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Sample records for alleviates short-term cyclosporin

  1. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2′-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  2. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2'-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  3. Quercetin alleviates inflammation after short-term treatment in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Sikder, Kunal; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharya; Ghosh, Santinath; Majumdar, Subrata; Dey, Sanjit

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) which ultimately trigger inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) and its active component quercetin in preventing NF-κB-mediated inflammation raised by short-term HFD. Quercetin was found to be one of the major flavonoid components from HPLC of MoLE. Swiss mice were fed for 15 days on HFD, both with or without MoLE/quercetin. The antioxidant profile was estimated from liver homogenate. NF-κB and some relevant inflammatory markers were evaluated by immunoblotting, RT-PCR and ELISA. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower antioxidant profile and higher lipid peroxidation was found in HFD group compared to control (P < 0.05). Increased nuclear import of NF-κB and elevated expressions of pro-inflammatory markers were further manifestations in the HFD group. All these changes were reversed in the MoLE/quercetin-treated groups with significant improvement of antioxidant activity compared to the HFD group. MoLE was found to be rich in polyphenols and both MoLE and quercetin showed potent free radical and hydroxyl radical quenching activity. Thus, the present study concluded that short-term treatment with MoLE and its constituent quercetin prevent HFD-mediated inflammation in mice. PMID:23644882

  4. Short-term alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity by urea application in acid soils from south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-ru, Zeng; Bo-han, Liao; Li-tian, Zhang; Xi-hong, Zhou; Hong-xiao, Tang

    2006-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study effects of urea fertilizer on the chemical composition of soil solutions over time, and to determine Al toxicity as a function of rates of urea application. The experiment revealed that addition of urea fertilizer to soils caused drastic changes in soil pH during the hydrolysis and nitrification stages of urea transformation in the experiment. These pH changes, depending on the N rate of urea application and time courses, had variable effects on soil exchangeable Al, extracted with artificial solutions containing 1 mol l(-1) KCl. The Al mobilization rate could be resolved into two phases: A declining phase for Al was attributed to the urea-induced hydrolysis while a second rising phase was dependent with the nitrification of added N fertilizer. The decreases in exchangeable Al reached the greatest in 4-7 days after fertilization, consistent with soil pH increase. Decreased Al availability had been observed as a consequence of increasing urea addition and soil pH when using Root elongation of maize seedlings as the estimators. Results from the present study demonstrate that urea fertilizer to the surface of soils may lead to a temporary immobilization of Al and, therefore, alleviated Al toxicity to plant seedlings. PMID:16169044

  5. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  6. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  7. Low-dose and short-term cyclosporine treatment in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria: a clinical and immunological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhat Inaloz, H; Ozturk, Savas; Akcali, Cenk; Kirtak, Necmettin; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet

    2008-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 2.5 mg/kg/day cyclosporin (CsA) treatment in patients with severe chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and the impact of CsA treatment on several cytokines involved in the etiopathogenesis of CIU. Twenty-seven CIU patients and 24 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The autologous serum skin test (ASST) for autoantibodies and urticaria activity scoring (UAS) were measured for the evaluation of the clinical severity and the response to therapy, and the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-2 receptor, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-5 were measured. The mean UAS score was 32.07 +/- 7.05 and 6.22 +/- 3.84 before and after CsA treatment, respectively. The serum IL-2 receptor, TNF-alpha and IL-5 levels of patients before CsA treatment were statistically higher than those of the control group (P = 0.001), and after 4 weeks of CsA therapy the mean IL-2R, TNF-alpha and IL-5 levels were significantly decreased. The data from this study demonstrate that CsA therapy is efficient and safe for CIU patients. Increase in clinical efficacy and marked decreases in serum cytokine levels suggest that inhibition of cytokine generation is involved in the action of the drug in this clinical setting. PMID:18477227

  8. Cyclosporine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment.Cyclosporine (modified) helps control the symptoms of psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, but does not cure these conditions. If you are taking cyclosporine (modified) to treat psoriasis, it may take 2 weeks or longer for ...

  9. Treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; Song, Wook; Jun, Tae-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra is a key pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic dopaminergic neuronal cell death and fiber loss in the nigrostriatum, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. Parkinson’s rats were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using stereotaxic instrument. Four weeks after 6-OH...

  10. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  11. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  12. Short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity ameliorates the suppressed expression of key β-cell factors under diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Naoki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Takebe, Satomi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Kaneto, Hideaki; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-11-27

    Alleviation of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia improves pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how the expression alterations of key β-cell factors are altered by the short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity or lipotoxicity. We treated db/db mice for one week with empagliflozin and/or bezafibrate to alleviate glucotoxicity and/or liptotoxicity, respectively. The gene expression levels of Pdx1 and Mafa, and their potential targets, insulin 1, Slc2a2, and Glp1r, were higher in the islets of empagliflozin-treated mice, and levels of insulin 2 were higher in mice treated with both reagents, than in untreated mice. Moreover, compared to the pretreatment levels, Mafa and insulin 1 expression increased in empagliflozin-treated mice, and Slc2a2 increased in combination-treated mice. In addition, empagliflozin treatment enhanced β-cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Our date clearly demonstrated that the one-week selective alleviation of glucotoxicity led to the better expression levels of the key β-cell factors critical for β-cell function over pretreatment levels, and that the alleviation of lipotoxicity along with glucotoxicity augmented the favorable effects under diabetic conditions. PMID:26471305

  13. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  14. Photomultiplier short-term instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper gives a description of the apparatus and method to measure PM gain short-term instability under the condition of pulsed light source simulating the operation at proton synchrotrons. Experimental results are presented for FEU-84, FEU-85, FEU-110, FEU-115 and XP2010 photomultipliers. It is shown that the short-term gain instability can be described by a simple mathematical model. (Auth.)

  15. Cyclosporine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmic cyclosporine is used to increase tear production in people with dry eye disease. Cyclosporine is in a class of medications ... immunomodulators. It works by decreasing swelling in the eye to allow for tear production.

  16. Short term thermal energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Abhat, A.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reviews the problem of short term thermal energy storage for low temperature solar heating applications. The techniques of sensible and latent heat storage are discussed, with particular emphasis on the latter. Requirements for hot water storage subsystems are provided and the importance of stratification in hot water storage tanks is described. Concerning latent heat storage, both material and heat exchanger aspects are considered in detail. The example of a passively opera...

  17. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only ...

  18. Reconstructing Clusters for Preconditioned Short-term Load Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Tadahiro; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new preconditioned method for short-term load forecasting that focuses on more accurate predicted value. In recent years, the deregulated and competitive power market increases the degree of uncertainty. As a result, more sophisticated short-term load forecasting techniques are required to deal with more complicated load behavior. To alleviate the complexity of load behavior, this paper presents a new preconditioned model. In this paper, clustering results are reconstructed to equalize the number of learning data after clustering with the Kohonen-based neural network. That enhances a short-term load forecasting model at each reconstructed cluster. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of one-step ahead daily maximum load forecasting.

  19. Retinoids, methotrexate and cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Acitretin alone is efficient (PASI 90: 40%). In responders, it is the best long-term maintenance treatment (up to 29 years of continuous treatment). The main side effect is its teratogenicity in females. It is necessary to begin retinoid treatment at low doses (10 mg/day), increasing the dose step by step, looking for the maximum well-tolerated dose (usually defined as a mild cheilitis). Doses higher than the highest well-tolerated dose are frequently responsible for the Kobner phenomenon. In children, retinoids are very efficient and nearly always well tolerated, but it seems important to never give more than 0.5 mg/kg/day. Methotrexate is the best treatment for severe psoriasis. Given at low doses once a week, it is a safe, cheap, convenient and efficient treatment, if carefully monitored. The main problem is the possible long-term liver toxicity of methotrexate. The risk is very low in patients not at risk (no liver disease). In these cases, liver biopsies are dangerous and useless. In the other cases, the need for liver biopsy is very rare, decided only by the hepatologist, and should be replaced by FibroTest and FibroScan. The old American guidelines should not be followed, and new guidelines are needed. Cyclosporine at low doses is an outstanding emergency treatment. It was first used as the last possible systemic treatment, but long-term continuous treatments are seldom possible due to alterations in kidney functions. A careful follow-up of kidney functions, with measurement of the glomerular filtration rate after each year of cumulative treatment, is necessary. The cyclosporine dose must be calculated according to the theoretical body weight in obese patients to avoid overdosage. Cyclosporine is mainly used now as a short-term treatment that is very efficient for young people, who find this illness particularly difficult. Cyclosporine is not contraindicated during pregnancy. PMID:19710551

  20. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  1. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  2. A Study to Evaluate and Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Cyclosporine A 0.5% with Topical Placebo (Artificial Tears in Alleviating the Principal Signs Associated with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Gahlot

    2016-03-01

    The use of topical cyclosporine for treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis should be encouraged to prevent complications associated with the natural course of the disease and prolonged topical use of corticosteroids. Keywords: vernal keratoconjunctivitis, cyclosporine-A, papillary hypertrophy, limbal changes, itching [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 38-41

  3. Possibilities of short-term tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term tomosynthesis enables continuous analysis of structures which appear interesting. The results of short-term tomosynthesis were compared with those of plain roentgenography and conventional tomography. Short-term tomosynthesis appears as an alternative to spot-film radiography and as a complement to tomography in the analysis of spatially limited regions. It facilitates orientation in space and free projection of oblique structures. Good results were obtained in examinations of the pyramids (auditory canal and mandibular joint), the paranasal sinuses, the cervical vertebral column, the extremities and their joints. Examination of soft tissues was usually not very promising in view of the conditions under which tomosynthesis was performed. The same applied likewise to the infusion cholecystocholangiogram and the infusion urogram. Technical improvements will certainly bring about an extension of the uses of this method. (orig.)

  4. The Uniqueness of Short-Term Collateralization

    OpenAIRE

    Klapper, Leora

    2001-01-01

    The author finds evidence that lines of credit secured by accounts receivable are associated with business borrowers with a high risk of default. While an unsecured short-term loan is repaid from the borrower's future cash flow, a loan secured by accounts receivable (a unique form of "inside" collateral) is repaid from previously generated and observed sales (the borrower's trade credit te...

  5. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  6. 英夫力西和环孢素治疗难治性炎症性肠病的近期疗效比较%Short-term effects of infliximab and cyclosporin as rescue therapy for patients with refractory-IBD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣艳; 范如英; 刘云云; 盛剑秋; 李世荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Infliximab(IFX) and cyclosporin (CsA) as rescue therapy for patients with refractory-IBD.Methods Prospectively and not randomly,18 cases with refractory-IBD were recruited into the study.Of 12 patients with UC,6 cases received IFX; 6 patients took CsA.All of 6 patients with CD were given IFX.Comparing the effect of IFX with CsA at 12 weeks and 30 weeks.Results 5 UC cases responded to IFX and CsA,1 case failed to respond to therapy respectively for both groups at 14 weeks.Of 6 UC cases with IFX 3 were effects and 1 failed,but 4 cases responded and 1 case failed for CsA group at 30 weeks.Of 6 CD cases,3 responded to IFX while 1 case failed at 14 weeks.Of 6 CD cases treated with IFX,4 patients improved,no invalid case was found at 30 weeks.Rash occurred in 2 cases treated with IFX,while among cases treated with CsA,1 developed tatter and 4 had hands tremor.Conclusions As rescue therapy for patients with refractory IBD,IFX and CsA presented the same effectiveness,Patients with good economic conditions had better take the fomer,those with relatively poor economic bear ability might as well choose the latter.%目的 评估英夫力西(IFX)和环孢素(CsA)挽救性治疗难治性炎症性肠病(IBD)患者的治疗效果.方法 前瞻性、非随机收集18例难治性炎症性肠病患者进入观察.12例验证难治性溃疡性结肠炎(UC)患者中,6例应用英夫力西(IFX);6例应用CsA.6例克罗恩病(CD)患者全部用IFX治疗.对比14周和30周的疗效.结果 14周随访时,6例IFX治疗和6例CsA治疗的UC患者中,各有5例有效;1例无效.30周时,6例IFX组f中,3例有效,1例无效;6例CsA组中,4例有效,1例无效.14周随访时,6例CD患者中,3例有效,1例无效.30周时,6例CD患者中,4例有效,没有无效病例.IFX组出现2例皮疹,CsA组l例皮疹,4例手抖.CsA价格较便宜.结论 IFX和CsA挽救性治疗难治性炎症性肠病的疗效相同,建议经济条件较好的患者选用前者,经济

  7. Binding in short-term visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary E; Treisman, Anne M

    2002-03-01

    The integration of complex information in working memory, and its effect on capacity, shape the limits of conscious cognition. The literature conflicts on whether short-term visual memory represents information as integrated objects. A change-detection paradigm using objects defined by color with location or shape was used to investigate binding in short-term visual memory. Results showed that features from the same dimension compete for capacity, whereas features from different dimensions can be stored in parallel. Binding between these features can occur, but focused attention is required to create and maintain the binding over time, and this integrated format is vulnerable to interference. In the proposed model, working memory capacity is limited both by the independent capacity of simple feature stores and by demands on attention networks that integrate this distributed information into complex but unified thought objects. PMID:11900102

  8. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, M; Brager, G. S.; Arens, Edward A; Bauman, Fred; Benton, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' design grew out of a study of thermal control in a luxury hotel in San Francisco, California, USA. Hotel guests frequently arrive from widely disparate climates and have high expectation so of the thermal environment. Their short-term occupancy (for periods ranging from one day ...

  9. Expectations, Liquidity, and Short-term Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Cespa, Giovanni; Vives, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    In a market with short term agents and heterogeneous information, when liquidity trading displays persistence, prices reflect average expectations about fundamentals and liquidity trading. Informed investors exploit a private learning channel to infer the demand of liquidity traders from the order flow to anticipate the evolution of the future aggregate demand for the stock. This yields multiple equilibria which can be ranked in terms of liquidity and informational effciency. Our results have...

  10. Grid Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kalchbrenner, Nal; Danihelka, Ivo; Graves, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Grid Long Short-Term Memory, a network of LSTM cells arranged in a multidimensional grid that can be applied to vectors, sequences or higher dimensional data such as images. The network differs from existing deep LSTM architectures in that the cells are connected between network layers as well as along the spatiotemporal dimensions of the data. The network provides a unified way of using LSTM for both deep and sequential computation. We apply the model to algorithmic tas...

  11. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  12. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children...

  13. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Joensen, A.; Giebel, G. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  14. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...... and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings....

  15. Short Term Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nemati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The first case of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV was performed by French radiologists in 1984 for the treatment of vertebral hemangioma. Nowadays this procedure is useful in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fracures, hemangiomas, osteolytic metastasis and vertebral involvement by multiple myeloma. We carried out this study to clarify the short term results of PV in reducing the pain and disabilities of these patients. "nMaterials and Methods: From September 2008 to December 2008, 20 patients with compression fracture, hemangioma and metastasis to the lumbar vertebral bodies underwent PV and short term postprocedural results were studied by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (Oswestry LBPDQ and the results were compared with preprocedural measurements. "nResults: Comparison of pre and postprocedural VAS and Oswestry LBPDQ, showed a statistically meaningful decrease in pain intensity and improvement in functional ability of these patients post PV. No other significant side effect was detected. "nConclusion: PV is safe and effective in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in the above mentioned groups. "nKeywords: Percutaneous Vertebroplasty (PV, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Oswestry Low Back Pain, Diasability Questionnaire  

  16. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  19. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  20. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  1. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and...... Cavanagh (2004) have raised the question that the capacity of VSTM is dependent on visual complexity rather than the number of objects. We hypothesise that VSTM capacity is dependent on both the objective and subjective complexity of visual stimuli. Contrary to Alvarez and Cavanagh, who argue for the role...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children...

  2. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, M. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Brager, G. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Arens, E. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Bauman, F. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Benton, C. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' integrates an infrared occupancy sensor, door switch, radiant temperature sensor, and control logic to optimize room conditions while 'learning' about the occupant's preferred comfort zone. This paper focuses on how the joint requirements of the guests and the hotel management guided the design of the 'comfortstat' for increased occupant satisfaction and lower energy use in the hotel. The concepts are completely generic and could be applied to the design of comfort systems for other types of short-term occupancy. We present control logic flowcharts and typical examples of the action of the hotel 'comfortstat' in response to data received from the physical environment and/or human input. (orig./GL)

  3. Selective lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporin A in rat heart allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term peritransplant treatment utilizing 2-dose ALG and 1-dose Palladium-109-hematoporphyrin (PD-H) for selective lymphoid irradiation (SLI) leads to donor-specific permanent acceptance of heart allografts in the Fisher to Lewis rat model. The same treatment significantly prolongs survival of hearts transplanted to strongly histoincompatable , presensitized, and xenogeneic recipients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synergistic effects of short-term, low-dose cyclosporin treatment and SLI in an attempt to develop a nontoxic protocol utilizing peritransplant treatment for immune preconditioning with minimal subsequent immunosuppression. Single-agent treatment alone with cyclosporin, ALG, or Pd-H resulted in a maximal mean graft survival time (MST) of 33 days. Immunosuppression with 1-dose Pd-H, 2-dose ALG, and low-dose cyclosporin (5 mg/kg) for 14 days doubled the MST to 78 days. Use of therapeutic-dose cyclosporin (20 mg/kg), given for just 3 days, was also quite effective, MST of 57 days with SLI and 43 days with ALG, but toxic; 3 of 12 recipients died of infection with functioning grafts. These results demonstrate that the use of low-dose cyclosporin over a short interval, when combined with peritransplant SLI, is a highly effective and safe method for prolonging heart allograft survival

  4. Short Term Gain, Long Term Pain:Informal Job Search Methods and Post-Displacement Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of informal job search methods on the labour market outcomes of displaced workers. Informal job search methods could alleviate short-term labour market difficulties of displaced workers by providing information on job opportunities, allowing them to signal their productivity and may mitigate wage losses through better post-displacement job matching. However if displacement results from reductions in demand for specific sectors/skills, the use of informal job searc...

  5. Group Processes in Short-Term Group Therapy of Psychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalic, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)

  6. Alleviative effects of green tea polyphenols on cyclosporine A-induced inhibition of vasorelaxation%绿茶多酚可抑制环孢素A所致的血管舒张作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文波; 姚许平; 姜继光

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasorelaxation plays an important role In the occurrence of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxlcity.OBJECTIVE: To observe the alleviative effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on CsA-induced inhibition of vasorelaxation and the underlying mechanisms.METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and evenly divided into four groups: CsA, control, CsA + GTP, and GTP. After 5 weeks of drug treatment, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre) levels were determined. Then the thoracic aorta rings were mounted on a bath system, and acetylcholine was used to induce vasorelaxation. The effects of L-NAME and indomethacin and the denuded vasorelaxation were evaluated.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The BUN and Cre levels in the CsA group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The maximal response (Emax%) for acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the CsA group was significantly lower than that in the control and GTP groups. After pretreatment with L-NAME, vasorelaxation was significantly lower in the CsA,CsA+GTP and GTP groups than in the control group. After pretreatment with indomethacin, vasorelaxation was significantly higher in the control, CsA +GTP, and GTP groups than in the CsA group. The level of nitric oxide metabolites in the vascular tissue in the CsA group was significantly lower compared with other groups. The results demonstrated that CsA can decrease nitric oxide levels in vascular tissues and induce abnormal endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, which is mediated by nitric oxide pathway.%背景:血管舒张在环孢素A所致肾毒性的发生过程中起重要的作用.目的:观察绿茶多酚对环孢素A抑制血管舒张的缓解作用及其机制.方法:SD大鼠随机平均分为4组:环孢素A组、对照组、环孢素A+绿茶多酚组和绿茶多酚组.经5周的药物处理之后,测定大鼠血尿素氮和肌酐水平.将各组大鼠的胸主动脉环放置于水浴系统上,以乙酰胆碱诱发血管舒

  7. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  9. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  10. Short-Term Periodicities in Solar Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to identify the short-term (few tens of months) periodicities of several solar indices (sunspot number, Caii area and K index, Lyman α, 2800 MHz radio emission, coronal green-line index, solar magnetic field). The procedure used was: from the 3-month running means (3m) the 37-month running means (37m) were subtracted, and the factor (3m - 37m) was examined for several parameters. For solar indices, considerable fluctuations were seen during the ± 4 years around sunspot maxima of cycles 18-23, and virtually no fluctuations were seen in the ± 2 years around sunspot minima. The spacings between successive peaks were irregular but common for various solar indices. Assuming that there are stationary periodicities, a spectral analysis was carried out which indicated periodicities of months: 5.1 5.7, 6.2 7.0, 7.6 7.9, 8.9 9.6, 10.4 12.0, 12.8 13.4, 14.5 17.5, 22 25, 28 (QBO), 31 36 (QBO), 41 47 (QTO). The periodicities of 1.3 year (15.6 months) and 1.7 years (20.4 months) often mentioned in the literature were seen neither often nor prominently. Other periodicities occurred more often and more prominently. For the open magnetic flux estimated by Wang, Lean, and Sheeley (2000) and Wang and Sheeley (2002), it was noticed that the variations were radically different at different solar latitudes. The open flux for 45∘ solar latitudes had variations anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. The open fluxes, interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, all showed periodicities similar to those of solar indices. Many peaks (but not all) matched, indicating that the open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes was at least partially an adequate carrier of the solar characteristics to the interplanetary space and thence for galactic cosmic ray modulation.

