oxygen rise history. Ecological consequences and some strategies to estimate their importance are outlined.

  2. Short term options to ease the energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is typically characterized one of the lowest per capita energy consuming countries of the world and even this quantum of energy is not assured and reliably available. To ease this energy crisis some short term options are suggested in this article. On the short term, the country will have to concentrate on realistic planning, efficient generation, transmission and distribution of energy, on exploiting all possible avenues of augmenting energy availability at lower cost and an optimum use of energy avoiding wastage. The strategy includes the exploitation of cogeneration potential, conservation potential and renewable sources of energy. This route will enable the country to augment energy availability by nearly 40% of the present installed capacity at minimal cost to the exchequer. (author). 9 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Short-term fasting protects mice against γ ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the antagonistic effects of short-term fasting against 60Co γ ray radiation. Methods: After fasting ICR mice were irradiated for 3 min at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min and then returned to normal diet. General situation, body weight changes, food consumption and toxic status were observed. WBC, organ index and anti-oxidative ability (ROS, SOD, MDA, T-AOC) were analyzed. Results: After 60Co γ ray radiation, the mice exhibited severe toxic symptoms before death. The survival rates were 0 for control and 12 h group, 12.5% for 48 h group and 50% for 72 h group respectively. ROS production of 72 h group was reduced compared with 0 h group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Short-term fasting may attenuate radiation induced injuries, evidenced by a significant increase in mice survival rate. (authors)

  4. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  5. Channel Stuffing with Short-Term Interest in Market Value

    OpenAIRE

    Guoming Lai; Laurens Debo; Lin Nan

    2011-01-01

    We study how a manager's short-term interest in the firm's market value may motivate channel stuffing: shipping excess inventory to the downstream channel. Channel stuffing allows a manager to report sales in excess of demand in order to influence investors' valuation of the firm. We apply an inventory model that highlights the potential role of inventory in the manager's channel stuffing and the investors' valuation strategies. Sales in our model are constrained by available inventory. Our m...

  6. INCAP ? Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding, Hermann; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  7. Wind-CSP short-term coordination by MILP approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pousinho, Hugo Miguel Inácio; Silva, Hugo Alexandre Fernandes dos Santos e; Mendes, Víctor Manuel Fernandes; Collares-Pereira, M.; Cabrita, C. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the maximization of total profit in a day-ahead market for a price-taker producer needing a short-term scheduling for wind power plants coordination with concentrated solar power plants, having thermal energy storage systems. The optimization approach proposed for the maximization of profit is a mixed-integer linear programming problem. The approach considers not only transmission grid constraints, but also technical operating constraints on both wind and concentrated solar p...

  8. COORDINATES OF SHORT-TERM BENEFITS GRANTED TO ACADEMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Cenar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Academics‘ work means a great responsibility in preparing young generations ofgraduates in different fields of knowledge, as well as in the future of society, the future state ofthe nation. That is why we considered appropriate an approach the coordinates of short-termbenefits provided to academics. This paper deals with issues concerning the structure andcharacteristics of short-term benefits granted to academics, the method of finance andaccounting recognition and presenting these...

  9. The Fragility of Short-Term Secured Funding Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Antoine; Skeie, David; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an infinite-horizon model of financial institutions that borrow short-term and invest in long-term assets that can be traded in frictionless markets. Because these financial intermediaries perform maturity transformation, they are subject to potential runs. We derive distinct liquidity, collateral, and asset liquidation constraints, which determine whether a run can occur as a result of changing market expectations. We show that the extent to which borrowers can ward off a...

  10. Short-Term Results of Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yılmaz; Samed Ordu; Erhan Bayram; İbrahim Sungur; Ercan Çetinus

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to determine the short-term clinical and radiologic results of medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated hospital records of eight patients who have undergone Oxford phase-3 medial UKA between 2011 and 2013. We included seven patients (two males and five females) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 63 years and the mean follow-up period was 17 months. The patients underwent UKA with the Oxford phase 3 cemented mobile ...

  11. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilja G Sligte; Steven Scholte, H.; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps additional items in a more fragile VSTM store. Thus far, it is not clear whether the capacity of this fragile VSTM store indeed exceeds the traditional capacity limits of VSTM. The current experiment...

  12. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  13. Short Term Investment in Agriculture: Is there a Gender Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagowalia, Priya; Chen, Susan E.; Shively, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Most developing countries strive to improve agricultural productivity by relaxing credit constraints, supplying better inputs, improving marketing and distribution. However the efficacy of these reforms needs to be examined in the context of the behavioral responses of farming households. This study examines gender biases within households that affect short-term investments in agriculture. The study utilizes data from ICRISATs village level studies in India (1975-85) to highlight the effects ...

  14. Biomimetic treatment on dental implants for short -term bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Mur, Francisco Javier; Manzanares, Norberto; Badet de Mena, Armando; Aparicio Bádenas, Conrado José; Ginebra Molins, Maria Pau

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this work was to assess the short-term bone regenerative potential of new osteoconductive implants. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the effectiveness of a novel two-step treatment which combines shot-blasting with a thermo-chemical treatment, at very short times after implant placement in a minipig model. Materials and methods Three hundred twenty implants with four different surface treatments, namely bioactivated sur...

  15. The Beauty Contest and Short-Term Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Xavier Vives

    2014-01-01

    Short-termism need not breed informational price inefficiency even when generating Beauty Contests. We demonstrate this claim in a two-period market with persistent liquidity trading and risk-averse, privately informed, short-term investors and find that prices reect average expectations about fundamentals and liquidity trading. Informed investors engage in "retrospective" learning to reassess inferences (about fundamentals) made during the trading game's early stages. This behavior introduce...

  16. Short-term indicators. Intensities as a proxy for savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Services Directive and the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive. Because the underlying data become available only after some time, the savings figures are not always timely available. This is especially true for the ODEX efficiency indices per sector that rely on a number of indicators. Therefore, there is a need for so-called short-term indicators that become available shortly after the year has passed for which data are needed. The short term indicators do not replace the savings indicators but function as a proxy for the savings in the most recent year. This proxy value is faster available, but will be less accurate than the saving indicators themselves. The short term indicators have to be checked regularly with the ODEX indicators in order to see whether they can function still as a proxy.

  17. Long and short term pump testing for landfill gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.W.; Fleming, I.R. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate vertical well designs drilled into existing landfills as part of a landfill gas collection retrofitting project. Well designs and construction techniques were compared in relation to pneumatic efficiency and the capacity of each well. The aim of the study was to devise a method of evaluating well efficiency and long-term performance. Short-term, single well step-drawdown tests were conducted. Long-term pumping from the entire well field was conducted using different flow rate control approaches. Flow rates were measured at several different system pressures. Data were then compared with drawdown flow rate data from the short-term tests. The study proved that the single well short-term tests accurately predicted the long-term performance of the well field. The study also demonstrated that there was no apparent relationship between well productivity and the length of the screened zone, the diameter of the well, or the diameter of the borehole. No relationship was observed between well performance and the capital costs of individual wells.

  18. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  19. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Fabi, Katia; Logie, Robert; Luzzi, Simona; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or 'binding' deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1: 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants studied visual arrays of objects (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), colours (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), unbound objects and colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients in each of the two categories), or objects bound with colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients). They were then asked to recall the items verbally. The memory of patients with Alzheimer's disease for objects bound with colours was significantly worse than for single or unbound features whereas healthy elderly's memory for bound and unbound features did not differ. Experiment 2: 21 Alzheimer's disease patients and 20 matched healthy elderly were recruited. Memory load was increased for the healthy elderly group to eight items in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features and to four items in the condition assessing memory for the binding of these features. For Alzheimer's disease patients the task remained the same. This manipulation permitted the performance to be equated across groups in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features. The impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients in recalling bound objects reported in Experiment 1 was replicated. The binding cost was greater than that observed in the healthy elderly group, who did not differ in their performance for bound and unbound features. Alzheimer's disease grossly impairs the

  1. Music Learning with Long Short Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Florian François

    2015-01-01

    Humans are able to learn and compose complex, yet beautiful, pieces of music as seen in e.g. the highly complicated works of J.S. Bach. However, how our brain is able to store and produce these very long temporal sequences is still an open question. Long short-term memory (LSTM) artificial neural networks have been shown to be efficient in sequence learning tasks thanks to their inherent ability to bridge long time lags between input events and their target signals. Here, I investigate the po...

  2. Short term settlement of footing on snow foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mahajan

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available "A constitutive theory for snow, developed by the authors, is applied to solve for the short-term settlement of footing on snow foundation. The constitutive law used is a microstructurally-based formulation which includes the effects of bond deformation and fracture. It also includes transient creep effects and strain hardening of snow. The foundation problem is solved for stress and displacement distribution, with two different loads of 0.008 MPa and 0.1 MPa distributed uniformly over a part of the top face. The stress distribution matches closely with the existing theoretical results.

  3. Genotoxicity Assessment of Erythritol by Using Short-term Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Young-Shin; Lee, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that is widely used as a natural sugar substitute. Thus, the safety of its usage is very important. In the present study, short-term genotoxicity assays were conducted to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of erythritol. According to the OECD test guidelines, the maximum test dose was 5,000 μg/plate in bacterial reverse mutation tests, 5,000 μg/ml in cell-based assays, and 5,000 mg/kg for in vivo testing. An Ames test did not reveal any positive results. No...

  4. Short-term effects of radiation in glioblastoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg Petterson, Stine; Pind Jakobsen, Ida; Jensen, Stine Skov;

    2016-01-01

    and five days. We found a small reduction in primary spheroid size after radiation and an associated small increase in uptake of the cell death marker propidium iodide. Using immunohistochemistry, P53 expression was found to be significantly increased, whereas the Ki-67 proliferation index...... capacity. Gene expression analysis of nine stem cell- and two hypoxia-related genes did not reveal any upregulation after radiation. In conclusion, this study suggests that a major short-term effect of radiation is pronounced reduction of tumor cell proliferation. We found no upregulation of stem cell...

  5. A Simple Hybrid Model for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suseelatha Annamareddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple hybrid model to forecast the electrical load data based on the wavelet transform technique and double exponential smoothing. The historical noisy load series data is decomposed into deterministic and fluctuation components using suitable wavelet coefficient thresholds and wavelet reconstruction method. The variation characteristics of the resulting series are analyzed to arrive at reasonable thresholds that yield good denoising results. The constitutive series are then forecasted using appropriate exponential adaptive smoothing models. A case study performed on California energy market data demonstrates that the proposed method can offer high forecasting precision for very short-term forecasts, considering a time horizon of two weeks.

  6. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh

  7. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. MHz Gravitational Waves from Short-term Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Asuka

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around $10^{-26}$ ~ $10^{-27}$ are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10MHz~100MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  9. Short-term headline-core inflation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yash P. Mehra; Devin Reilly

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates empirically short-term dynamics between headline and core measures of consumer price index and personal consumption expenditure inflation over three sample periods: 1959:1-1979:1, 1979:2-2001:2, and 1985:1-2007:2. Headline and core inflation measures are co-integrated, suggesting long-run co-movement. However, the ways these two variables adjust to each other in the short run and generate co-movement have changed across these sample periods. In the pre-1979 sample pe...

  10. Short-term price overreaction: Identification, testing, exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alana, Luis; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  11. Short-Term Price Overreactions: Identification, Testing, Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Luis A. Gil-Alana; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  12. Is short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients affected by mean first 6 months C2 level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assari Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available International Consensus Conference (ICC has suggested that the whole blood level of Cyclosporine (CsA be kept strictly at a certain level. However, it is not well understood whether failing to maintain these levels will affect the short term outcome in different patient populations or not. We aimed to assess if the short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients will be affected by first 6 months C2 level. In a retrospective cohort, 265 consecutive kidney transplant recipients were categorized as group with mean C2 lower than recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation lower than the recommended ranges; n=213 and group with mean C2 within recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation within the recommended range; n=52. All recipients were negative for panel reactive antibody, and had received their first (living unrelated kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah hospital, between 2002 and 2003. The groups were similar in characteristics and 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years patient and graft survival rates were considered as outcome. No significant difference was observed in patient and graft survival rates between the two groups (P > 0.05. The patient survival rate in group with mean C2 lower than recommended range and group with mean C2 within recommended range were: 6 months: 98% vs. 98, 1 year: 97% vs. 98%, 2 years: 97% vs. 98% and 3 years: 97% vs. 98%. The graft survival rate in the above groups were as follows: 6 months: 93% vs. 91%, 1 year: 92% vs. 91%, 2 years: 92% vs. 77% and 3 years: 89% vs. 69%, respectively. The result of our study showed that lower mean C2 levels was not necessarily accompanied with a worse short term outcome in our patients. This finding suggests that the optimal level of C2 may be different in ethnic populations.

  13. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  14. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system.

  15. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  16. Short-term incidental memory for irrelevant cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jonathan M.; Ellington, Lisa D.; Graham, Robert B.; Means, Larry W.

    2003-08-29

    A new analysis of previously published studies of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) water-escape and the results of a new food-reinforced discrimination study are presented. In both cases, male Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrated short-term incidental memory for irrelevant cues in the context of two-alternative forced-choice problems that required learning about relevant cues. In the DMTS experiments, relevant and irrelevant cues were place or brightness. In the discrimination experiment, the relevant cues were place, brightness or a visual-tactile maze insert. In all experiments, after the rats attained high-level performance, consistently making choices with respect to the relevant stimuli, response latencies to the correct relevant cue were shorter when the irrelevant cue value(s) was the same as on the immediately preceding trial. These latency differences are interpreted as indicating that the rats demonstrated short-term incidental memory for the irrelevant cues. This mnemonic phenomenon resembles priming, an implicit form of memory. PMID:12914994

  17. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  18. Prediction of Short Term Electric Load Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant D. Sawarkar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Neural Network (ANN Method is applied to fore cast the short-term load for a large power system. A nonlinear load model is proposed and several structures of ANN for short term forecasting are tested. Inputs to the ANN are past loads and the output of the ANN is the load forecast for a given day. The network with one or two hidden layers is tested with various combinations of neurons, and the results are compared in terms of forecasting error. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, publicly available data from the State load Dispatch Centre, Airoli, Navi Mumbai’s web site has been taken to forecast the hourly load. We predicted the hourly load demand with a high degree of accuracy. Historical load data was divided into two parts where half of them are used for training and the other half is used for testing the ANN. Learning methods such as artificial neural networks, and more recently, support vector regression machines have been introduced to this field. In practices we often expect a fast forecasting, while standard algorithms based on the whole data set are time consuming. An absolute mean error of 2.26% was achieved when the trained network was tested on data

  19. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  20. Reverse Detection of Short-Term Earthquake Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Keilis-Borok, V; Gabrielov, A; Turcotte, D L

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to short-term earthquake prediction based on the concept of selforganization of seismically active fault networks. That approach is named "Reverse Detection of Precursors" (RDP), since it considers precursors in reverse order of their appearance. This makes it possible to detect precursors undetectable by direct analysis. Possible mechanisms underlying RDP are outlined. RDP is described with a concrete example: we consider as short-term precursors the newly introduced chains of earthquakes reflecting the rise of an earthquake correlation range; and detect (retrospectively) such chains a few months before two prominent Californian earthquakes - Landers, 1992, M = 7.6, and Hector Mine, 1999, M = 7.3, with one false alarm. Similar results (described elsewhere) are obtained by RDP for 21 more strong earthquakes in California (M >= 6.4), Japan (M >= 7.0) and the Eastern Mediterranean (M >= 6.5). Validation of the RDP approach requires, as always, prediction in advance for which this stu...

  1. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory. PMID:24998909

  2. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  3. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welcy Cassiano de Oliveira Tobinaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS, and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2±1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3±437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p=0.004, heart rate (p=0.003, and respiratory rate (p=0.004 and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p=0.002. However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p>0.05. Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731.

  4. Performance Analysis of ANFIS in short term Wind Speed Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandatilde;andshy;ctor Hugo Garcandatilde;andshy;a Rodrandatilde;andshy;guez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the performance of Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference system (ANFIS for wind velocity forecasts in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The data bank was provided by the meteorological station located at the University of Isthmus, Tehuantepec campus, and this data bank covers the period from 2008 to 2011. Three data models were constructed to carry out 16, 24 and 48 hours forecasts using the following variables: wind velocity, temperature, barometric pressure, and date. The performance measure for the three models is the mean standard error (MSE. In this work, performance analysis in short-term prediction is presented, because it is essential in order to define an adequate wind speed model for eolian parks, where a right planning provide economic benefits.

  5. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  6. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  7. Short-term Power Load Forecasting Based on Gray Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Herui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Power load forecasting provides the basis for the preparation of power planning, especially the accurate short-term power load forecasting. It can formulate power rationing program of area load reliably and timely, to maintain the normal production and life. This article describes the gray prediction method, and improves GM (1,1 model via processing the original data sequence smoothly, using the correction model of parameteramending parameter values​​, adding the residual model, and also applying the idea of the metabolism. It conducts an empirical analysis of the 10KV large cable of Guigang Power Supply Bureau in Nan Ping, and verifies the limitations of ordinary gray theory. The improved gray model has a higher prediction accuracy than the conventional GM (1,1 model.  

  8. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  9. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  10. Analysis of short-term reactor cavity transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the transient of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear reactor, peak pressures are reached within the first 0.03 s at different locations inside the reactor cavity. Due to the complicated multidimensional nature of the reactor cavity, the short-term analysis of the LOCA transient cannot be performed by using traditional containment codes, such as CONTEMPT. The advanced containment code, BEACON/MOD3, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), can be adapted for such analysis. This code provides Eulerian, one and two-dimensional, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium flow modeling as well as lumped parameter, homogeneous, equilibrium flow modeling for the solution of two-component, two-phase flow problems. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the BEACON code to analyze complex containment geometry such as a reactor cavity

  11. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry...... and sex. Two-year crude cancer survival seems as a clinically relevant cut point for characterizing potential "denominators" for rehabilitation or palliative care programs. From this cohort of incident cancer patients, and using two-year survival as a cut point, it could be estimated that 54% would...... candidate to a "care trajectory" focusing on rehabilitation and 46% a "care trajectory" focusing on palliative care at TOCD....

  12. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  13. Short-term contracts: Descending the career ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Elizabeth Griffin brings a personal insight to the hurdles that women seeking a scientific career face, arguing that the only gender differences are those of attitude, tradition and style. The policy of employing some but not all academic researchers through short-term contracts is highly divisive, in that it creates a two-tier system not only of opportunities and expectations but also of personal worth and value. Far more women than men are trapped in these career cul-de-sacs, and a seriously large fraction is unable to stay in research until retirement. It is the employment policy that is at fault, not the potential of the researchers or the quality of their research.

  14. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  15. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eItskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  16. Effective Short-term Forecasting of Wind Farms Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogalecka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting a specific wind farm’s (WF generation capacity within a 24 hour perspective requires both a reliable forecast of wind, as well as supporting tools. This tool is a dedicated model of wind farm power. This model should include not only general rules of wind to mechanical energy conversion, but also the farm’s specific features. There are many factors that influence a farm’s generation capacity, and any forecast of it, even with an accurate weather forecast, carries error. This paper presents analytical, statistical, and neuron models of wind farm power. The study is based on data from a real wind farm. Most attention is paid to the neuron models, due to a neuron network’s capability to restore farm-specific details. The research aims to answer the headline question: whether and to what extent a wind farm’s power can be forecast short-term?

  17. The role of short-term memory in semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A L; Diehl, V A

    2001-07-01

    Two theories of priming were compared: spreading activation theories, in particular ACT, and compound-cue theories. Whereas ACT assumes that priming is a result of diffusing activation in long-term memory, compound-cue models suggest that priming results from a formation process of prime and target in short-term memory. Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that combined a digit span task with a double lexical decision task consisting of a prime and a target item. Digit span length (low, medium, and high) and prime type (related or unrelated word or nonword) were both within-subject variables. As expected, results showed significant priming effects. In favor of ACT, no interaction between digit span length and prime type was found. Additionally, a nonword inhibition effect (unrelated versus nonword prime) was found, which was predicted by compound-cue theories. This finding is discussed in terms of the process interference and response competition hypotheses.

  18. Short Term Load Forecast Using Wavelet Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Min; Rong Fei; Luo An

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a wavelet neural network (WNN) model combining wavelet transform and artificial neural networks for short term load forecast (STLF). Both historical load and temperature data having important impacts on load level were used in the proposed forecasting model. The model used the three-layer feed forward network trained by the error back-propagation algorithm. To enhance the forecasting accuracy by neural networks, wavelet multi-resolution analysis method was introduced to pre-process these data and reconstruct the predicted output. The proposed model has been evaluated with actual data of electricity load and temperature of Hunan Province. The simulation results show that the model is capable of providing a reasonable forecasting accuracy in STLF.