  11. Advancement and prospect of short-term numerical climate prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The defects of present methods of short-term numerical climate prediction are discussed in this paper, and four challenging problems are put forward. Considering our under developed computer conditions, we should innovate in the approcuch of numerical climate prediction on the basis of our own achievements and experiences in the field of short-term numerical climate prediction. It is possibly an effective way to settle the present defects of short-term numerical climate prediction.``

  12. Cyclosporin A in psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Heule, Freerk

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAlthough a large therapeutic arsenal of conventional drugs is available to treat patients with psoriasis, a group of patients still exists that fulfill the inherent exclusion criteria or present with subjective or objective side-effects. This necessitates the need for controlled studies with potential new antipsoriatic drugs like cyclosporin A. In this thesis patientoriented studies on the treatment of severe psoriasis vulgaris with systemic low-dose and topical cyclosporin A are ...

  13. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of environmen

  14. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  15. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  16. Short-term Memory Training in Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一菡

    2015-01-01

    Listening comprehension is a basic skill in English learning.Here,we will talk about the relationship between the short-term memory and listening comprehension, and try to find the way of the short-term memory training to improve the skill of the students in middle school.

  17. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...... employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...... or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the...

  18. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo; Hansen, Dorte Gilså

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry......' difference in age at TOCD was seen between long- and short-term survivors, with median ages of 60 versus 72 years, respectively. Females comprised 64% of long-term, and 46% of short-term survivors. The proportion of breast and lung cancers differed between the groups: Long-term survivors: 31% breast cancer......, 2.4% lung cancer. Short-term survivors: 21% lung cancer, 7.2% breast cancer. Chemotherapy was provided to 15% of all patients, and to 10% of the 60 + year olds. Discussion. The epidemiology of long- and short-term survivors shows significant differences with regard to age at TOCD, cancer types and...

  19. Analog VLSI Circuits for Short-Term Dynamic Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chii Liu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term dynamical synapses increase the computational power of neuronal networks. These synapses act as additional filters to the inputs of a neuron before the subsequent integration of these signals at its cell body. In this work, we describe a model of depressing and facilitating synapses derived from a hardware circuit implementation. This model is equivalent to theoretical models of short-term synaptic dynamics in network simulations. These circuits have been added to a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. A cortical model of direction-selectivity that uses short-term dynamic synapses has been implemented with this network.

  20. Short-Term Debt in International Banking Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Seo

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how a bank run can occur when a bank takes into account short-term capital inflow from abroad. My model is an extension of the Diamond-Dybvig model to include the possibility that short-term liquidity needs can be met by borrowing from abroad. In the model, it is more efficient to meet short-term liquidity needs this way than by holding liquid domestic assets. I show conditions under which a ¡°bad¡± equilibrium exists in which pessimistic foreign investors withhold their i...

  1. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS FOR GENETIC TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, short-term test (STTs) for genetic toxicity detect genotoxic agents, not carcinogens specifically. owever, there is ufficient evidence, based on mechanistic considerations alone, to say that genotoxic agents are potential carcinogens. TTs have high statistical powe...

  2. Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J.; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory...

  3. Reverse Detection of Short-Term Earthquake Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    V. Keilis-Borok; Shebalin, P.; Gabrielov, A.; Turcotte, D.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to short-term earthquake prediction based on the concept of selforganization of seismically active fault networks. That approach is named "Reverse Detection of Precursors" (RDP), since it considers precursors in reverse order of their appearance. This makes it possible to detect precursors undetectable by direct analysis. Possible mechanisms underlying RDP are outlined. RDP is described with a concrete example: we consider as short-term precursors the newly introdu...

  4. CONSUMER CONFIDENCE INDICES AND SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Al-Eyd; Ray Barrell; E. Philip Davis

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in examining the potential short-term link between survey-based confidence indicators and real economic activity, notably for macroeconomic policy making. This paper builds on previous studies to establish whether there is a short-term predictive relationship between measures of consumer confidence and actual consumption, which could be used for forecasting, in a range of major industrial countries. It then extends such previous analyses by assessing w...

  5. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  6. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  7. Separating multiple, short-term, deleterious effects of saline solutions on the growth of cowpea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopittke, Peter M; Blamey, F Pax C; Kinraide, Thomas B; Wang, Peng; Reichman, Suzie M; Menzies, Neal W

    2011-03-01

    • Reductions in plant growth as a result of salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. • Short-term (48-h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) or potassium (K). • Growth was poorly related to the ion activities in the bulk solution, but was closely related to the calculated activities at the outer surface of the plasma membrane, {I(z)}₀°. The addition of Mg, Na or K may induce Ca deficiency in roots by driving {Ca²+}₀° to roots to osmolarity. Specific ion toxicities reduced root elongation in the order Ca²+ > Mg²+ > Na+ > K+. The addition of K and, to a lesser extent, Ca alleviated the toxic effects of Na. Thus, Ca is essential but may also be intoxicating or ameliorative. • The data demonstrate that the short-term growth of cowpea seedlings in saline solutions may be limited by Ca deficiency, osmotic effects and specific ion toxicities, and K and Ca alleviate Na toxicity. A multiple regression model related root growth to osmolarity and {I(z)}₀° (R²=0.924), allowing the quantification of their effects. PMID:21118262

  8. Short Term Gain, Long Term Pain. The Effect of Informal Job Search Methods on Post-Displacement Outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Green

    2009-01-01

    Informal job search methods could alleviate short-term labour market difficulties of displaced workers by providing information on job opportu- nities, allowing them to signal their productivity and may mitigate wage losses through better post-displacement job matching. However if dis- placement results from reductions in demand for specific sectors/skills, the use of informal job search methods may increase the risk of job insta- bility. We examine the effect of jobs search methods on post-d...

  9. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  10. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages. PMID:7754088

  11. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  12. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook

  13. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas DM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available David M Haas, Tara Benjamin, Renata Sawyer, Sara K QuinneyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics.Keywords: tocolytics, short-term, preterm delivery

  14. Short-term cortical plasticity induced by conditioning pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Buchgreitz, Line; Wang, Li;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical...... CPM caused short-term cortical plasticity within the cingulate that was correlated to subjective pain ratings. The degree of long-term depressive effect to homotopic CPM was correlated to the change in location of the P200 dipole....... stimulation was applied to the trapezius at pain threshold intensities, and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded with 128 channel EEG. Pain ratings were obtained during glutamate and sham pain injection. Short-term cortical plasticity to electrical stimulation was investigated before, during, and...

  15. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  16. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan;

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re......-search of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in...

  17. Top-down Tree Long Short-Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xingxing; Lu, Liang; Lapata, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks, a type of recurrent neural network with a more complex computational unit, have been successfully applied to a variety of sequence modeling tasks. In this paper we develop Tree Long Short-Term Memory (TreeLSTM), a neural network model based on LSTM, which is designed to predict a tree rather than a linear sequence. TreeLSTM defines the probability of a sentence by estimating the generation probability of its dependency tree. At each time step, a node is...

  18. A short-term group with drug users in prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Campo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a short term group, according to the viewpoint of group analysis theory. The experience was made in the prison of Sicily. The group was composed by prisoners in the protected area with issues of addiction. The article highlights the usefulness of a work on the Motivation to change through the device of the group. Furthermore, it underlines how much of the work in this context was to encourage participants in the transition to reflection, critical to work on yourself. We walk through fragments of sessions, those were the main themes emerged: the relationship, responsibility, guilt, punishment.Keywords: Addiction, Motivation to change, Short-term group

  19. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...... or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the...

  20. Short-Term Shareholders, Bubbles, And CEO Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    John Thanassoulis

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the real economy effects of firms having some shareholders with a short investment horizon on their shareholder register. Short-term shareholders cause management to be concerned with the path of the share price as well as its ultimate value. Such shareholders in an economy lead to bubbles in the prices of key inputs, to the misallocation of firms to risky business models, and to increased costs of capital. For individual firms short-term shareholders induce the Board to r...

  1. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle L; Mari Tervaniemi

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during ...

  2. Panorama 2013 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook for gas industry development in the short term is clouded by uncertainties (impact of the economic slowdown, competition between energies, price fluctuations, etc.). However, as in 2012, many favorable factors in terms of natural gas supply and demand point to sustained and sustainable growth of this energy. (author)

  3. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  4. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  5. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the United States for a period of up to four months to lecture, observe, consult, and to... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... activities stated on his or her Form DS-2019. A participant may also lecture or consult at institutions...

  6. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  7. On short-term traffic flow forecasting and its reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Abouaissa, Hassane; Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    International audience Recent advances in time series, where deterministic and stochastic modelings as well as the storage and analysis of big data are useless, permit a new approach to short-term traffic flow forecasting and to its reliability, i.e., to the traffic volatility. Several convincing computer simulations, which utilize concrete data, are presented and discussed.

  8. Valuing Short-Term Study Abroad in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A.; Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Gallo, Andres; Michelman, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad courses often claim to provide a unique experience for students, but it is not clear how the value translates into a dollar amount. The paper uses the contingent valuation method to assess participating students' pre- and post-trip perceived dollar value of their study abroad courses at an AACSB accredited business school.…

  9. Emotive-reconstruction psychotherapy: a short-term cognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J K; Cometa, M S

    1977-04-01

    Emotive-Reconstructive Therapy, a recently developed therapeutic modality deriving from cognitive theory, may be a promising short-term approach to psychopathology. Combining the use of imagery with selective hyperventilation, a therapist induces patients to reexperience past events, and subsequently to radically reconstrue themselves and significant others in a personally satisfying direction. PMID:879383

  10. Short-term prediction towards the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2000-01-01

    A new chapter in the continued and exiting story of short-term prediction has begun! The paper will describe a new project funded by the Dnaisn Ministry of Energy where all the Danish utilities (Elkraft, ELsam, Eltra, and SEAS) will participate. The goal of the project is to develop and implement...

  11. A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

    Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

  12. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  13. A Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Approach for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the need for university counseling centers (UCCs) to implement brief therapies and describes one such treatment, intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), as a particularly viable therapeutic approach in this setting. Because ISTDP is not appropriate for all students seeking therapy, a careful assessment of the…

  14. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  16. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a s

  17. Physical approach to short-term wind power prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Offers an approach to the ultimate goal of the short-term prediction of the power output of winds farms. This book addresses scientists and engineers working in wind energy related R and D and industry, as well as graduate students and nonspecialists researchers in the fields of atmospheric physics and meteorology.

  18. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  19. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide w

  20. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  1. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. PMID:26344580

  2. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  3. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  4. Somatostatin analogue in short term management of hyperinsulinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, J M; Di Silvio, L; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Five infants with hypoglycaemia due to hyperinsulinism were treated for between three and 11 days with a somatostatin analogue, which raised the mean blood glucose concentration and lowered the glucose requirements in all. Somatostatin analogue appears to be useful in the short term management of these patients.

  5. Integrating short-term and long-term forecasting with reservoir optimisation; Mantaro Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. A.; Lasarte, A.; Butts, M. B.

    2009-04-01

    Operational water management often requires a trade-off between short-term and long-term water demands, where short-term demands are driven for example by hydropower generation and flood protection requirements and the long-term demands by water and irrigation supply, sustainable reservoir management and the seasonal impacts of snow melt or climate. This paper presents an operational decision support system designed to forecast and optimise reservoir operations in both the short-term and long-term. The system has been established for the 20,000 km2 Mantaro river basin located in the high Andes with altitudes ranging from 3500 to nearly 6000 m.a.s.l.. The two main power stations at Tablachaca have a combined capacity of more than 1000 MW that supplies 30% of Peru's electrical energy. In addition, the basin's water resources supply extensive agricultural areas, an urban population and mining activities and sustain important ecological habitats. In this paper, the methodologies used for the integrating short-term and long-term forecasting are presented together with their application to the optimal operation of reservoirs. A key element in the system is the MIKE BASIN modelling tool. The system uses several modelling capabilities of MIKE BASIN: rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydropower production, and river flow routing. The system also takes advantage of long-term forecasts (based on statistical information) and short-term forecasts (based on telemetry data). The continually updated runoff and flow forecasts enter the optimization, which applies the Model Predictive Control principle for MIKE BASIN as the core simulation model. For each optimization, a non-linear program algorithm is used to find the best release strategy. On the basis of the forecasted inflows and the real time data the system suggests to the user from which reservoirs to release water for alleviation of possible forecasted deficits. In addition to the Tablachaca scheme the model accounts for

  6. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  7. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  8. Short term options to ease the energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is typically characterized one of the lowest per capita energy consuming countries of the world and even this quantum of energy is not assured and reliably available. To ease this energy crisis some short term options are suggested in this article. On the short term, the country will have to concentrate on realistic planning, efficient generation, transmission and distribution of energy, on exploiting all possible avenues of augmenting energy availability at lower cost and an optimum use of energy avoiding wastage. The strategy includes the exploitation of cogeneration potential, conservation potential and renewable sources of energy. This route will enable the country to augment energy availability by nearly 40% of the present installed capacity at minimal cost to the exchequer. (author). 9 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2012-04-01

    The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.

  10. Short-term effects of radiation in glioblastoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg Petterson, Stine; Pind Jakobsen, Ida; Jensen, Stine Skov;

    2016-01-01

    investigate the short-term effects of radiation of spheroids containing tumor-initiating stem-like cells. We used a patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell enriched culture (T76) and the standard glioblastoma cell line U87. Primary spheroids were irradiated with doses between 2 and 50 Gy and assessed after two...... capacity. Gene expression analysis of nine stem cell- and two hypoxia-related genes did not reveal any upregulation after radiation. In conclusion, this study suggests that a major short-term effect of radiation is pronounced reduction of tumor cell proliferation. We found no upregulation of stem cell......-related genes. This may suggest a limited effect of targeting these genes within the first days after radiation therapy....

  11. Short-term fasting protects mice against γ ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the antagonistic effects of short-term fasting against 60Co γ ray radiation. Methods: After fasting ICR mice were irradiated for 3 min at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min and then returned to normal diet. General situation, body weight changes, food consumption and toxic status were observed. WBC, organ index and anti-oxidative ability (ROS, SOD, MDA, T-AOC) were analyzed. Results: After 60Co γ ray radiation, the mice exhibited severe toxic symptoms before death. The survival rates were 0 for control and 12 h group, 12.5% for 48 h group and 50% for 72 h group respectively. ROS production of 72 h group was reduced compared with 0 h group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Short-term fasting may attenuate radiation induced injuries, evidenced by a significant increase in mice survival rate. (authors)

  12. INCAP ? Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding, Hermann; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  13. Remembering Past States using Long Short Term Memory Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sjonfjell, Vegard Aksland

    2014-01-01

    This project explores the ability of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to memorize previous input states in time series problems.A type of RNN called Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), which is designed specifically to be able to handle long term dependencies in input data, is being compared against recurrent multi layer perceptrons (recurrent MLPs) on two non-trivial time series problems which require a varying number of previous events to be remembered to predict the next state. The first proble...

  14. Target-Dependent Sentiment Classification with Long Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Duyu; Qin, Bing; Feng, Xiaocheng; Liu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Target-dependent sentiment classification remains a challenge: modeling the semantic relatedness of a target with its context words in a sentence. Different context words have different influences on determining the sentiment polarity of a sentence towards the target. Therefore, it is desirable to integrate the connections between target word and context words when building a learning system. In this paper, we develop two target dependent long short-term memory (LSTM) models, where target inf...

  15. Short Term Investment in Agriculture: Is there a Gender Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagowalia, Priya; Chen, Susan E.; Shively, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Most developing countries strive to improve agricultural productivity by relaxing credit constraints, supplying better inputs, improving marketing and distribution. However the efficacy of these reforms needs to be examined in the context of the behavioral responses of farming households. This study examines gender biases within households that affect short-term investments in agriculture. The study utilizes data from ICRISATs village level studies in India (1975-85) to highlight the effects ...

  16. Wind-CSP short-term coordination by MILP approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pousinho, Hugo Miguel Inácio; Silva, Hugo Alexandre Fernandes dos Santos e; Mendes, Víctor Manuel Fernandes; Collares-Pereira, M.; Cabrita, C. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the maximization of total profit in a day-ahead market for a price-taker producer needing a short-term scheduling for wind power plants coordination with concentrated solar power plants, having thermal energy storage systems. The optimization approach proposed for the maximization of profit is a mixed-integer linear programming problem. The approach considers not only transmission grid constraints, but also technical operating constraints on both wind and concentrated solar p...

  17. Short-Term Results of Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yılmaz; Samed Ordu; Erhan Bayram; İbrahim Sungur; Ercan Çetinus

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to determine the short-term clinical and radiologic results of medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated hospital records of eight patients who have undergone Oxford phase-3 medial UKA between 2011 and 2013. We included seven patients (two males and five females) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 63 years and the mean follow-up period was 17 months. The patients underwent UKA with the Oxford phase 3 cemented mobile ...

  18. COORDINATES OF SHORT-TERM BENEFITS GRANTED TO ACADEMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Cenar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Academics‘ work means a great responsibility in preparing young generations ofgraduates in different fields of knowledge, as well as in the future of society, the future state ofthe nation. That is why we considered appropriate an approach the coordinates of short-termbenefits provided to academics. This paper deals with issues concerning the structure andcharacteristics of short-term benefits granted to academics, the method of finance andaccounting recognition and presenting these...

  19. A short-term group with drug users in prison

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Campo; Laura Pavia

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a short term group, according to the viewpoint of group analysis theory. The experience was made in the prison of Sicily. The group was composed by prisoners in the protected area with issues of addiction. The article highlights the usefulness of a work on the Motivation to change through the device of the group. Furthermore, it underlines how much of the work in this context was to encourage participants in the transition to reflection, critical to work on yourself. We...

  20. Short-term instability and stabilization of photomultiplier gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-term instability of FEU-84-3, FEU-49B, and FEU-110 photomultipliers under high pulse loads is investigated. The dependence of photomultiplier gain on currents to 0.8 mA is studied. It is proposed that gain be stabilized under pulse loads by illumination of the photocathode, which reduces gain variation by a factor of 10-20. The instability of the dynode signals is measured

  1. Biomimetic treatment on dental implants for short -term bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Mur, Francisco Javier; Manzanares, Norberto; Badet de Mena, Armando; Aparicio Bádenas, Conrado José; Ginebra Molins, Maria Pau

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this work was to assess the short-term bone regenerative potential of new osteoconductive implants. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the effectiveness of a novel two-step treatment which combines shot-blasting with a thermo-chemical treatment, at very short times after implant placement in a minipig model. Materials and methods Three hundred twenty implants with four different surface treatments, namely bioactivated sur...

  2. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  3. The Beauty Contest and Short-Term Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Xavier Vives

    2014-01-01

    Short-termism need not breed informational price inefficiency even when generating Beauty Contests. We demonstrate this claim in a two-period market with persistent liquidity trading and risk-averse, privately informed, short-term investors and find that prices reect average expectations about fundamentals and liquidity trading. Informed investors engage in "retrospective" learning to reassess inferences (about fundamentals) made during the trading game's early stages. This behavior introduce...

  4. The Fragility of Short-Term Secured Funding Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Antoine; Skeie, David; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an infinite-horizon model of financial institutions that borrow short-term and invest in long-term assets that can be traded in frictionless markets. Because these financial intermediaries perform maturity transformation, they are subject to potential runs. We derive distinct liquidity, collateral, and asset liquidation constraints, which determine whether a run can occur as a result of changing market expectations. We show that the extent to which borrowers can ward off a...

  5. Short term synaptic depression improves information transfer in perceptual multistability

    OpenAIRE

    Zachary P Kilpatrick

    2013-01-01

    Competitive neural networks are often used to model the dynamics of perceptual bistability. Switching between percepts can occur through fluctuations and/or a slow adaptive process. Here, we analyze switching statistics in competitive networks with short term synaptic depression and noise. We start by analyzing a ring model that yields spatially structured solutions and complement this with a study of a space-free network whose populations are coupled with mutual inhibition. Dominance times a...

  6. Channel Stuffing with Short-Term Interest in Market Value

    OpenAIRE

    Guoming Lai; Laurens Debo; Lin Nan

    2011-01-01

    We study how a manager's short-term interest in the firm's market value may motivate channel stuffing: shipping excess inventory to the downstream channel. Channel stuffing allows a manager to report sales in excess of demand in order to influence investors' valuation of the firm. We apply an inventory model that highlights the potential role of inventory in the manager's channel stuffing and the investors' valuation strategies. Sales in our model are constrained by available inventory. Our m...

  7. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  8. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Natile, Miria; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Colombo, Marco; Bernasconi, Davide; Locatelli, Anna; Plevani, Cristina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Tagliabue, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive air...

  9. Long and short term pump testing for landfill gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.W.; Fleming, I.R. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate vertical well designs drilled into existing landfills as part of a landfill gas collection retrofitting project. Well designs and construction techniques were compared in relation to pneumatic efficiency and the capacity of each well. The aim of the study was to devise a method of evaluating well efficiency and long-term performance. Short-term, single well step-drawdown tests were conducted. Long-term pumping from the entire well field was conducted using different flow rate control approaches. Flow rates were measured at several different system pressures. Data were then compared with drawdown flow rate data from the short-term tests. The study proved that the single well short-term tests accurately predicted the long-term performance of the well field. The study also demonstrated that there was no apparent relationship between well productivity and the length of the screened zone, the diameter of the well, or the diameter of the borehole. No relationship was observed between well performance and the capital costs of individual wells.

  10. Short-term forecasting model for aggregated regional hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Original short-term forecasting model for the hourly hydropower generation. • The use of NWP forecasts allows horizons of several days. • New variable to represent the capacity level for generating hydroelectric energy. • The proposed model significantly outperforms the persistence model. - Abstract: This paper presents an original short-term forecasting model of the hourly electric power production for aggregated regional hydropower generation. The inputs of the model are previously recorded values of the aggregated hourly production of hydropower plants and hourly water precipitation forecasts using Numerical Weather Prediction tools, as well as other hourly data (load demand and wind generation). This model is composed of three modules: the first one gives the prediction of the “monthly” hourly power production of the hydropower plants; the second module gives the prediction of hourly power deviation values, which are added to that obtained by the first module to achieve the final forecast of the hourly hydropower generation; the third module allows a periodic adjustment of the prediction of the first module to improve its BIAS error. The model has been applied successfully to the real-life case study of the short-term forecasting of the aggregated hydropower generation in Spain and Portugal (Iberian Peninsula Power System), achieving satisfactory results for the next-day forecasts. The model can be valuable for agents involved in electricity markets and useful for power system operations

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  12. Short-term indicators. Intensities as a proxy for savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Services Directive and the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive. Because the underlying data become available only after some time, the savings figures are not always timely available. This is especially true for the ODEX efficiency indices per sector that rely on a number of indicators. Therefore, there is a need for so-called short-term indicators that become available shortly after the year has passed for which data are needed. The short term indicators do not replace the savings indicators but function as a proxy for the savings in the most recent year. This proxy value is faster available, but will be less accurate than the saving indicators themselves. The short term indicators have to be checked regularly with the ODEX indicators in order to see whether they can function still as a proxy.

  13. Short-term extractability of sulfadiazine after application to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term environmental fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soils is determined by a reversible sequestration into a residual fraction and an irreversible formation of non-extractable residues (NER), which can be described as first-order rate processes. However, the concentration dynamics of the resulting fractions of SDZ in soil show an unexplained rapid reduction of extractability during the first 24 h. We therefore investigated the short-term extractability of SDZ in two different soils under different SDZ application procedures over 24 h: with and without manure, for air-dried and for moist soils. In all batches, we observed an instantaneous loss of extractability on a time scale of minutes as well as kinetically determined sequestration and NER formation over 24 h. Data evaluation with a simple kinetic model led to the conclusion that application with manure accelerated the short-term formation of NER, whereas sequestration was very similar for all batches. - Highlights: ► There is an instantaneous loss in extractability of sulfadiazine (SDZ) from soil samples. ► Further sequestration and NER formation are kinetically determined within 24 h ► Manure application accelerates short-term kinetic NER formation. ► Non-zero initial conditions for sequestered and non-extractable SDZ are tenable. - The extractability of sulfadiazine from soil is reduced by an instantaneous process on a time scale of minutes followed by a kinetic sequestration on a time scale of days.

  14. The Clearance of Cyclosporine by Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataramanan, Raman; Ptachcinski, Richard J.; Burckart, Gilbert J.; YANG, SHIN L.; Starzl, Thomas E.; VAN THEIL, DAVID H.

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine were studied in five liver transplant patients when they were on and off hemodialysis. There was no significant difference in the blood clearance of cyclosporine between these two periods. Less than 1 per cent of the dose of cyclosporine was recovered in the dialysate. The mean dialysis clearance was less than 1 ml/min. This represents less than 1 per cent of the total blood clearance of cyclosporine. Dosage alterations of cyclosporine during or after hemo...

  15. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Fabi, Katia; Logie, Robert; Luzzi, Simona; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or 'binding' deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1: 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants studied visual arrays of objects (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), colours (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), unbound objects and colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients in each of the two categories), or objects bound with colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients). They were then asked to recall the items verbally. The memory of patients with Alzheimer's disease for objects bound with colours was significantly worse than for single or unbound features whereas healthy elderly's memory for bound and unbound features did not differ. Experiment 2: 21 Alzheimer's disease patients and 20 matched healthy elderly were recruited. Memory load was increased for the healthy elderly group to eight items in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features and to four items in the condition assessing memory for the binding of these features. For Alzheimer's disease patients the task remained the same. This manipulation permitted the performance to be equated across groups in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features. The impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients in recalling bound objects reported in Experiment 1 was replicated. The binding cost was greater than that observed in the healthy elderly group, who did not differ in their performance for bound and unbound features. Alzheimer's disease grossly impairs the

  16. A Simple Hybrid Model for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suseelatha Annamareddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple hybrid model to forecast the electrical load data based on the wavelet transform technique and double exponential smoothing. The historical noisy load series data is decomposed into deterministic and fluctuation components using suitable wavelet coefficient thresholds and wavelet reconstruction method. The variation characteristics of the resulting series are analyzed to arrive at reasonable thresholds that yield good denoising results. The constitutive series are then forecasted using appropriate exponential adaptive smoothing models. A case study performed on California energy market data demonstrates that the proposed method can offer high forecasting precision for very short-term forecasts, considering a time horizon of two weeks.

  17. Genotoxicity Assessment of Erythritol by Using Short-term Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Young-Shin; Lee, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that is widely used as a natural sugar substitute. Thus, the safety of its usage is very important. In the present study, short-term genotoxicity assays were conducted to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of erythritol. According to the OECD test guidelines, the maximum test dose was 5,000 μg/plate in bacterial reverse mutation tests, 5,000 μg/ml in cell-based assays, and 5,000 mg/kg for in vivo testing. An Ames test did not reveal any positive results. No...

  18. Short-term headline-core inflation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yash P. Mehra; Devin Reilly

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates empirically short-term dynamics between headline and core measures of consumer price index and personal consumption expenditure inflation over three sample periods: 1959:1-1979:1, 1979:2-2001:2, and 1985:1-2007:2. Headline and core inflation measures are co-integrated, suggesting long-run co-movement. However, the ways these two variables adjust to each other in the short run and generate co-movement have changed across these sample periods. In the pre-1979 sample pe...

  19. Long Short-Term Memory Over Tree Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaodan; Sobhani, Parinaz; Guo, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The chain-structured long short-term memory (LSTM) has showed to be effective in a wide range of problems such as speech recognition and machine translation. In this paper, we propose to extend it to tree structures, in which a memory cell can reflect the history memories of multiple child cells or multiple descendant cells in a recursive process. We call the model S-LSTM, which provides a principled way of considering long-distance interaction over hierarchies, e.g., language or image parse ...

  20. Guiding Long-Short Term Memory for Image Caption Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xu; Gavves, Efstratios; Fernando, Basura; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2015-01-01

    In this work we focus on the problem of image caption generation. We propose an extension of the long short term memory (LSTM) model, which we coin gLSTM for short. In particular, we add semantic information extracted from the image as extra input to each unit of the LSTM block, with the aim of guiding the model towards solutions that are more tightly coupled to the image content. Additionally, we explore different length normalization strategies for beam search in order to prevent from favor...

  1. The stability of short-term hearing outcome after stapedotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Öhman, Malin Charlotta; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2015-01-01

    currently recommended > 12-month follow-up. The use of 3-month data in reporting outcome could reduce the bias inherent to the loss to follow-up at 12 months. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the stability of short-term postoperative hearing after stapedotomy for otosclerosis. METHODS: This was a prospective......-up in both primary and revision cases were minimal and clinically insignificant. In all, 3-5% of primary cases and 14-16% of revision cases experienced a change of ≥ 10 dB for the worse of one or more parameters between follow-ups. Results were also stable when considering a range of traditional success...

  2. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Music Learning with Long Short Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Florian François

    2015-01-01

    Humans are able to learn and compose complex, yet beautiful, pieces of music as seen in e.g. the highly complicated works of J.S. Bach. However, how our brain is able to store and produce these very long temporal sequences is still an open question. Long short-term memory (LSTM) artificial neural networks have been shown to be efficient in sequence learning tasks thanks to their inherent ability to bridge long time lags between input events and their target signals. Here, I investigate the po...

  4. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh

  5. MHz Gravitational Waves from Short-term Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Asuka

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around $10^{-26}$ ~ $10^{-27}$ are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10MHz~100MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  6. Short-term price overreaction: Identification, testing, exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alana, Luis; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  7. Short-Term Price Overreactions: Identification, Testing, Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Luis A. Gil-Alana; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  8. Short term storage of goods in cross-docking operations

    OpenAIRE

    I F A Vis; Roodbergen, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cross docking is one of the options to reduce lead times and inventories and to improve customer response time in supply chains. Cross-docking centres are dynamic environments where products arrive, are regrouped, and leave the same day. In this paper we focus on the process of short-term storage of unit-Ioads in a cross-docking environment. The goal is to determine temporary storage locations for incoming unit loads such that the travel distances of the forklift trucks with these unit loads ...

  9. Short term settlement of footing on snow foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mahajan

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available "A constitutive theory for snow, developed by the authors, is applied to solve for the short-term settlement of footing on snow foundation. The constitutive law used is a microstructurally-based formulation which includes the effects of bond deformation and fracture. It also includes transient creep effects and strain hardening of snow. The foundation problem is solved for stress and displacement distribution, with two different loads of 0.008 MPa and 0.1 MPa distributed uniformly over a part of the top face. The stress distribution matches closely with the existing theoretical results.

  10. Is short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients affected by mean first 6 months C2 level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assari Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available International Consensus Conference (ICC has suggested that the whole blood level of Cyclosporine (CsA be kept strictly at a certain level. However, it is not well understood whether failing to maintain these levels will affect the short term outcome in different patient populations or not. We aimed to assess if the short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients will be affected by first 6 months C2 level. In a retrospective cohort, 265 consecutive kidney transplant recipients were categorized as group with mean C2 lower than recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation lower than the recommended ranges; n=213 and group with mean C2 within recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation within the recommended range; n=52. All recipients were negative for panel reactive antibody, and had received their first (living unrelated kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah hospital, between 2002 and 2003. The groups were similar in characteristics and 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years patient and graft survival rates were considered as outcome. No significant difference was observed in patient and graft survival rates between the two groups (P > 0.05. The patient survival rate in group with mean C2 lower than recommended range and group with mean C2 within recommended range were: 6 months: 98% vs. 98, 1 year: 97% vs. 98%, 2 years: 97% vs. 98% and 3 years: 97% vs. 98%. The graft survival rate in the above groups were as follows: 6 months: 93% vs. 91%, 1 year: 92% vs. 91%, 2 years: 92% vs. 77% and 3 years: 89% vs. 69%, respectively. The result of our study showed that lower mean C2 levels was not necessarily accompanied with a worse short term outcome in our patients. This finding suggests that the optimal level of C2 may be different in ethnic populations.

  11. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  12. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  13. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  14. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system. PMID:26749302

  15. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  16. Reverse Detection of Short-Term Earthquake Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Keilis-Borok, V; Gabrielov, A; Turcotte, D L

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to short-term earthquake prediction based on the concept of selforganization of seismically active fault networks. That approach is named "Reverse Detection of Precursors" (RDP), since it considers precursors in reverse order of their appearance. This makes it possible to detect precursors undetectable by direct analysis. Possible mechanisms underlying RDP are outlined. RDP is described with a concrete example: we consider as short-term precursors the newly introduced chains of earthquakes reflecting the rise of an earthquake correlation range; and detect (retrospectively) such chains a few months before two prominent Californian earthquakes - Landers, 1992, M = 7.6, and Hector Mine, 1999, M = 7.3, with one false alarm. Similar results (described elsewhere) are obtained by RDP for 21 more strong earthquakes in California (M >= 6.4), Japan (M >= 7.0) and the Eastern Mediterranean (M >= 6.5). Validation of the RDP approach requires, as always, prediction in advance for which this stu...

  17. [Topical administration of cyclosporin in psoriasis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunse, T; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G

    1990-06-01

    Two groups of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were topically treated either with 10% cyclosporin in a jelly base or with 5% cyclosporin in an ointment base under occlusion. We found that cyclosporin penetrates into the lower epidermis and the dermis, when it is applied under occlusion. Obviously, the target cells are neutrophil granulocytes, since they decrease in number under cyclosporin, whereas the other inflammatory cells as well as the epidermal proliferation remain unchanged. In contrast to systemic application of cyclosporin, we did not observe any clinical differences between plaques treated with cyclosporin and those treated with placebo. PMID:2202163

  18. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  19. Performance Analysis of ANFIS in short term Wind Speed Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandatilde;andshy;ctor Hugo Garcandatilde;andshy;a Rodrandatilde;andshy;guez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the performance of Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference system (ANFIS for wind velocity forecasts in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The data bank was provided by the meteorological station located at the University of Isthmus, Tehuantepec campus, and this data bank covers the period from 2008 to 2011. Three data models were constructed to carry out 16, 24 and 48 hours forecasts using the following variables: wind velocity, temperature, barometric pressure, and date. The performance measure for the three models is the mean standard error (MSE. In this work, performance analysis in short-term prediction is presented, because it is essential in order to define an adequate wind speed model for eolian parks, where a right planning provide economic benefits.

  20. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  1. Analysis of short-term reactor cavity transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the transient of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear reactor, peak pressures are reached within the first 0.03 s at different locations inside the reactor cavity. Due to the complicated multidimensional nature of the reactor cavity, the short-term analysis of the LOCA transient cannot be performed by using traditional containment codes, such as CONTEMPT. The advanced containment code, BEACON/MOD3, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), can be adapted for such analysis. This code provides Eulerian, one and two-dimensional, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium flow modeling as well as lumped parameter, homogeneous, equilibrium flow modeling for the solution of two-component, two-phase flow problems. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the BEACON code to analyze complex containment geometry such as a reactor cavity

  2. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  3. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  4. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  5. Attentional priorities and access to short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    2012-01-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance...... activity, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and distracter set size in IPS could not be accounted for by a simple explanation in terms of number of items accessing VSTM. Instead, it led us to a model where items accessing VSTM receive...... differential weights depending on their behavioral relevance, and secondly, a suppressive effect originates during the selection phase when multiple targets and multiple distracters are simultaneously present. The reverse interaction between target and distracter set size was significant in the right...

  6. Short Term Load Forecast Using Wavelet Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Min; Rong Fei; Luo An

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a wavelet neural network (WNN) model combining wavelet transform and artificial neural networks for short term load forecast (STLF). Both historical load and temperature data having important impacts on load level were used in the proposed forecasting model. The model used the three-layer feed forward network trained by the error back-propagation algorithm. To enhance the forecasting accuracy by neural networks, wavelet multi-resolution analysis method was introduced to pre-process these data and reconstruct the predicted output. The proposed model has been evaluated with actual data of electricity load and temperature of Hunan Province. The simulation results show that the model is capable of providing a reasonable forecasting accuracy in STLF.

  7. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Itskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  8. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  9. Short-term outcomes after conventional transthoracic esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Hattori, Masashi; Iwata, Naoki; Takami, Hideki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    In our department, we have attempted to reduce the incidence of complications of conventional esophagectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was to report the short-term outcomes of esophagectomy. We reviewed 138 consecutive patients who had undergone subtotal esophagectomy by combined laparotomy via a 12-cm upper abdominal vertical incision combined with right anterior muscle-sparing thoracotomy from August 2010 to August 2014. Most of the cervical para-esophageal lymph node dissection was completed within the thoracic cavity. We performed three-field dissection in patients with tumors in the upper or middle third of the esophagus with clinical lymph node metastases in the superior mediastinum; the others underwent two-field dissection. We performed neck anastomoses in patients undergoing three-field dissection and thoracic anastomoses in those undergoing two-field dissection. Effective postoperative pain management was achieved with a combination of epidural anesthesia and paravertebral block. Postoperative rehabilitation was instituted for early ambulation and recovery. Enteral nutrition via a duodenal feeding tube was administered from postoperative day 2. Median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 10-129). Rates for both 30-day and in-hospital mortality were 0%. Morbidity rate for all Clavien-Dindo grades was 41.3%, whereas the morbidity rate for Clavien-Dindo grades III and IV was 7.2%. Anastomotic leakage developed in two patients (1.4%), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 11 (8.0%), and pneumonia in nine (6.5%). Good short-term outcomes, especially regarding anastomotic leaks, were achieved by consistent improvements in surgical techniques, optimization of several operative procedures, and appropriate perioperative management. PMID:27018983

  10. The economic value of short-term regulated hydropower production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic value of short-term regulation of hydropower depends on the marginal price of electricity. A systematic method to estimate the revenue from short-term regulated hydropower production has been developed. It can thus be used to compare the cost of different restrictions and constraints imposed on the regulation practice. Constraints on water level or discharge variations in the river can be imposed e.g because of environmental reasons. In this method the total hydropower production of the river is optimized. Input to the model consists of the amount of available water, the marginal price of production, price elasticity and the given constraints. The following constraints can be applied: maximum and minimum discharge at each power plant, maximum and minimum reservoir levels at each power plant, maximum variation of tailwaters at each power plant during the period of interest, maximum change of discharge per time unit and the minimum spinning reserves of the system. Output data comprises power output, discharge and water levels (head) at each power plant, and the calculated revenue based on produced power and the given marginal price of production. The method has two basic components: an optimization algorithm and a river simulation algorithm. The optimization algorithm is based on a quadratic cost function and a linear model. The model has been applied to Oulujoki River in Northern Finland. There are seven hydropower plants along the river, it is over 100 km long and it is extensively used for peak power production. Two typical weeks were simulated with different restrictions set on water level variation and available amount of water

  11. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  12. International Short-Term Countermeasures Survey - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear emergency planning, preparedness, response, and management, in general, are essential elements of any country's nuclear power programme. Part of nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is the implementation of national emergency plans, including detailed procedures for the implementation of short-term countermeasures, before during, and after the release of radioactive substances. The timely and appropriate implementation of short-term countermeasures, such as sheltering, evacuation, and iodine prophylaxis, can, in case of a nuclear emergency with a release of radioactive material, considerably reduce the doses to the public in the vicinity of the nuclear installation. Although international guidelines exist, national procedures and practices may differ due to different national habits, cultural specificity, and societal needs. Different national procedures and practices may, however, in the case of a radioactive release affecting two neighbouring countries, lead to different decisions in the implementation of countermeasures. In order to better understand existing approaches and to facilitate the comparison of national practices, the NEA decided to launch a questionnaire on current practices regarding short-term countermeasures, updating a similar survey performed in 1994 and 2003, as countries' practices have since evolved and been modified. In 2012, it was decided to reevaluate the country approaches in light of the early lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The information collected may be used to understand the basis for decisions in various countries, and, if deemed appropriate, as a basis for international harmonisation. This may also assist member countries to explain to the public affected by an emergency why the decisions in neighbouring countries may vary. This report summarises the information given by member countries and includes nine sections to explore the different aspects, covering the following topics: member

  13. The stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book studies the stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation, pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness, action hematosis stimulators in short-term irradiation conditions

  14. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Short-term de facto transfer leasing... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which...

  15. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  16. 34 CFR 664.11 - What is a short-term seminar project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a short-term seminar project? 664.11 Section... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.11 What is a short-term seminar project? A short-term seminar project is— (a) Designed to help integrate international studies into an...

  17. Short-Term Heat Shock Affects Host–Virus Interaction in Mice Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Fan, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Shouping; Xiao, Jin; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is a highly contagious virus that can cause acute respiratory infections and high human fatality ratio due to excessive inflammatory response. Short-term heat shock, as a stressful condition, could induce the expression of heat shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones to protect cells against multiple stresses. However, the protective effect of short-term heat shock in influenza infection is far from being understood. In this study, mice were treated at 39°C for 4 h before being infected with HPAIV H5N1. Interestingly, short-term heat shock significantly increased the levels of HSP70 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of mice. Following HPAIV H5N1 infection, short-term heat shock alleviated immunopathology and viral replication in lung tissue and repressed the weight loss and increased the survival rate of H5N1-infected mice. Our data reported that short-term heat shock provided beneficial anti-HPAIV H5N1 properties in mice model, which offers an alternative strategy for non-drug prevention for influenza infection. PMID:27379054

  18. Implications of short-term financial outlook for Canadian producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-term outlook for the Western Canadian natural gas industry was reviewed. Based on the dramatic growth in the demand for gas, and the explosive growth of the industry in response to export opportunities, the outlook for the remainder of this decade remains good, notwithstanding low internal returns, below-average returns on equity, and increased competition for U.S. markets. The competition will come from offshore wells in the US Gulf, from offshore wells of Sable Island, and from offshore wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the increasing sources of supply gas prices are actually expected to improve slightly in 1997 and beyond, giving rise to cautious optimism. Nevertheless, more favorable tax treatment is urgently required to head off the likelihood of investment dollars moving to Africa, the Middle East, South America, and most especially China and Russia. Once those countries open up for business in the not-too-distant future, the likelihood of them offering substantially better tax treatment than what is available in Canada could do serious damage to domestic gas industry development. 12 figs

  19. Short-term generation scheduling model of Fujian hydro system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fujian hydropower system (FHS) is one of the provincial hydropower systems with the most complicated hydraulic topology in China. This paper describes an optimization program that is required by Fujian Electric Power Company Ltd. (FEPCL) to aid the shift engineers in making decisions with the short-term hydropower scheduling such that the generation benefit can be maximal. The problem involves 27 reservoirs and is formulated as a nonlinear and discrete programming. It is a very challenging task to solve such a large-scale problem. In this paper, the Lagrangian multipliers are introduced to decompose the primal problem into a hydro subproblem and many individual plant-based subproblems, which are respectively solved by the improved simplex-like method (SLM) and the dynamic programming (DP). A numerical example is given and the derived solution is very close to the optimal one, with the distance in benefit less than 0.004%. All the data needed for the numerical example are presented in detail for further tests and studies from more experts and researchers

  20. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It's filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter's. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach's and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author)

  1. Short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Valentino Raimondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast synaptic inhibition in the brain is mediated by the pre-synaptic release of the neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA and the post-synaptic activation of GABA-sensitive ionotropic receptors. As with excitatory synapses, it is being increasinly appreciated that a variety of plastic processes occur at inhibitory synapses, which operate over a range of timescales. Here we examine a form of activity-dependent plasticity that is somewhat unique to GABAergic transmission. This involves short-lasting changes to the ionic driving force for the postsynaptic receptors, a process referred to as short-term ionic plasticity. These changes are directly related to the history of activity at inhibitory synapses and are influenced by a variety of factors including the location of the synapse and the post-synaptic cell’s ion regulation mechanisms. We explore the processes underlying this form of plasticity, when and where it can occur, and how it is likely to impact network activity.