  19. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  20. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  1. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  2. Systemic cyclosporine and corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Mohammed; Ziaei, Fatemeh; Manzouri, Bita

    2016-02-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed tissue transplant boasting over a century of history, science, and tradition. While favorable outcomes have been reported after penetrating keratoplasty, rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The long-term survival rates of this relatively immunologically privileged tissue are only just comparable to those of vascularized organs. While corticosteroids treatment remains the gold standard for postoperative immunomodulation, other agents have been utilized in an ongoing effort to improve graft survival and patient outcomes. One of the most promising immunomodulatory substances whose immunosuppressive effect has revolutionized solid organ transplantation is cyclosporine (CsA). A calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine has been used as an immunosuppressive agent in corneal transplantation since the 1980's. Although some studies have shown beneficial effects of cyclosporine in both low- and high-risk corneal transplant patients the use of cyclosporine in rejection prophylaxis and treatment remain controversial and disputable. We herein present a literature review on the role of systemic cyclosporine in corneal transplantation.

  3. Systemic cyclosporine and corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Mohammed; Ziaei, Fatemeh; Manzouri, Bita

    2016-02-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed tissue transplant boasting over a century of history, science, and tradition. While favorable outcomes have been reported after penetrating keratoplasty, rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The long-term survival rates of this relatively immunologically privileged tissue are only just comparable to those of vascularized organs. While corticosteroids treatment remains the gold standard for postoperative immunomodulation, other agents have been utilized in an ongoing effort to improve graft survival and patient outcomes. One of the most promising immunomodulatory substances whose immunosuppressive effect has revolutionized solid organ transplantation is cyclosporine (CsA). A calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine has been used as an immunosuppressive agent in corneal transplantation since the 1980's. Although some studies have shown beneficial effects of cyclosporine in both low- and high-risk corneal transplant patients the use of cyclosporine in rejection prophylaxis and treatment remain controversial and disputable. We herein present a literature review on the role of systemic cyclosporine in corneal transplantation. PMID:26463642

  4. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  5. The stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book studies the stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation, pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness, action hematosis stimulators in short-term irradiation conditions

  6. 34 CFR 664.11 - What is a short-term seminar project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a short-term seminar project? 664.11 Section... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.11 What is a short-term seminar project? A short-term seminar project is— (a) Designed to help integrate international studies into an...

  7. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  8. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  9. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Short-term de facto transfer leasing... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which...

  10. Short term hydrogen generation following LOCA and loss of ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the amount of hydrogen that can be generated due to metal water reaction following LOCA and loss of ECCS in a 500 MWe PHWR. A computer code HYGEN (Hydrogen Generation) written in FORTRAN calculates time-dependent fuel temperature during the post blowdown period and the amount of hydrogen generated as a result of metal water reaction. It is seen from the analyses that metal water reaction depends on fuel bundle power, its initial temperature and steam flow conditions. At present, four groups of channels have been analysed for different steam flow conditions, and it is found that, for an about 5 gm/sec steam flow condition, the maximum of amount of hydrogen is generated (5.76 x 104 gm-mole) due to the zircaloy - steam reaction. This amount of hydrogen, when considered mixed in volume V1 (drywell) of the reactor building, means that the global concentration reaches about 2.76% by volume. So, it is seen that in the short term, the global hydrogen concentration in the reactor building is well below the flammability limit of 4% by volume. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  11. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  12. Implications of short-term financial outlook for Canadian producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-term outlook for the Western Canadian natural gas industry was reviewed. Based on the dramatic growth in the demand for gas, and the explosive growth of the industry in response to export opportunities, the outlook for the remainder of this decade remains good, notwithstanding low internal returns, below-average returns on equity, and increased competition for U.S. markets. The competition will come from offshore wells in the US Gulf, from offshore wells of Sable Island, and from offshore wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the increasing sources of supply gas prices are actually expected to improve slightly in 1997 and beyond, giving rise to cautious optimism. Nevertheless, more favorable tax treatment is urgently required to head off the likelihood of investment dollars moving to Africa, the Middle East, South America, and most especially China and Russia. Once those countries open up for business in the not-too-distant future, the likelihood of them offering substantially better tax treatment than what is available in Canada could do serious damage to domestic gas industry development. 12 figs

  13. Short term pumped storage scheduling using two proposed techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Salama, M.M. Elgazar, S.M. Abdelmaksoud, H.A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are proposed for solving the short term pumped storage hydro thermal scheduling problem. The performance efficiency of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on hydrothermal test system comprising of five thermal units and one pumped storage power plant. A wide rang of thermal and hydraulic constraints are taken into consideration such as real power balance constraint, minimum and maximum limits of thermal units and pumped storage power plant, water discharge and water pumping rate limits and reservoir storage volume constraints. The simulation results obtained from the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are compared with the outcomes obtained from the genetic algorithm in terms of cost saving and execution time to reveal the validity and verify the feasibility of the proposed methods. The test results show that the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique performs better than genetic algorithm in solving this problem in terms of cost saving and computational time.

  14. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  15. Short term mutagenicity tests and their application to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although traditional long-term animal tests are likely to continue to be required, these are not only extremely costly but are coming more and more to be recognised as an imprecise and unsatisfactory method of testing the safety of irradiated foods for human consumption. It is therefore clearly advisable to include a selection of quicker and more direct testing methods in any toxicological assessment procedures. The International Project has therefore undertaken a study of the feasibility of using the newer systems for investigation of irradiated foodstuffs. Although some work in this field has already been carried out, some shortcomings in the published work can be identified which justify a more detailed and intensive research programme. As expected, little difficulty has been encountered in testing food by methods involving mammals, but considerable effort has been required to adapt in vitro systems. The use of enzymatic digestion in vitro to provide food samples for testing in mammalian cell cultures has never been attempted before and the procedures developed by the Project represent a positive contribution to methodology in this field. A series of foodstuffs is being tested by a wide spectrum of short-term tests and the first results are now being obtained. (orig./MG)

  16. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Broadband short term variability of the quasar PDS 456

    CERN Document Server

    Matzeu, G A; Nardini, E; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Tombesi, F; Gofford, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a recent $500$ ks net exposure \\textit{Suzaku} observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby ($z=0.184$) luminous (L$_{\\rm bol}\\sim10^{47}$ erg s$^{-1}$) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. The short term X-ray spectral variability has been interpreted in terms of variable absorption and/or intrinsic continuum changes. In the former scenario, the spectral variability is due to variable covering factors of two regions of partially covering absorbers. We find that these absorbers are characterised by an outflow velocity comparable to that of the highly ionised wind, i.e. $\\sim0.25$ c, at the $99.9\\%$ $(3.26\\sigma)$ confidence level. This suggests that the partially absorbing clouds may be the denser clumpy part of the inhomogeneous wind. Following an obscuration event we obtained a direct estimate of the size of the X-ray emitting region, to be not larger than $20~R_{\\rm g}$ in PDS 456.

  18. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  19. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  20. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  1. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009). PMID:26920437

  2. Short-term spectroscopic variability of Plaskett's star

    CERN Document Server

    Palate, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Context. Plaskett's star (HD47129) is a very massive O-star binary in a post Roche-lobe overflow stage. CoRoT observations of this system revealed photometric variability with a number of frequencies. Aims. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in spectroscopy and investigate their origin. Methods. To sample its short-term variability, HD47129 was intensively monitored during two spectroscopic campaigns of six nights each. The spectra were disentangled and Fourier analyses were performed to determine possible periodicities and to investigate the wavelength dependence of the phase constant and the amplitude of the periodicities. Results. Complex line profile variations are observed. Frequencies near 1.65, 0.82, and 0.37 d^-1 are detected consistently in the He i 4471, He ii 4542, and N iii 4510-4518 lines. These frequencies are consistent with those of the strongest signals detected in photometry. The possibilities that these variations stem from pulsations, a recently detected magnetic field...

  3. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  4. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It's filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter's. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach's and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author)

  5. A model for sustainable short-term international medical trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder; Ahrens, Kym; Click, Eleanor; Macklin, Lori; Evangelista, Doris; Graham, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    The health status of many people in developing countries is often dismal compared with the norms in industrialized countries. Increasingly, medical practitioners in the United States and other industrialized countries have become interested in global health issues, an interest that often takes the form of short-term international medical trips. We discuss several ethical issues associated with participation in such trips and use our experiences in developing the Children's Health International Medical Project of Seattle (CHIMPS) to outline and illustrate a set of 7 guiding principles for making these trips. CHIMPS is a resident-run, faculty-supported international medical program founded in 2002 by pediatric residents at the University of Washington in Seattle. Members of CHIMPS work with a rural community in El Salvador to support ongoing public health interventions there and provide sustainable medical care in collaboration with the community and a local nongovernmental organization. The 7 principles developed as a result of this work-mission, collaboration, education, service, teamwork, sustainability, and evaluation-can be used as a model for health practitioners as they develop or select international medical trips. The importance of partnering with the community and working within the existing medical and public health infrastructure is emphasized. Many of the challenges of doing international medical work can be overcome when efforts are guided by a few specific principles, such as those we have outlined. PMID:17660105

  6. Short term synaptic depression improves information transfer in perceptual multistability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Kilpatrick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive neural networks are often used to model the dynamics of perceptual bistability. Switching between percepts can occur through fluctuations and/or a slow adaptive process. Here, we analyze switching statistics in competitive networks with short term synaptic depression and noise. We start by analyzing a ring model that yields spatially structured solutions and complement this with a study of a space-free network whose populations are coupled with mutual inhibition. Dominance times arising from depression driven switching can be approximated using a separation of timescales in the ring and space-free model. For purely noise-driven switching, we derive approximate energy functions to justify how dominance times are exponentially related to input strength. We also show that a combination of depression and noise generates realistic distributions of dominance times. Unimodal functions of dominance times are more easily told apart by sampling, so switches induced by synaptic depression induced provide more information about stimuli than noise-driven switching. Finally, we analyze a competitive network model of perceptual tristability, showing depression generates a history-dependence in dominance switching.

  7. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  8. Role of short-term memory in loudness comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Werner, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    In an earlier study of the auditory discrimination of time-varying noise bursts [Ellermeier and Schrödl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2596 (2000)], listeners were found to place greater weight on the beginning and end of the sounds than on the middle portion. To investigate whether this outcome is due to primacy and recency effects in short-term memory which tend to be sensitive to manipulations of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), the ISI separating the two noise bursts in a 2IFC task was varied systematically. Six participants performed loudness comparisons on 1-s samples of white noise randomly changing in level every 100 ms. In different blocks of trials, the two noise bursts to be compared were either separated by a 500-ms or a 2-s ISI. COSS analysis [Berg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1743-1746 (1989)] of the overall loudness judgments revealed elevated weights for the beginning and end of the noises, as in the earlier study. These weighting patterns were largely unaffected by the manipulation of ISI, suggesting that the temporal weights found characterize loudness integration in general, and are not just due to idiosyncrasies of the timing used in the 2IFC procedure.

  9. Short-term stress: the case of transport and slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nanni Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term stressors such as transport and slaughter include psychological and physical stimuli that might be aversive for the animals. Restraint, manipulation and sudden change lead to fear, or psychological stress, while hunger, thirst, fatigue, injury and extreme thermal conditions are considered as physical stresses. Animal responses to these stimuli include behavioural and physiological changes devoted to coping with adverse situations. If the recovery or the adaptation fails, the consequences can be extremely serious, ranging from weight loss and death to impaired carcass and meat quality. As the stress during transport and slaughter is unavoidable, only the knowledge of the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals during all procedures from pre-transport handling to stunning, together with the correct use of the facilities for handling and transportation, can minimize the intensity and the duration of stress. The final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, animal welfare and meat quality.

  10. Short-Term Heat Shock Affects Host–Virus Interaction in Mice Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Fan, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Shouping; Xiao, Jin; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is a highly contagious virus that can cause acute respiratory infections and high human fatality ratio due to excessive inflammatory response. Short-term heat shock, as a stressful condition, could induce the expression of heat shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones to protect cells against multiple stresses. However, the protective effect of short-term heat shock in influenza infection is far from being understood. In this study, mice were treated at 39°C for 4 h before being infected with HPAIV H5N1. Interestingly, short-term heat shock significantly increased the levels of HSP70 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of mice. Following HPAIV H5N1 infection, short-term heat shock alleviated immunopathology and viral replication in lung tissue and repressed the weight loss and increased the survival rate of H5N1-infected mice. Our data reported that short-term heat shock provided beneficial anti-HPAIV H5N1 properties in mice model, which offers an alternative strategy for non-drug prevention for influenza infection. PMID:27379054

  11. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  12. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  13. A novel economy reflecting short-term load forecasting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We combine MA line of TAIEX and SVR to overcome the load demands over-prediction problems caused by the economic downturn. ► The Taiwan island-wide electricity power system was used as the case study. ► Short- to middle-term MA lines of TAIEX are found to be good economic input variables for load forecasting models. - Abstract: The global economic downturn in 2008 and 2009, which was spurred by the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, sharply reduced the demand for electricity load. Conventional load-forecasting approaches were unable to respond to sudden changes in the economy, because these approaches do not consider the effect of economic factors. Therefore, the over-prediction problem occurred. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, economy-reflecting, short-term load forecasting (STLF) approach based on theories of moving average (MA) line of stock index and machine learning. In this approach, the stock indices decision model is designed to reflect fluctuations in the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) series, which is selected as an optimal input variable in support vector regression load forecasting model at an appropriate timing. The Taiwan island-wide hourly electricity load demands from 2008 to 2010 are used as the case study for performance benchmarking. Results show that the proposed approach with a 60-day MA of the TAIEX as economic learning pattern achieves good forecasting performance. It outperforms the conventional approach by 29.16% on average during economic downturn-affected days. Overall, the proposed approach successfully overcomes the over-prediction problems caused by the economic downturn. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to apply MA line theory of stock index on STLF.

  14. Short-term intravenous interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki Okushin; Toru Ohnishi; Kazuhiko Morii; Koichi Uesaka; Shiro Yuasa

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of short-term, multiple daily dosing of intravenous interferon (IFN)in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: IFN-β was intravenously administered at a total dose of 102 million international units (MIU) over a period of 28 d in 26 patients positive for HBeAg and HBV-DNA. IFN-beta was administered at doses of 2 MIU and 1 MIU on d 1, 3 MIU twice daily from d 2 to d 7,and 1 MIU thrice daily from d 8 to d 28. Patients were followed up for 24 wk after the end of treatment.RESULTS: Six months after the end of the treatment,loss of HBV-DNA occurred in 13 (50.0%) of the 26 patients, loss of HBeAg in 9 (34.6%), development of anti-HBe in 10 (38.5%), HBeAg seroconversion in 8 (30.8%), and normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in 11 (42.0%).CONCLUSION: This 4-wk long IFN-β therapy, which was much shorter than conventional therapy lasting 12 wk or even more than 1 year, produced therapeutic effects similar to those achieved by IFN-α or pegylatedIFN-α (peg-IFN). Fewer adverse effects, greater efficacy,and a shorter treatment period led to an improvement in patients' quality of life. IFN-β is administered intravenously, whereas IFN-α is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Because both interferons are known to bind to an identical receptor and exert antiviral effects through intracellular signal transduction, the excellent results of IFN-β found in this study may be attributed to the multiple doses allowed by the intravenous route.

  15. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  16. Is Earthquake Prediction Possible from Short-Term Foreshocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Avlonitis, Markos; Di Fiore, Boris; Minadakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Foreshocks preceding mainshocks in the short-term, ranging from minutes to a few months prior the mainshock, have been known from several decades ago. Understanding the generation mechanisms of foreshocks was supported by seismicity observations and statistics, laboratory experiments, theoretical considerations and simulation results. However, important issues remain open. For example, (1) How foreshocks are defined? (2) Why only some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks but others do not? (2) Is the mainshock size dependent on some attributes of the foreshock sequence? (3) Is that possible to discriminate foreshocks from other seismicity styles (e.g. swarms, aftershocks)? To approach possible replies to these issues we reviewed about 400 papers, reports, books and other documents referring to foreshocks as well as to relevant laboratory experiments. We found that different foreshock definitions are used by different authors. We found also that the ratio of mainshocks preceded by foreshocks increases with the increase of monitoring capabilities and that foreshock activity is dependent on source mechanical properties and favoured by material heterogeneity. Also, the mainshock size does not depend on the largest foreshock size but rather by the foreshock area. Seismicity statistics may account for an effective discrimination of foreshocks from other seismicity styles since during foreshock activities the seismicity rate increases with the inverse of time and, at the same, the b-value of the G-R relationship as a rule drops significantly. Our literature survey showed that only the last years the seismicity catalogs organized in some well monitored areas are adequately complete to search for foreshock activities. Therefore, we investigated for a set of "good foreshock examples" covering a wide range of mainshock magnitudes from 4.5 to 9 in Japan (Tohoku 2011), S. California, Italy (including L' Aquila 2009) and Greece. The good examples used indicate that foreshocks

  17. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  18. Short-Term Results of Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the short-term clinical and radiologic results of medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated hospital records of eight patients who have undergone Oxford phase-3 medial UKA between 2011 and 2013. We included seven patients (two males and five females in the study. The mean age of the patients was 63 years and the mean follow-up period was 17 months. The patients underwent UKA with the Oxford phase 3 cemented mobile insert unicondylar prosthesis using minimally invasive surgery technique. The patients were assessed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final controls according to the Knee Society’s clinical and Functional Scoring system (KSS. The mean anatomic tibiofemoral angle was measured preoperatively and postoperatively and any complication was recorded. Results: The mean knee score according to the KSS was 37.50 preoperatively and was 90.75 at the final follow-up; the mean function score according to the KSS was 31.88 preoperatively and was 93.12 at the final follow-up. The mean anatomic tibiofemoral angle was improved from 4.37 degree varus to 4.75 degree valgus. There was no complication in any patient except one with superficial infection who was treated by simply antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: UKA is a favorable surgical technique for appropriately selected patients with medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 191-4

  19. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  20. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Luques Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h, diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h, proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7. Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy.