  2. A model for sustainable short-term international medical trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder; Ahrens, Kym; Click, Eleanor; Macklin, Lori; Evangelista, Doris; Graham, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    The health status of many people in developing countries is often dismal compared with the norms in industrialized countries. Increasingly, medical practitioners in the United States and other industrialized countries have become interested in global health issues, an interest that often takes the form of short-term international medical trips. We discuss several ethical issues associated with participation in such trips and use our experiences in developing the Children's Health International Medical Project of Seattle (CHIMPS) to outline and illustrate a set of 7 guiding principles for making these trips. CHIMPS is a resident-run, faculty-supported international medical program founded in 2002 by pediatric residents at the University of Washington in Seattle. Members of CHIMPS work with a rural community in El Salvador to support ongoing public health interventions there and provide sustainable medical care in collaboration with the community and a local nongovernmental organization. The 7 principles developed as a result of this work-mission, collaboration, education, service, teamwork, sustainability, and evaluation-can be used as a model for health practitioners as they develop or select international medical trips. The importance of partnering with the community and working within the existing medical and public health infrastructure is emphasized. Many of the challenges of doing international medical work can be overcome when efforts are guided by a few specific principles, such as those we have outlined. PMID:17660105

  3. Short-term thermal generation scheduling using improved immune algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Gwo-Ching [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung County, 125-8 Chyi-Wen Road, Chyi-Shan 842 (Taiwan)

    2006-03-15

    This paper proposes a new immune algorithm (NIA), which merges the fuzzy system (FS), the annealing immune (AI) method and the immune algorithm (IA) together, to resolve short-term thermal generation unit commitment (UC) problems. This proposed method differs from its counterparts in three main aspects, namely: (1) changing the crossover and mutation ratios from a fixed value to a variable value determined by the fuzzy system method, (2) using the memory cell and (3) adding the annealing immune operator. With these modifications, we can attain three major advantages with the NIA, i.e. (1) the NIA will not fall into a local optimal solution trap; (2) the NIA can quickly and correctly find a full set of global optimal solutions and (3) the NIA can achieve the most economic solution for unit commitment with ease. The UC determines the start-up and shut-down schedules for related generation units to meet the forecasted demand at a minimum cost while satisfying other constraints, such as each unit's generating limit. The NIA is applied to six cases with various numbers of thermal generation units over a 24-h period. The schedule generated by the NIA is compared with that by several other methods, including the dynamic programming (DP), the Lagrangian relaxation (LR), the standard genetic algorithm (GA), the traditional simulated annealing (SA) and the traditional Tabu search (TS). The comparisons verify the validity and superiority in accuracy for the proposed method. (author)

  4. Short term mutagenicity tests and their application to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although traditional long-term animal tests are likely to continue to be required, these are not only extremely costly but are coming more and more to be recognised as an imprecise and unsatisfactory method of testing the safety of irradiated foods for human consumption. It is therefore clearly advisable to include a selection of quicker and more direct testing methods in any toxicological assessment procedures. The International Project has therefore undertaken a study of the feasibility of using the newer systems for investigation of irradiated foodstuffs. Although some work in this field has already been carried out, some shortcomings in the published work can be identified which justify a more detailed and intensive research programme. As expected, little difficulty has been encountered in testing food by methods involving mammals, but considerable effort has been required to adapt in vitro systems. The use of enzymatic digestion in vitro to provide food samples for testing in mammalian cell cultures has never been attempted before and the procedures developed by the Project represent a positive contribution to methodology in this field. A series of foodstuffs is being tested by a wide spectrum of short-term tests and the first results are now being obtained. (orig./MG)

  5. Role of short-term memory in loudness comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Werner, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    In an earlier study of the auditory discrimination of time-varying noise bursts [Ellermeier and Schrödl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2596 (2000)], listeners were found to place greater weight on the beginning and end of the sounds than on the middle portion. To investigate whether this outcome is due to primacy and recency effects in short-term memory which tend to be sensitive to manipulations of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), the ISI separating the two noise bursts in a 2IFC task was varied systematically. Six participants performed loudness comparisons on 1-s samples of white noise randomly changing in level every 100 ms. In different blocks of trials, the two noise bursts to be compared were either separated by a 500-ms or a 2-s ISI. COSS analysis [Berg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1743-1746 (1989)] of the overall loudness judgments revealed elevated weights for the beginning and end of the noises, as in the earlier study. These weighting patterns were largely unaffected by the manipulation of ISI, suggesting that the temporal weights found characterize loudness integration in general, and are not just due to idiosyncrasies of the timing used in the 2IFC procedure.

  6. Local short-term variability in solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gerald M.; Monahan, Adam H.; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing spatiotemporal irradiance variability is important for the successful grid integration of increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Using 1 Hz data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), we analyze field variability of clear-sky index k* (i.e., irradiance normalized to clear-sky conditions) and sub-minute k* increments (i.e., changes over specified intervals of time) for distances between tens of meters and about 10 km. By means of a simple classification scheme based on k* statistics, we identify overcast, clear, and mixed sky conditions, and demonstrate that the last of these is the most potentially problematic in terms of short-term PV power fluctuations. Under mixed conditions, the probability of relatively strong k* increments of ±0.5 is approximately twice as high compared to increment statistics computed without conditioning by sky type. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation structures of k* increment fields differ considerably between sky types. While the profiles for overcast and clear skies mostly resemble the predictions of a simple model published by , this is not the case for mixed conditions. As a proxy for the smoothing effects of distributed PV, we finally show that spatial averaging mitigates variability in k* less effectively than variability in k* increments, for a spatial sensor density of 2 km-2.

  7. Short term pumped storage scheduling using two proposed techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Salama, M.M. Elgazar, S.M. Abdelmaksoud, H.A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are proposed for solving the short term pumped storage hydro thermal scheduling problem. The performance efficiency of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on hydrothermal test system comprising of five thermal units and one pumped storage power plant. A wide rang of thermal and hydraulic constraints are taken into consideration such as real power balance constraint, minimum and maximum limits of thermal units and pumped storage power plant, water discharge and water pumping rate limits and reservoir storage volume constraints. The simulation results obtained from the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are compared with the outcomes obtained from the genetic algorithm in terms of cost saving and execution time to reveal the validity and verify the feasibility of the proposed methods. The test results show that the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique performs better than genetic algorithm in solving this problem in terms of cost saving and computational time.

  8. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  10. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  11. The short-term fixation of radiopharmaceuticals in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between local blood flow and bone clearance of 18 F, 32 P-P (orthophosphate), 32 P-PPi (pyrophosphate), 45 Ca, 85 Sr, 99mTc- and 113 Sn-EHDP was evaluated in the non-adult rat. During one single blood passage nearly 100% of 18 F was extracted in the femoral diaphysis, the extraction efficiency for the other radiopharmaceuticals was about 40%. Blood flow and bone clearance was higher and the extraction efficiency lower in the distal femoral epiphysis including the growth plate. The short-term bone uptake of 32 P-P was lowered considerably by the simultaneous application of inactive orthophosphate, whereas the bone uptake of 32 P-PP, was not suppressed. It is suggested that the rapid deposition of radiopharmaceuticals in bone is not caused by an ionic exchange process on crystal surfaces of already existing mineral but is due to an ionic exchange during the precipitation of calcium phosphate in the calcifying bone matrix. Only 18 F is exchanged with hydroxyl groups of already precipitated hydroxyapatite, whereas the calcium and phosphate ions in the precipitated hydroxyapatite are not further accessible to an exchange process. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MBE

  12. Short-term visual deprivation improves the perception of harmonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Simon P; Shiller, Douglas M; Champoux, François

    2013-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the perception of auditory stimuli involves occipital cortical regions traditionally associated with visual processing, even in the absence of any overt visual component to the task. Analogous behavioral evidence of an interaction between visual and auditory processing during purely auditory tasks comes from studies of short-term visual deprivation on the perception of auditory cues, however, the results of such studies remain equivocal. Although some data have suggested that visual deprivation significantly increases loudness and pitch discrimination and reduces spatial localization inaccuracies, it is still unclear whether such improvement extends to the perception of spectrally complex cues, such as those involved in speech and music perception. We present data demonstrating that a 90-min period of visual deprivation causes a transient improvement in the perception of harmonicity: a spectrally complex cue that plays a key role in music and speech perception. The results provide clear behavioral evidence supporting a role for the visual system in the processing of complex auditory stimuli, even in the absence of any visual component to the task. PMID:23957309

  13. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  14. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009). PMID:26920437

  15. Visual short-term memory load strengthens selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-04-01

    Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity. PMID:24002967

  16. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  17. Short-term stress: the case of transport and slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nanni Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term stressors such as transport and slaughter include psychological and physical stimuli that might be aversive for the animals. Restraint, manipulation and sudden change lead to fear, or psychological stress, while hunger, thirst, fatigue, injury and extreme thermal conditions are considered as physical stresses. Animal responses to these stimuli include behavioural and physiological changes devoted to coping with adverse situations. If the recovery or the adaptation fails, the consequences can be extremely serious, ranging from weight loss and death to impaired carcass and meat quality. As the stress during transport and slaughter is unavoidable, only the knowledge of the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals during all procedures from pre-transport handling to stunning, together with the correct use of the facilities for handling and transportation, can minimize the intensity and the duration of stress. The final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, animal welfare and meat quality.

  18. Broadband short term variability of the quasar PDS 456

    CERN Document Server

    Matzeu, G A; Nardini, E; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Tombesi, F; Gofford, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a recent $500$ ks net exposure \\textit{Suzaku} observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby ($z=0.184$) luminous (L$_{\\rm bol}\\sim10^{47}$ erg s$^{-1}$) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. The short term X-ray spectral variability has been interpreted in terms of variable absorption and/or intrinsic continuum changes. In the former scenario, the spectral variability is due to variable covering factors of two regions of partially covering absorbers. We find that these absorbers are characterised by an outflow velocity comparable to that of the highly ionised wind, i.e. $\\sim0.25$ c, at the $99.9\\%$ $(3.26\\sigma)$ confidence level. This suggests that the partially absorbing clouds may be the denser clumpy part of the inhomogeneous wind. Following an obscuration event we obtained a direct estimate of the size of the X-ray emitting region, to be not larger than $20~R_{\\rm g}$ in PDS 456.

  19. Short term hydrogen generation following LOCA and loss of ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the amount of hydrogen that can be generated due to metal water reaction following LOCA and loss of ECCS in a 500 MWe PHWR. A computer code HYGEN (Hydrogen Generation) written in FORTRAN calculates time-dependent fuel temperature during the post blowdown period and the amount of hydrogen generated as a result of metal water reaction. It is seen from the analyses that metal water reaction depends on fuel bundle power, its initial temperature and steam flow conditions. At present, four groups of channels have been analysed for different steam flow conditions, and it is found that, for an about 5 gm/sec steam flow condition, the maximum of amount of hydrogen is generated (5.76 x 104 gm-mole) due to the zircaloy - steam reaction. This amount of hydrogen, when considered mixed in volume V1 (drywell) of the reactor building, means that the global concentration reaches about 2.76% by volume. So, it is seen that in the short term, the global hydrogen concentration in the reactor building is well below the flammability limit of 4% by volume. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  20. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  1. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  2. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  3. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested

  4. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested

  5. Remedial measures at the short-term regulated rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building up and producing hydro power causes environmental effects, which are directed at the geomorfology, hydrology, water quality, organisms and landscape of the water system. To reduce and eliminate these various effects there are available an abundance of technical remedial measures, many of which contribute to several effects at the same time. In Finland a lot of remedial measures have been carried out at voluntary or obligatory bases. The information concerning remedial measures implemented in large build-up rivers were collected as a part of the study of the effects of the short-term regulation of hydro power plants. Material for the study was collected via literature, postal inquiry and terrain visits. Measures handled in the study were protection and reinforcement of shores, boating projects, submerged weirs, improvement of water turnover, fishery, clearing of peat rafts and stubs, landscaping, maintaining ice roads and shaping river banks. Nowadays planning and implementation of the remedial measures varies greatly depending on the nature and extent of the project. Large projects, which are more expensive, are naturally planned more carefully and comprehensively than simple routine measures. Also the quality of follow-up of the sites changes and the main portion of the information is received through terrain checks and direct feed-back from the users of the water system. In the future there is a need for model plans of the different routine measures. Also a systemic method to evaluate and compare different actions is needed to help decision making and to solve possible conflicts between different interests. Fishery, which is generally managed well, must in the future utilize better possibilities offered by other measures. According to the study there is no particular need to develop the follow-up systems. However, if the follow-up information is going to be used to develop the measures further, more systematic systems are needed for follow-up. (author)

  6. Algorithms for short-term production planning of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotzauer, E.

    1998-03-01

    A cogeneration plant, feeding its output water into a district-heating network, may include several types of energy producing units. The most important being the Co-generation unit, which produces both heat and electricity. Most plants also have a Heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the storage is a challenging mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. The calculations may be divided into two sub-problems. The unit commitment problem is the problem to determine when a unit should be producing (on) or not (off). To solve the economic dispatch problem is to find the optimal production plan given which units are producing in each time interval. Together the solution of these two problems form the solution of the short-term production-planning problem. In this thesis a general approach for the mathematical modeling of a co-generation plant is presented. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constraints. Internal plant temperatures, mass flows, storage losses, minimal up and down times and time dependent start-up costs are considered. The demand for heat, the forward temperature from the plant, the return temperature to the plant and the price of electricity are assumed to be known quantities. The net electric power produced is sold for the estimated current market price of electricity. The unit commitment problem is solved with an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation. The dual search direction is computed by the sub gradient method and the step length by the Polyak rule II. A heuristic method for the generation of primal feasible solutions is developed. The economic dispatch problem is solved using a combination of dynamic programming and general-purpose solvers. Algorithms to find starting values for the problem are developed. The model and the algorithms are implemented in MATLAB, illustrated with numerical examples and analyzed with numerical tests

  7. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  8. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  9. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  10. Short-Term Results of Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the short-term clinical and radiologic results of medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated hospital records of eight patients who have undergone Oxford phase-3 medial UKA between 2011 and 2013. We included seven patients (two males and five females in the study. The mean age of the patients was 63 years and the mean follow-up period was 17 months. The patients underwent UKA with the Oxford phase 3 cemented mobile insert unicondylar prosthesis using minimally invasive surgery technique. The patients were assessed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final controls according to the Knee Society’s clinical and Functional Scoring system (KSS. The mean anatomic tibiofemoral angle was measured preoperatively and postoperatively and any complication was recorded. Results: The mean knee score according to the KSS was 37.50 preoperatively and was 90.75 at the final follow-up; the mean function score according to the KSS was 31.88 preoperatively and was 93.12 at the final follow-up. The mean anatomic tibiofemoral angle was improved from 4.37 degree varus to 4.75 degree valgus. There was no complication in any patient except one with superficial infection who was treated by simply antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: UKA is a favorable surgical technique for appropriately selected patients with medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 191-4

  11. A novel economy reflecting short-term load forecasting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We combine MA line of TAIEX and SVR to overcome the load demands over-prediction problems caused by the economic downturn. ► The Taiwan island-wide electricity power system was used as the case study. ► Short- to middle-term MA lines of TAIEX are found to be good economic input variables for load forecasting models. - Abstract: The global economic downturn in 2008 and 2009, which was spurred by the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, sharply reduced the demand for electricity load. Conventional load-forecasting approaches were unable to respond to sudden changes in the economy, because these approaches do not consider the effect of economic factors. Therefore, the over-prediction problem occurred. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, economy-reflecting, short-term load forecasting (STLF) approach based on theories of moving average (MA) line of stock index and machine learning. In this approach, the stock indices decision model is designed to reflect fluctuations in the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) series, which is selected as an optimal input variable in support vector regression load forecasting model at an appropriate timing. The Taiwan island-wide hourly electricity load demands from 2008 to 2010 are used as the case study for performance benchmarking. Results show that the proposed approach with a 60-day MA of the TAIEX as economic learning pattern achieves good forecasting performance. It outperforms the conventional approach by 29.16% on average during economic downturn-affected days. Overall, the proposed approach successfully overcomes the over-prediction problems caused by the economic downturn. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to apply MA line theory of stock index on STLF.

  12. Is Earthquake Prediction Possible from Short-Term Foreshocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Avlonitis, Markos; Di Fiore, Boris; Minadakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Foreshocks preceding mainshocks in the short-term, ranging from minutes to a few months prior the mainshock, have been known from several decades ago. Understanding the generation mechanisms of foreshocks was supported by seismicity observations and statistics, laboratory experiments, theoretical considerations and simulation results. However, important issues remain open. For example, (1) How foreshocks are defined? (2) Why only some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks but others do not? (2) Is the mainshock size dependent on some attributes of the foreshock sequence? (3) Is that possible to discriminate foreshocks from other seismicity styles (e.g. swarms, aftershocks)? To approach possible replies to these issues we reviewed about 400 papers, reports, books and other documents referring to foreshocks as well as to relevant laboratory experiments. We found that different foreshock definitions are used by different authors. We found also that the ratio of mainshocks preceded by foreshocks increases with the increase of monitoring capabilities and that foreshock activity is dependent on source mechanical properties and favoured by material heterogeneity. Also, the mainshock size does not depend on the largest foreshock size but rather by the foreshock area. Seismicity statistics may account for an effective discrimination of foreshocks from other seismicity styles since during foreshock activities the seismicity rate increases with the inverse of time and, at the same, the b-value of the G-R relationship as a rule drops significantly. Our literature survey showed that only the last years the seismicity catalogs organized in some well monitored areas are adequately complete to search for foreshock activities. Therefore, we investigated for a set of "good foreshock examples" covering a wide range of mainshock magnitudes from 4.5 to 9 in Japan (Tohoku 2011), S. California, Italy (including L' Aquila 2009) and Greece. The good examples used indicate that foreshocks

  13. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  14. Infusion of nonmyeloablative bone marrow alleviates acute rejection reaction in liver allotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hai-yang; HUANG Dong-sheng; JIA Chang-ku; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect and implication of nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow (DSBM) infusion on the immunoreaction of liver allotransplantation. Methods: Orthotopic liver transplantation model was used in this study. Groups were set as follows: Group Ⅰ, syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ, acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar); Group Ⅲ, acute rejection treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) by intramuscular injection (SD-to-Wistar+CsA); Group Ⅳ, bone marrow infusion at 7 d pretransplantation followed by short-term CsA treatment (SD-to-Wistar+DSBM); Another group of short-term CsA treatment preoperatively without bone marrow infusion was also set as control. General characteristics and survival time were observed.Histological grades of rejection were determined by pathological examination. IL-2 and IFN-γ level in peripheral blood and donor liver were detected respectively by Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Chimerism of donor cells was measured by PCR for a male-specific marker (Y-chromosome-specific sequence, Sry). Results: No signs of rejection were found in Group Ⅰ. Acute rejection occurred in both Group Ⅱ and the short-term CsA treated group. All the recipients died at (9~15)d posttransplantation with a median survival time of (10.7±0.5) d and (11.2±2.4) d, respectively. Only mild rejection could be seen in Group Ⅲ. In Group Ⅳ, 4 out of 6 recipients had long-term survival (>100 d), the histological grade of rejection was significantly lower than that of Group Ⅱ, so did the expression level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in both peripheral blood and grafted liver.Y-chromosome-specific sequence (Sry) of male SD rats could be detected in the bone marrow, spleen and thymus of female recipients at 15 d after bone marrow infusion. Conclusion: Mild preconditioning nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow infusion can enhance chimerism formation in recipients, alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation

  15. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Luques Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h, diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h, proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7. Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy.