  1. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps additional items in a more fragile VSTM store. Thus far, it is not clear whether the capacity of this fragile VSTM store indeed exceeds the traditional capacity limits of VSTM. The current experiments address this issue and explore the capacity, stability, and duration of fragile VSTM representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented cues in a change-detection task either just after off-set of the memory array (iconic-cue, 1,000 ms after off-set of the memory array (retro-cue or after on-set of the probe array (post-cue. We observed three stages in visual information processing 1 iconic memory with unlimited capacity, 2 a four seconds lasting fragile VSTM store with a capacity that is at least a factor of two higher than 3 the robust and capacity-limited form of VSTM. Iconic memory seemed to depend on the strength of the positive after-image resulting from the memory display and was virtually absent under conditions of isoluminance or when intervening light masks were presented. This suggests that iconic memory is driven by prolonged retinal activation beyond stimulus duration. Fragile VSTM representations were not affected by light masks, but were completely overwritten by irrelevant pattern masks that spatially overlapped the memory array. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We find that immediately after a stimulus has disappeared from view, subjects can still access information from iconic memory because they can see an after-image of the display. After that period, human observers can still access a substantial, but somewhat more limited amount of information from a high-capacity, but fragile VSTM that is overwritten when new items are presented

  2. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  3. Short-term geriatric assessment units: 30 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leduc Nicole

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of hospitalized elderly persons has greatly challenged decision makers to reorganize services so as to meet the needs of this clientele. Established progressively over the last 30 years, the short-term Geriatric Assessment Unit (GAU is a specialized care program, now implemented in all the general hospital centres in Quebec. Within the scope of a broader reflection upon the appropriate care delivery for elderly patients in our demographic context, there is a need to revisit the role of GAU within the hospital and the continuum of care. The objective of this project is to describe the range of activities offered by Quebec GAU and the resources available to them. Methods In 2004, 64 managers of 71 GAU answered a mail questionnaire which included 119 items covering their unit's operation and resources in 2002-2003. The clinical and administrative characteristics of the clientele admitted during this period were obtained from the provincial database Med-Echo. The results were presented according to the geographical location of GAU, their size, their university academic affiliation, the composition of their medical staff, and their clinical care profile. Results Overall, GAU programs admitted 9% of all patients aged 65 years and older in the surveyed year. GAU patients presented one or more geriatric syndromes, including dementia. Based on their clientele, three distinct clinical care profiles of GAU were identified. Only 19% of GAU were focused on geriatric assessment and acute care management; 23% mainly offered rehabilitation care, and the others offered a mix of both types. Thus, there was a significant heterogeneity in GAU's operation. Conclusions The GAU is at the cutting edge of geriatric services in hospital centres. Given the scarcity of these resources, it would be appropriate to better target the clientele that may benefit from them. Standardizing and promoting GAU's primary role in acute care must

  4. Cyclosporine Neoral: A Local Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampoory Mangalathillam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine (CsA is an effective immunosuppressant drug. Recently a new oral formulation, Sandimune Neoral (SIM-NOF has been developed to overcome the problems of poor bioavailability, unpredictable blood levels and variable gastro-intestinal absorption seen with the use of traditional Cyclosporine, Sandimune (SIM. We conducted a prospective, open label crossover tolerability, efficacy and safety of SIM-NOF and (2 to compare SIM-NOF with SIM for their bioavailability, absorption pattern and consistence of 12-hour trough levels. Fourteen renal transplant recipients, with stable renal function (serum creatinine stable for more than six immediate previous months and SIM dosages, were randomly selected for the study. Their age mean ± SD 38.2± 11.1 years, ad had completed 3.8± 2.2 years after transplantation. All patients were on triple drug immunosuppression with prednisone, azathioprine and SIM. The study consisted of an initial 12-week period, where SIM was used and cyclosporine 12-hour trough levels were monitored t least every four weeks. This was followed by a run-in period of two weeks, where a 12-hour cyclosporine profiling was done while patients were on SIM. This was followed by a 12-week period, Where SIM-NOF replaced SIM on a 1:1 dose conversion ratio. During this latter period, 12-hour trough levels (at 1,2,3,8 and 12 weeks were measured. The doses of the SIM-NOF were adjusted to maintain blood cyclosporine trough levels at 50-180 μg/ml. On cyclosporine profiling, SIN-NOF showed a predictable and constant absorption profile peaking at two hours in all instances with steady declining levels through the following ten hours. With SIM the levels were unpredictable and erratic. The Tmax for SIM-NOF was 2.0± 0 hours and for SIM 3.7± 1.7 hours (p< 0.0001. The Cmax for SIM- NOF was 2149 and for SIM 1942 (p=0.008. The 12-hour trough studies for SIM-NOF is a superior preparation to SIM in clinical practice. No specific adverse effects were

  5. Infusion of nonmyeloablative bone marrow alleviates acute rejection reaction in liver allotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hai-yang; HUANG Dong-sheng; JIA Chang-ku; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect and implication of nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow (DSBM) infusion on the immunoreaction of liver allotransplantation. Methods: Orthotopic liver transplantation model was used in this study. Groups were set as follows: Group Ⅰ, syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ, acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar); Group Ⅲ, acute rejection treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) by intramuscular injection (SD-to-Wistar+CsA); Group Ⅳ, bone marrow infusion at 7 d pretransplantation followed by short-term CsA treatment (SD-to-Wistar+DSBM); Another group of short-term CsA treatment preoperatively without bone marrow infusion was also set as control. General characteristics and survival time were observed.Histological grades of rejection were determined by pathological examination. IL-2 and IFN-γ level in peripheral blood and donor liver were detected respectively by Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Chimerism of donor cells was measured by PCR for a male-specific marker (Y-chromosome-specific sequence, Sry). Results: No signs of rejection were found in Group Ⅰ. Acute rejection occurred in both Group Ⅱ and the short-term CsA treated group. All the recipients died at (9~15)d posttransplantation with a median survival time of (10.7±0.5) d and (11.2±2.4) d, respectively. Only mild rejection could be seen in Group Ⅲ. In Group Ⅳ, 4 out of 6 recipients had long-term survival (>100 d), the histological grade of rejection was significantly lower than that of Group Ⅱ, so did the expression level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in both peripheral blood and grafted liver.Y-chromosome-specific sequence (Sry) of male SD rats could be detected in the bone marrow, spleen and thymus of female recipients at 15 d after bone marrow infusion. Conclusion: Mild preconditioning nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow infusion can enhance chimerism formation in recipients, alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation

  6. The Effects of Short-Term Liabilities on Profitability: The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Christopher F.; Schäfer, Dorothea; Talavera, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Using data from Germany this paper examines the direct effect of non-financial firms' use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We develop a structural model of a firm's value maximization problem that predicts that profitability of the firm will change if firms alter their use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We find that firms that rely more heavily on short-term liabilities are likely to be more profitable.

  7. Spatiotemporal traffic-flow dependency and short-term traffic forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yue; Anthony Gar-On Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Short-term traffic forecasting is playing an increasing role in modern transport management. Although many short-term traffic forecasting methods have been explored, the spatiotemporal dependency of traffic flow, an important characteristic of traffic dynamics that can benefit the forecasting of traffic changes, is often neglected in short-term traffic forecasting. This paper first investigates the spatiotemporal dependency of traffic flow using cross-correlation analysis and then discusses i...

  8. Category Specific Knowledge Modulate Capacity Limitations of Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2016-01-01

    We explore whether expertise can modulate the capacity of visual short-term memory, as some seem to argue that training affects capacity of short-term memory [13] while others are not able to find this modulation [12]. We extend on a previous study [3] demonstrating expertise effects...... are in line with the theoretical interpretation that visual short-term memory reflects the sum of the reverberating feedback loops to representations in long-term memory....

  9. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  10. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  11. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  12. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  13. Short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A background paper for the seminar on short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures is presented. The seminar is restricted to safety measures, thus only countermeasures that are intended to reduce accidents are regarded. The measures should be furthermore for the short-term and area-wide.

  14. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  15. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  16. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  17. Cyclosporin A for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yanzhang; Christensen, E; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporin A has been used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but the therapeutic responses in randomised clinical trials have been heterogeneous.......Cyclosporin A has been used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but the therapeutic responses in randomised clinical trials have been heterogeneous....

  18. Very short-term wind speed prediction: A new artificial neural network-Markov chain model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmousavi Kani, S.A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 627 Cobleigh Hall, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ardehali, M.M. [Energy Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    As the objective of this study, artificial neural network (ANN) and Markov chain (MC) are used to develop a new ANN-MC model for forecasting wind speed in very short-term time scale. For prediction of very short-term wind speed in a few seconds in the future, data patterns for short-term (about an hour) and very short-term (about minutes or seconds) recorded prior to current time are considered. In this study, the short-term patterns in wind speed data are captured by ANN and the long-term patterns are considered utilizing MC approach and four neighborhood indices. The results are validated and the effectiveness of the new ANN-MC model is demonstrated. It is found that the prediction errors can be decreased, while the uncertainty of the predictions and calculation time are reduced. (author)

  19. Short-term and long-term earthquake occurrence models for Italy: ETES, ERS and LTST

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Murru; Rodolfo Console; Giuseppe Falcone

    2010-01-01

    This study describes three earthquake occurrence models as applied to the whole Italian territory, to assess the occurrence probabilities of future (M ≥5.0) earthquakes: two as short-term (24 hour) models, and one as long-term (5 and 10 years). The first model for short-term forecasts is a purely stochastic epidemic type earthquake sequence (ETES) model. The second short-term model is an epidemic rate-state (ERS) forecast based on a model that is physically constrained by the application to t...

  20. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  1. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  2. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  3. Cyclosporine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches form on some areas of the body) in ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs ...

  4. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  5. Dissociating Measures of Consciousness from Measures of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch;

    if conscious content simply can be reduced to a cognitive process like short-term memory. In two experiments, we combined two different measures of short-term memory capacity to investigate how manipulations of set-size affect performance in observers with the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS) to measure...... conscious experience of the stimulus in every trial (Ramsøy & Overgaard, 2004; Overgaard & Sørensen, 2004). We trained observers to report their experience of a visual target stimulus on the four-point PAS scale; ranging from “no experience” to “clear experience”. To measure short-term memory we used....... These results indicate that the measure of the experienced content of consciousness does not relate to the measure of short-term memory in a 1:1 fashion....

  6. Radiology, histology and short-term outcome of asymptomatic congenital thoracic malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Buchvald, Frederik; Brenøe, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis....

  7. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  8. Residential Short-Term Camping for Children With Behavior Problems: A Behavior Modification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Harve E.

    1973-01-01

    A short-term camping program promoted significant gains in behavior and in academic adjustment for children with social and school problems. Followup work was found essential to sustain the progress. (ST)

  9. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI hospitalized in

  10. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI

  11. Clinical and No-Clinical Setting Specificities in First Session Short-Term Psychotherapy Psychodrama Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mindoljević Drakulić, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session ...

  12. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  13. Short-term storage in vitro and large-scale propagation of grapevine genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Carvalho Silva; Zanderluce Gomes Luis; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the large-scale propagation of grapevine genotypes after short-term storage in vitro. Microshoots from ten grapevine genotypes were used. The following storage temperatures were evaluated: 10, 20, and 25°C. After short-term storage, the shoots were propagated in up to five successive subcultures, to assess the large-scale propagation of the germplasm maintained under conditions of minimal growth. The propagated shoots were rooted in different concent...

  14. Evaluation of Short Term Outcomes of Transportal Femoral Cross Pin Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Zehir, Sinan; Şahin, Ercan; Çalbıyık, Murat; Kalem, Mahmut; İpek, Deniz; Songür, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Many fixation techniques are currently in use for femoral side graft fixation at ACL reconstruction surgery. Short term success following ACL reconstruction highly depends on fixation strength of the graft. In this study we report short term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double hamstring tendon autograft using double cross pin for femoral tunnel fixation. Methods: Between years 2009 and 2013, 51 male adult anterior cruciate ligament injury cases treate...

  15. Linking Genetic Counseling Content to Short-Term Outcomes in Individuals at Elevated Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Agarwal, Parul; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Abraham, Jame; Paskett, Electra D.; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have linked actual genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes. Using the Self-regulation Model, the impact of cognitive and affective content in genetic counseling on short-term outcomes was studied in individuals at elevated risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer. Surveys assessed dependent variables: distress, perceived risk, and 6 knowledge measures (Meaning of Positive Test; Meaning of Negative Test; Personal Behavior; Practitioner Knowledge; Mechanisms of Cancer Inheri...

  16. Interaction of short-term depression and firing dynamics in shaping single neuron encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Ashutosh; McDonnell, Mark D.; Stricker, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how the two properties short-term synaptic depression of afferent input and postsynaptic firing dynamics combine to determine the operating mode of a neuron. While several computational roles have been ascribed to either, their interaction has not been studied. We considered two types of short-term synaptic dynamics (release-dependent and release-independent depression) and two classes of firing dynamics (regular firing and firing with spike-frequency adaptation). The input–ou...

  17. Short-term precursor of the geomagnetic horizontal field transfer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, using the variometer data of Changli station and Baijiatuan station from 1972 to 1997, the inter-station transfer functions of horizontal field and the single-station transfer functions of vertical field have been calculated. With analyzing the whole changing process of the transfer functions, we have discovered that only the horizontal field transfer functions arose obvious short-term precursors before Tangshan earthquake. This fact may provide a new method for short-term prediction of earthquake.

  18. Short-term synaptic enhancement and long-term potentiation in neocortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Alamancos, M A; Connors, B W

    1996-01-01

    Repetitive stimuli reliably induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses in the upper layers of the granular somatosensory cortex but not the agranular motor cortex of rats. Herein we examine, in these same cortical areas, short-term changes in synaptic strength that occur during the LTP induction period. theta-Burst stimulation produced a strong short-term enhancement of synapses in the granular area but only weak enhancement in the agranular area. The magnitude of enhancement during stim...

  19. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have hypothesised that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996a). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of ...

  20. Short-term nuclear annual power production simulation documentation (SNAPPS). Task 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-Term Nuclear Annual Power Production Simulation (SNAPPS) is a FORTRAN computer program that projects the short-term monthly and annual generation of electricity by the nation's nuclear reactors. SNAPPS develops a power supply curve (histograms) for each individual reactor and then tallies its monthly and annual electricity production. The SNAPPS input requirements include reactor characteristics, cycle parameters, and scheduled outage data. This report contains the documentation for the program

  1. Renovating? Take a look at the new short-term paths to financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, M

    1984-02-01

    A hospital's renovation project can be financed through a diversity of financing techniques. Although the traditional vehicle for hospital capital financing is long-term, fixed-rate debt, there are a growing number of short-term financing alternatives that can provide greater flexibility and generate debt service savings. The author describes some of the new short-term financing techniques, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of short- versus long-term financing.

  2. Shared representations in language processing and verbal short-term memory: The case of grammatical gender

    OpenAIRE

    Schweppe, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates short-term memory for syntactically structured verbal information. Five experiments have demonstrated that grammatical gender contributes substantially to short-term recall of sentences and short texts. This study is based on models that assume that comprehension, production, and retention of verbal materials share the same representations (language-based models of working memory, e.g., Martin & Saffran, 1997). Findings that lexical features (such as phonolo...

  3. Short-term visual memory properties sheet secondary school age with different levels of physical development

    OpenAIRE

    Menshikh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes ). Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicato...

  4. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme. PMID:25516517

  5. Evaluating short-term and working memory in older adults: French normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Nathalie; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Vallet, Fanny; Beaudoin, Marine; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Paignon, Adeline; Dantzer, Cécile; Desrichard, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Short-term and working memory (WM) capacities are subject to change with ageing, both in normal older adults and in patients with degenerative or non-degenerative neurological disease. Few normative data are available for comparisons of short-term and WM capacities in the verbal, spatial and visual domains. To provide researchers and clinicians with a set of standardised tasks that assess short-term and WM using verbal and visuospatial materials, and to present normative data for that set of tasks. The present study compiled normative French data for three short-term memory tasks (verbal, visual and spatial simple span tasks) and two WM tasks (verbal and spatial complex span tasks) obtained from 445 healthy older adults aged between 55 and 85 years. Our data reveal main effects of age, education level and gender on older adults' short-term and WM performances. Equation-based normalisation can therefore be used to take these factors into account. The results provide a set of cut-off scores for five standardised tasks that can be used to determine the presence of short-term or WM impairment in older adults. PMID:22533476

  6. A novel TRNSYS type for short-term borehole heat exchanger simulation: B2G model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel dynamic borehole heat exchanger model is presented. • Theoretical approach for model parameters calculation is described. • The short-term model is validated against experimental data of a real GSHP. • Strong dynamic conditions due to the ON–OFF regulation are investigated. - Abstract: Models of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used as an aid for the correct design and optimization of the system. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop models which correctly reproduce the dynamic thermal behavior of each component in a short-term basis. Since the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is one of the main components, special attention should be paid to ensuring a good accuracy on the prediction of the short-term response of the boreholes. The BHE models found in literature which are suitable for short-term simulations usually present high computational costs. In this work, a novel TRNSYS type implementing a borehole-to-ground (B2G) model, developed for modeling the short-term dynamic performance of a BHE with low computational cost, is presented. The model has been validated against experimental data from a GSHP system located at Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Validation results show the ability of the model to reproduce the short-term behavior of the borehole, both for a step-test and under normal operating conditions

  7. Short-term Mobility and Increased Partnership Concurrency among Men in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Cassels

    Full Text Available Migration has long been understood as an underlying factor for HIV transmission, and sexual partner concurrency has been increasingly studied as an important component of HIV transmission dynamics. However, less work has examined the role of short-term mobility in sexual partner concurrency using a network approach. Short-term mobility may be a risk for HIV for the migrant's partner as well either through the partner's risk behaviors while the migrant is away, such as the partner having additional partners, or via exposure to the return migrant.Using data from the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, weighted generalized linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between short-term mobility and partnership concurrency at the individual and partnership levels.At the individual level, we find strong evidence of an association between short-term mobility and concurrency. Men who traveled were more likely to have concurrent partnerships compared to men who did not travel and the relationship was non-linear: each trip was associated with a 2% higher probability of concurrency, with a diminishing risk at 60 trips (p<0.001. At the partnership level, short-term mobility by the male only or both partners was associated with male concurrency. Couples in which the female only traveled exhibited less male concurrency.Short-term mobility has the ability to impact population-level transmission dynamics by facilitating partnership concurrency and thus onward HIV transmission. Short-term migrants may be an important population to target for HIV testing, treatment, or social and behavioral interventions to prevent the spread of HIV.

  8. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  9. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Quan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  10. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost minimiz....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners.......Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...... minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...

  11. Short-term and long-term within-person variability in performance: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minbashian, Amirali; Luppino, Daniella

    2014-09-01

    Previous research on within-person variability in performance has largely examined short-term fluctuations and long-term changes in performance separately. The present study proposes a model-based on the cognitive-affective personality system meta--theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995)--that integrates short-term and long-term performance variability within the 1 framework. Key propositions of the model include that short-term performance fluctuations are contingent on variability in situational cues and that situational cue-performance contingencies change over time. To test the propositions, performance data for 393 professional male tennis players were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that 2 types of situational cues--resource allocation cues and task complexity--interact in complex ways to account for short-term performance variability. Moreover, as predicted, the contingency of performance on the situational cues changed over time, highlighting the importance of an integrated approach to short-term and long-term performance variability. The implications of these findings are discussed for studies of performance at work and practical applications that managers can employ to increase work performance. Furthermore, parallels are drawn with previous studies from the broader literature on dynamic job performance. PMID:25019419

  12. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  13. Operationalizing the assessment and management of violence risk in the short-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael; Logan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk of violence in the short term is crucial for managing and preventing violence, especially in institutions such as psychiatric units and prisons. Despite a lack of consensus on the definition of "short term", a number of recent tools and guidelines have been developed to aid short-term clinical decision-making. Whereas the supporting evidence for the new tools is impressive, limitations remain in terms of the focus on prediction, limited consideration of strengths, and poor integration with formulation and risk management. The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a brief clinical guide for the dynamic assessment of risks, strengths and treatability. It focuses on short-term risks and the characteristics of the individual that, if changed, might lead to an increase or decrease in risk. The START has the potential to operationalize the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach in order to inform the evaluation of multiple risk domains relevant to everyday psychiatric clinical practice. However, explicit guidance on integrating risk assessment, formulation and management is limited in the START and this paper describes the SPJ approach, reviews recent developments in approaches to risk, and considers how the START can be used to inform SPJ approaches and link risk assessment, formulation, and management. PMID:22753147

  14. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  15. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Colombo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine (CyA is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John’s wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  16. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  17. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Stefanie; Hoerzer, Gregor M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-03-01

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-unit activity (SUA) in monkeys performing a visual short-term memory task. During the memory period, we observed enhanced between-area phase synchronization in theta frequencies (3-9 Hz) of LFPs together with elevated phase locking of SUA to theta oscillations across regions. In addition, we found that the strength of intercortical locking was predictive of the animals' behavioral performance. This suggests that theta-band synchronization coordinates action potential communication between V4 and prefrontal cortex that may contribute to the maintenance of visual short-term memories. PMID:22286175

  18. Obese patients have similar short-term outcomes to nonobese in laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish; Chand; Henry; D; De’Ath; Muhammed; Siddiqui; Chetanya; Mehta; Shahnawaz; Rasheed; James; Bromilow; Tahseen; Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether obese patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery within an enhanced recovery program had worse short-term outcomes.METHODS: A prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection was carried out between 2008 and 2011 in a single institution. Patients were divided in groups based on body mass index(BMI). Short-term outcomes including operative data, length of stay, complications and readmission rates were recorded and compared between the groups. Continuous data were analysed using t-test or oneway Analysis of Variance. χ2 test was used to compare categorical data.RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty four patients were included over the study period. The majority of individuals(41.7%) recruited were of a healthy weight(BMI 25) does not lead to worse short-term outcomes in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and therefore such patients should not be precluded from laparoscopic surgery.

  19. Modeling and Optimization for Short-term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 鄢烈祥; 史彬

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants has received significant at-tention. Most scheduling problems are modeled using either state-task-network or resource-task-network (RTN) process representation. In this paper, an improved mixed integer linear programming model for short-term schedul-ing of multipurpose batch plants under maximization of profit is proposed based on RTN representation and unit-specific events. To solve the model, a hybrid algorithm based on line-up competition algorithm and linear pro-gramming is presented. The proposed model and hybrid algorithm are applied to two benchmark examples in lit-erature. The simulation results show that the proposed model and hybrid algorithm are effective for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants.

  20. A Postsynaptic Role for Short-Term Neuronal Facilitation in Dendritic Spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sunggu; Santos, Mariton D.; Tang, Cha-Min; Kim, Jae Geun; Yang, Sungchil

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a fundamental component of information processing in the brain. Presynaptic facilitation in response to repetitive stimuli, often referred to as paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), is a dominant form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Recently, an additional cellular mechanism for short-term facilitation, short-term postsynaptic plasticity (STPP), has been proposed. While a dendritic mechanism was described in hippocampus, its expression has not yet been demonstrated at the levels of the spine. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the mechanism can be expressed in other brain regions, such as sensory cortex. Here, we demonstrated that a postsynaptic response can be facilitated by prior spine excitation in both hippocampal and cortical neurons, using 3D digital holography and two-photon calcium imaging. The coordinated action of pre- and post-synaptic plasticity may provide a more thorough account of information processing in the brain.