  16. Short-term change detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  17. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  18. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps additional items in a more fragile VSTM store. Thus far, it is not clear whether the capacity of this fragile VSTM store indeed exceeds the traditional capacity limits of VSTM. The current experiments address this issue and explore the capacity, stability, and duration of fragile VSTM representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented cues in a change-detection task either just after off-set of the memory array (iconic-cue, 1,000 ms after off-set of the memory array (retro-cue or after on-set of the probe array (post-cue. We observed three stages in visual information processing 1 iconic memory with unlimited capacity, 2 a four seconds lasting fragile VSTM store with a capacity that is at least a factor of two higher than 3 the robust and capacity-limited form of VSTM. Iconic memory seemed to depend on the strength of the positive after-image resulting from the memory display and was virtually absent under conditions of isoluminance or when intervening light masks were presented. This suggests that iconic memory is driven by prolonged retinal activation beyond stimulus duration. Fragile VSTM representations were not affected by light masks, but were completely overwritten by irrelevant pattern masks that spatially overlapped the memory array. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We find that immediately after a stimulus has disappeared from view, subjects can still access information from iconic memory because they can see an after-image of the display. After that period, human observers can still access a substantial, but somewhat more limited amount of information from a high-capacity, but fragile VSTM that is overwritten when new items are presented

  19. MR findings of cyclosporine neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Po Song; Ahn, Kook Jin; Ahn, Bo Young; Jung, Hae An; Kim, Hee Je; Lee, Jae Mun [The Catholic Univ. St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To analyze the MR findings of cyclosporine-induced neurotoxicity in patients receiving high dose of cyclosporine and to suggest the possible pathogenetic mechanism. The cases of seven patients (2 males, 5 females;18-36 years old) who suffered seizures after receiving high-dose cyclosporine for bone marrow transplantation due to diseases such as aplastic anemia or leukemia were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the location and pattern of abnormal signal intensity seen on T2 weighted images, the presence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen on follow-up MR performed at intervals of 12-30 days after initial MR in five of seven patients. We analyzed levels of blood cyclosporine and magnesium, and investigated the presence of hypertension at the sity of the seizure. Locations of the lesions were bilateral(n=3D5), unilateral(n=3D2), parietal(n=3D6), occipital(n=3D6), temporal(n=3D4), and in the frontal lobe(n=3D3). Frontal lesions showed high signal intensities in the borderline ischemic zone of the frontal lobe between the territory of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. In six of the seven patients, cortical and subcortical areas including subcortical U-fibers were seen on T2-weighted images to be involved in the parietooccipital lobes. Only one of the seven showed high signal intensity in the left basal ganglia. All lesions showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and iso to low signal intensity on T1-weighted. In five of seven patients there was no definite enhancement, but in the other two, enhancement was slight. In four of seven patients seizures occurred within high therapeutic ranges(250-450ng/ml), while others suffered such attacks at levels below the therapeutic range. After cyclospirine was administered at a reduced dosage or stopped, follow-up MR images showed the complete or near-total disappearance of the abnormal findings previously described. Only two patients had hypertension, and the others normotension. Five of the

  20. Cyclosporine Neoral: A Local Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampoory Mangalathillam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine (CsA is an effective immunosuppressant drug. Recently a new oral formulation, Sandimune Neoral (SIM-NOF has been developed to overcome the problems of poor bioavailability, unpredictable blood levels and variable gastro-intestinal absorption seen with the use of traditional Cyclosporine, Sandimune (SIM. We conducted a prospective, open label crossover tolerability, efficacy and safety of SIM-NOF and (2 to compare SIM-NOF with SIM for their bioavailability, absorption pattern and consistence of 12-hour trough levels. Fourteen renal transplant recipients, with stable renal function (serum creatinine stable for more than six immediate previous months and SIM dosages, were randomly selected for the study. Their age mean ± SD 38.2± 11.1 years, ad had completed 3.8± 2.2 years after transplantation. All patients were on triple drug immunosuppression with prednisone, azathioprine and SIM. The study consisted of an initial 12-week period, where SIM was used and cyclosporine 12-hour trough levels were monitored t least every four weeks. This was followed by a run-in period of two weeks, where a 12-hour cyclosporine profiling was done while patients were on SIM. This was followed by a 12-week period, Where SIM-NOF replaced SIM on a 1:1 dose conversion ratio. During this latter period, 12-hour trough levels (at 1,2,3,8 and 12 weeks were measured. The doses of the SIM-NOF were adjusted to maintain blood cyclosporine trough levels at 50-180 μg/ml. On cyclosporine profiling, SIN-NOF showed a predictable and constant absorption profile peaking at two hours in all instances with steady declining levels through the following ten hours. With SIM the levels were unpredictable and erratic. The Tmax for SIM-NOF was 2.0± 0 hours and for SIM 3.7± 1.7 hours (p< 0.0001. The Cmax for SIM- NOF was 2149 and for SIM 1942 (p=0.008. The 12-hour trough studies for SIM-NOF is a superior preparation to SIM in clinical practice. No specific adverse effects were

  1. Spatiotemporal traffic-flow dependency and short-term traffic forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yue; Anthony Gar-On Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Short-term traffic forecasting is playing an increasing role in modern transport management. Although many short-term traffic forecasting methods have been explored, the spatiotemporal dependency of traffic flow, an important characteristic of traffic dynamics that can benefit the forecasting of traffic changes, is often neglected in short-term traffic forecasting. This paper first investigates the spatiotemporal dependency of traffic flow using cross-correlation analysis and then discusses i...

  2. The Effects of Short-Term Liabilities on Profitability: The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Christopher F.; Schäfer, Dorothea; Talavera, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Using data from Germany this paper examines the direct effect of non-financial firms' use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We develop a structural model of a firm's value maximization problem that predicts that profitability of the firm will change if firms alter their use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We find that firms that rely more heavily on short-term liabilities are likely to be more profitable.

  3. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  4. Short-term Library and Information Science Training Courses in India

    OpenAIRE

    G. Mahesh; Narendra Kumar; Dinesh K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Short-term courses have been the pre-cursor to the LIS education programmes. However, after the educational programmes came into being, the short-term LIS programmes stopped and not many of these were conducted during the 1960s and 1970s. With the advent of information technologies in Indian libraries in the late 1980s, the short-term courses have made a slow but steady comeback. The recent years have seen the strong resurgence of short-term LIS training courses in India with new players join...

  5. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  6. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  7. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  8. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  9. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  10. Short-Term Momentum Effect: a Case of Middle East Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ejaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find short-term momentum effect in stock markets of the Middle East and to examine whether short-term momentum profits can be explained by risk-based CAPM model. Seven major stock markets from the Middle East were selected. Short-term momentum effect was found in all seven stock markets and CAPM does not adequately explain the short-term momentum profits but momentum portfolio returns are statistically significant. This paper is first attempt to bring major stock markets of the Middle East together and examine them for the short term momentum effect phenomenon. Future research should include more stock markets in order to have a better understanding of Middle Eastern stock markets.

  11. Very short-term wind speed prediction: A new artificial neural network-Markov chain model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmousavi Kani, S.A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 627 Cobleigh Hall, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ardehali, M.M. [Energy Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    As the objective of this study, artificial neural network (ANN) and Markov chain (MC) are used to develop a new ANN-MC model for forecasting wind speed in very short-term time scale. For prediction of very short-term wind speed in a few seconds in the future, data patterns for short-term (about an hour) and very short-term (about minutes or seconds) recorded prior to current time are considered. In this study, the short-term patterns in wind speed data are captured by ANN and the long-term patterns are considered utilizing MC approach and four neighborhood indices. The results are validated and the effectiveness of the new ANN-MC model is demonstrated. It is found that the prediction errors can be decreased, while the uncertainty of the predictions and calculation time are reduced. (author)

  12. Very short-term wind speed prediction: A new artificial neural network-Markov chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the objective of this study, artificial neural network (ANN) and Markov chain (MC) are used to develop a new ANN-MC model for forecasting wind speed in very short-term time scale. For prediction of very short-term wind speed in a few seconds in the future, data patterns for short-term (about an hour) and very short-term (about minutes or seconds) recorded prior to current time are considered. In this study, the short-term patterns in wind speed data are captured by ANN and the long-term patterns are considered utilizing MC approach and four neighborhood indices. The results are validated and the effectiveness of the new ANN-MC model is demonstrated. It is found that the prediction errors can be decreased, while the uncertainty of the predictions and calculation time are reduced.

  13. Cyclosporin versus tacrolimus for liver transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, E M; McAlister, V C; Renouf, E;

    2006-01-01

    Most liver transplant recipients receive either cyclosporin or tacrolimus to prevent rejection. Both drugs inhibit calcineurin phosphatase which is thought to be the mechanism of their anti-rejection effect and principle toxicities. The drugs have different pharmacokinetic profiles and potencies....... Several randomised clinical trials have compared cyclosporin and tacrolimus in liver transplant recipients, but it remains unclear which is superior....

  14. Short-term and long-term earthquake occurrence models for Italy: ETES, ERS and LTST

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Murru; Rodolfo Console; Giuseppe Falcone

    2010-01-01

    This study describes three earthquake occurrence models as applied to the whole Italian territory, to assess the occurrence probabilities of future (M ≥5.0) earthquakes: two as short-term (24 hour) models, and one as long-term (5 and 10 years). The first model for short-term forecasts is a purely stochastic epidemic type earthquake sequence (ETES) model. The second short-term model is an epidemic rate-state (ERS) forecast based on a model that is physically constrained by the application to t...

  15. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  16. A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL FOR SHORT TERM PREDICTION OF SURFACE OZONE AT TROPICAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.SAMUEL SELVARAJ,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for short term prediction is presented using the neural network technique. Due to increase in industrial and anthropogenic activity, air pollution is a serious subject of concern today. Surface ozone prediction using the technique of adaptive pattern recognition is developed. The model can predict the mean surface ozonebased on the parameters like Nitrogen-di-oxide, temperature and % Relative Humidity. The model can perform well both in training and independent periods. The classical methods of short term modeling are not reliable enough. The method can also be used for short term prediction of other air pollutants.

  17. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  18. Investigation Into The Effectiveness Of Long Short Term Memory Networks For Stock Price Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Hengjian

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of long short term memory networks trained by backpropagation through time for stock price prediction is explored in this paper. A range of different architecture LSTM networks are constructed trained and tested.

  19. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI hospitalized in

  20. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI

  1. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners....

  2. Dissociating Measures of Consciousness from Measures of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch;

    found that increasing task-load through varying set-sizes affected performance in the short-term memory task as well as in the PAS ratings systematically in the both experiments. Interestingly, the two experiments also revealed systematic set-size effect within each of the individual PAS categories......Often, the contents of consciousness are equated with the contents of short-term memory (or working memory), sometimes to a point where they are treated as identical entities. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether they may be modulated independently and thus dissociated from each...... conscious content simply can be reduced to a cognitive process like short-term memory. In two experiments, we combined two different measures of short-term memory capacity to investigate how manipulations of set-size affect performance in observers with the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS) to measure...

  3. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  4. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences. PMID:22150606

  5. Factors relating to the short term effectiveness of percutaneous biliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    TSAI, HONG-MING; Chuang, Chiao-Hsiung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Chen, Chiung-Yu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify factors that were related to the short term effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in cholangiocarcinoma patients and to evaluate the impact of palliative drainage on their survival.

  6. Analysis of the short-term overproduction capability of variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit; Margaris, Ioannis D.;

    2014-01-01

    extensions of the Type IV standard wind turbine model proposed by the IEC Committee in IEC 61400-27-1. This modified standard model is able to account for dynamic features relevant for integrating active power ancillary services in wind power plants, such as frequency support capabilities. The performance of......Emphasis in this article is on variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) capability to provide short-term overproduction and better understanding of VSWTs’ mechanical and electrical limits to deliver such support. VSWTs’ short-term overproduction capability is of primary concern for the transmission...... VSWTs during short-term overproduction is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different wind speed levels, overproduction percentages and durations. The results show that the capability of VSWTs providing short-term overproduction to the grid strongly depends on the initial pre...

  7. Linking Genetic Counseling Content to Short-Term Outcomes in Individuals at Elevated Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Agarwal, Parul; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Abraham, Jame; Paskett, Electra D.; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have linked actual genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes. Using the Self-regulation Model, the impact of cognitive and affective content in genetic counseling on short-term outcomes was studied in individuals at elevated risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer. Surveys assessed dependent variables: distress, perceived risk, and 6 knowledge measures (Meaning of Positive Test; Meaning of Negative Test; Personal Behavior; Practitioner Knowledge; Mechanisms of Cancer Inheri...

  8. Clinical and No-Clinical Setting Specificities in First Session Short-Term Psychotherapy Psychodrama Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mindoljević Drakulić, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session ...

  9. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  10. Short-term storage in vitro and large-scale propagation of grapevine genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Carvalho Silva; Zanderluce Gomes Luis; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the large-scale propagation of grapevine genotypes after short-term storage in vitro. Microshoots from ten grapevine genotypes were used. The following storage temperatures were evaluated: 10, 20, and 25°C. After short-term storage, the shoots were propagated in up to five successive subcultures, to assess the large-scale propagation of the germplasm maintained under conditions of minimal growth. The propagated shoots were rooted in different concent...

  11. Vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory: computational and neural bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P; MacWhinney, B

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be related in mechanistic terms. We examine existing computational models of vocabulary acquisition and of verbal short-term memory, concluding that they fail to adequately relate these two domains. We then propose an alternative model which accounts not only for the relationship between word learning and verbal short-term memory, but also for a wide range of phenomena in verbal short-term memory. Furthermore, this new account provides a clear statement of the relationship between the proposed system and mechanisms of language processing more generally. We then consider possible neural substrates for this cognitive system. We begin by reviewing what is known of the neural substrates of speech processing and outline a conceptual framework within which a variety of seemingly contradictory neurophysiological and neuropsychological findings can be accommodated. The linkage of the shared system for vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to neural areas specifically involved in speech processing lends further support to our functional-level identification of the mechanisms of vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory with those of language processing. The present work thus relates vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to each other and to speech processing, at a cognitive, computational, and neural level. PMID:9299067

  12. Short-term synaptic enhancement and long-term potentiation in neocortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Alamancos, M A; Connors, B W

    1996-01-01

    Repetitive stimuli reliably induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses in the upper layers of the granular somatosensory cortex but not the agranular motor cortex of rats. Herein we examine, in these same cortical areas, short-term changes in synaptic strength that occur during the LTP induction period. theta-Burst stimulation produced a strong short-term enhancement of synapses in the granular area but only weak enhancement in the agranular area. The magnitude of enhancement during stim...

  13. Determinants of Expected Short-term Export Performance Improvement: An Empirical Study of Industrial Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    Lages, Luis Filipe; Leal, Ana Catarina

    2004-01-01

    In this research, key determinants of expected short-term export performance improvement are identified. We develop a conceptual framework that incorporates past, current and expected performance, internal and external forces of the firm, and pricing strategy adaptation to the foreign market. The framework is tested via a field survey of industrial exporters. Surprisingly, findings reveal that the effect of firms commitment to exporting on expected short-term export performance improvement is...

  14. Short-term outcome of primary operated early breast cancer by hormone and HER-2 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Prognostic subgroup classification of operable breast cancers using cDNA clustering of breast cancer-related genes resembles the classification based on the combined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of the hormone and HER-2 receptors. We here report the short-term disease-free interval (DFI) of operable breast cancers by their joint hormone receptor/HER-2 phenotype. Patients and methods Short-term follow-up (FU) of ...

  15. Short-term precursor of the geomagnetic horizontal field transfer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, using the variometer data of Changli station and Baijiatuan station from 1972 to 1997, the inter-station transfer functions of horizontal field and the single-station transfer functions of vertical field have been calculated. With analyzing the whole changing process of the transfer functions, we have discovered that only the horizontal field transfer functions arose obvious short-term precursors before Tangshan earthquake. This fact may provide a new method for short-term prediction of earthquake.

  16. A Novel Hybrid Model for Short-Term Forecasting in PV Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Kang Wu; Chao-Rong Chen; Hasimah Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of solar power as a source of electricity has led to increased interest in forecasting its power output over short-time horizons. Short-term forecasts are needed for operational planning, switching sources, programming backup, reserve usage, and peak load matching. However, the output of a photovoltaic (PV) system is influenced by irradiation, cloud cover, and other weather conditions. These factors make it difficult to conduct short-term PV output forecasting. In this pape...

  17. Shared representations in language processing and verbal short-term memory: The case of grammatical gender

    OpenAIRE

    Schweppe, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates short-term memory for syntactically structured verbal information. Five experiments have demonstrated that grammatical gender contributes substantially to short-term recall of sentences and short texts. This study is based on models that assume that comprehension, production, and retention of verbal materials share the same representations (language-based models of working memory, e.g., Martin & Saffran, 1997). Findings that lexical features (such as phonolo...

  18. Evaluation of Short Term Outcomes of Transportal Femoral Cross Pin Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Zehir, Sinan; Şahin, Ercan; Çalbıyık, Murat; Kalem, Mahmut; İpek, Deniz; Songür, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Many fixation techniques are currently in use for femoral side graft fixation at ACL reconstruction surgery. Short term success following ACL reconstruction highly depends on fixation strength of the graft. In this study we report short term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double hamstring tendon autograft using double cross pin for femoral tunnel fixation. Methods: Between years 2009 and 2013, 51 male adult anterior cruciate ligament injury cases treate...

  19. Short-term nuclear annual power production simulation documentation (SNAPPS). Task 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-Term Nuclear Annual Power Production Simulation (SNAPPS) is a FORTRAN computer program that projects the short-term monthly and annual generation of electricity by the nation's nuclear reactors. SNAPPS develops a power supply curve (histograms) for each individual reactor and then tallies its monthly and annual electricity production. The SNAPPS input requirements include reactor characteristics, cycle parameters, and scheduled outage data. This report contains the documentation for the program

  20. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Robert W Hughes; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  1. Interaction of short-term depression and firing dynamics in shaping single neuron encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Ashutosh; McDonnell, Mark D.; Stricker, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how the two properties short-term synaptic depression of afferent input and postsynaptic firing dynamics combine to determine the operating mode of a neuron. While several computational roles have been ascribed to either, their interaction has not been studied. We considered two types of short-term synaptic dynamics (release-dependent and release-independent depression) and two classes of firing dynamics (regular firing and firing with spike-frequency adaptation). The input–ou...

  2. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor ...

  3. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have hypothesised that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996a). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of ...

  4. Short-term visual memory properties sheet secondary school age with different levels of physical development

    OpenAIRE

    Menshikh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes ). Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicato...

  5. Radiology, histology and short-term outcome of asymptomatic congenital thoracic malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Buchvald, Frederik; Brenøe, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis....

  6. Evaluating short-term and working memory in older adults: French normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Nathalie; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Vallet, Fanny; Beaudoin, Marine; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Paignon, Adeline; Dantzer, Cécile; Desrichard, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Short-term and working memory (WM) capacities are subject to change with ageing, both in normal older adults and in patients with degenerative or non-degenerative neurological disease. Few normative data are available for comparisons of short-term and WM capacities in the verbal, spatial and visual domains. To provide researchers and clinicians with a set of standardised tasks that assess short-term and WM using verbal and visuospatial materials, and to present normative data for that set of tasks. The present study compiled normative French data for three short-term memory tasks (verbal, visual and spatial simple span tasks) and two WM tasks (verbal and spatial complex span tasks) obtained from 445 healthy older adults aged between 55 and 85 years. Our data reveal main effects of age, education level and gender on older adults' short-term and WM performances. Equation-based normalisation can therefore be used to take these factors into account. The results provide a set of cut-off scores for five standardised tasks that can be used to determine the presence of short-term or WM impairment in older adults. PMID:22533476

  7. A novel TRNSYS type for short-term borehole heat exchanger simulation: B2G model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel dynamic borehole heat exchanger model is presented. • Theoretical approach for model parameters calculation is described. • The short-term model is validated against experimental data of a real GSHP. • Strong dynamic conditions due to the ON–OFF regulation are investigated. - Abstract: Models of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used as an aid for the correct design and optimization of the system. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop models which correctly reproduce the dynamic thermal behavior of each component in a short-term basis. Since the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is one of the main components, special attention should be paid to ensuring a good accuracy on the prediction of the short-term response of the boreholes. The BHE models found in literature which are suitable for short-term simulations usually present high computational costs. In this work, a novel TRNSYS type implementing a borehole-to-ground (B2G) model, developed for modeling the short-term dynamic performance of a BHE with low computational cost, is presented. The model has been validated against experimental data from a GSHP system located at Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Validation results show the ability of the model to reproduce the short-term behavior of the borehole, both for a step-test and under normal operating conditions

  8. [Cyclosporin A--dermatologic indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrle, G; Schulze, H J

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacology, the biological action, as well as the clinical indications for systemic or topical application of cyclosporin A (CSA) is reviewed. Our studies yielded the following results: In chronic stationary psoriasis, systemic treatment with CSA in very low doses (2.5 mg/kg/d, 13 patients, 10 weeks) led to a 75% reduction of the PASI score without any side reactions. After topical application of CSA (40 patients, 1/5/10% gel and ointment), we observed a subclinical effect. CSA permeated into the deeper layers of the skin and accumulated up to a concentration of 3.880 ng/g (80-39.000 ng/g, polyclonal RIA); these quantities correspond with those found after systemic administration. In spite of this, CSA was not measurable in the blood. Topical CSA reduced the neutrophils in psoriatic skin both selectively and significantly, but did not affect the epidermal synthesis of DNA. PMID:2183505

  9. Short-term Mobility and Increased Partnership Concurrency among Men in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Cassels

    Full Text Available Migration has long been understood as an underlying factor for HIV transmission, and sexual partner concurrency has been increasingly studied as an important component of HIV transmission dynamics. However, less work has examined the role of short-term mobility in sexual partner concurrency using a network approach. Short-term mobility may be a risk for HIV for the migrant's partner as well either through the partner's risk behaviors while the migrant is away, such as the partner having additional partners, or via exposure to the return migrant.Using data from the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, weighted generalized linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between short-term mobility and partnership concurrency at the individual and partnership levels.At the individual level, we find strong evidence of an association between short-term mobility and concurrency. Men who traveled were more likely to have concurrent partnerships compared to men who did not travel and the relationship was non-linear: each trip was associated with a 2% higher probability of concurrency, with a diminishing risk at 60 trips (p<0.001. At the partnership level, short-term mobility by the male only or both partners was associated with male concurrency. Couples in which the female only traveled exhibited less male concurrency.Short-term mobility has the ability to impact population-level transmission dynamics by facilitating partnership concurrency and thus onward HIV transmission. Short-term migrants may be an important population to target for HIV testing, treatment, or social and behavioral interventions to prevent the spread of HIV.