  1. Gender plays significant role in short-term heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Tae-Suk

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the role of gender on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) and the correlation between subjective ratings of stress and HRV in healthy adults. Standardized short-term HRV measurement and self-administered stress response inventory (SRI) were obtained in 441 healthy women and 1440 healthy men. Hierarchical multiple regressions suggested that there was no gender by stress interaction in explaining HRV. However, there were significant gender differences in the associations between stress and HRV (the standard deviation of the NN interval (SDNN), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF)/HF (F(1, 1878) = 7.706, p gender differences in the association between psychological stress response and HRV. Gender also showed a significant impact on short-term HRV measurement. Given that both clinicians and researchers are increasingly relying on HRV assessment, our work suggest that gender based norms are very important. PMID:26179374

  2. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  3. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  4. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  5. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2016-07-01

    We present a characterization of short-term stability of Kauffman's N K (random) Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given such a Boolean network where each transfer function is drawn from the same distribution, we present a formula that determines whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. Our main technical tool which enables the formal proof of this formula is the Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, which describes such functions as multilinear polynomials over the inputs. Numerical simulations on mixtures of threshold functions and nested canalyzing functions demonstrate the formula's correctness.

  6. A review on the young history of the wind power short-term prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Crespo, A.; Navarro, J.;

    2008-01-01

    This paper makes a brief review on 30 years of history of the wind power short-term prediction, since the first ideas and sketches on the theme to the actual state of the art oil models and tools, giving emphasis to the most significant proposals and developments. The two principal lines of thought...... on short-term prediction (mathematical and physical) are indistinctly treated here and comparisons between models and tools are avoided, mainly because, on the one hand, a standard for a measure of performance is still not adopted and, on the other hand, it is very important that the data are exactly...

  7. Recurrence of arrhythmia following short-term oral AMIOdarone after CATheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Stine; Chen, Xu; Hansen, Jim;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) often experience recurrent arrhythmias within the first few months post-ablation. We aimed to investigate whether short-term use of amiodarone to prevent early arrhythmias following radiofrequency ablation for AF could reduce...... period. CONCLUSION: Short-term oral amiodarone treatment following ablation for paroxysmal or persistent AF did not significantly reduce recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmias at the 6-month follow-up, but it more than halved atrial arrhythmia related hospitalization and cardioversion rates during...

  8. Short-term effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on oceanic photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Penate, Liuba; Cardenas, Rolando; Agusti, Susana

    2010-01-01

    We continue our previous work on the potential short-term influence of a gamma ray bursts on Earth's biosphere, focusing on the only important short-term effect on life: the ultraviolet flash which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the {\\gamma} radiation through the atmosphere. Thus, in this work we calculate the ultraviolet irradiances penetrating the first hundred meters of the water column, for Jerlov's ocean water types I, II and III. Then we estimate the UV flash potential for photosynthesis inhibition, showing that it can be important in a considerable part of the water column with light enough for photosynthesis to be done, the so called photic zone.

  9. A Comparison of Different Short-Term Macroeconomic Forecasting Models: Evidence from Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poghosyan Karen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the forecasting performance of four competing models for short-term macroeconomic forecasting: the traditional VAR, small scale Bayesian VAR, Factor Augmented VAR and Bayesian Factor Augmented VAR models. Using Armenian quarterly actual macroeconomic time series from 1996Q1 – 2014Q4, we estimate parameters of four competing models. Based on the out-of-sample recursive forecast evaluations and using root mean squared error (RMSE criterion we conclude that small scale Bayesian VAR and Bayesian Factor Augmented VAR models are more suitable for short-term forecasting than traditional unrestricted VAR model.

  10. The role of marine microbiota in short-term climate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Simó, Rafel

    2011-01-01

    Marine life, and particularly microscopic plankton, influence climate over long and short time scales. In the long term they do this by shaping the biogeochemical cycles of elements (such as C, O, N, P, Si, S, Fe) essential for Earth-system functioning. In the short term they do it by exchanging climate-active gases with the atmosphere. Here we focuse on the short term effects. Oceans influence heat retention in the atmosphere by the exchange of green-house gases, regulate atmospheric photoch...

  11. Effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient psychotherapy unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy in heterogeneous patient groups is common in the public Danish psychiatric system but is in need of evaluation. AIM: To investigate improvement in 39-session psychodynamic group therapy using three criteria: 1) effect size (Cohen's d), 2) statist......BACKGROUND: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy in heterogeneous patient groups is common in the public Danish psychiatric system but is in need of evaluation. AIM: To investigate improvement in 39-session psychodynamic group therapy using three criteria: 1) effect size (Cohen's d), 2...

  12. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    OpenAIRE

    Keckhut, P

    1995-01-01

    Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some sig...

  13. Atmospheric Electrical Activity and the Prospects for Improving Short-Term, Weather Forcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    How might lightning measurements be used to improve short-term (0-24 hr) weather forecasting? We examine this question under two different prediction strategies. These include integration of lightning data into short-term forecasts (nowcasts) of convective (including severe) weather hazards and the assimilation of lightning data into cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction models. In each strategy we define specific metrics of forecast improvement and a progress assessment. We also address the conventional observing system deficiencies and potential gap-filling information that can be addressed through the use of the lightning measurement.

  14. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  15. Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Armstrong, B K;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. METHODS: Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded by ope...

  16. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography.

  17. Laparoscopic and open subtotal colectomies have similar short-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Froukje J.; Bosker, Robbert J. I.; Groen, Henk; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J. H. J.; Lamme, Bas; Pierie, Jean Pierre E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy (STC) is a complex procedure. It is possible that short-term benefits for segmental resections cannot be attributed to this complex procedure. This study aims to assess differences in shortterm results for laparoscopic versus open STC during a 15year singl

  18. Pearls and pitfalls in short-term mechanical circulatory assist: how to avoid and manage complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Prashant N; Maunz, Olaf; Simon, Andre R

    2014-10-01

    In today's era, given the worsening risk profiles of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the increasing number of complex cardiac surgeries, and the increasing number of patients undergoing thoracic organ transplantation, short-term mechanical circulatory assist (MCA) devices are indispensable. MCA devices are capable of supporting heart and lung function and have emerged as potentially lifesaving instruments, but may prove to be as hazardous as helpful due to their inherent tendency toward hemolysis, thromboembolism, and hemorrhage. Although MCA devices are being used regularly at some specialized centers, surgeries involving MCA are not as common as other routine cardiac surgeries, and even though professionals implanting and maintaining short-term MCAs are well acquainted with operating such devices, it is not uncommon to come across complications as a result of minor mistakes committed while dealing with them. Avoiding simple mistakes and taking proper precautions while implanting and maintaining these devices can prevent major catastrophes. We discuss commonly encountered problems and complications during the implantation and maintenance of short-term MCAs and offer reasonable and practical solutions. In addition, crucial issues such as anticoagulation, replacement of the device circuit, and management of the distal perfusion cannula are discussed. Continuous and efficient monitoring of the MCA device and the patient supported on MCA, together with anticipation and avoidance of complications, is key for successful short-term MCA support.

  19. The influence of titanium dioxide additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the addition of 1% by weight of titanium dioxide fine particles to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term DC breakdown strength of the LDPE was investigated using direct and reverse polarity voltages. The samples used were cylinders of both plain and doped materials...

  20. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  1. Short-Term Auditory Memory of Above-Average and Below-Average Grade Three Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruk, Joan Marie

    To determine if performance on short term auditory memory tasks is influenced by reading ability or sex differences, 62 third grade reading students (16 above average boys, 16 above average girls, 16 below average boys, and 14 below average girls) were administered four memory tests--memory for consonant names, memory for words, memory for…

  2. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  3. A Short Term Therapy Approach to Processing Trauma: Art Therapy and Bilateral Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Tally

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, short-term art therapy approach that has been developed for the treatment of trauma related disorders. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol with alternating tactile and auditory bilateral stimulation, associations are rapidly brought to conscious awareness and expressed in…

  4. Short-term statistics of waves measured off Ratnagiri, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.

    coast of India have been analyzed to study the short-term statistics of waves covering full one year period. The study indicates that the values of the observed maximum wave height as a function of duration are not consistent with the theoretical...

  5. Short-Term Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Treatments Delivered at a University Counselling Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of psychotherapy delivered at the counselling service of the University of Bologna (Italy), by means of a single group longitudinal study including a 6-months follow-up. To this end, sixty-six students completed the 6-months follow-up and filled in the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) three times,…

  6. Learning Habits of Students with Special Needs in Short-Term Vocational Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Majda; Creslovnik, Helena

    2010-01-01

    This research examined some characteristics of the learning habits of students with special needs and those without them in programmes of short-term vocational education in five areas: motivation, learning and learning techniques, emotional, social and the area of self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 140 students from different…

  7. Role of very short-term intravenous hydrocortisone in reducing postdural puncture headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rabiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Very short-term use of IV hydrocortisone was found effective in reducing headache following spinal anesthesia. However, its clear mechanism of action is yet to be determined. Large-scale studies are recommended to consider the steroid therapy as a standard treatment for postdural puncture headache.

  8. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  9. The Nature of the Capacity Limitations in Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    Several studies have explored the nature and in particular the limitations of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  10. Short-Term Effects of State Deregulation on the Adequacy and Equity of School Facility Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Decman, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the Indiana Legislature deregulated state controls over public-school construction projects by reducing the status of required specifications to guidelines. Also, local taxpayers were given greater authority to prevent proposed projects. This study examines the short-term effects of this policy shift. (Contains 5 tables and 16…

  11. Short-Term Effects of a Writing Intervention among Adolescents in Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Nielsen, Ida Ingridsdatter; Kolltveit, Silje; Thabet, Abdel Aziz Mousa; Dyregrov, Atle; Pallesen, Stale; Johnsen, Tom Backer; Laberg, Jon Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a short-term group intervention titled Writing for Recovery in Gaza. Adolescents (N = 139) aged 12-17 were randomly assigned to an intervention or to a waiting list group. Levels of distress were assessed at baseline and at posttest. A follow-up assessment was conducted 5 months after both groups had received the…

  12. An Experiment on the Short-Term Effects of Engagement and Representation in Program Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Seppo; Sajaniemi, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    When visualization tools utilized in computer programming education have been evaluated empirically, the results have remained controversial. To address this problem, we have developed a model of short-term effects of program animation, and used it in a series of experiments. In the current experiment, we varied visual representation of an…

  13. Short-term action intentions overrule long-term semantic knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, M. van; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the preparation of an unusual action with an object (e.g. bringing a cup towards the eye) could selectively overrule long-term semantic representations. In the first experiment it was found that unusual action intentions activated short-term semantic goa

  14. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of bot

  15. Astroglial calcium signaling displays short-term plasticity and adjusts synaptic efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremie eSibille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are dynamic signaling brain elements able to sense neuronal inputs and to respond by complex calcium signals, which are thought to represent their excitability. Such signaling has been proposed to modulate, or not, neuronal activities ranging from basal synaptic transmission to epileptiform discharges. However, whether calcium signaling in astrocytes exhibits activity-dependent changes and acutely modulates short-term synaptic plasticity is currently unclear. We here show, using dual recordings of astroglial calcium signals and synaptic transmission, that calcium signaling in astrocytes displays, concomitantly to excitatory synapses, short-term plasticity in response to prolonged repetitive and tetanic stimulations of Schaffer collaterals. We also found that acute inhibition of calcium signaling in astrocytes by intracellular calcium chelation rapidly potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity of Shaffer collateral CA1 synapses, i.e. paired-pulse facilitation and responses to tetanic and prolonged repetitive stimulation. These data reveal that calcium signaling of astrocytes is plastic and down-regulates basal transmission and short-term plasticity of hippocampal CA1 glutamatergic synapses.

  16. Language and Short-Term Memory: The Role of Perceptual-Motor Affordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John C.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    The advantage for real words over nonwords in serial recall--the "lexicality effect"--is typically attributed to support for item-level phonology, either via redintegration, whereby partially degraded short-term traces are "cleaned up" via support from long-term representations of the phonological material or via the more…

  17. Cognitive Backward Masking: A Window Into the Formation of a Short-Term Memory Trace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Working memory consolidation denotes the process that enables sensory information to be stored in short-term memory. What is currently unclear is how long this process takes and whether it continues after a stimulus has been masked. Here, we address these matters by examining whether the consolidati

  18. Order Short-Term Memory Capacity Predicts Nonword Reading and Spelling in First and Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the…

  19. Recent onmiddellijk geheugenonderzoek bij zwakzinnigen [Investigation of short term memory in mentally retarded subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to get a preliminary answer to the problem of the type of information processing deficit of undifferentiated retardates (with an IQ of about 70). Taking the topic of verbal short-term memory as a framework, it appears that children or adults of a subnormal intell

  20. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  1. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  2. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  3. Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory--perception, encoding, and recall--in this effect. The present study…

  4. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  5. Incorporating Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Principles into Career Counseling: A Theoretical and Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas

    2002-01-01

    The Developmental Career Counseling model incorporates the following principles of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy: life-span approach, limited time, working alliance, rapid and early assessment, central focus, active and directive counselor participation, therapeutic flexibility, and termination issues. The model enables career and personal…

  6. The Impact of International Internships and Short-Term Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    For students in U.S. higher education institutions, global learning through study abroad has become a powerful force in student cultural competence. This chapter explores the impact of international internships and other short-term immersion experiences in further developing student learning, especially with respect to their understanding of the…

  7. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography

  8. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors. PMID:26745456

  9. Business Students' Choice of Short-Term or Long-Term Study Abroad Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Stacey R.; Flanagan, David J.; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of short-term study abroad opportunities. Although they are both supplementing and replacing semester-long study abroad programs, research has focused primarily on semester (long-term) programs. We draw on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore factors that predict why students choose long-term and…

  10. Some analytical results pertaining to Cournot models for short-term electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Conejo, A.J.; Garcia-Bertrand, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This paper provides some theoretical results pertaining to the Cournot model applied to short-term electricity markets. Price, quantities and profits are first obtained, and then results related to sensitivities and limit values are derived and discussed. The cases of both several identical Cournot producers and one dominant Cournot producer are analyzed. A case example illustrates the results obtained. (author)

  11. Short-Term PBL Education for Learning Skills of Microcomputer System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Shunsuke; Shirai, Yuji; Yuji, Jun-Ichiro; Inoue, Isao; Moriuchi, Tsutomu; Isogai, Masashi; Fujimoto, Yoichi

    The national colleges of technology in Kyushu area have offered some short term intensive programs for advanced course students called Summer Lecture every year. In this year, we also offered a Summer Lecture entitled 'Microcomputer System Engineering for Improving Skills of System Development'. In the present paper, some educational materials developed for the lecture and a educational method of PBL are described.

  12. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  13. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  14. Short-term mutagenicity test systems for investigating the genetic toxicity of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of short-term tests for mutagenicity/carcinogenicity as alternatives to the long-term animal feeding tests in the study of genetic toxicology of irradiated foods is discussed in this review. Results of local studies on the toxicological safety of irradiated foods are also presented. (author)

  15. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…

  16. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  17. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (protective) supervision; (b) A severely handicapped or special needs child whose care places undue stress on... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds...

  18. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Short-Term Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Dinges, David F.

    2010-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (less than 48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of…

  19. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  20. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  1. The Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on L2 Listening Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Jorge H.; Chieffo, Lisa; Fan, Chunbo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a five-week intermediate Spanish course on the listening comprehension ability of 48 participants in short-term study abroad programs, and compares these groups with 92 peers enrolled in a similar course on the home campus. While both on-campus and study abroad groups experienced similar gains in listening…

  2. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  3. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  4. Conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) supports core claims of Christiansen and Chater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words or pictured scenes provides evidence for a large-capacity conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) that momentarily provides rich associated material from long-term memory, permitting rapid chunking (Potter 1993; 2009; 2012). In perception of scenes as well as language comprehension, we make use of knowledge that briefly exceeds the supposed limits of working memory.

  5. The interaction of short-term and long-term memory in phonetic category formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsberger, James D.

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the role that short-term memory capacity plays in the relationship between novel stimuli (e.g., non-native speech sounds, native nonsense words) and phonetic categories in long-term memory. Thirty native speakers of American English were administered five tests: categorial AXB discrimination using nasal consonants from Malayalam; categorial identification, also using Malayalam nasals, which measured the influence of phonetic categories in long-term memory; digit span; nonword span, a short-term memory measure mediated by phonetic categories in long-term memory; and paired-associate word learning (word-word and word-nonword pairs). The results showed that almost all measures were significantly correlated with one another. The strongest predictor for the discrimination and word-nonword learning results was nonword (r=+0.62) and digit span (r=+0.51), respectively. When the identification test results were partialed out, only nonword span significantly correlated with discrimination. The results show a strong influence of short-term memory capacity on the encoding of phonetic detail within phonetic categories and suggest that long-term memory representations regulate the capacity of short-term memory to preserve information for subsequent encoding. The results of this study will also be discussed with regards to resolving the tension between episodic and abstract models of phonetic category structure.

  6. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  7. Short-term tests of estrogenic potential of plant stanols and plant stanol esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Leeman, W.R.; Jonker, D.

    1999-01-01

    To test for potential estrogenic activity of plant stanols and plant stanol esters, two short-term tests were performed. These were the E-screen test, which measures a substance's ability to induce proliferation of estrogen-responsive human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells in culture, and an in v

  8. Short Term Intervention Model for Enhancing Divergent Thinking among School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Creative ability can be developed and improved through intervention and training. This study presents a unique and innovative intervention program for enhancing creative thinking among children, focusing on divergent thinking skills. The program was designed as a short-term (10 weeks) training and conducted with 150 school students ranging in age…

  9. Neural Evidence for a Distinction between Short-Term Memory and the Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A.; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Oberauer, Klaus; Postle, Bradley R.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the short-term retention of information is accomplished via maintenance of an active neural trace. However, we demonstrate that memory can be preserved across a brief delay despite the apparent loss of sustained representations. Delay period activity may, in fact, reflect the focus of attention, rather than STM. We…

  10. Postscript: More Problems with Botvinick and Plaut's (2006) PDP Model of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    Presents a postscript to the current authors' comment on the original article, "Short-term memory for serial order: A recurrent neural network model," by M. M. Botvinick and D. C. Plaut. In their commentary, the current authors demonstrated that Botvinick and Plaut's (2006) model of immediate serial recall catastrophically fails when familiar…

  11. Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: A Recurrent Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a century of research, the mechanisms underlying short-term or working memory for serial order remain uncertain. Recent theoretical models have converged on a particular account, based on transient associations between independent item and context representations. In the present article, the authors present an alternative model, according…

  12. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  13. Orienting Attention within Visual Short-Term Memory: Development and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna C.; Astle, Duncan; Scerif, Gaia

    2014-01-01

    How does developing attentional control operate within visual short-term memory (VSTM)? Seven-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults (total n = 205) were asked to report whether probe items were part of preceding visual arrays. In Experiment 1, central or peripheral cues oriented attention to the location of to-be-probed items either prior to…

  14. Short-term isolation increases social interactions of male rats: A parametric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of social interactions were higher in pairs of short-term individually housed male Wistar rats as compared to group-housed animals. This was most pronounced when an individually housed rat and a group-housed conspecific were tested together in the morning under red light conditions. Then

  15. CETA/Education Linkages: A Look at Problems of Short-Term Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence J.; Baldwin, Fred D.

    This publication reports a Virginia study of the structure of local education divisions, community colleges, and other organizations capable of delivering service to Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) clients. Its purpose was to determine how short-term-funded projects can utilize facilities and personnel with minimum disruption to…

  16. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, SPERM QUANTITY AND QUALITY AFTER SHORT-TERM STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin rat model suggest that sexual dysfunctions may result from diabetes-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-reproductive tract axis. Our investigation was performed to better define the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on ra...

  17. The Durable Effects of Short-Term Programs on Student Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Caza, Arran

    2012-01-01

    Research involving students (N=612) at a large, research-extensive university who participated in voluntary short-term leadership programs showed an increase in leadership capacity, even when measured three months later. A popular assessment tool, the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS), was used. Not all leadership competency scores…

  18. Socially Responsible Leadership: The Role of Participation in Short-Term Service Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendall, Kristan Cilente

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between short-term service immersion programs (STSI), such as Alternative Spring Break (ASB), and socially responsible leadership as measured by the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS). Participation in STSI programs have been growing exponentially since 2006 (Bohn, 2009; Break…

  19. Teaching Critical Reflexivity in Short-Term International Field Courses: Practices and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This study critiques the use of critical reflexivity in short-term international field courses. Critical reflexivity's benefits include preparing students for professional research, deepening their learning, and giving the chance to see how student perspectives on fieldwork sites are influenced by their own identity and positionality. I use an…

  20. A Short-Term Grief and Loss Therapy Group: Group Members' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Paul L.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on an evaluative study of a short-term grief and loss therapy group (N=5) conducted at a university's counseling center. Examines brief group psychotherapy and grief-related factors. Student scores on a grief instrument showed mixed results, with most grief scores remaining stable or dropping. (RJM)

  1. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  2. Short term memory and working memory in blind versus sighted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.J.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that blind people may strengthen their memory skills to compensate for absence of vision. However, which aspects of memory are involved is open to debate and a developmental perspective is generally lacking. In the present study, we compared the short term memory (STM) and working

  3. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  4. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iseki, Toshio; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2014-01-01

    discussed in detail. Using long stationary time histories, the transition of amplitudes and relative phase angles of the cross-spectra have been investigated by iterative analyzes with a few seconds of time shifting. In the results, the short-term variability of the relative phase angle was observed...

  5. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  6. The right hippocampus participates in short-term memory maintenance of object-location associations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piekema, C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Mars, R.B.; Petersson, K.M.; Fernandez, G.

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been cast on the strict dissociation between short- and long-term memory systems. Specifically, several neuroimaging studies have shown that the medial temporal lobe, a region almost invariably associated with long-term memory, is involved in active short-term memory maintenance. Further

  7. The Role of Attention in the Maintenance of Feature Bindings in Visual Short-term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Hollingworth, Andrew; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in maintaining feature bindings in visual short-term memory. In a change-detection paradigm, participants attempted to detect changes in the colors and orientations of multiple objects; the changes consisted of new feature values in a feature-memory condition and changes in how existing feature values were…

  8. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ortenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile...

  9. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations...

  10. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-repor

  11. Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

  12. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  13. Short-term photoacclimation effects on photoinhibition of phytoplankton in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Garcon, Veronique; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether short-term photoacclimation responses of natural phytoplankton populations in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean) were affecting protection from photodamage as cells are mixed up to the surface from depth. To this end, we measured phytoplankton fluorescence characteristics and the

  14. Short-Term Memory as an Additional Predictor of School Achievement for Immigrant Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Resing, Wilma; Tolboom, Elsbeth; Bleichrodt, Nico

    2004-01-01

    The predictive validity and utility of assessment procedures can be increased by adding predictors to the prediction supplied by general ability tests. Of Jensen's early work comes the suggestion of focusing on the cognitive ability short-term memory (STM), especially for low-"g" Black children. Meta-analysis convincingly shows high predictive…

  15. Navigating a Path Toward Operational, Short-term, Ensemble Based, Probablistic Streamflow Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. K.; Schaake, J.

    2004-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has federal responsibility for issuing public flood warnings in the United States. Additionally, the NWS has been engaged in longer range water resources forecasts for many years, particularly in the Western U.S. In the past twenty years, longer range forecasts have increasingly incorporated ensemble techniques. Ensemble techniques are attractive because they allow a great deal of flexibility, both temporally and in content. This technique also provides for the influence of additional forcings (i.e. ENSO), through either pre or post processing techniques. More recently, attention has turned to the use of ensemble techniques in the short-term streamflow forecasting process. While considerably more difficult, the development of reliable short-term probabilistic streamflow forecasts has clear application and value for many NWS customers and partners. During flood episodes, expensive mitigation actions are initialed or withheld and critical reservoir management decisions are made in the absence of uncertainty and risk information. Limited emergency services resources and the optimal use of water resources facilities necessitates the development of a risk-based decision making process. The development of reliable short-term probabilistic streamflow forecasts are an essential ingredient in the decision making process. This paper addresses the utility of short-term ensemble streamflow forecasts and the considerations that must be addressed as techniques and operational capabilities are developed. Verification and validation information are discussed from both a scientific and customer perspective. Education and training related to the interpretation and use of ensemble products are also addressed.

  16. Antenatal corticosteroid therapy : short-term effects on fetal behaviour and haemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; de Heus, R.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroid therapy to enhance fetal lung maturity in threatened preterm delivery has a number of non-pulmonary side-effects, both beneficial and undesirable. This review focuses on the short-term (transient) effects of betamethasone and dexamethasone on aspects of fetal circulation and

  17. Short-Term Duloxetine Administration Affects Neural Correlates of Mood-Congruent Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Tendolkar; G. van Wingen; M. Urner; R.J. Verkes; G. Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  18. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, I.; Wingen, G.A. van; Urner, M.; Verkes, R.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  19. Economic efficiency of short-term versus long-term water rights buyouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production...

  20. Experimental Study of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…

  1. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  2. A follow-up study on short-term treatment of agoraphobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rijken; F. Kraaimaat; C. de Ruiter; B. Garssen

    1992-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of three treatment packages for agoraphobia was tested. Patients received one of three short-term treatments: Breathing Retraining and Cognitive Restructuring, graded Self-Exposure in vivo, or a combination of both. No differential effects were found between the treatm

  3. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials.

  4. Statistical properties of short term price trends in high frequency stock market data

    CERN Document Server

    Sieczka, P; Sieczka, Pawe{\\l}; Ho{\\l}yst, Janusz A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated distributions of short term price trends for high frequency stock market data. A number of trends as a function of their lengths was measured. We found that such a distribution does not fit to results following from an uncorrelated stochastic process. We proposed a simple model with a memory that gives a qualitative agreement with real data.

  5. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi...

  6. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Brent A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. Results A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. Conclusion The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to

  7. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. RESULTS: The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. CONCLUSION: We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  8. Assessment of highly active dune mobility in the medium, short and very short term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marina; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan J.; Román-Sierra, Jorge; Tsoar, Haim; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gómez-Pina, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    Dune activity or stability has usually been studied over long time periods; however, this may not reflect changes that occur in the short term, especially for highly active dunefields. Extreme wind conditions that are generated near the Strait of Gibraltar (SW Spain) have given rise to the transgressive Valdevaqueros dunefield. The current work focuses on analyzing the sand drift potential and the evolution of the dune profile in the medium term (months), the short term (days) and the very short term (hours). Topographic data, which were collected with a differential GPS, were interpreted from reconstructed empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The results showed that generally the dune profile presented shifting morphologies, especially around the crest and brink, and a trend towards migration to a gentler steady state. As a result, the leeward side adopted continuous slope variations during the different survey periods, whereas the windward slope did not undergo any significant change. Lateral and vertical displacements were analyzed during a severe easterly sandstorm, when the dune brink experienced an advance migration rate of 1.75 m in 24 h. Sand transport rates of 25.5-36.5 m 3 m - 1 month - 1 , 22.52 m 3 m - 1 day - 1 and 0.93 m 3 m - 1 h - 1 were measured for the medium term, short term and very short term, respectively. These values were compared to the theoretical sand transport rate for Valdevaqueros dune, based on the classic Bagnold equation as well other more recent formulae, to obtain a ratio between the real and the theoretical rates for each study period. These results together with the sand drift potential (up to 10,000 vector units) demonstrate that Valdevaqueros (Tarifa) is a dunefield with one of the highest sand transport capacities in Europe.

  9. Short-term immunosuppressive therapy does not affect the density of the pre-existing bone around titanium implants placed in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Poliana Mendes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the administration and withdrawal of cyclosporin A/nifedipine on the bone density in a lateral area adjacent to implants placed in rabbits. Two screw-type titanium implants were placed bilaterally in twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits. The animals were assigned to one of the following groups and received daily subcutaneous injections for 14 days: Groups A and C: vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; Groups B and D: CsA (10 mg/kg plus nifedipine (50 mg/kg. The animals in Groups A and B were sacrificed 14 days postoperatively and, in Groups C and D, 42 days postoperatively. After sacrifice, the tibiae were removed and undecalcified sections were obtained. Bone density was obtained in a 500 mm-wide zone lateral to the implant surface. Intergroup analysis showed no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the degree of bone density between control and test groups either on day 14 or on day 42. Thus, it appears that a short-term immunosuppressive therapy may not present a negative influence on the density of the pre-existing bone around titanium implants placed in rabbits.

  10. Concomitant administration of cyclosporin and ketoconazole in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, M R; Schroeder, T J; Weiskittel, P; Myre, S A; Alexander, J W; Pesce, A J

    1989-11-18

    18 renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporin, prednisone, and azathioprine were given ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system. Within a month ketoconazole-induced blockade of cyclosporin metabolism allowed a significant reduction (451 vs 106 mg/day; 77%) of the mean dose of cyclosporin without altering cyclosporin whole blood trough levels, although maximum blood levels were almost halved. This dose reduction was maintained in patients followed up for up to 13 months. Renal and hepatic function were unchanged after the addition of ketoconazole. This drug interaction has the potential to reduce dramatically expenditure on cyclosporin in transplant recipients. PMID:2572912

  11. Cyclosporin versus tacrolimus for liver transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, E M; McAlister, V C; Renouf, E;

    2006-01-01

    Most liver transplant recipients receive either cyclosporin or tacrolimus to prevent rejection. Both drugs inhibit calcineurin phosphatase which is thought to be the mechanism of their anti-rejection effect and principle toxicities. The drugs have different pharmacokinetic profiles and potencies...

  12. Effect of Exercise Testing on Short-term Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Dai-Fu; Liang, Bo;

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET.Results It sh......Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET...

  13. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork in the Treatment of Experienced Physical Illness and Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the treatment effect of psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients who presented with physical illness at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen. Psychodynamic short-term therapy was complemented with bodywork (Marion Rosen to help patients confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma(s. Patients were measured with a five-item quality of life and health questionnaire (QOL5, a one-item questionnaire of self-assessed quality of life (QOL1, and four questions on self-rated ability to love and to function sexually, socially, and at work (ability to sustain a full-time job. Most of the patients had chronic pain that could not be alleviated with drugs. Results showed that 31 patients with the experience of being severely physically ill (mostly from chronic pain, in spite of having consulted their own general practitioner, entered the study. The holistic approach and body therapy accelerated the therapy dramatically and no significant side effects were detected. After the intervention, 38.7% did not feel ill (1.73 < NNT < 4.58 (p = 0.05. Psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork can help patients. When the patients responded to the therapy, the self-assessed mental health, relationship with partner, ability to work, self-assessed quality of life, relationships in general, measured QOL (with the validated questionnaire QOL5, and life's total state (mean of health, QOL and ability were significantly improved, statistically and clinically. Most importantly, all aspects of life were improved simultaneously, due to induction of Antonovsky-salutogenesis. The patients received in average 20 sessions over 14 months at a cost of 1600 EURO. For the treatment responders, the treatment seemingly provided lasting benefits.

  14. Short-Term Effect of Prosthesis Transforming Sensory Modalities on Walking in Stroke Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Owaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory impairments caused by neurological or physical disorders hamper kinesthesia, making rehabilitation difficult. In order to overcome this problem, we proposed and developed a novel biofeedback prosthesis called Auditory Foot for transforming sensory modalities, in which the sensor prosthesis transforms plantar sensations to auditory feedback signals. This study investigated the short-term effect of the auditory feedback prosthesis on walking in stroke patients with hemiparesis. To evaluate the effect, we compared four conditions of auditory feedback from plantar sensors at the heel and fifth metatarsal. We found significant differences in the maximum hip extension angle and ankle plantar flexor moment on the affected side during the stance phase, between conditions with and without auditory feedback signals. These results indicate that our sensory prosthesis could enhance walking performance in stroke patients with hemiparesis, resulting in effective short-term rehabilitation.

  15. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. PMID:25819288

  16. Interaction of short-term depression and firing dynamics in shaping single neuron encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh eMohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how the two properties short-term synaptic depression of afferent input and postsynaptic firing dynamics combine to determine the operating mode of a neuron. While several computational roles have been ascribed to either, their interaction has not been studied. We considered two types of short-term synaptic dynamics (release-dependent and release-independent depression and two classes of firing dynamics (regular firing and firing with spike-frequency adaptation. The input-output transformation of the four possible combinations of pre- and postsynaptic dynamics was characterized. Adapting neurons receiving input from release-dependent synapses functioned largely as coincidence detectors. The other three configurations showed properties consistent with integrators, each with distinct features. These results suggest that the operating mode of a neuron is determined by both the pre- and postsynaptic dynamics and that studying them together is necessary to understand emergent properties and their implications for neuronal coding.

  17. Short-Term Effects of Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in the Deaf Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the risk of cardiovascular disease amongst the Deaf community. Given that the access of Deaf people to mainstream health promotion is likely to be hindered by language barriers, we were interested to assess the short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion within this group. Using a pilot study we investigated changes in cardiovascular risk factors amongst Deaf people identified to be at high cardiovascular risk, who received standard health promotion by a medical team specializing in cardiovascular health promotion. The short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion in this group did not reduce estimates of cardiovascular risk. The reasons for this are likely to relate to the design and delivery of health promotion to Deaf people, which deserves further study.

  18. Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD. Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.

  19. Solar activity, geomagnetic perturbations and Vrancea (Romania) earthquake short-term predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the main results of applying the electromagnetic method for the short- term prediction of Vrancea earthquakes. The results are based on electromagnetic records made at Muntele Rosu Geophysical Observatory in Romania during the period December 1997 to July 2003. The paper highlights the importance as a precursor factor of the magnetic impedance BZ/BX, where BZ is the vertical component of the geomagnetic flux density and BX its horizontal component. The time variation of BZ/BX is closely examined in correlation with Vrancea seismic activity. The variations are compared to the geomagnetic perturbation of Ak > 20 (magnetic storms) that are generated by solar activity. Relations between these three factors, i.e. the BZ/BX ratio, magnetic storms, and Vrancea seismic activity are seen to combine into five distinct situations. The feasibility and difficulties of using the electromagnetic method for the short-term prediction of Vrancea earthquakes are examined in the final section. (authors)

  20. Application of autocorrelation method on ionospheric short-term forecasting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ruiyuan; LIU Shunlin; XU Zhonghua; WU Jian; WANG Xianyi; ZHANG Beichen; HU Hongqiao

    2006-01-01

    Adopting the autocorrelation method in the ionospheric short-term forecasting, we put forward a simple and practical forecasting method―the sectional autocorrelation method, that is, for predictions of one hour to four hours ahead the autocorrelation coefficient of RDF with the "iteration" method is selected, for prediction of more than four hours ahead, the autocorrelation coefficient of f0F2 with the "at once" method is used. The prediction precisions have been quantitatively estimated based on the data from Chongqing and Guangzhou Ionosonde Stations. It is shown that the method is much improved for the predictions of one hour to four hours ahead. For the predictions of more than four hours ahead the prediction error reaches a saturation value, which is still lower than that of the "median" method. This new method could also be applied to the short-term forecasting of other ionospheric parameters.

  1. Integration of real options into short-term mine planning and production scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xing; KNIGHTS Peter

    2009-01-01

    Commodity prices have fallen sharply due to the global financial crisis. This has adversely affected the viability of some mining projects, including leading to the possibility of bankruptcy for some companies. These price falls reflect uncertainties and risks associated with mining projects. In recent years, much work has been published related to the application of real options pric-ing theory to value life-of-mine plans in response to long term financial uncertainty and risk. However, there are uncertainties and risks associated with medium/short-term mining operations. Real options theory can also be applied to tactical decisions involving uncertainties and risks. This paper will investigate the application of real options in the mining industry and present a methodology developed at University of Queensland, Australia, for integrating real options into medium/short-term mine planning and produc-tion scheduling. A case study will demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the methodology and techniques developed.

  2. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions EEG eigenfunctions of short-term memory

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on how bottom-up neocortical models can be developed into eigenfunction expansions of probability distributions appropriate to describe short-term memory in the context of scalp EEG. The mathematics of eigenfunctions are similar to the top-down eigenfunctions developed by Nunez, albeit they have different physical manifestations. The bottom-up eigenfunctions are at the local mesocolumnar scale, whereas the top-down eigenfunctions are at the global regional scale. However, as described in several joint papers, our approaches have regions of substantial overlap, and future studies may expand top-down eigenfunctions into the bottom-up eigenfunctions, yielding a model of scalp EEG that is ultimately expressed in terms of columnar states of neocortical processing of attention and short-term memory.

  3. Nitrogen assimilation and short term retention in a nutrient-rich tidal freshwater marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Struyf, E.; Tramper, A.;

    2007-01-01

    An intact tidal freshwater marsh system (3477m2) was labelled by adding 15N-ammonium as a tracer to the flood water inundating the ecosystem. The appearance and retention of 15N-label in different marsh components (leaves, roots, sediment, leaf litter and invertebrate fauna) was followed over 15......, the results clearly revealed that the less conspicuous compartments such as leaf litter and ruderal vegetations are more important in nitrogen uptake and retention than the prominent reed (Phragmites australis) meadows. Moreover, short-term nitrogen retention in these nutrient rich marshes occurs mainly via...... microbial pathways associated with the litter and sediment. Rather than direct uptake by macrophytes, it is the large reactive surface area provided by the tidal freshwater marsh vegetation that is most crucial for nitrogen transformation, assimilation and short term retention in nutrient rich tidal...

  4. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Water Consumption Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An approach for short-term forecasting of municipal water consumption was presented based on the largest Lyapunov exponent of chaos theory. The chaotic characteristics of time series of urban water consumption were examined by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. By using the largest Lyapunov exponent a short-term forecasting model for urban water consumption was developed, which was compared with the artificial neural network (ANN) approach in a case study. The result indicates that the model based on the largest Lyapunov exponent has higher prediction precision and forecasting stability than the ANN method, and its forecasting mean relative error is 9.6% within its maximum predictable time scale while it is 60.6% beyond the scale.

  5. Short term variations in Jupiter's synchrotron radiation derived from VLA data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.

    2011-12-01

    Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (JSR) is the emission from relativistic electrons in the strong magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere, and it is the most effective prove for remote sensing of Jupiter's radiation belt from the Earth. Although JSR has been thought to be stable for a long time, intensive observations for JSR have made after the collisions of comet P/SL9 to Jupiter in 1994, and these observations revealed short term variations of JSR on time scale of days to weeks. However, the mechanisms which cause the short term variations of total flux density and brightness distribution have not been revealed well. In order to reveal the mechanism of short term variations of JSR more precisely, we have made radio image analysis using the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) archived data of the VLA [*]. Brice and McDonough [1973, Icarus] proposed a scenario for the short term variations: i.e, the solar UV/EUV heating for Jupiter's upper atmosphere drives neutral wind perturbations and then the induced dynamo electric field leads to enhancement of radial diffusion. It is also suggested that induced dynamo electric field produce dawn-dusk electric potential difference, which cause dawn-dusk asymmetry in electron spatial distribution and emission distribution. So far the following results have been indicated for the short term variations. Miyoshi et al. [1999, GRL] showed that a short term variation event at 2.3GHz is well correlate to solar UV/EUV flux variations. Tsuchiya et al. [2010, Adv. Geosci.] showed that JSR at 325MHz and 785MHz have short term variations. These JSR observations confirmed the existence of the short term variation which is caused by solar UV/EUV. However, the effect of solar UV/EUV heating on the spatial distribution of JSR has never been confirmed, so this study is the first attempt to confirm the solar UV/EUV effect on spatial distribution of JSR. We have selected the data observed from 28th Jan. to 5th Feb. 2000 at 327MHz

  6. Representations of temporal information in short-term memory: Are they modality-specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, Daniel; Quinn, Katrina R; Ulrich, Rolf; Bausenhart, Karin M

    2016-10-01

    Rattat and Picard (2012) reported that the coding of temporal information in short-term memory is modality-specific, that is, temporal information received via the visual (auditory) modality is stored as a visual (auditory) code. This conclusion was supported by modality-specific interference effects on visual and auditory duration discrimination, which were induced by secondary tasks (visual tracking or articulatory suppression), presented during a retention interval. The present study assessed the stability of these modality-specific interference effects. Our study did not replicate the selective interference pattern but rather indicated that articulatory suppression not only impairs short-term memory for auditory but also for visual durations. This result pattern supports a crossmodal or an abstract view of temporal encoding.