  10. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scandlyn Jean

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the

  11. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  12. Differential effects of ecstasy on short-term and working memory: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulsen, Claire E; Fox, Allison M; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of studies examining the effect of ecstasy on short-term and working memory in the verbal and visuo-spatial domain was undertaken. Thirty verbal short-term memory, 22 verbal working memory, 12 visuospatial short-term memory and 9 visuospatial working memory studies met inclusion criteria. Ecstasy users performed significantly worse in all memory domains, both in studies using drug-naïve controls and studies using polydrug controls. These results are consistent with previous meta-analytic findings that ecstasy use is associated with impaired short-term memory function. Lifetime ecstasy consumption predicted effect size in working memory but not in short-term memory. The current meta-analysis adds to the literature by showing that ecstasy use in humans is also associated with impaired working memory, and that this impairment is related to total lifetime ecstasy consumption. These findings highlight the long-term, cumulative behavioral consequences associated with ecstasy use in humans. PMID:20157852

  13. Operationalizing the assessment and management of violence risk in the short-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael; Logan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk of violence in the short term is crucial for managing and preventing violence, especially in institutions such as psychiatric units and prisons. Despite a lack of consensus on the definition of "short term", a number of recent tools and guidelines have been developed to aid short-term clinical decision-making. Whereas the supporting evidence for the new tools is impressive, limitations remain in terms of the focus on prediction, limited consideration of strengths, and poor integration with formulation and risk management. The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a brief clinical guide for the dynamic assessment of risks, strengths and treatability. It focuses on short-term risks and the characteristics of the individual that, if changed, might lead to an increase or decrease in risk. The START has the potential to operationalize the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach in order to inform the evaluation of multiple risk domains relevant to everyday psychiatric clinical practice. However, explicit guidance on integrating risk assessment, formulation and management is limited in the START and this paper describes the SPJ approach, reviews recent developments in approaches to risk, and considers how the START can be used to inform SPJ approaches and link risk assessment, formulation, and management. PMID:22753147

  14. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm−1) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm−1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm−1. ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  15. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  16. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  17. Improved hepatic lipid composition following short-term exercise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Kelly, Karen R;

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, low levels of polyunsaturated lipids, and adiponectin are implicated in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective: We examined the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on these metabolic risk factors...... to assess reactive oxygen species production during the OGTT. Circulating glucose, insulin, and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were determined from plasma. Main Outcome: Short-term aerobic exercise training improved hepatic lipid composition in patients with NAFLD. Results: Exercise training...... after the exercise program and the increase was positively correlated with the increase in liver PUI (r = 0.52, P = .05). Body weight remained stable during the program (P > .05). Conclusion: Short-term exercise can target hepatic lipid composition, which may reduce the risk of NAFLD progression...

  18. Jump Diffusion Modelling for the Brazilian Short-Term Interest Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Nogueira Cavalcante Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to capture the informational effect of the Brazilian short-term interest rate (SELIC rate by Poisson jumps, we build on the tests condu cted by Das (2002 and Johannes (2004, which show the significance of such structures for U.S. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC announcements. As in the above researches, w e have found evidence that a relevant amount of the short-term volatility in the fixed in come market is captured by introducing jumps on the stochastic process of the short-term r ate. This structure also allows the verification of the information content of specific events, such as Brazilian monetary policy authority (COPOM meetings and public bond auctions.

  19. Improvements over time in short-term mortality following myocardial infarction in the D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Smith, Colette; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter; Fontas, Eric; Dabis, Francois; Law, Matthew; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; De Wit, Stephane; Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D; Sabin, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have described mortality and clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) in the HIV-positive population. This study evaluated changes in short-term mortality after MI in HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study, and investigated possible reasons for any changes seen.......4% in 2011-2014. Later calendar year was associated with decreased short-term mortality; this effect was attenuated after adjusting for CVD-related interventions received in the first month after MI (odds ratio changed from 0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.83, 0.93] to 0.97 [0.91, 1.02]). CONCLUSIONS......: Improvements in short-term survival after MI appear to be largely driven by improved medical management of CVD risk in HIV-positive individuals after MI. Efforts are still needed to treat CVD risk factors and increase access to CVD-related interventions....

  20. Improving the uncertainty on short-term radon measurements using PADC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements over a short-term period of a few days have proven a popular choice with the general public, despite the issue that the radon concentration can vary significantly over time and longer periods of integration are recommended. Performing short-term radon measurements using a Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detector would see a larger contribution from the statistical error associated with the measurements than for longer term measurements. This motivated the investigation to improve the uncertainty on short-term measurements by utilising a new formulation of high-sensitivity PADC and also by investigating the effect of increasing the scan area and extending the measurement time by just a few days. (authors)

  1. Obese patients have similar short-term outcomes to nonobese in laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish; Chand; Henry; D; De’Ath; Muhammed; Siddiqui; Chetanya; Mehta; Shahnawaz; Rasheed; James; Bromilow; Tahseen; Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether obese patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery within an enhanced recovery program had worse short-term outcomes.METHODS: A prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection was carried out between 2008 and 2011 in a single institution. Patients were divided in groups based on body mass index(BMI). Short-term outcomes including operative data, length of stay, complications and readmission rates were recorded and compared between the groups. Continuous data were analysed using t-test or oneway Analysis of Variance. χ2 test was used to compare categorical data.RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty four patients were included over the study period. The majority of individuals(41.7%) recruited were of a healthy weight(BMI 25) does not lead to worse short-term outcomes in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and therefore such patients should not be precluded from laparoscopic surgery.

  2. Modeling and Optimization for Short-term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 鄢烈祥; 史彬

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants has received significant at-tention. Most scheduling problems are modeled using either state-task-network or resource-task-network (RTN) process representation. In this paper, an improved mixed integer linear programming model for short-term schedul-ing of multipurpose batch plants under maximization of profit is proposed based on RTN representation and unit-specific events. To solve the model, a hybrid algorithm based on line-up competition algorithm and linear pro-gramming is presented. The proposed model and hybrid algorithm are applied to two benchmark examples in lit-erature. The simulation results show that the proposed model and hybrid algorithm are effective for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants.

  3. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Stefanie; Hoerzer, Gregor M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-03-01

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-unit activity (SUA) in monkeys performing a visual short-term memory task. During the memory period, we observed enhanced between-area phase synchronization in theta frequencies (3-9 Hz) of LFPs together with elevated phase locking of SUA to theta oscillations across regions. In addition, we found that the strength of intercortical locking was predictive of the animals' behavioral performance. This suggests that theta-band synchronization coordinates action potential communication between V4 and prefrontal cortex that may contribute to the maintenance of visual short-term memories. PMID:22286175

  4. Short term scheduling in a wind/diesel autonomous energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In small autonomous energy systems the wind power penetration may reduce drastically the cost of the produced energy. The solution of the short term scheduling problem faces great difficulties because of the randomness of wind speed and the resulting randomness of the wind generators production. This paper describes an algorithm developed at the National Technical University of Athens for determining the optimal operation scheduling over a period of T hours for an autonomous energy system consisting of diesel units and wind generators (WECs). The proposed method requires the solution of the following two problems: The short term forecasting of load and wind velocity; The short term unit commitment. In this paper results from the application of the proposed method to the system of a medium size Greek island are reported

  5. The Role of Bond Covenants and Short-Term Debt: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Augusto Brunassi Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of financial covenants as substitutes for short-term debt and a possible trade off between short-term debt and long-term debt, especially for companies with growth opportunities. Using a sample of 159 corporate bonds issued on the Brazilian Market, we found evidence that: first, financial covenants and short-term debt are substitute tools to minimize agency conflict, as per literature confirming that stronger financial covenants could limit the possible expropriation of debt holders and in exchange debt holders may be willing to lend at longer terms and; second, companies with growth opportunities are willing to exchange shortterm debt for long-term debt under the presence of covenants. Most importantly, this does not seem to be a restriction for financing growth opportunities.

  6. Dissociating Contents of Consciousness from Contents of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch;

    2014-01-01

    The contents of consciousness and of short-term memory are hard to disentangle. As it seems intuitive that we represent attended objects in short-term memory and in experience, to many, it also seems intuitive to equate this content. Here we investigated memory resolution for orientation......” to a “clear experience” of a probed target. To assess memory resolution we used a Landolt-variation on the visual short-term memory (VSTM) resolution paradigm (e.g. Wilken & Ma, 2004). Set-sizes in the memory display were varied between 1, 2, or 4 elements. With increasing set-size we found that both...... the guessing parameter and the standard deviation increased, replicating patterns seen in more traditional paradigms using colors (see for example Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009). Moreover, we also find a decrease in guessing and standard deviation across PAS scores, showing that the resolution of content...

  7. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  8. On the Performance of Trimetazidine and Vitamin E as Pharmacoprotection Agents in Cyclosporin A-Induced Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    De la Cruz Rodríguez Lilia Cristina; Rey María del Rosario; Araujo Carmen Rosa; Oldano Ana Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CyA) has been used in diseases with immunological basis and in transplant patients. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity are the main adverse effects of this drug. To find a protective drug against those effects we assayed the cardioprotector Trimetazidine (TMZ) and vitamin E, used as nutritional supplements to alleviate oxidative stress. Six groups of eight male Wistar rats each were prepared (groups A–F): A, control; B, vitamin E (10 mg/Kg/day); C, TMZ...

  9. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  10. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  11. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)

  12. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2016-07-01

    We present a characterization of short-term stability of Kauffman's N K (random) Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given such a Boolean network where each transfer function is drawn from the same distribution, we present a formula that determines whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. Our main technical tool which enables the formal proof of this formula is the Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, which describes such functions as multilinear polynomials over the inputs. Numerical simulations on mixtures of threshold functions and nested canalyzing functions demonstrate the formula's correctness.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM MEMORY BETWEEN ATHLETE AND NON ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    GOPAL CHANDRA SAHA; SHANTANU HALDER; PULEN DAS

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory of Athlete and non Athlete. One hundred college boys (50 Athlete participated in inter-college tournament and 50 non Athlete) from different colleges of north 24 district in West Bengal were considered for this study whose age range between 22 to 25 years. Only, Short Term and Long Term memory were measured for this study. Standard questionnaires were used for this study. The statistical 't' test was a...

  14. The role of marine microbiota in short-term climate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Simó, Rafel

    2011-01-01

    Marine life, and particularly microscopic plankton, influence climate over long and short time scales. In the long term they do this by shaping the biogeochemical cycles of elements (such as C, O, N, P, Si, S, Fe) essential for Earth-system functioning. In the short term they do it by exchanging climate-active gases with the atmosphere. Here we focuse on the short term effects. Oceans influence heat retention in the atmosphere by the exchange of green-house gases, regulate atmospheric photoch...

  15. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    OpenAIRE

    Keckhut, P

    1995-01-01

    Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some sig...

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. PMID:21911018

  17. Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wall, EHEM; Pomp, ER; Strubbe, JH; Scheurink, AJW; Koolhaas, JM; Pomp, Elisabeth R.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2005-01-01

    Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake (PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 2005). Rats were treated neonatally with capsaicin (CAP) to investigate the involvement of vagal afferents in food intake control and body weight regulation. In the first set of experiments, rats were offered increasing concentrations of sucrose (10-15-20-40%) in short-term feeding tests of 1 h. At the end, 10% was offered again to see whether CAP rats modified their intake after repeated...

  18. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  19. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  20. A Short Term Therapy Approach to Processing Trauma: Art Therapy and Bilateral Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Tally

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, short-term art therapy approach that has been developed for the treatment of trauma related disorders. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol with alternating tactile and auditory bilateral stimulation, associations are rapidly brought to conscious awareness and expressed in…

  1. Visual Short-Term Memory: Is Capacity Dependent on Complexity or Familiarity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Granlund, Rabia Line; Wiechmann, Maria;

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and Cavanag...

  2. Short term braking capability during power interruptions for integrated matrix converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    attractive. Sinusoidal input currents and bi-directional power flow are other advantages of the matrix converter, but it is less immune to power grid disturbances compared to a standard ASD. In hoisting applications, short-term braking capability during a power outage is needed until the mechanical brake...

  3. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  4. Short-Term Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Treatments Delivered at a University Counselling Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of psychotherapy delivered at the counselling service of the University of Bologna (Italy), by means of a single group longitudinal study including a 6-months follow-up. To this end, sixty-six students completed the 6-months follow-up and filled in the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) three times,…

  5. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, I.; Wingen, G.A. van; Urner, M.; Verkes, R.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  6. Short-Term Duloxetine Administration Affects Neural Correlates of Mood-Congruent Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Tendolkar; G. van Wingen; M. Urner; R.J. Verkes; G. Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  7. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography.

  8. Folk music style modelling by recurrent neural networks with long short term memory units

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Bob; Santos, João Felipe; Korshunova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate two generative models created by training a recurrent neural network (RNN) with three hidden layers of long short-term memory (LSTM) units. This extends past work in numerous directions, including training deeper models with nearly 24,000 high-level transcriptions of folk tunes. We discuss our on-going work.

  9. Role of very short-term intravenous hydrocortisone in reducing postdural puncture headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rabiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Very short-term use of IV hydrocortisone was found effective in reducing headache following spinal anesthesia. However, its clear mechanism of action is yet to be determined. Large-scale studies are recommended to consider the steroid therapy as a standard treatment for postdural puncture headache.

  10. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  11. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (protective) supervision; (b) A severely handicapped or special needs child whose care places undue stress on... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds...

  12. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  13. A Probabilistic Clustering Theory of the Organization of Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, A. Emin; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the content of a memory for even a simple display encoded in visual short-term memory (VSTM) can be very complex. VSTM uses organizational processes that make the representation of an item dependent on the feature values of all displayed items as well as on these items' representations. Here, we develop a…

  14. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  15. Experimental Study of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…

  16. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography

  17. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors. PMID:26745456

  18. Azerbaijan - Raising Rates : Short-Term Implications of Residential Electricity Tariff Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Tariffs are low in Azerbaijan and need to be raised to finance badly needed network maintenance and to balance supply and demand. This study presents an analysis of the short-term impacts of a 50 percent electricity tariff increase on residential consumers. The study starts by reviewing electricity tariffs, consumption levels, and expenditure patterns compared to neighboring countries. It ...

  19. Short-Term Auditory Memory of Above-Average and Below-Average Grade Three Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruk, Joan Marie

    To determine if performance on short term auditory memory tasks is influenced by reading ability or sex differences, 62 third grade reading students (16 above average boys, 16 above average girls, 16 below average boys, and 14 below average girls) were administered four memory tests--memory for consonant names, memory for words, memory for…

  20. Some analytical results pertaining to Cournot models for short-term electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Conejo, A.J.; Garcia-Bertrand, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This paper provides some theoretical results pertaining to the Cournot model applied to short-term electricity markets. Price, quantities and profits are first obtained, and then results related to sensitivities and limit values are derived and discussed. The cases of both several identical Cournot producers and one dominant Cournot producer are analyzed. A case example illustrates the results obtained. (author)

  1. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations is not...

  2. Short term power load forecasting using a modified generalized regression neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, K.S. [Tenaga National Univ. (Malaysia). Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering; Lim, C.P. [Sains Univ. (Malaysia). School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The importance of short-term load forecasting in the operation of power grids was discussed. The short-term time frame may consist of half hourly predictions up to monthly predictions. Accurate forecasting would benefit electric utilities in terms of grid reliability and stability and ensuring adequate supply to meet with the load demand. Short-term forecasting would also affect the financial performance of electric utilities. This paper presented short-term load forecasting experiments using a Modified Generalized Regression Neural Network (MGRNN) with modification by e-ILF. The experiments were based on power load data from Jan 1997 to Jan 1999 from the East Slovakian Electricity Corporation. According to simulation results, the MGRNN has comparable prediction accuracy to benchmark results archived by Support Vector Regression (SVR). One of the potential improvements of MGRNN is to use a non-quadratic loss function, such as one norm of e-ILF, to prevent the problem of noise data. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Short-Term PBL Education for Learning Skills of Microcomputer System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Shunsuke; Shirai, Yuji; Yuji, Jun-Ichiro; Inoue, Isao; Moriuchi, Tsutomu; Isogai, Masashi; Fujimoto, Yoichi

    The national colleges of technology in Kyushu area have offered some short term intensive programs for advanced course students called Summer Lecture every year. In this year, we also offered a Summer Lecture entitled 'Microcomputer System Engineering for Improving Skills of System Development'. In the present paper, some educational materials developed for the lecture and a educational method of PBL are described.

  4. Time Perspective and Identity Formation: Short-Term Longitudinal Dynamics in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Lens, Willy; Smits, Ilse; Goossens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Planning for the future and developing a personalized identity are conceived of as important developmental tasks that adolescents and emerging adults are confronted with on the pathway to adulthood. The present study set out to examine whether both tasks develop in tandem by using a short-term longitudinal dataset consisting of 371 college…

  5. Short-term mutagenicity test systems for investigating the genetic toxicity of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of short-term tests for mutagenicity/carcinogenicity as alternatives to the long-term animal feeding tests in the study of genetic toxicology of irradiated foods is discussed in this review. Results of local studies on the toxicological safety of irradiated foods are also presented. (author)

  6. Short-term impact of blue mussel dredging ( Mytilus edulis L.) on a benthic community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, T.; Christiansen, M.L.; Petersen, M.F.; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    The short-term effect of mussel dredging in a brackish Danish sound was studied. A commercial dredging track was identified and an analysis of the species composition inside the track and at an adjacent control area showed that dredging changed the community structure by reducing the density of p...

  7. Short-term solar irradiance and irradiation forecasts via different time series techniques: A preliminary study

    CERN Document Server

    Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Chaxel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This communication is devoted to solar irradiance and irradiation short-term forecasts, which are useful for electricity production. Several different time series approaches are employed. Our results and the corresponding numerical simulations show that techniques which do not need a large amount of historical data behave better than those which need them, especially when those data are quite noisy.

  8. Predicting the short-term risk of diabetes in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe Westring; Fontas, Eric; Weber, Rainer; De Wit, Stephane; Bruyand, Mathias; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Monforte, Antonella D'Arminio; Friis-Møller, Nina; Lundgren, Jens; Law, Matthew G; Pedersen, Court

    2012-01-01

    glucose-associated disorders among HIV-positive patients have been reported to range between 2 and 14%, and in an ageing HIV-positive population, the prevalence of DM is expected to continue to increase. This study aims to develop a model to predict the short-term (six-month) risk of DM in HIV...

  9. A Short-Term Grief and Loss Therapy Group: Group Members' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Paul L.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on an evaluative study of a short-term grief and loss therapy group (N=5) conducted at a university's counseling center. Examines brief group psychotherapy and grief-related factors. Student scores on a grief instrument showed mixed results, with most grief scores remaining stable or dropping. (RJM)

  10. Short-Term Memory for Time in Children and Adults: A Behavioral Study and a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John; Delgado-Yonger, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of the short-term retention of duration on temporal discrimination in 5- and 8-year-olds, as well as in adults, by using an episodic temporal generalization task. In each age group, the participants' task was to compare two successive durations (a standard and a comparison duration) separated by a retention…

  11. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  12. Making the Most of the "New" Study Abroad: Social Capital and the Short-Term Sojourn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Martha E.; Zirger, Megan L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of social capital during a short-term study abroad experience in a nontraditional setting. The authors employed ethnographic methodologies to examine the impact of social capital on students traveling to a small town in a developing nation. The analysis revealed that students capitalized on abundant networks available…

  13. The Durable Effects of Short-Term Programs on Student Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Caza, Arran

    2012-01-01

    Research involving students (N=612) at a large, research-extensive university who participated in voluntary short-term leadership programs showed an increase in leadership capacity, even when measured three months later. A popular assessment tool, the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS), was used. Not all leadership competency scores…

  14. Socially Responsible Leadership: The Role of Participation in Short-Term Service Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendall, Kristan Cilente

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between short-term service immersion programs (STSI), such as Alternative Spring Break (ASB), and socially responsible leadership as measured by the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS). Participation in STSI programs have been growing exponentially since 2006 (Bohn, 2009; Break…

  15. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, SPERM QUANTITY AND QUALITY AFTER SHORT-TERM STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin rat model suggest that sexual dysfunctions may result from diabetes-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-reproductive tract axis. Our investigation was performed to better define the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on ra...