  7. Analysis of the short-term overproduction capability of variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit; Margaris, Ioannis D.;

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis in this article is on variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) capability to provide short-term overproduction and better understanding of VSWTs’ mechanical and electrical limits to deliver such support. VSWTs’ short-term overproduction capability is of primary concern for the transmission...... system operators (TSOs) in the process of restoring critical situations during large frequency excursions in power systems with high wind power penetration. This study is conducted on a simplified generic model for VSWTs with full scale power converter (Type IV), which includes several adjustments...... and extensions of the Type IV standard wind turbine model proposed by the IEC Committee in IEC 61400-27-1. This modified standard model is able to account for dynamic features relevant for integrating active power ancillary services in wind power plants, such as frequency support capabilities. The performance...

  8. Short-term probabilistic earthquake risk assessment considering time-dependent b values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Laura; Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Herrmann, Marcus; Seif, Stefanie

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory experiments highlight a systematic b value decrease during the stress increase period before failure, and some large natural events are known to show a precursory decrease in the b value. However, short-term forecast models currently consider only the generic probability that an event can trigger subsequent seismicity in the near field. While the probability increase over a stationary Poissonian background is substantial, selected case studies have shown through cost-benefit analysis that the absolute main shock probability remains too low to warrant significant mitigation actions. We analyze the probabilities considering both changes in the seismicity rates and temporal changes in the b value. The precursory b value decrease in the 2009 L'Aquila case results in an additional fiftyfold probability increase for a M6.3 event. Translated into time-varying hazard and risk, these changes surpass the cost-benefit threshold for short-term evacuation.

  9. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey - III. Short-term variability monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Marinoni, S; Altavilla, G; Bellazzini, M; Galleti, S; Tessicini, G; Valentini, G; Cocozza, G; Ragaini, S; Braga, V; Bragaglia, A; Federici, L; Schuster, W J; Carrasco, J M; Castro, A; Figueras, F; Jordi, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the short-term constancy monitoring of candidate Gaia Spectrophotometric Standard Stars (SPSS). We obtained time series of typically 1.24 hour - with sampling periods from 1-3 min to a few hours, depending on the case - to monitor the constancy of our candidate SPSS down to 10 mmag, as required for the calibration of Gaia photometric data. We monitored 162 out of a total of 212 SPSS candidates. The observing campaign started in 2006 and finished in 2015, using 143 observing nights on nine different instruments covering both hemispheres. Using differential photometry techniques, we built light curves with a typical precision of 4 mmag, depending on the data quality. As a result of our constancy assessment, 150 SPSS candidates were validated against short term variability, and only 12 were rejected because of variability including some widely used flux standards such as BD+174708, SA 105-448, 1740346, and HD 37725.

  10. Long- and short-term indoor radon survey in the Ardea municipality, south Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso

    2014-12-01

    The indoor radon concentration was measured in 16 schools and 6 public departments in the Ardea municipality, using both active and passive detectors. The annual concentration of radon has been determined as the mean of two consecutive 6-month periods of sampling from January 2012 to January 2013. The indoor radon level measured in the monitored buildings ranged from 17 to 918 Bq·m(-3), with a mean value of 154 Bq·m(-3). In addition, the correlation between short-term and long-term measurements was studied. Experimental data demonstrate that the deviation of short-term measurements with respect to polyallyl diglycol carbonate data does not exceed ±40 % in a very extended range of radon concentrations.

  11. Short-Term Effect of Prosthesis Transforming Sensory Modalities on Walking in Stroke Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Honda, Keita; Ishiguro, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairments caused by neurological or physical disorders hamper kinesthesia, making rehabilitation difficult. In order to overcome this problem, we proposed and developed a novel biofeedback prosthesis called Auditory Foot for transforming sensory modalities, in which the sensor prosthesis transforms plantar sensations to auditory feedback signals. This study investigated the short-term effect of the auditory feedback prosthesis on walking in stroke patients with hemiparesis. To evaluate the effect, we compared four conditions of auditory feedback from plantar sensors at the heel and fifth metatarsal. We found significant differences in the maximum hip extension angle and ankle plantar flexor moment on the affected side during the stance phase, between conditions with and without auditory feedback signals. These results indicate that our sensory prosthesis could enhance walking performance in stroke patients with hemiparesis, resulting in effective short-term rehabilitation. PMID:27547456

  12. The base-scale entropy analysis of short-term heart rate variability signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin; NING Xinbao

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of heart rate variability (HRV) signal can reflect physiological functions and healthy status of heart system. Detecting complexity of the short-term HRV signal has an important practical meaning. We introduce the base-scale entropy method to analyze the complexity of time series. The advantages of our method are its simplicity, extremely fast calculation for very short data and anti-noise characteristic. For the well-known chaotic dynamical system―logistic map, it is shown that our complexity behaves similarly to Lyapunov exponents, and is especially effective in the presence of random Gaussian noise. This paper addresses the use of base-scale entropy method to 3 low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic systems. At last, we apply this idea to short-term HRV signal, and the result shows the method could robustly identify patterns generated from healthy and pathologic states, as well as aging. The base-scale entropy can provide convenience in practically applications.

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Partap Singh Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg, guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg, and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA in equines under field conditions.

  14. Predicting Time Series from Short-Term High-Dimensional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huanfei; Zhou, Tianshou; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    The prediction of future values of time series is a challenging task in many fields. In particular, making prediction based on short-term data is believed to be difficult. Here, we propose a method to predict systems' low-dimensional dynamics from high-dimensional but short-term data. Intuitively, it can be considered as a transformation from the inter-variable information of the observed high-dimensional data into the corresponding low-dimensional but long-term data, thereby equivalent to prediction of time series data. Technically, this method can be viewed as an inverse implementation of delayed embedding reconstruction. Both methods and algorithms are developed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result, benchmark examples and real-world problems from various fields are studied.

  15. Neuroevolution Results in Emergence of Short-Term Memory for Goal-Directed Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhman, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Animals behave adaptively in the environment with multiply competing goals. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying such goal-directed behavior remains a challenge for neuroscience as well for adaptive system research. To address this problem we developed an evolutionary model of adaptive behavior in the multigoal stochastic environment. Proposed neuroevolutionary algorithm is based on neuron's duplication as a basic mechanism of agent's recurrent neural network development. Results of simulation demonstrate that in the course of evolution agents acquire the ability to store the short-term memory and, therefore, use it in behavioral strategies with alternative actions. We found that evolution discovered two mechanisms for short-term memory. The first mechanism is integration of sensory signals and ongoing internal neural activity, resulting in emergence of cell groups specialized on alternative actions. And the second mechanism is slow neurodynamical processes that makes possible to code the previous behav...

  16. Temperature propagation in prismatic lithium-ion-cells after short term thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Pamina; Liebig, Gerd; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a 3D model based on the thermal material characteristics of an automotive prismatic Li-NiMnCoO2 (NMC) cell was created in COMSOL Multiphysics® in order to simulate the temperature propagation in the cell during short term thermal stress. The thermal characteristics of the battery components were experimentally determined via laser flash analysis (LFA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and used as an input parameter for the models. In order to validate the modelling approach, an experimental setup was built to measure the temperature propagation during thermal stresses within a dummy cell, equipped with temperature sensors. After validating, the model is used to describe the temperature propagation after a short-term temperature stress on automotive prismatic lithium-ion cells, simulating welding of the contact leads.

  17. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated by cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data is required for stable results of the spectral analysis. However, the phase lag between responses, in terms of the phase angle...... of the cross-spectra, has not been discussed in detail. Using long stationary time series, the transition of amplitudes and relative phase angles of the cross-spectra has been investigated by iterative analyzes with a few seconds of time shifting. In the results, the short-term variability of the relative...... phase angle was observed. In effect, the variability may compromise the accuracy of the wave buoy analogy....

  18. Limitless capacity: A dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill eMacken

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems – ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally – that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes.

  19. Improved hepatic lipid composition following short-term exercise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Kelly, Karen R;

    2013-01-01

    after the exercise program and the increase was positively correlated with the increase in liver PUI (r = 0.52, P = .05). Body weight remained stable during the program (P > .05). Conclusion: Short-term exercise can target hepatic lipid composition, which may reduce the risk of NAFLD progression......Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, low levels of polyunsaturated lipids, and adiponectin are implicated in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective: We examined the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on these metabolic risk factors...... measures included hepatic triglyceride content, and a lipid saturation index and polyunsaturated lipid index (PUI) of the liver, obtained by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (N = 14). Insulin sensitivity was estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and mononuclear cells were isolated...

  20. Implementing Short Term Scheduler and Preemptive Algorithm in Grid Computing Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH.V.T. E.V Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid Computing has emerged as an important new field focusing on resource sharing. One of the most challenging issues in Grid Computing is efficient scheduling of tasks and there is need of finding faster and cheaper solutions to solve computational problems. The deployment of Grid systems involves the efficient management of heterogeneous, geographically distributed and dynamically available resources. However, the effectiveness of a Grid environment is largely dependent on the effectiveness and efficiency of its schedulers, which act as localized resource brokers. This article provides a brief overview on grid computing and Scheduling processes, important factors considered in resource management and Scheduling, comparison of different Scheduling processes and future outlook of its resource management and Scheduling in Grid systemsby implementing short term scheduling. This paper investigates the use of short term scheduling mechanism in grid computing and implementing the Shortest Remaining Time First (SRTF algorithm for the selection of jobs from the job pool.

  1. Short-Term Forecasting of Railway Passenger Flow Based on Clustering of Booking Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minshu Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For railway companies, the benefits from revenue management activities, like inventory control, dynamic pricing, and so forth, rely heavily on the accuracy of the short-term forecasting of the passenger flow. In this paper, based on the analysis of the relevance between final booking amounts and shapes of the booking curves, a novel short-term forecasting approach, which employs a specifically designed clustering algorithm and the data of both historical booking records and the bookings on hand, is proposed. The empirical study with real data sets from Chinese railway shows that the proposed approach outperforms the advanced pickup model (one of the most popular models in practice during the early and middle stages of booking horizon when bookings are not concentrated in the final days before departure.

  2. How high is visual short-term memory capacity for object layout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sellers, Eric; Mittelstadt, Jeff; Sulman, Noah

    2010-05-01

    Previous research measuring visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that the capacity for representing the layout of objects is fairly high. In four experiments, we further explored the capacity of VSTM for layout of objects, using the change detection method. In Experiment 1, participants retained most of the elements in displays of 4 to 8 elements. In Experiments 2 and 3, with up to 20 elements, participants retained many of them, reaching a capacity of 13.4 stimulus elements. In Experiment 4, participants retained much of a complex naturalistic scene. In most cases, increasing display size caused only modest reductions in performance, consistent with the idea of configural, variable-resolution grouping. The results indicate that participants can retain a substantial amount of scene layout information (objects and locations) in short-term memory. We propose that this is a case of remote visual understanding, where observers' ability to integrate information from a scene is paramount.

  3. Cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction in human renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiberd, B A

    1989-12-01

    Cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients frequently suffer CsA-related nephrotoxicity and hypertension. This study demonstrates that glomerular filtration rate is reduced acutely by 13% (P less than 0.02) and renal vascular resistance increased by 30% (P less than 0.05), immediately after patients take their CsA dose. The reduction in GFR is directly related to their trough CsA level (r = 0.82; P less than 0.01). The lower the trough CsA level the greater the fall in GFR after the CsA dose. Plasma renin activity does not increase after the CsA dose (pre-CsA 0.6 +/- 0.2 ng/L/sec vs. post-CsA 0.4 +/- 0.1 ng/L/sec; P = NS), and therefore cannot be responsible for the reduction in renal function. Short-term nifedipine treatment is effective in preventing the acute reduction in GFR (P less than 0.05). This occurred despite no apparent effect of nifedipine in altering trough or post-dose CsA levels. Furthermore nifedipine was effective in lowering both the mean arterial blood pressure (109 mmHg to 94 mmHg; P less than 0.01) and the elevated renal vascular resistance (25% reduction; P less than 0.02) observed in these patients. These results suggest that nifedipine may be a suitable agent for limiting acute CsA nephrotoxicity and for treating CsA-associated hypertension in renal allograft recipients.

  4. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zarshenas; Parsa Houshvar; Ali Tahmasebi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, n = 41) or control group (waiting list, n = 41) and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ), respectively. The experimental group received four-week aero...

  5. Hyperdense basilar artery sign diagnoses acute posterior circulation stroke and predicts short-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoping [Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University at Shenyang, Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital, Shenyang (China); Guo, Yang [Shengjing Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenyang (China)

    2010-12-15

    It is well established that the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign is a specific marker for early ischemia in anterior circulation. However, little is known about the hyperdense basilar artery sign (HDBA) in posterior circulation. Our aim was to determine whether the HDBA sign has utility in early diagnosis of acute posterior circulation stroke and prediction of short-term outcome. Three-blinded readers examined unenhanced computed tomography scans for the HDBA sign, and materials were classified into two groups according to this sign. Vascular risk factors, admission and discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, short-term outcome, and radiological findings between the two groups were compared. One hundred and twenty-six cases of acute posterior circulation stroke (PCS) were included in the study. No statistically significant differences were found in risk factors of ischemic stroke, except atrial fibrillation (P = 0.025). Admission and discharge NIHSS scores for the positive HDBA group were significantly higher than scores for the negative HDBA group (P = 0.001, 0.002, respectively). The infarction territory for the positive HDBA group was mainly multi-region in nature (51.6%, P < 0.001), while the negative HDBA group showed mainly middle territory infarction. Significant independent predictors of short-term outcome included the HDBA sign (P < 0.001) and admission NIHSS scores (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the HDBA patients showed multi-region infarction and a serious neurological symptom. Based on our results, this sign might not only be helpful in early diagnosis of acute PCS but also be able to correlate with a poor short-term outcome. (orig.)

  6. Laparoscopic vs. Open Right Hemicolectomies: Short Term Outcomes within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Chanpreet Arhi

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Studies that recommend laparoscopic right hemicolectomies within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme are based on data from all types of colorectal procedures. This study compares short-term outcomes following right hemicolectomies within an ERAS setting. Methods: Retrospective analysis of elective right hemicolectomies carried out between October 2008 and April 2012. Exclusion criteria:- patients not managed with an ERAS programme; inflammatory bowel disease; ASA IV and...

  7. Surgical Margins and Short-Term Results of Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision for Low Rectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qingqiang; Xiu, Peng; Qi, Xiaolong; Yi, Guoping; Xu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The confines of the narrow bony pelvis make laparoscopic surgery more challenging in the treatment of low rectal cancer. Macroscopic evaluation of the completeness of the mesorectum provides detailed information about the quality of surgery. This study was performed to observe the short-term outcomes and evaluate the macroscopic quality of specimens acquired from laparoscopic total mesorectal excision versus open total mesorectal excision in patients with low rectal...

  8. The role of past performance in export ventures: a short-term reactive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Filipe Lages; Sandy D. Jap; David A Griffith

    2008-01-01

    This paper employs organizational learning theory to examine the short-term effect of past export performance, and internal (management) and external (market) forces on marketing strategy adaptation and current export performance. Results from a survey of over 500 export managers indicate that current-period performance improvement (in terms of performance achievement, export intensity, and performance satisfaction in the current year) is influenced by the firm's commitment to exporting. Furt...

  9. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  10. Prognostic value of systolic short-term blood pressure variability in systolic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Matthieu; Lairez, Olivier; Fourcade, Joelle; Roncalli, Jérôme; Carrié, Didier; Pathak, Atul; Chamontin, Bernard; Galinier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the general population are usually correlated to a better prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Most of the studies show that blood pressure variability (BPV) has noxious effect on general population but data are missing for patients with systolic HF. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) in systolic HF. Methods and results We retrospectively studied 288 pa...

  11. Technique and short-term outcomes of single-port surgery for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, O; Aslak, K K; Rosenstock, S

    2013-01-01

    Although conventional laparoscopic surgery is less traumatic than open surgery, it does cause tissue trauma and multiple scar formation. The size and number of ports determine the extent of the trauma. Single-port laparoscopic surgery is assumed to minimize and perhaps eliminate the potential...... adverse effects of conventional laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to examine short-term outcomes of single-port laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer....

  12. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    OpenAIRE

    BEHRENS, Martin; Weippert, Matthias; Wassermann, Franziska; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC) and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals ...

  13. Short-Term Prognostic Index for Breast Cancer: NPI or Lpi

    OpenAIRE

    Van Belle, V.; Decock, J; Hendrickx, W.; Brouckaert, O.; Pintens, S.; Moerman, P; Wildiers, H; Paridaens, R.; M. R. Christiaens; Van Huffel, S.; Neven, P.

    2011-01-01

    Axillary lymph node involvement is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer survival but is confounded by the number of nodes examined. We compare the performance of the log odds prognostic index (Lpi), using a ratio of the positive versus negative lymph nodes, with the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) for short-term breast cancer specific disease free survival. A total of 1818 operable breast cancer patients treated in the University Hospital of Leuven between 2000 and 2005 were ...

  14. Short term global health experiences and local partnership models: a framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence C. Loh; Cherniak, William; Dreifuss, Bradley A.; Dacso, Matthew M.; Lin, Henry C.; Evert, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary interest in in short-term experiences in global health (STEGH) has led to important questions of ethics, responsibility, and potential harms to receiving communities. In addressing these issues, the role of local engagement through partnerships between external STEGH facilitating organization(s) and internal community organization(s) has been identified as crucial to mitigating potential pitfalls. This perspective piece offers a framework to categorize different models of local e...

  15. Short-term effect of ozone on the pulmonary function of children in primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P C; Lai, Y M; Chan, C.C.; Hwang, J. S.; Yang, C Y; Wang, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. We sampled 941 children in primary school in three communities in Taiwan (Sanchun, Taihsi, and Linyuan). The nearby stations of the Taiwan air quality monitoring network provided the hourly ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter < or = to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen dioxide. Spirometry was perf...

  16. Discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability measures for CHF assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the discrimination power of short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for discriminating normal subjects versus Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) patients. We analyzed 1,914.40 hours of ECG of 83 patients of which 54 are normal and 29 are suffering from CHF with New York Heart Classification (NYHA) I, II, III, extracted by public databases. Following guidelines, we performed time and frequency analysis in order to measure HRV features. To assess the discrimination power...

  17. Short term hydrothermal scheduling via improved honey-bee mating optimization algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    hamed baradaran tavakoli; babak mozafari

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach for solving short term hydrothermal scheduling problem is suggested, to minimize the total production cost and to produce electrical energy in an optimized way, by using honey-bee mating optimization algorithm. In the proposed method, lots of the hydrothermal system constraints such as power balance, water balance, time delay between reservoirs, volume limits and the operation limits of hydro and thermal plants, are considered. Therefore, the problem of short ter...

  18. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  19. Short term variability in FEV1 and bronchodilator responsiveness in patients with obstructive ventilatory defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Tweeddale, P M; Alexander, F.; McHardy, G J

    1987-01-01

    Short term variability in FEV1 and responsiveness to inhaled bronchodilator were measured in 150 patients with obstructive ventilatory defects. The range of initial FEV1 was 0.5-4.71 and the natural variability over a 20 minute period when expressed in absolute terms was similar over the entire range, and differed insignificantly from that found in normal subjects. The increase in FEV1 and vital capacity (VC) required to exclude natural variability with 95% confidence in these patients was 16...

  20. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  1. Time-consistent calibration of short-term regional wind power ensemble forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Späth; Lueder von Bremen; Constantin Junk; Detlev Heinemann

    2015-01-01

    With increasing wind power capacity, accurate uncertainty forecasts get more and more important for grid integration. The uncertainty of forecasts can be quantified by ensemble forecasts. We use ensemble forecasts from the COSMO-DE EPS to generate short-term ensemble forecasts of regionally aggregated wind power. The wind power forecasts are generated by an optimised regional power curve model that is based on minimum score estimation and leads to wind power forecasts with small deterministic...

  2. Advanced strategies for wind power trading in short-term electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bourry, Franck; Juban, Jérémie; Costa, Luis; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Independent power producers have the possibility to participate in short-term electricity markets to trade wind power energy in several countries in Europe. Under such market context, penalties may apply for differences between the contracted energy and the produced energy. The limited predictability of the wind resource may thus result to a reduction of the competitiveness of wind power generation. In this paper, we propose a risk-based decision approach for optimizing the benefits of an ene...

  3. Predicting the short-term risk of diabetes in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W; Fontas, Eric;

    2012-01-01

    glucose-associated disorders among HIV-positive patients have been reported to range between 2 and 14%, and in an ageing HIV-positive population, the prevalence of DM is expected to continue to increase. This study aims to develop a model to predict the short-term (six-month) risk of DM in HIV......-positive populations and to compare the existing models developed in the general population....