  16. CETA/Education Linkages: A Look at Problems of Short-Term Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence J.; Baldwin, Fred D.

    This publication reports a Virginia study of the structure of local education divisions, community colleges, and other organizations capable of delivering service to Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) clients. Its purpose was to determine how short-term-funded projects can utilize facilities and personnel with minimum disruption to…

  17. Order Short-Term Memory Capacity Predicts Nonword Reading and Spelling in First and Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the…

  18. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  19. Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

  20. Short-term photoacclimation effects on photoinhibition of phytoplankton in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Garcon, Veronique; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether short-term photoacclimation responses of natural phytoplankton populations in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean) were affecting protection from photodamage as cells are mixed up to the surface from depth. To this end, we measured phytoplankton fluorescence characteristics and the

  1. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. PMID:26582557

  2. Short Term Auditory Pacing Changes Dual Motor Task Coordination in Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Mackenzie, Samuel J.; Marmon, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of short-term auditory pacing practice on dual motor task performance in children with and without dyslexia. Groups included dyslexic with Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) scores greater than 15th percentile (D_HIGH, n = 18; mean age 9.89 [plus or minus] 2.0 years), dyslexic with MABC [less than or…

  3. Business Students' Choice of Short-Term or Long-Term Study Abroad Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Stacey R.; Flanagan, David J.; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of short-term study abroad opportunities. Although they are both supplementing and replacing semester-long study abroad programs, research has focused primarily on semester (long-term) programs. We draw on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore factors that predict why students choose long-term and…

  4. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a…

  5. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…

  6. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  7. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  8. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  9. The Impact of Short-Term Economic Fluctuations on Kindergarten Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    For some 5-year-olds, delayed kindergarten enrollment may result in long-term academic benefits. Although waiting an additional year allows for further development prior to the start of formal education, the economic costs of the next best alternatives can be significant. This study examines the impact of short-term economic fluctuations on a…

  10. Clinical picture and risk prediction of short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lassus, Johan; Sionis, Alessandro;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical picture and outcome of cardiogenic shock and to develop a risk prediction score for short-term mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CardShock study was a multicentre, prospective, observational study conducted between 2010 and 2012. Patie...

  11. Biogeochemistry of terrestrial soils as influenced by short-term flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many upland soils in the US Midwest are temporally flooded during the spring. The effects of short-term flooding on the biogeochemical processes that occur in these soils are not fully understood and are the subject of this study. To evaluate these biogeochemical processes, we investigated the REDOX...

  12. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two...

  13. Short-Term Effects of State Deregulation on the Adequacy and Equity of School Facility Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Decman, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the Indiana Legislature deregulated state controls over public-school construction projects by reducing the status of required specifications to guidelines. Also, local taxpayers were given greater authority to prevent proposed projects. This study examines the short-term effects of this policy shift. (Contains 5 tables and 16…

  14. Short-Term Effects of a Writing Intervention among Adolescents in Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Nielsen, Ida Ingridsdatter; Kolltveit, Silje; Thabet, Abdel Aziz Mousa; Dyregrov, Atle; Pallesen, Stale; Johnsen, Tom Backer; Laberg, Jon Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a short-term group intervention titled Writing for Recovery in Gaza. Adolescents (N = 139) aged 12-17 were randomly assigned to an intervention or to a waiting list group. Levels of distress were assessed at baseline and at posttest. A follow-up assessment was conducted 5 months after both groups had received the…

  15. Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marttinen, Aino; Haukioja, Anna; Karjalainen, Sára;

    2011-01-01

    group. PCR analysis of plaque revealed the presence of LGG in four and L. reuteri in six subjects after the use of the probiotic. The use of the lactobacilli did not affect the acidogenicity or MS levels of plaque. Short-term consumption of LGG and L. reuteri appeared not to influence the acidogenicity...

  16. An Experiment on the Short-Term Effects of Engagement and Representation in Program Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Seppo; Sajaniemi, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    When visualization tools utilized in computer programming education have been evaluated empirically, the results have remained controversial. To address this problem, we have developed a model of short-term effects of program animation, and used it in a series of experiments. In the current experiment, we varied visual representation of an…

  17. Short-term action intentions overrule long-term semantic knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, M. van; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the preparation of an unusual action with an object (e.g. bringing a cup towards the eye) could selectively overrule long-term semantic representations. In the first experiment it was found that unusual action intentions activated short-term semantic goa

  18. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  19. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of bot

  20. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  1. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  2. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  3. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  4. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P.; Foster, Norman L.; Hoffman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25908614

  5. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  6. The Impact of International Internships and Short-Term Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    For students in U.S. higher education institutions, global learning through study abroad has become a powerful force in student cultural competence. This chapter explores the impact of international internships and other short-term immersion experiences in further developing student learning, especially with respect to their understanding of the…

  7. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, O.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-repor

  8. The right hippocampus participates in short-term memory maintenance of object-location associations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piekema, C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Mars, R.B.; Petersson, K.M.; Fernandez, G.

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been cast on the strict dissociation between short- and long-term memory systems. Specifically, several neuroimaging studies have shown that the medial temporal lobe, a region almost invariably associated with long-term memory, is involved in active short-term memory maintenance. Further

  9. The Role of Attention in the Maintenance of Feature Bindings in Visual Short-term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Hollingworth, Andrew; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in maintaining feature bindings in visual short-term memory. In a change-detection paradigm, participants attempted to detect changes in the colors and orientations of multiple objects; the changes consisted of new feature values in a feature-memory condition and changes in how existing feature values were…

  10. Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

  11. The influence of titanium dioxide additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the addition of 1% by weight of titanium dioxide fine particles to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term DC breakdown strength of the LDPE was investigated using direct and reverse polarity voltages. The samples used were cylinders of both plain and doped materials, with...

  12. Laparoscopic and open subtotal colectomies have similar short-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Froukje J.; Bosker, Robbert J. I.; Groen, Henk; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J. H. J.; Lamme, Bas; Pierie, Jean Pierre E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy (STC) is a complex procedure. It is possible that short-term benefits for segmental resections cannot be attributed to this complex procedure. This study aims to assess differences in shortterm results for laparoscopic versus open STC during a 15year singl

  13. Chapter 13. Short-term kinetics of soil microbial respiration - a general parameter across scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Kurbatova, J.A.; Shibistova, O.B.; Šmejkalová, M.; Uhlířová, Eva

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2005, s. 229-246. ISBN 978-1-4020-3446-6 Grant ostatní: Evropská unie(XE) EVK2-2002-00555 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : short-term kinetics * soil microbial respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. A follow-up study on short-term treatment of agoraphobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rijken; F. Kraaimaat; C. de Ruiter; B. Garssen

    1992-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of three treatment packages for agoraphobia was tested. Patients received one of three short-term treatments: Breathing Retraining and Cognitive Restructuring, graded Self-Exposure in vivo, or a combination of both. No differential effects were found between the treatm

  15. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Brent A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. Results A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. Conclusion The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to

  16. Short-term wind power prediction based on LSSVM–GSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A hybrid model is developed for short-term wind power prediction. • The model is based on LSSVM and gravitational search algorithm. • Gravitational search algorithm is used to optimize parameters of LSSVM. • Effect of different kernel function of LSSVM on wind power prediction is discussed. • Comparative studies show that prediction accuracy of wind power is improved. - Abstract: Wind power forecasting can improve the economical and technical integration of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Due to its intermittency and randomness, it is hard to forecast wind power accurately. For the purpose of utilizing wind power to the utmost extent, it is very important to make an accurate prediction of the output power of a wind farm under the premise of guaranteeing the security and the stability of the operation of the power system. In this paper, a hybrid model (LSSVM–GSA) based on the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is proposed to forecast the short-term wind power. As the kernel function and the related parameters of the LSSVM have a great influence on the performance of the prediction model, the paper establishes LSSVM model based on different kernel functions for short-term wind power prediction. And then an optimal kernel function is determined and the parameters of the LSSVM model are optimized by using GSA. Compared with the Back Propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model, the simulation results show that the hybrid LSSVM–GSA model based on exponential radial basis kernel function and GSA has higher accuracy for short-term wind power prediction. Therefore, the proposed LSSVM–GSA is a better model for short-term wind power prediction

  17. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. RESULTS: The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. CONCLUSION: We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  18. Assessment of highly active dune mobility in the medium, short and very short term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marina; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan J.; Román-Sierra, Jorge; Tsoar, Haim; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gómez-Pina, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    Dune activity or stability has usually been studied over long time periods; however, this may not reflect changes that occur in the short term, especially for highly active dunefields. Extreme wind conditions that are generated near the Strait of Gibraltar (SW Spain) have given rise to the transgressive Valdevaqueros dunefield. The current work focuses on analyzing the sand drift potential and the evolution of the dune profile in the medium term (months), the short term (days) and the very short term (hours). Topographic data, which were collected with a differential GPS, were interpreted from reconstructed empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The results showed that generally the dune profile presented shifting morphologies, especially around the crest and brink, and a trend towards migration to a gentler steady state. As a result, the leeward side adopted continuous slope variations during the different survey periods, whereas the windward slope did not undergo any significant change. Lateral and vertical displacements were analyzed during a severe easterly sandstorm, when the dune brink experienced an advance migration rate of 1.75 m in 24 h. Sand transport rates of 25.5-36.5 m 3 m - 1 month - 1 , 22.52 m 3 m - 1 day - 1 and 0.93 m 3 m - 1 h - 1 were measured for the medium term, short term and very short term, respectively. These values were compared to the theoretical sand transport rate for Valdevaqueros dune, based on the classic Bagnold equation as well other more recent formulae, to obtain a ratio between the real and the theoretical rates for each study period. These results together with the sand drift potential (up to 10,000 vector units) demonstrate that Valdevaqueros (Tarifa) is a dunefield with one of the highest sand transport capacities in Europe.

  19. Short-term immunosuppressive therapy does not affect the density of the pre-existing bone around titanium implants placed in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Poliana Mendes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the administration and withdrawal of cyclosporin A/nifedipine on the bone density in a lateral area adjacent to implants placed in rabbits. Two screw-type titanium implants were placed bilaterally in twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits. The animals were assigned to one of the following groups and received daily subcutaneous injections for 14 days: Groups A and C: vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; Groups B and D: CsA (10 mg/kg plus nifedipine (50 mg/kg. The animals in Groups A and B were sacrificed 14 days postoperatively and, in Groups C and D, 42 days postoperatively. After sacrifice, the tibiae were removed and undecalcified sections were obtained. Bone density was obtained in a 500 mm-wide zone lateral to the implant surface. Intergroup analysis showed no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the degree of bone density between control and test groups either on day 14 or on day 42. Thus, it appears that a short-term immunosuppressive therapy may not present a negative influence on the density of the pre-existing bone around titanium implants placed in rabbits.

  20. Concomitant administration of cyclosporin and ketoconazole in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, M R; Schroeder, T J; Weiskittel, P; Myre, S A; Alexander, J W; Pesce, A J

    1989-11-18

    18 renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporin, prednisone, and azathioprine were given ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system. Within a month ketoconazole-induced blockade of cyclosporin metabolism allowed a significant reduction (451 vs 106 mg/day; 77%) of the mean dose of cyclosporin without altering cyclosporin whole blood trough levels, although maximum blood levels were almost halved. This dose reduction was maintained in patients followed up for up to 13 months. Renal and hepatic function were unchanged after the addition of ketoconazole. This drug interaction has the potential to reduce dramatically expenditure on cyclosporin in transplant recipients. PMID:2572912

  1. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork in the Treatment of Experienced Physical Illness and Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the treatment effect of psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients who presented with physical illness at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen. Psychodynamic short-term therapy was complemented with bodywork (Marion Rosen to help patients confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma(s. Patients were measured with a five-item quality of life and health questionnaire (QOL5, a one-item questionnaire of self-assessed quality of life (QOL1, and four questions on self-rated ability to love and to function sexually, socially, and at work (ability to sustain a full-time job. Most of the patients had chronic pain that could not be alleviated with drugs. Results showed that 31 patients with the experience of being severely physically ill (mostly from chronic pain, in spite of having consulted their own general practitioner, entered the study. The holistic approach and body therapy accelerated the therapy dramatically and no significant side effects were detected. After the intervention, 38.7% did not feel ill (1.73 < NNT < 4.58 (p = 0.05. Psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork can help patients. When the patients responded to the therapy, the self-assessed mental health, relationship with partner, ability to work, self-assessed quality of life, relationships in general, measured QOL (with the validated questionnaire QOL5, and life's total state (mean of health, QOL and ability were significantly improved, statistically and clinically. Most importantly, all aspects of life were improved simultaneously, due to induction of Antonovsky-salutogenesis. The patients received in average 20 sessions over 14 months at a cost of 1600 EURO. For the treatment responders, the treatment seemingly provided lasting benefits.

  2. Impact of the auxin signaling inhibitor p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid on short-term Cd-induced hydrogen peroxide production and growth response in barley root tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Ladislav; Bočová, Beáta; Huttová, Jana; Liptáková, Ľubica; Mistrík, Igor; Valentovičová, Katarína; Zelinová, Veronika

    2012-09-15

    Short-term treatment (30 min) of barley roots with a low 10 μM Cd concentration induced significant H(2)O(2) production in the elongation and differentiation zone of the root tip 3h after treatment. This elevated H(2)O(2) production was accompanied by root growth inhibition and probably invoked root swelling in the elongation zone of the root tip. By contrast, a high 60 μM Cd concentration induced robust H(2)O(2) production in the elongation zone of the root tip already 1h after short-term treatment. This robust H(2)O(2) generation caused extensive cell death 6 h after short-term treatment. Similarly to low Cd concentration, exogenously applied H(2)O(2) caused marked root growth inhibition, which at lower H(2)O(2) concentration was accompanied by root swelling. The auxin signaling inhibitor p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid effectively inhibited 10 μM Cd-induced root growth inhibition, H(2)O(2) production and root swelling, but was ineffective in the alleviation of 60 μM Cd-induced root growth inhibition and H(2)O(2) production. Our results demonstrated that Cd-induced mild oxidative stress caused root growth inhibition, likely trough the rapid reorientation of cell growth in which a crucial role was played by IAA signaling in the root tip. Strong oxidative stress induced by high Cd concentration caused extensive cell death in the elongation zone of the root tip, resulting in the cessation of root growth or even in root death. PMID:22795748

  3. Nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin A and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT and sodium) were followed for 22 h or 8 days after intravenous injection of diatrizoate, iohexol or saline in 30 adult Wistar rats in which nephrotoxicity was induced by daily peroral administration of 25 mg/kg body weight cyclosporin A over a 14-day period. Another 10 rats which had the vehicle of the cyclosporin A solution (placebo) and saline injected intravenously served as controls. The effect of iohexol and saline on the albumin excretion was similar, whereas diatrizoate increased it significantly. Both contrast media caused significantly increased excretion of all three enzymes. The contrast media had no effect on the excretion of glucose and sodium. Except for the fact that the excretion of NAG was significantly higher following iohexol than following diatrizoate 24 to 46 h after injection no significant differences between the two media were found from 24 h after injection among the rats given cyclosporin A. No contrast medium related changes were found by light microscopy of the kidneys. Neither iohexol nor diatrizoate potentiate acute cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  4. 'EMU equity markets' return variance and spill over effects from short-term interest rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun

    2013-01-01

    The DCF (Discounted Cash flow) Model provides the theoretical background for the possible impact of interest rate changes on equity prices. This paper examines the spillover effects from the movement of short term interest rates to equity markets within the Euro area. The empirical study is carried......), stock returns have a negative relationship with the volatility, and the volatility process responds asymmetrically to shocks to equity returns, especially to bad news. The other regime (a bull market regime) appears to be a high mean, low variance state, within which the returns have a positive...... relationship with the volatility, and the volatility is lower and more persistent. We find also that there is a significant impact of fluctuations in the short term interest rate on the conditional variance and conditional returns in the EMU countries. Such impact is asymmetrical, and it appears to be stronger...

  5. Neuroevolution Results in Emergence of Short-Term Memory for Goal-Directed Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhman, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Animals behave adaptively in the environment with multiply competing goals. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying such goal-directed behavior remains a challenge for neuroscience as well for adaptive system research. To address this problem we developed an evolutionary model of adaptive behavior in the multigoal stochastic environment. Proposed neuroevolutionary algorithm is based on neuron's duplication as a basic mechanism of agent's recurrent neural network development. Results of simulation demonstrate that in the course of evolution agents acquire the ability to store the short-term memory and, therefore, use it in behavioral strategies with alternative actions. We found that evolution discovered two mechanisms for short-term memory. The first mechanism is integration of sensory signals and ongoing internal neural activity, resulting in emergence of cell groups specialized on alternative actions. And the second mechanism is slow neurodynamical processes that makes possible to code the previous behav...

  6. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Water Consumption Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An approach for short-term forecasting of municipal water consumption was presented based on the largest Lyapunov exponent of chaos theory. The chaotic characteristics of time series of urban water consumption were examined by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. By using the largest Lyapunov exponent a short-term forecasting model for urban water consumption was developed, which was compared with the artificial neural network (ANN) approach in a case study. The result indicates that the model based on the largest Lyapunov exponent has higher prediction precision and forecasting stability than the ANN method, and its forecasting mean relative error is 9.6% within its maximum predictable time scale while it is 60.6% beyond the scale.

  7. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey - III. Short-term variability monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Marinoni, S; Altavilla, G; Bellazzini, M; Galleti, S; Tessicini, G; Valentini, G; Cocozza, G; Ragaini, S; Braga, V; Bragaglia, A; Federici, L; Schuster, W J; Carrasco, J M; Castro, A; Figueras, F; Jordi, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the short-term constancy monitoring of candidate Gaia Spectrophotometric Standard Stars (SPSS). We obtained time series of typically 1.24 hour - with sampling periods from 1-3 min to a few hours, depending on the case - to monitor the constancy of our candidate SPSS down to 10 mmag, as required for the calibration of Gaia photometric data. We monitored 162 out of a total of 212 SPSS candidates. The observing campaign started in 2006 and finished in 2015, using 143 observing nights on nine different instruments covering both hemispheres. Using differential photometry techniques, we built light curves with a typical precision of 4 mmag, depending on the data quality. As a result of our constancy assessment, 150 SPSS candidates were validated against short term variability, and only 12 were rejected because of variability including some widely used flux standards such as BD+174708, SA 105-448, 1740346, and HD 37725.

  8. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. PMID:25819288

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Partap Singh Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg, guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg, and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA in equines under field conditions.

  10. Integration of real options into short-term mine planning and production scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xing; KNIGHTS Peter

    2009-01-01

    Commodity prices have fallen sharply due to the global financial crisis. This has adversely affected the viability of some mining projects, including leading to the possibility of bankruptcy for some companies. These price falls reflect uncertainties and risks associated with mining projects. In recent years, much work has been published related to the application of real options pric-ing theory to value life-of-mine plans in response to long term financial uncertainty and risk. However, there are uncertainties and risks associated with medium/short-term mining operations. Real options theory can also be applied to tactical decisions involving uncertainties and risks. This paper will investigate the application of real options in the mining industry and present a methodology developed at University of Queensland, Australia, for integrating real options into medium/short-term mine planning and produc-tion scheduling. A case study will demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the methodology and techniques developed.

  11. Short term variations in Jupiter's synchrotron radiation derived from VLA data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.

    2011-12-01

    Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (JSR) is the emission from relativistic electrons in the strong magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere, and it is the most effective prove for remote sensing of Jupiter's radiation belt from the Earth. Although JSR has been thought to be stable for a long time, intensive observations for JSR have made after the collisions of comet P/SL9 to Jupiter in 1994, and these observations revealed short term variations of JSR on time scale of days to weeks. However, the mechanisms which cause the short term variations of total flux density and brightness distribution have not been revealed well. In order to reveal the mechanism of short term variations of JSR more precisely, we have made radio image analysis using the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) archived data of the VLA [*]. Brice and McDonough [1973, Icarus] proposed a scenario for the short term variations: i.e, the solar UV/EUV heating for Jupiter's upper atmosphere drives neutral wind perturbations and then the induced dynamo electric field leads to enhancement of radial diffusion. It is also suggested that induced dynamo electric field produce dawn-dusk electric potential difference, which cause dawn-dusk asymmetry in electron spatial distribution and emission distribution. So far the following results have been indicated for the short term variations. Miyoshi et al. [1999, GRL] showed that a short term variation event at 2.3GHz is well correlate to solar UV/EUV flux variations. Tsuchiya et al. [2010, Adv. Geosci.] showed that JSR at 325MHz and 785MHz have short term variations. These JSR observations confirmed the existence of the short term variation which is caused by solar UV/EUV. However, the effect of solar UV/EUV heating on the spatial distribution of JSR has never been confirmed, so this study is the first attempt to confirm the solar UV/EUV effect on spatial distribution of JSR. We have selected the data observed from 28th Jan. to 5th Feb. 2000 at 327MHz

  12. Short-term aluminium-induced changes in barley root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinová, Veronika; Halušková, Lubica; Huttová, Jana; Illéš, Peter; Mistrík, Igor; Valentovičová, Katarína; Tamás, Ladislav

    2011-07-01

    The short-term exposure of barley roots to low Al concentration caused significant root growth inhibition and radial swelling of roots. During Al treatment, the radial expansion of root cells occurred in root tissues representing elongation zone and meristem. Both low pH and Al treatments caused significant disruption of cell membranes in swollen roots. In contrast to Evans blue uptake callose formation was observed only at higher Al concentrations and was detected in both swollen and adjacent root areas. Similarly to Al, exogenous short-term application of indole-3-acetic acid, polar transport inhibitor triiodobenzoic acid, ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid or H(2)O(2) evoked root growth inhibition and radial cell expansion in barley root tip too. PMID:20734093

  13. Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Pipa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory requires the coordination of sub-processes like encoding, retention, retrieval and comparison of stored material to subsequent input. Neuronal oscillations have an inherent time structure, can effectively coordinate synaptic integration of large neuron populations and could therefore organize and integrate distributed sub-processes in time and space. We observed field potential oscillations (14-95Hz in ventral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a visual memory task. Stimulus-selective and performance-dependent oscillations occurred simultaneously at 65-95Hz and 14-50Hz, the latter being phase-locked throughout memory maintenance. We propose that prefrontal oscillatory activity may be instrumental for the dynamical integration of local and global neuronal processes underlying short-term memory.