  4. Nutritional and Protein Deficiencies in the Short Term following Both Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Aron-Wisnewsky; Verger, Eric O.; Carine Bounaix; Maria Carlota Dao; Jean-Michel Oppert; Jean-Luc Bouillot; Jean-Marc Chevallier; Karine Clément

    2016-01-01

    International audience BackgroundThe number of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) has increased dramatically in recent years. Therefore, monitoring food intake and its consequences in terms of nutritional status is necessary to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of food restriction on nutritional parameters in the short-term (≤3 months) period after BS in morbid obesity.MethodIn a prospective study, we followed 22 obese ...

  5. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Rossanti; Dida Akhmad Gurnida; Eddy Fadlyana

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative,...

  6. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Rossanti; Dida Akhmad Gurnida; Eddy Fadlyana

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This com...

  7. Binding of Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory in Williams Syndrome and Moderate Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Phillips, Caroline; Baddeley, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    A main aim of this study was to test the claim that individuals with Williams syndrome have selectively impaired memory for spatial as opposed to visual information. The performance of 16 individuals with Williams syndrome (six males, 10 females; mean age 18y 7mo [SD 7y 6mo], range 9y 1mo-30y 7mo) on tests of short-term memory for item and…

  8. Short-term effects of an educational intervention on physical restraint use: a cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gulpers Math JM; Hamers Jan PH; Huizing Anna R; Berger Martijn PF

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical restraints are still frequently used in nursing home residents despite growing evidence for the ineffectiveness and negative consequences of these methods. Therefore, reduction in the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents is very important. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of an educational intervention on the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents. Methods A cluster rand...

  9. Effects of short-term wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on refractive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    W. D. H. Gillan

    2012-01-01

    Contact lens wear is known to induce change in both the cornea and refractive state. Often a shift towards increased myopia is noted. Historically investigations into the effects of contact lenses onrefractive state have often been incomplete in terms of statistical analysis whereby nearest equivalent sphere is used or the spherical, cylindrical and axis components are analyzed in isolation. The aim ofthis study was to investigate the short-term effects of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on ...

  10. Attention Supports Verbal Short-Term Memory via Competition between Dorsal and Ventral Attention Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Degueldre, Christian; Fias, W.; Maquet, Pierre; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Stawarczyk, David; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and ...

  11. Impact of short-term dietary modification on postprandial oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer Richard J; Trepanowski John F; Kabir Mohammad M; Alleman Rick J; Dessoulavy Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently reported that short-term (21-day) dietary modification in accordance with a stringent vegan diet (i.e., a Daniel Fast) lowers blood lipids as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this work only involved measurements obtained in a fasted state. In the present study, we determined the postprandial response to a high-fat milkshake with regards to blood triglycerides (TAG), biomarkers of oxidative stress, and hemodynamic variables before and follow...

  12. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.; Amanda N. Gesselman

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401), we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principl...

  13. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa), oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus), velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of ...

  14. Scenario for a Short-Term Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in Chiayi, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Han Chan; Yih-Min Wu; Chin-Tung Cheng; Po-Shen Lin; and Yuan-Chieh Wu

    2013-01-01

    Using seismic activity and the Meishan earthquake sequence that occurred from 1904 to 1906, a scenario for short-term probabilistic seismic hazards in the Chiayi region of Taiwan is assessed. The long-term earthquake occurrence rate in Taiwan was evaluated using a smoothing kernel. The highest seismicity rate was calculated around the Chiayi region. To consider earthquake interactions, the rate-and-state friction model was introduced to estimate the seismicity rate evolution due to the Coulom...

  15. Structure and Function of Methanogens along a Short-Term Restoration Chronosequence in the Florida Everglades▿

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jason M.; Castro, Hector; Ogram, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The removal of plants and soil to bedrock to eradicate exotic invasive plants within the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) region, part of the Everglades National Park (Florida), presented a unique opportunity to study the redevelopment of soil and the associated microbial communities in the context of short-term primary succession and ecosystem restoration. The goal of this study was to identify relationships between soil redevelopment and activity and composition of methanogenic assemblages in HID so...

  16. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments c...

  17. A bilateral advantage for maintaining objects in visual short term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, JL; Delvenne, JFCM

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that attentional pre-cues can subsequently influence the transfer of information into visual short term memory (VSTM) (Schmidt, B., Vogel, E., Woodman, G., & Luck, S. (2002). Voluntary and automatic attentional control of visual working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 64(5), 754–763). However, studies also suggest that those effects are constrained by the hemifield alignment of the pre-cues (Holt, J. L., & Delvenne, J.-F. (2014). A bilateral advantage in controlling acc...

  18. Spatial Attention can Bias Search in Visual Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Anna C.; Griffin, Ivan C.; Rao, Anling

    2008-01-01

    Whereas top-down attentional control is known to bias perceptual functions at many levels of stimulus analysis, its possible influence over memory-related functions remains uncharted. Our experiment combined behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the ability of spatial orienting to bias functions associated with visual short-term memory (VSTM), and to shed light on the neural mechanisms involved. In particular, we investigated whether orienting attention to a spatial ...

  19. Splitting attention across the two visual fields in visual short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Delvenne, JFCM; Holt, JL

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In two experiments, we show that attention can also be split between the left and right sides of internal representations held in VSTM. Participants we...

  20. Attention Effects During Visual Short-Term Memory Maintenance: Protection or Prioritization?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukura, Michi; Steven J Luck; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between visual attention and visual short-term memory (VSTM) play a central role in cognitive processing. For example, attention can assist in selectively encoding items into visual memory. Attention appears to be able to influence items already stored in visual memory as well; cues that appear long after the presentation of an array of objects can affect memory for those objects (Griffin & Nobre, 2003). In five experiments, we distinguished two possible mechanisms for the effect...

  1. Recall and Recognition of Visual Short-term Memory in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanno, Yoshihiko

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-eight schizophrenics, 36 non-schizophrenic psychiatric patients and 29 normal controls were examined in the tasks of recall and recognition of visual information. Schizophrenics were poorer than normals both in recall and recognition. On the other hand, non-schizophrenics were as poor as schizophrenics in recall, but were comparable to normals in recognition. These results suggest that schizophrenics have deficit in input stage of memory process. The performances of visual short-term m...

  2. No Evidence of Short-Term Exchange of Meat for Sex among Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Gilby, Ian C.; Emery Thompson, M; Ruane, Jonathan D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The meat-for-sex hypothesis posits that male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) trade meat with estrous females in exchange for short-term mating access. This notion is widely cited in the anthropological literature and has been used to construct scenarios about human evolution. Here we review the theoretical and empirical basis for the meat-for-sex hypothesis. We argue that chimpanzee behavioral ecology does not favor the evolution of such exchanges because 1) female chimpanzees show low mate sel...

  3. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liebe S.; Hoerzer G.,; Logothetis N.K.; Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-un...

  4. Real short-term interest rates and expected inflation: Measurement and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Ricketts

    1996-01-01

    This article compares different measures of real short-term interest rates for Canada over the period from 1956 to 1995. A new measure for the expected real interest rate is constructed using a proxy for inflation expectations that is based on the properties of past inflation. The history of inflation in Canada suggests that the characteristics of inflation have changed considerably over time. Past inflation can be characterized by three different types of behaviour: an environment in which a...

  5. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of th...

  6. Three Revised Kalman Filtering Models for Short-Term Rail Transit Passenger Flow Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Pengpeng Jiao; Ruimin Li; Tuo Sun; Zenghao Hou; Amir Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Short-term prediction of passenger flow is very important for the operation and management of a rail transit system. Based on the traditional Kalman filtering method, this paper puts forward three revised models for real-time passenger flow forecasting. First, the paper introduces the historical prediction error into the measurement equation and formulates a revised Kalman filtering model based on error correction coefficient (KF-ECC). Second, this paper employs the deviation between real-tim...

  7. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tendolkar, Indira -; van Wingen, Guido A.; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    International audience It is unknown how antidepressants reverse a mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor Duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine di...

  8. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract It is unknown how antidepressants reverse a mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor Duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine d...

  9. Short-Term Duloxetine Administration Affects Neural Correlates of Mood-Congruent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Jan Verkes, Robbert; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine did not affect acute mood sta...

  10. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farhood, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study in...

  11. Short-term investments in agriculture: Is there a gender bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagowalia, P.; Chen, S; Shively, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Most developing countries strive to improve agricultural productivity by relaxing credit constraints, supplying better inputs, improving marketing and distribution. However the efficacy of these reforms needs to be examined in the context of the behavioral responses of farming households. This study examines gender biases within households that affect short-term input allocation decisions in agriculture. The study utilizes data from ICRISAT's village level studies in India (1975-85) to highli...

  12. Analysis of Short-Term Steel Corrosion Products Formed in Tropical Marine Environments of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Jaén; Josefina Iglesias; Cecilio Hernández

    2012-01-01

    A low-carbon steel A-36 and two conventional weathering steels A-588 and COR-420 exposed at four atmospheric test stations located in (i) Tocumen, an urban site near the Pacific Ocean, (ii) Sherman-Open, (iii) Sherman-Coastal, and (iv) Sherman-Breakwater on the Caribbean coast of Panama. Kinetics of the short-term atmospheric corrosion process and the relationship with exposure time and environmental characteristics of each site were investigated. The atmospheric exposure conditions, particul...

  13. Futures Price Volatility in Commodities Markets: The Role of Short Term vs Long Term Speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Matteo; Nicolini, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates how different types of speculation affect the volatility of commodities’ futures prices. We adopt four indexes of speculation: Working’s T, the market share of non-commercial traders, the percentage of net long speculators over total open interest in future markets, which proxy for long term speculation, and scalping, which proxies for short term speculation. We consider four energy commodities (light sweet crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and seven non-e...

  14. Futures price volatility in commodities markets: The role of short term vs long term speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Manera; Marcella Nicolini; Ilaria Vignati

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates how different types of speculation affect the volatility of commodities’ futures prices. We adopt four indexes of speculation: Working’s T, the market share of non-commercial traders, the percentage of net long speculators over total open interest in future markets, which proxy for long term speculation, and scalping, which proxies for short term speculation. We consider four energy commodities (light sweet crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and seven non-e...

  15. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  16. An investigation of the genetic toxicology of irradiated foodstuffs using short-term test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a programme of short-term tests used to detect possible genetic toxicity in irradiated foodstuffs, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to extracts and digests of irradiated and unirradiated dates, fish and chicken and subjected to tests for cytotoxicity, sister chromatid exchange induction and mutation to thioguanine resistance. The results showed no evidence of genetic toxicity induced in food by irradiation. The general applicability of cell culture tests to the detection of mutagens in food is discussed. (author)

  17. Short-term Treatment of Daumone Improves Hepatic Inflammation in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong Hee; Ha, Hunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been proposed as one of the main molecular mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases. Although evidence in humans is limited, short-term calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in aged experimental animals. We reported on the long-term treatment of daumone, a synthetic pheromone secreted by Caenorhabditis elegans in an energy deficient environment, extends the life-span and attenuates liver injury in aged mice. The present study ex...

  18. Fast and Accurate Computation of Orbital Collision Probability for Short-Term Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Romain; Arzelier, Denis; Joldes, Mioara; Lasserre, Jean-Bernard,; Rondepierre, Aude; Salvy, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article provides a new method for computing the probability of collision between two spherical space objects involved in a short-term encounter under Gaussian-distributed uncertainty. In this model of conjunction, classical assumptions reduce the probability of collision to the integral of a two-dimensional Gaussian probability density function over a disk. The computational method presented here is based on an analytic expression for the integral, derived by use ...

  19. Colour anomia resulting from weakened short-term colour memory. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, J B; Ostergaard, A L

    1984-06-01

    A patient exhibited marked colour anomia without object anomia, but was able to point to named colours. Five experiments were conducted to investigate his immediate colour memory. It was concluded that his colour anomia was the result of an impaired short-term memory deficit specific to colour. Temporary activation of specific entries in the colour lexicon enabled pointing and even naming to take place. A general model incorporating all forms of colour anomia is presented.

  20. ZBF-DMTD SYNTHETICAL METHOD FOR SHORT-TERM FREQUENCY STABILITY MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包志华; 曹培培

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a zero beat frequency double mixer time difference (ZBF-DMTD) synthetical method for measuring short-term.frequency stability Allen variance σy2(τ) of frequency sourse. The new method has a high measurement preclsion and is easy to realize and spread in engineering. The paper dlscribes the structure and design of the ZBFDMTD automatic measurement system,and gives the contrast measurement results.

  1. Evaluating short term simulations of a forest stand invaded by emerald ash borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin-Nielsen A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis - EAB is causing rapid and widespread ash (Fraxinus spp. mortality in eastern North America, has established populations near Moscow, Russia, and is threatening ash resources in Europe. Given the prevalence of susceptible hosts these post-invasion forests will clearly differ from their pre-invasion counterparts. Understanding these changes is key to mitigating the impacts of invasion and developing sound management strategies. We evaluated short term changes in a forest stand invaded by EAB, and examined if the southern variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS could accurately predict those changes. Through simulation, managers can gain a clearer understanding of how pest invasions impact and alter future forest dynamics. However, many simulators are designed to achieve long-term predictions and thus do not align with the short term changes associated with rapid EAB-induced ash mortality. Woody vegetation was surveyed in 2010 and used to project impacts of EAB invasion into 2012 by simulating a 50% ash mortality rate. The same plots were then re-surveyed in 2012, allowing us to evaluate: (1 changes in actual forest composition and structure; and (2 simulation accuracy. Within our forest stand, FVS accurately estimated short term changes in stem density and basal area parameters, thus demonstrating its value as a short-term simulator for EAB-induced changes within the southern region of the United States. EAB-induced ash mortality is quickly changing these forests and will ultimately alter how stakeholders manage their lands. We discuss the potential usefulness of FVS as a tool for aiding management decisions in response to EAB invasion.

  2. Glycemic control of type 2 diabetic patients after short-term zinc supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hyun-Mee; Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether a short-term zinc supplementation contributes to beneficial changes in glycemic control among type 2 diabetic patients. Seventy-six diabetic subjects and 72 normal adults participated in this study. Subjects were divided into supplemented and control groups. Forty-four diabetic patients and 34 normal subjects were supplemented with 50 mg zinc daily as zinc gluconate for 4 weeks. Zinc status was assessed from fasting plasma levels and urinary exc...

  3. Short Term Administration of L-Carnitine can be Detrimental to the Ischemic Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Moslem Najafi; Alireza Garjani

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that L-carnitine (LC) supplementation may exert a cardioprotective effect in cardiomyopathy, prevent arrhythmias in myocardial infarction and increase exercise tolerance in angina. Interestingly, we demonstrated that short term preischemic administration of LC can be detrimental to ischemic heart. In isolated rat hearts treated with LC for 10 min before ischemia, a marked and concentration dependent arrhythmogenic activity were produced during both ischemia and rep...

  4. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  5. Short-term pulmonary side-effects following radiation therapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Pehr

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to study the short-term pulmonary sideeffects following adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer in terms of clinical pulmonary complications, loss of pulmonary function and radiological abnormalities, and the association to irradiated lung volume and dose. Furthermore, we wanted to estimate the influence of covariates, e.g. age, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen treatment, smoking habits, pretreatment functional level and prem...

  6. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  7. Economic Efficiency of Short-Term Versus Long-Term Water Rights Buyouts

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Erin A.; Golden, Bill B.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production functions for the major crops in the Texas Panhandle. The production functions are incorporated into optimal temporal allocation models that project annual producer behavior, crop choices, water u...

  8. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  9. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and mortality in London 1992-4

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Atkinson, R W; McMichael, A.J.; Strachan, D. P.; Bland, J. M.; Bower, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A previous study of the short term effects of air pollution in London from April 1987 to March 1992 found associations between all cause mortality and black smoke and ozone, but no clear evidence of specificity for cardiorespiratory deaths. London data from 1992 to 1994 were analysed to examine the consistency of results over time and to include particles with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns (PM10) and carbon monoxide. METHODS: Poisson regression was used of daily ...

  10. THE INTEGRATED SHORT-TERM STATISTICAL SURVEYS: EXPERIENCE OF NBS IN MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg CARA; Iurie MOCANU; Lilian GALER

    2012-01-01

    The users’ rising need for relevant, reliable, coherent, timely data for the early diagnosis of the economic vulnerability and of the turning points in the business cycles, especially during a financial and economic crisis, asks for a prompt answer, coordinated by statistical institutions. High quality short term statistics are of special interest for the emerging market economies, such as the Moldavian one, being extremely vulnerable when facing economic recession. Answering to the challenge...

  11. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM SOFT CONTACT LENS WEAR ON HUMAN OCULAR ABERRATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; CHEN Yi-hui; CHEN Hui; SHENG Min-jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term soft contact lens (SCLs) wearing on human ocular aberrations (HOA).Methods This prospective study included 50 eyes of 50 young volunteers wearing SCLs for 1month. The ocular aberrations were measured by Allegretto Wavefront Analyzer. The root-mean-square (RMS) values of the general (RMSG), higher-order (RMSH), first to sixth order (RMS1 to RMS6) and aberration coefficients were analyzed.Results There were no significant differences in the mean values of RMSG, RMSH, RMS1 to RMS6 (P>0.05) and changes of absolute values of aberration coefficients between baseline and various visits after SCLs discontinuation. However, at d1 after the discontinuation of SCLs, changes in coefficient values of the third-order aberrations (C6 to C9) were slightly higher than others, and C7 was the highest. The increase factors of RMS values were higher at 1 week and lower at the 2 week visit after SCLs discontinuation. The uniformity of dominating type in HOA and the corneal topography form was both about 60% after discontinuation of SCLs. The corneal thickness increased after SCLs wear and gradually decreased to baseline until 1month discontinuation of SCLs.Conclusion The effect of short-term SCLs wear on human ocular aberrations is slight but profound. A month or more wait should be allowed before the short-term SCLs wearers are scheduled for wavefronted-guided LASIK.

  12. Long- and Short-Term Earthquake Forecasts during the Tohoku Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2012-01-01

    We consider two issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in this area, and (2) what are the possibilities of numerical short-term forecasts during the 2011 earthquake sequence in the Tohoku area. Starting in 1999 we have carried out long- and short-term forecasts for Japan and the surrounding areas using the GCMT catalog. The forecasts predict the earthquake rate per area, time, magnitude unit and earthquake focal mechanisms. Long-term forecasts indicate that the repeat time for the m9 earthquake in the Tohoku area is of the order of 350 years. We have archived several forecasts made before and after the Tohoku earthquake. The long-term rate estimates indicate that, as expected, the forecasted rate changed only by a few percent after the Tohoku earthquake, whereas due to the foreshocks, the short-term rate increased by a factor of more than 100 before the mainshock event as compared to the long-term rate. After the Tohoku mega-earthquake the ra...

  13. Short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic to the immature brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the long-term use of antiepileptic drugs can cause nervous system damage. However, short-term antiepileptic drug treatment is frequently given to infants, especially neonates, to control seizure. Whether the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic remains unclear. In the present study, immature rats, 3-21 days of age, were intraperitoneally injected with phenobarbital and/or topiramate for 3 consecutive days. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining revealed that phenobarbital and topiramate, individually or in combination, were cytotoxic to hippocampal CA1 neurons and inhibited the expression of GluR1 and NR2B, excitatory glutamate receptor subunits. Furthermore, the combination of the two drugs caused greater damage than either drug alone. The results demonstrate that the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs damages neurons in the immature brain and that the combined use of antiepileptic drugs exacerbates damage. Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider the potential neurotoxic risk associated with the combined use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of seizure.

  14. Research on short-term curative effect of VATS-assisted NUSS procedure in treating PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Hui Rao; Yun-Han Liu; Jin-Song Liang; Gang Chen; Jian Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the short-term curative effect and the occurrence of postoperative complications of VATS-assisted NUSS procedure in treating congenital pectus excavatum (PE). Methods: 96 patients with congenital PE admitted into our hospital from March, 2008 to June, 2014 were chosen and divided into the study group and the control group randomly. Patients in the study group received VATS-assisted NUSS procedure while patients in the control group were treated with traditional NUSS procedure. Blood pressure, heart rate, operating time, blood loss, the length of hospital stay and ICU stay of all the patients during perioperative period were recorded. And a three-month follow-up was performed to record the short-term curative effects and the occurrence of postoperative complications.Results: The operating time, blood loss, length of hospital stay of the study group were remarkably less than those of the control group (P0.05). The excellent and good rate of curative effect and the total score of M-SSQ of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), while the occurrence of postoperative complications of the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: With better short-term curative effect and less postoperative complications, VATS-assisted NUSS procedure could be regarded as a reliable and effective therapy for congenital PE.

  15. Prediction of short-term distributions of load extremes of offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-guang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology to select an optimal threshold level to be used in the peak over threshold (POT) method for the prediction of short-term distributions of load extremes of offshore wind turbines. Such an optimal threshold level is found based on the estimation of the variance-to-mean ratio for the occurrence of peak values, which characterizes the Poisson assumption. A generalized Pareto distribution is then fitted to the extracted peaks over the optimal threshold level and the distribution parameters are estimated by the method of the maximum spacing estimation. This methodology is applied to estimate the short-term distributions of load extremes of the blade bending moment and the tower base bending moment at the mudline of a monopile-supported 5MW offshore wind turbine as an example. The accuracy of the POT method using the optimal threshold level is shown to be better, in terms of the distribution fitting, than that of the POT methods using empirical threshold levels. The comparisons among the short-term extreme response values predicted by using the POT method with the optimal threshold levels and with the empirical threshold levels and by using direct simulation results further substantiate the validity of the proposed new methodology.

  16. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline.

  17. The economic benefit of short-term forecasting for wind energy in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK market, the total price of renewable electricity is made up of the Renewables Obligation Certificate and the price achieved for the electricity. Accurate forecasting improves the price if electricity is traded via the power exchange. In order to understand the size of wind farm for which short-term forecasting becomes economically viable, we develop a model for wind energy. Simulations were carried out for 2003 electricity prices for different forecast accuracies and strategies. The results indicate that it is possible to increase the price obtained by around pound 5/MWh which is about 14% of the electricity price in 2003 and about 6% of the total price. We show that the economic benefit of using short-term forecasting is also dependant on the accuracy and cost of purchasing the forecast. As the amount of wind energy requiring integration into the grid increases, short-term forecasting becomes more important to both wind farm owners and the transmission/distribution operators. (author)

  18. Synaptic plasticity in the acoustic startle pathway: the neuronal basis for short-term habituation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Maruschka; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Schmid, Susanne

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the cellular mechanism underlying short-term habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR). We explored distinct synapses of the neuronal startle pathway in rat brain slices by patch-clamp recordings of giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular formation. Presynaptic stimulation of auditory afferents by repeated bursts at 0.1 and 1 Hz led to an exponential decay of EPSC magnitudes. This homosynaptic depression (HSD) was reversible and repeatedly inducible after recovery. Many parameters of HSD in vitro match those of ASR habituation in vivo. The mechanisms underlying HSD are distinct from classical short-term plasticity: paired-pulse as well as paired-burst stimulation revealed a facilitation of the second EPSC, occurring in a much smaller time window up to interstimulus intervals of 200 ms. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that HSD could be completely blocked by the group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist MPPG. Similar results were obtained by CPPG, another group II and III antagonist. In contrast, HSD was not affected by the group I and II antagonist MCPG. We conclude that we found a form of synaptic depression in synapses within the primary startle pathway which correlates in many respects with short-term habituation of the ASR and which is presumably mediated by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:12405993

  19. Short-term Load Forecasting of an Interconnected Grid by using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Indira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of power system and the increase in their complexity of the networks, load forecasting plays a vital role in economic operation of power systems, network planning and infrastructure development. Electricity demand forecasting is concerned with the prediction of a very short term, short term, medium term and long term load demand, depending on the time horizon. This paper presents an application of neural network for real time short term load forecasting and has been compared with the conventional exponential smoothing technique. The daily load data of an inter connected grid Damodar Valley Corporation, operating under Eastern Regional Load Dispatch Centre, India were used as data sets for training and comparing the performance of different neural network topologies along with conventional exponential smoothing technique. The results obtained from Artificial Neural Networks were evaluated with the statistical parameters i.e., Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE and Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD. MATLAB has been used for simulation, performance and testing the data. Extensive testing shows that neural network based approach has better forecasting accuracy and robustness.

  20. Prevention of mammary carcinogenesis by short-term estrogen and progestin treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women who have undergone a full-term pregnancy before the age of 20 have one-half the risk of developing breast cancer compared with women who have never gone through a full-term pregnancy. This protective effect is observed universally among women of all ethnic groups. Parity in rats and mice also protects them against chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis. Seven-week-old virgin Lewis rats were given N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Two weeks later the rats were treated with natural or synthetic estrogens and progestins for 7–21 days by subcutaneous implantation of silastic capsules. In our current experiment, we demonstrate that short-term sustained exposure to natural or synthetic estrogens along with progestins is effective in preventing mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Treatment with 30 mg estriol plus 30 mg progesterone for 3 weeks significantly reduced the incidence of mammary cancer. Short-term exposure to ethynyl estradiol plus megesterol acetate or norethindrone was effective in decreasing the incidence of mammary cancers. Tamoxifen plus progesterone treatment for 3 weeks was able to confer only a transient protection from mammary carcinogenesis, while 2-methoxy estradiol plus progesterone was effective in conferring protection against mammary cancers. The data obtained in the present study demonstrate that, in nulliparous rats, long-term protection against mammary carcinogenesis can be achieved by short-term treatments with natural or synthetic estrogen and progesterone combinations

  1. Short-term visual memory properties sheet secondary school age with different levels of physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshikh E.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes . Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicators - heart rate at rest and after 20 squats, lung capacity, breath-hold inspiration and expiration. Physical development factor was calculated by taking into account actual and average population indices. Results . Found that the volume of short-term visual memory, the boys and girls high school age does not depend on the level of their physical development. Despite the fact that the trend towards higher performance memory in groups of persons with a high level of physical development compared to their same age with medium and low levels, significant differences between the mean values for the most part have been identified. No significant differences between the values of the investigated cognitive function in groups by sex. Conclusions . Growth pattern memory with age in this period of ontogenesis preserved that coincides with the data presented in the scientific works of scientists.

  2. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression Optimized by Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhou Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an effectively intelligent model to forecast short-term wind speed series. A hybrid forecasting technique is proposed based on recurrence plot (RP and optimized support vector regression (SVR. Wind caused by the interaction of meteorological systems makes itself extremely unsteady and difficult to forecast. To understand the wind system, the wind speed series is analyzed using RP. Then, the SVR model is employed to forecast wind speed, in which the input variables are selected by RP, and two crucial parameters, including the penalties factor and gamma of the kernel function RBF, are optimized by various optimization algorithms. Those optimized algorithms are genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO, and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA. Finally, the optimized SVR models, including COA-SVR, PSO-SVR, and GA-SVR, are evaluated based on some criteria and a hypothesis test. The experimental results show that (1 analysis of RP reveals that wind speed has short-term predictability on a short-term time scale, (2 the performance of the COA-SVR model is superior to that of the PSO-SVR and GA-SVR methods, especially for the jumping samplings, and (3 the COA-SVR method is statistically robust in multi-step-ahead prediction and can be applied to practical wind farm applications.

  3. Ramp Forecasting Performance from Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Freedman, J.

    2014-05-01

    The variable and uncertain nature of wind generation presents a new concern to power system operators. One of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of wind power into the grid is the ability to handle large ramps in wind power output. Large ramps can significantly influence system economics and reliability, on which power system operators place primary emphasis. The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) was performed to improve wind power forecasts and determine the value of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the performance of improved short-term wind power ramp forecasting. The study is performed for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) by comparing the experimental WFIP forecast to the current short-term wind power forecast (STWPF). Four types of significant wind power ramps are employed in the study; these are based on the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental short-term wind power forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting, especially during the summer.

  4. Interactions between short-term and long-term cardiovascular control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Frank, Birgit; Götze, Christine; Stein, Phyllis K.; Żebrowski, Jan J.; Baranowski, Rafal; Palacios, Manuel; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Caminal, Pere; Bayés de Luna, Anthony; Schmidt, Georg; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2007-03-01

    The cardiovascular system incorporates several controlling mechanisms acting as feedback loops over different time horizons. Because of their complex interrelationships, information-based methods such as autonomic information flow (AIF) functions promise to be useful in identifying normal and pathological behavior. Optimal adjustment between those controllers is necessary for healthy global behavior of the organism. We investigated the question as to whether there are typical relationships between short-term and long-term AIF by means of a meta-analysis of several of our own clinical studies of the mortality of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, heart failure, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and the length of stay in hospital after abdominal aorta surgery. We found a fundamental association of increased short-term randomness (decreased AIF) and decreased long-term randomness (increased AIF) due to pathology. A systems theoretic validation of this fundamental type of association was done by an appropriate mathematical model using a dissipative system with two feedback loops over different time horizons. The systematic simulation of an increasing collapse of the short feedback loop confirmed the inverse association between short-term and long-term information flow as a fundamental, system inherent type of readjustment that occurs under pathological conditions.

  5. Representation of Instantaneous and Short-term Loudness in the Human Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eThwaites

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signals pass through numerous transforms in the auditory system before perceptual attributes such as loudness and pitch are derived. However, relatively little is known as to exactly when these transformations happen, and where, cortically or sub-cortically, they occur. In an effort to examine this, we investigated the latencies and locations of cortical entrainment to two transforms predicted by a model of loudness perception for time-varying sounds: the transforms were instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, where the latter is hypothesized to be derived from the former and therefore should occur later in time. Entrainment of cortical activity was estimated by electro- and magneto-encephalographic (EMEG activity, recorded while healthy subjects listened to continuous speech. There was entrainment to instantaneous loudness bilaterally at 45 ms, 100 ms and 165 ms, in Heschl’s gyrus, dorsal lateral sulcus and Heschl’s gyrus respectively. Entrainment to short-term loudness was found in both the dorsal lateral sulcus and superior temporal sulcus at 275 ms. These results suggest that short-term loudness is derived from instantaneous loudness, and that this derivation occurs after processing in sub-cortical structures.

  6. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelmann T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Bertelmann, Ilse Strempel Department of Ophthalmology, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstraβe, Marburg, Germany Purpose: To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared.Results: A total of 25 (61%/16 (39% patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states, and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups.Conclusion: Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term. Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, POAG, music therapy, intraocular pressure, IOP, mental health

  7. Monitoring Short-term Cosmic-ray Spectral Variations Using Neutron Monitor Time-delay Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P.; Nutaro, T.; Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Asavapibhop, B.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Munakata, K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007-2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  8. MONITORING SHORT-TERM COSMIC-RAY SPECTRAL VARIATIONS USING NEUTRON MONITOR TIME-DELAY MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Nutaro, T.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Asavapibhop, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Munakata, K., E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2016-01-20

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007–2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  9. Spatiotemporal discrimination in neural networks with short-term synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Miller, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Cells in recurrently connected neural networks exhibit bistability, which allows for stimulus information to persist in a circuit even after stimulus offset, i.e. short-term memory. However, such a system does not have enough hysteresis to encode temporal information about the stimuli. The biophysically described phenomenon of synaptic depression decreases synaptic transmission strengths due to increased presynaptic activity. This short-term reduction in synaptic strengths can destabilize attractor states in excitatory recurrent neural networks, causing the network to move along stimulus dependent dynamical trajectories. Such a network can successfully separate amplitudes and durations of stimuli from the number of successive stimuli. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7:59., and so provides a strong candidate network for the encoding of spatiotemporal information. Here we explicitly demonstrate the capability of a recurrent neural network with short-term synaptic depression to discriminate between the temporal sequences in which spatial stimuli are presented.

  10. Neuronal correlate of pictorial short-term memory in the primate temporal cortexYasushi Miyashita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yasushi; Chang, Han Soo

    1988-01-01

    It has been proposed that visual-memory traces are located in the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex, as electric stimulation of this area in humans results in recall of imagery1. Lesions in this area also affect recognition of an object after a delay in both humans2,3 and monkeys4-7 indicating a role in short-term memory of images8. Single-unit recordings from the temporal cortex have shown that some neurons continue to fire when one of two or four colours are to be remembered temporarily9. But neuronal responses selective to specific complex objects10-18 , including hands10,13 and faces13,16,17, cease soon after the offset of stimulus presentation10-18. These results led to the question of whether any of these neurons could serve the memory of complex objects. We report here a group of shape-selective neurons in an anterior ventral part of the temporal cortex of monkeys that exhibited sustained activity during the delay period of a visual short-term memory task. The activity was highly selective for the pictorial information to be memorized and was independent of the physical attributes such as size, orientation, colour or position of the object. These observations show that the delay activity represents the short-term memory of the categorized percept of a picture.

  11. The effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise. In the present study speech perception in noise was measured pre- and post- short-term musical training. The musical training involved auditory perceptual training for raga identification of two Carnatic ragas. The training was given for eight sessions. A total of 18 normal hearing adults in the age range of 18-25 years participated in the study wherein group 1 consisted of ten individuals who underwent musical training and group 2 consisted of eight individuals who did not undergo any training. Results revealed that post training, speech perception in noise improved significantly in group 1, whereas group 2 did not show any changes in speech perception scores. Thus, short-term musical training shows an enhancement of speech perception in the presence of noise. However, generalization and long-term maintenance of these benefits needs to be evaluated.

  12. Improvements over time in short-term mortality following myocardial infarction in the D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; El-Sadr, Wafaa;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have described mortality and clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) in the HIV-positive population. This study evaluated changes in short-term mortality after MI in HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study, and investigated possible reasons for any changes se...... in short-term survival after MI appear to be largely driven by improved medical management of CVD risk in HIV-positive individuals after MI. Efforts are still needed to treat CVD risk factors and increase access to CVD-related interventions.......OBJECTIVE: Few studies have described mortality and clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) in the HIV-positive population. This study evaluated changes in short-term mortality after MI in HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study, and investigated possible reasons for any changes seen...... in the first month after MI were identified using logistic regression with adjustment for confounders, including interventions received in the first month after MI. RESULTS: 1008 HIV-positive individuals experiencing an MI over the period 1999-2014 were included. The absolute number of MIs decreased from 214...

  13. Short-Term Traffic Flow Local Prediction Based on Combined Kernel Function Relevance Vector Machine Model

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    Qichun Bing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term traffic flow prediction is one of the most important issues in the field of adaptive traffic control system and dynamic traffic guidance system. In order to improve the accuracy of short-term traffic flow prediction, a short-term traffic flow local prediction method based on combined kernel function relevance vector machine (CKF-RVM model is put forward. The C-C method is used to calculate delay time and embedding dimension. The number of neighboring points is determined by use of Hannan-Quinn criteria, and the CKF-RVM model is built based on genetic algorithm. Finally, case validation is carried out using inductive loop data measured from the north–south viaduct in Shanghai. The experimental results demonstrate that the CKF-RVM model is 31.1% and 52.7% higher than GKF-RVM model and GKF-SVM model in the aspect of MAPE. Moreover, it is also superior to the other two models in the aspect of EC.

  14. Comparison of Short Term with Long Term Catheterization after Anterior Colporrhaphy Surgery

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    F. Movahed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This belief that overfilling the bladder after anterior colporrhaphy might have a negative influence on surgical outcome, causes routine catheterization after operation. This study was done to compare short term (24h with long term (72h catheterization after anterior colporrhaphy.Materials & Methods: This randomized clinical trial was carried out at Kosar Hospital , Qazvin (Iran in 2005-2006. One hundred cases candidating for anterior colporrhaphy , were divided in two equal groups . In the first group foley catheter was removed 24 hours and in the second group 72 hours after the operation. Before removing catheter, urine sample was obtained for culture . After removal and urination, residual volume was determinded. If the volume exceeded 200 ml or retention occured, the catheter would be fixed for more 72 hours. Need for recatheterization, urinary retention, positive urine culture,and hospital stay were surveyed. The data was analyzed using T and Fisher tests.Results: Residual volume exceeding 200 ml and the need for recatheterization occurred in one case (2% in the short term group but in the long term group none of the subjects needed recatheterization (P=1. Retention was not seen. In the both groups, one case (2% had positive urine culture with no statistically significant difference (P=1. Mean hospital stay was short in the first group (P=0.00.Conclusion: Short term catheterization after anterior colporrhaphy does not cause urinary retention and decreases hospital stay.

  15. Short-term heart rate variability—age dependence in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is an established method to characterize the autonomic regulation and is based mostly on 24h Holter recordings. The importance of short-term HRV (less than 30 min) for various applications is growing consistently. Major reasons for this are the suitability for ambulatory care and patient monitoring and the ability to provide an almost immediate test result. So far, there have been only a few studies that provided statistically relevant reference values for short-term HRV. In our study, 5 min short-term HRV indices were determined from 1906 healthy subjects. From these records, linear and nonlinear indices were extracted. To determine general age-related influences, HRV indices were compared from subjects aged 25–49 years with subjects aged 50–74 years. In a second approach, we examined the development of HRV indices by age in terms of age decades (25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 years). Our results showed significant variations of HRV indices by age in almost all domains. While marked dynamics in terms of parameter change (variability reduction) were observed in the first age decades, in particular the last two age decades showed certain constancy with respect to the HRV indices examined. (paper)

  16. Estimation of desmosponge (Porifera, Demospongiae) larval settlement rates from short-term recruitment rates: Preliminary experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Sven

    1992-09-01

    During a study of the spatial and temporal patterns of desmosponge (Porifera, Demospongiae) recruitment on rocky and coral reef habitats of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean Sea, preliminary attempts were made to estimate actual settlement rates from short-term (1 to a few days) recruitment censuses. Short-term recruitment rates on black, acrylic plastic plates attached to open, non-cryptic substratum by anchor screws were low and variable (0 5 recruits/plate in 1 2 days, sets of n=5 10 plates), but reflected the depth and seasonal trends found using mid-term (1 to a few months) censusing intervals. Moreover, mortality of recruits during 1 2 day intervals was low (0 12%). Thus, short-term censusing intervals can be used to estimate actual settlement rates. To be able to make statistical comparisons, however, it is necessary to increase the number of recruits per census by pooling data of n plates per set, and to have more than one set per site or treatment.

  17. Short-term compassion training increases prosocial behavior in a newly developed prosocial game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Leiberg

    Full Text Available Compassion has been suggested to be a strong motivator for prosocial behavior. While research has demonstrated that compassion training has positive effects on mood and health, we do not know whether it also leads to increases in prosocial behavior. We addressed this question in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we introduce a new prosocial game, the Zurich Prosocial Game (ZPG, which allows for repeated, ecologically valid assessment of prosocial behavior and is sensitive to the influence of reciprocity, helping cost, and distress cues on helping behavior. Experiment 2 shows that helping behavior in the ZPG increased in participants who had received short-term compassion training, but not in participants who had received short-term memory training. Interindividual differences in practice duration were specifically related to changes in the amount of helping under no-reciprocity conditions. Our results provide first evidence for the positive impact of short-term compassion training on prosocial behavior towards strangers in a training-unrelated task.

  18. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

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    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  19. Linking Genetic Counseling Content to Short-Term Outcomes in Individuals at Elevated Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Agarwal, Parul; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Abraham, Jame; Paskett, Electra D.; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have linked actual genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes. Using the Self-regulation Model, the impact of cognitive and affective content in genetic counseling on short-term outcomes was studied in individuals at elevated risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer. Surveys assessed dependent variables: distress, perceived risk, and 6 knowledge measures (Meaning of Positive Test; Meaning of Negative Test; Personal Behavior; Practitioner Knowledge; Mechanisms of Cancer Inheritance; Frequency of Inherited Cancer) measured at pre- and post-counseling. Proportion of participant cognitive and affective and counselor cognitive and affective content during sessions (using LIWC software) were predictors in regressions. Knowledge increased for 5 measures and decreased for Personal Behavior, Distress and Perceived Risk. Controlling for age and education, results were significant/marginally significant for three measures. More counselor content was associated with decreases in knowledge of Personal Behavior. More participant and less counselor affective content was associated with gains in Practitioner Knowledge. More counselor cognitive, and interaction of counselor cognitive and affective content, were associated with higher perceived risk. Genetic counselors dominate the content of counseling sessions. Therefore, their content is tied more closely to short term outcomes than participant content. A lack of patient communication in sessions may pose problems for understanding of complex concepts. PMID:24671341

  20. Developing a scale to measure the situational changes in short-term study abroad programs

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    Gregory S Ching

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposing to a new culture has always been a challenging part of short-term study abroad (exchange programs. Studies have shown that these exposures, if handled correctly, should be able to provide valuable cross-cultural experiences. As the opportunities for study abroad kept increasing, understanding the changes that happen is quite crucial in preparing students before they embark to their exchange destination. To answer this question, the current study discusses the formation and validation of a set of behavioral, cognitive, and affective situational changes that students encounter during their study abroad duration in Taiwan. Focus group interviews were conducted to gather and collect a set of situational changes that most short-term study abroad students encounter. A pilot study was conducted on 219 students; afterwards the validated survey was administered nationwide with a total of 512 respondents. Structured equation modelling was used to present the confirmatory factor analysis of the measured dimensions. It is hoped that by having a validated set of situational changes that most study abroad students encounter, more effective pre/post travel preparations can be made. In addition, the data collected from the nationwide survey can also be used to determine the current state of short-term study abroad students in Taiwan.