  14. Short-Term Effect of Prosthesis Transforming Sensory Modalities on Walking in Stroke Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Honda, Keita; Ishiguro, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairments caused by neurological or physical disorders hamper kinesthesia, making rehabilitation difficult. In order to overcome this problem, we proposed and developed a novel biofeedback prosthesis called Auditory Foot for transforming sensory modalities, in which the sensor prosthesis transforms plantar sensations to auditory feedback signals. This study investigated the short-term effect of the auditory feedback prosthesis on walking in stroke patients with hemiparesis. To evaluate the effect, we compared four conditions of auditory feedback from plantar sensors at the heel and fifth metatarsal. We found significant differences in the maximum hip extension angle and ankle plantar flexor moment on the affected side during the stance phase, between conditions with and without auditory feedback signals. These results indicate that our sensory prosthesis could enhance walking performance in stroke patients with hemiparesis, resulting in effective short-term rehabilitation. PMID:27547456

  15. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated by cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data is required for stable results of the spectral analysis. However, the phase lag between responses, in terms of the phase angle of...... the cross-spectra, has not been discussed in detail. Using long stationary time series, the transition of amplitudes and relative phase angles of the cross-spectra has been investigated by iterative analyzes with a few seconds of time shifting. In the results, the short-term variability of the...... relative phase angle was observed. In effect, the variability may compromise the accuracy of the wave buoy analogy....

  16. Effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient psychotherapy unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy in heterogeneous patient groups is common in the public Danish psychiatric system but is in need of evaluation. AIM: To investigate improvement in 39-session psychodynamic group therapy using three criteria: 1) effect size (Cohen's d), 2...... the neurotic to 42.9% of the depressed patients). CONCLUSION: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy is associated with medium to large or large effect sizes. However, even though many of the patients reliably improve, a substantial part of the patients are still, after therapy, within the...... subscales. Analyses were conducted on the total sample and after exclusion of 32 GSI pre-treatment no-cases. RESULTS: The total sample GSI effect size was 0.74 indicating a moderate to large effect size (ranging from 0.67 in depressed to 0.74 in neurotic and personality disorder patients), which increased...

  17. Solar activity, geomagnetic perturbations and Vrancea (Romania) earthquake short-term predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the main results of applying the electromagnetic method for the short- term prediction of Vrancea earthquakes. The results are based on electromagnetic records made at Muntele Rosu Geophysical Observatory in Romania during the period December 1997 to July 2003. The paper highlights the importance as a precursor factor of the magnetic impedance BZ/BX, where BZ is the vertical component of the geomagnetic flux density and BX its horizontal component. The time variation of BZ/BX is closely examined in correlation with Vrancea seismic activity. The variations are compared to the geomagnetic perturbation of Ak > 20 (magnetic storms) that are generated by solar activity. Relations between these three factors, i.e. the BZ/BX ratio, magnetic storms, and Vrancea seismic activity are seen to combine into five distinct situations. The feasibility and difficulties of using the electromagnetic method for the short-term prediction of Vrancea earthquakes are examined in the final section. (authors)

  18. Temperature propagation in prismatic lithium-ion-cells after short term thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Pamina; Liebig, Gerd; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a 3D model based on the thermal material characteristics of an automotive prismatic Li-NiMnCoO2 (NMC) cell was created in COMSOL Multiphysics® in order to simulate the temperature propagation in the cell during short term thermal stress. The thermal characteristics of the battery components were experimentally determined via laser flash analysis (LFA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and used as an input parameter for the models. In order to validate the modelling approach, an experimental setup was built to measure the temperature propagation during thermal stresses within a dummy cell, equipped with temperature sensors. After validating, the model is used to describe the temperature propagation after a short-term temperature stress on automotive prismatic lithium-ion cells, simulating welding of the contact leads.

  19. Different methods and software tools for short-term prediction of wind energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Hussein [Wind Energy TechnoCentre (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the different methods and software tools used for short-term prediction of wind energy production. Forecasts of the production of wind farms are important for a variety of reasons, especially to guarantee security of supply of the power system. There are two types of short-term predictions, physical and statistical. Physical methods use physical considerations before using model output statistics to reduce error, while statistical methods, using recursive techniques, tries to find relationships between measured results. The different types of physical and statistical models and their performance factors are discussed in detail. There are models that use both physical and statistical considerations and these are called combined models. The different wind power forecasting tools available in the market are also mentioned. It can be concluded that there are several operational tools available to meet the diversity of end-user requirements. Further investments on wind installations should provide security of supply, lower financial risks and higher acceptability.

  20. The base-scale entropy analysis of short-term heart rate variability signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin; NING Xinbao

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of heart rate variability (HRV) signal can reflect physiological functions and healthy status of heart system. Detecting complexity of the short-term HRV signal has an important practical meaning. We introduce the base-scale entropy method to analyze the complexity of time series. The advantages of our method are its simplicity, extremely fast calculation for very short data and anti-noise characteristic. For the well-known chaotic dynamical system―logistic map, it is shown that our complexity behaves similarly to Lyapunov exponents, and is especially effective in the presence of random Gaussian noise. This paper addresses the use of base-scale entropy method to 3 low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic systems. At last, we apply this idea to short-term HRV signal, and the result shows the method could robustly identify patterns generated from healthy and pathologic states, as well as aging. The base-scale entropy can provide convenience in practically applications.

  1. Interaction of short-term depression and firing dynamics in shaping single neuron encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh eMohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how the two properties short-term synaptic depression of afferent input and postsynaptic firing dynamics combine to determine the operating mode of a neuron. While several computational roles have been ascribed to either, their interaction has not been studied. We considered two types of short-term synaptic dynamics (release-dependent and release-independent depression and two classes of firing dynamics (regular firing and firing with spike-frequency adaptation. The input-output transformation of the four possible combinations of pre- and postsynaptic dynamics was characterized. Adapting neurons receiving input from release-dependent synapses functioned largely as coincidence detectors. The other three configurations showed properties consistent with integrators, each with distinct features. These results suggest that the operating mode of a neuron is determined by both the pre- and postsynaptic dynamics and that studying them together is necessary to understand emergent properties and their implications for neuronal coding.

  2. Application of autocorrelation method on ionospheric short-term forecasting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ruiyuan; LIU Shunlin; XU Zhonghua; WU Jian; WANG Xianyi; ZHANG Beichen; HU Hongqiao

    2006-01-01

    Adopting the autocorrelation method in the ionospheric short-term forecasting, we put forward a simple and practical forecasting method―the sectional autocorrelation method, that is, for predictions of one hour to four hours ahead the autocorrelation coefficient of RDF with the "iteration" method is selected, for prediction of more than four hours ahead, the autocorrelation coefficient of f0F2 with the "at once" method is used. The prediction precisions have been quantitatively estimated based on the data from Chongqing and Guangzhou Ionosonde Stations. It is shown that the method is much improved for the predictions of one hour to four hours ahead. For the predictions of more than four hours ahead the prediction error reaches a saturation value, which is still lower than that of the "median" method. This new method could also be applied to the short-term forecasting of other ionospheric parameters.

  3. Short-term probabilistic earthquake risk assessment considering time-dependent b values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Laura; Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Herrmann, Marcus; Seif, Stefanie

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory experiments highlight a systematic b value decrease during the stress increase period before failure, and some large natural events are known to show a precursory decrease in the b value. However, short-term forecast models currently consider only the generic probability that an event can trigger subsequent seismicity in the near field. While the probability increase over a stationary Poissonian background is substantial, selected case studies have shown through cost-benefit analysis that the absolute main shock probability remains too low to warrant significant mitigation actions. We analyze the probabilities considering both changes in the seismicity rates and temporal changes in the b value. The precursory b value decrease in the 2009 L'Aquila case results in an additional fiftyfold probability increase for a M6.3 event. Translated into time-varying hazard and risk, these changes surpass the cost-benefit threshold for short-term evacuation.

  4. Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD. Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.

  5. Mercury simulations within GMOS: Analysis of short-term observational episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travnikov O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of contemporary chemical transport models for mercury are applied within the framework of the EU GMOS project to study principal processes of mercury transport and transformations in the atmosphere. Each model is involved in simulation of short-term episodes corresponding to particular Hg measurement campaigns in Europe and other regions. In order to evaluate different physical and chemical mechanisms the models perform sensitivity runs with various parameterizations and/or combinations of considered processes. The modeling results are compared to detailed measurements of Hg species (Hg0/TGM, RGM, HgP with high temporal resolution (hours aiming at reproduction of short-term temporal variability of Hg air concentration.

  6. The role of past performance in export ventures: a short-term reactive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Filipe Lages; Sandy D. Jap; David A Griffith

    2008-01-01

    This paper employs organizational learning theory to examine the short-term effect of past export performance, and internal (management) and external (market) forces on marketing strategy adaptation and current export performance. Results from a survey of over 500 export managers indicate that current-period performance improvement (in terms of performance achievement, export intensity, and performance satisfaction in the current year) is influenced by the firm's commitment to exporting. Furt...

  7. Head-content or headcount? Short-term skilled labour movements as a source of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes a theoretical model to study the effects of short-term movements of skilled labour on a country's economic growth. As traditional migration models emphasise the long-term effects of migration on factor endowments, they typically omit the analysis of gross labour flows. Gross flows however capture the volume of interactions and knowledge exchanges between workers living in different countries, which in turn affect the stock of knowledge available to their places of resid...

  8. Short-Term Prognostic Index for Breast Cancer: NPI or Lpi

    OpenAIRE

    Van Belle, V.; Decock, J; Hendrickx, W.; Brouckaert, O.; Pintens, S.; Moerman, P; Wildiers, H; Paridaens, R.; M. R. Christiaens; Van Huffel, S.; Neven, P.

    2011-01-01

    Axillary lymph node involvement is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer survival but is confounded by the number of nodes examined. We compare the performance of the log odds prognostic index (Lpi), using a ratio of the positive versus negative lymph nodes, with the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) for short-term breast cancer specific disease free survival. A total of 1818 operable breast cancer patients treated in the University Hospital of Leuven between 2000 and 2005 were ...

  9. Short term global health experiences and local partnership models: a framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence C. Loh; Cherniak, William; Dreifuss, Bradley A.; Dacso, Matthew M.; Lin, Henry C.; Evert, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary interest in in short-term experiences in global health (STEGH) has led to important questions of ethics, responsibility, and potential harms to receiving communities. In addressing these issues, the role of local engagement through partnerships between external STEGH facilitating organization(s) and internal community organization(s) has been identified as crucial to mitigating potential pitfalls. This perspective piece offers a framework to categorize different models of local e...

  10. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  11. The IEA Model of Short-Term Energy Security (MOSES): Primary Energy Sources and Secondary Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Jewell

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES...

  12. Monetary policy when the nominal short-term interest rate is zero

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Clouse; Dale W. Henderson; Athanasios Orphanides; Small, David H.; Peter A. Tinsley

    2000-01-01

    In an environment of low inflation, the Federal Reserve faces the risk that it has not provided enough monetary stimulus even when it has pushed the short-term nominal interest rate to its lower bound of zero. Assuming the nominal Treasury-bill rate has been lowered to zero, this paper considers whether further open market purchases of Treasury bills could spur aggregate demand through increases in the monetary base that may stimulate aggregate demand by increasing liquidity for financial int...

  13. Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Alexandra S.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermot (DRM) paradigm have demonstrated that episodic memory is vulnerable to semantic distortion, and neuroimaging investigations of this phenomenon have shown dissociations between the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term memories have also been demonstrated, with false recognition of items related in meaning to memoranda encoded less than 5 seconds earlier. Semantic interferenc...

  14. Real short-term interest rates and expected inflation: Measurement and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Ricketts

    1996-01-01

    This article compares different measures of real short-term interest rates for Canada over the period from 1956 to 1995. A new measure for the expected real interest rate is constructed using a proxy for inflation expectations that is based on the properties of past inflation. The history of inflation in Canada suggests that the characteristics of inflation have changed considerably over time. Past inflation can be characterized by three different types of behaviour: an environment in which a...

  15. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  16. Least Square Regression Based Integrated Multi-Parameteric Demand Modeling for Short Term Load Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Ahmed Halepoto; Muhammad Aslam Uqaili; Bhawani Shanker Chowdhry

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, due to power crisis, electricity demand forecasting is deemed an important area for socioeconomic development and proper anticipation of the load forecasting is considered essential step towards efficient power system operation, scheduling and planning. In this paper, we present STLF (Short Term Load Forecasting) using multiple regression techniques (i.e. linear, multiple linear, quadratic and exponential) by considering hour by hour load model based on specific targeted day approac...

  17. Short-term effect of ozone on the pulmonary function of children in primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P C; Lai, Y M; Chan, C.C.; Hwang, J. S.; Yang, C Y; Wang, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. We sampled 941 children in primary school in three communities in Taiwan (Sanchun, Taihsi, and Linyuan). The nearby stations of the Taiwan air quality monitoring network provided the hourly ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter < or = to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen dioxide. Spirometry was perf...

  18. Short-term Outcome of Open Appendectomy in Southern Iran: A Single Center Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Bolandparvaz; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Hamid Reza Abbasi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Alireza Manafi; Parisa Javidi Parsijani; Shahram Paydar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the short-term outcome of open appendectomy, the rate of negative appendectomy as well as pathology reports after surgery in patients with suspected acute appendicitis.Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study being performed in Nemazee hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Science during a 2-year period between 2008 and 2010. The medical records of all consecutive patients who underwent open appendectomy in our center due to acute appendi...

  19. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farhood, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study in...

  20. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tendolkar, Indira -; van Wingen, Guido A.; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    International audience It is unknown how antidepressants reverse a mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor Duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine di...

  1. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract It is unknown how antidepressants reverse a mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor Duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine d...

  2. Short-Term Duloxetine Administration Affects Neural Correlates of Mood-Congruent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Jan Verkes, Robbert; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine did not affect acute mood sta...

  3. Classifying Relations via Long Short Term Memory Networks along Shortest Dependency Path

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xu; Mou, Lili; Li, Ge; Chen, Yunchuan; Peng, Hao; Jin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Relation classification is an important research arena in the field of natural language processing (NLP). In this paper, we present SDP-LSTM, a novel neural network to classify the relation of two entities in a sentence. Our neural architecture leverages the shortest dependency path (SDP) between two entities; multichannel recurrent neural networks, with long short term memory (LSTM) units, pick up heterogeneous information along the SDP. Our proposed model has several distinct features: (1) ...

  4. Applying long short-term memory recurrent neural networks to intrusion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf C. Staudemeyer

    2015-01-01

    We claim that modelling network traffic as a time series with a supervised learning approach, using known genuine and malicious behaviour, improves intrusion detection. To substantiate this, we trained long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks with the training data provided by the DARPA / KDD Cup ’99 challenge. To identify suitable LSTM-RNN network parameters and structure we experimented with various network topologies. We found networks with four memory blocks containing ...

  5. Audiovisual classification of vocal outbursts in human conversation using long-short-term memory networks

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eyben; Petridis, S.; Schuller, Björn; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We investigate classification of non-linguistic vocalisations with a novel audiovisual approach and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks as highly successful dynamic sequence classifiers. As database of evaluation serves this year's Paralinguistic Challenge's Audiovisual Interest Corpus of human-to-human natural conversation. For video-based analysis we compare shape and appearance based features. These are fused in an early manner with typical audio descriptors. The result...

  6. Improved Semantic Representations From Tree-Structured Long Short-Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Kai Sheng; Socher, Richard; Manning, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their superior ability to preserve sequence information over time, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks, a type of recurrent neural network with a more complex computational unit, have obtained strong results on a variety of sequence modeling tasks. The only underlying LSTM structure that has been explored so far is a linear chain. However, natural language exhibits syntactic properties that would naturally combine words to phrases. We introduce the Tree-LSTM, a generalization of...

  7. Long Short-Term Memory Based Recurrent Neural Network Architectures for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    SAK, Haşim; Senior, Andrew; Beaufays, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is a recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture that has been designed to address the vanishing and exploding gradient problems of conventional RNNs. Unlike feedforward neural networks, RNNs have cyclic connections making them powerful for modeling sequences. They have been successfully used for sequence labeling and sequence prediction tasks, such as handwriting recognition, language modeling, phonetic labeling of acoustic frames. However, in contrast to the de...

  8. Constructing Long Short-Term Memory based Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangang; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    Long short-term memory (LSTM) based acoustic modeling methods have recently been shown to give state-of-the-art performance on some speech recognition tasks. To achieve a further performance improvement, in this research, deep extensions on LSTM are investigated considering that deep hierarchical model has turned out to be more efficient than a shallow one. Motivated by previous research on constructing deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs), alternative deep LSTM architectures are proposed an...

  9. Semantic Object Parsing with Local-Global Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xiaodan; Shen, Xiaohui; Xiang, Donglai; Feng, Jiashi; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-01-01

    Semantic object parsing is a fundamental task for understanding objects in detail in computer vision community, where incorporating multi-level contextual information is critical for achieving such fine-grained pixel-level recognition. Prior methods often leverage the contextual information through post-processing predicted confidence maps. In this work, we propose a novel deep Local-Global Long Short-Term Memory (LG-LSTM) architecture to seamlessly incorporate short-distance and long-distanc...

  10. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa), oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus), velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of ...

  11. The Correlation between Long-Term Productivity and Short-Term Performance Ratings of Harvester Operators

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Human operators are key determinants of the performance of most production systems, so individual performance is of intrinsic interest when evaluating current and proposed systems for forest operations. Such evaluations can be useful for diverse purposes, for instance, planning, incentive-setting, control and costing. Hence, various evaluation methods have been developed, all with pros and cons. Here, we compare subjective, short-term ratings of the work-related behavior of 12 harvester opera...

  12. Discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability measures for CHF assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the discrimination power of short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for discriminating normal subjects versus Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) patients. We analyzed 1,914.40 hours of ECG of 83 patients of which 54 are normal and 29 are suffering from CHF with New York Heart Classification (NYHA) I, II, III, extracted by public databases. Following guidelines, we performed time and frequency analysis in order to measure HRV features. To assess the discrimination power...

  13. Short term hydrothermal scheduling via improved honey-bee mating optimization algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    hamed baradaran tavakoli; babak mozafari

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach for solving short term hydrothermal scheduling problem is suggested, to minimize the total production cost and to produce electrical energy in an optimized way, by using honey-bee mating optimization algorithm. In the proposed method, lots of the hydrothermal system constraints such as power balance, water balance, time delay between reservoirs, volume limits and the operation limits of hydro and thermal plants, are considered. Therefore, the problem of short ter...

  14. Three Revised Kalman Filtering Models for Short-Term Rail Transit Passenger Flow Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Pengpeng Jiao; Ruimin Li; Tuo Sun; Zenghao Hou; Amir Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Short-term prediction of passenger flow is very important for the operation and management of a rail transit system. Based on the traditional Kalman filtering method, this paper puts forward three revised models for real-time passenger flow forecasting. First, the paper introduces the historical prediction error into the measurement equation and formulates a revised Kalman filtering model based on error correction coefficient (KF-ECC). Second, this paper employs the deviation between real-tim...

  15. Analysis of Short-Term Steel Corrosion Products Formed in Tropical Marine Environments of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Jaén; Josefina Iglesias; Cecilio Hernández

    2012-01-01

    A low-carbon steel A-36 and two conventional weathering steels A-588 and COR-420 exposed at four atmospheric test stations located in (i) Tocumen, an urban site near the Pacific Ocean, (ii) Sherman-Open, (iii) Sherman-Coastal, and (iv) Sherman-Breakwater on the Caribbean coast of Panama. Kinetics of the short-term atmospheric corrosion process and the relationship with exposure time and environmental characteristics of each site were investigated. The atmospheric exposure conditions, particul...

  16. Short-term investments in agriculture: Is there a gender bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagowalia, P.; Chen, S; Shively, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Most developing countries strive to improve agricultural productivity by relaxing credit constraints, supplying better inputs, improving marketing and distribution. However the efficacy of these reforms needs to be examined in the context of the behavioral responses of farming households. This study examines gender biases within households that affect short-term input allocation decisions in agriculture. The study utilizes data from ICRISAT's village level studies in India (1975-85) to highli...

  17. Survival analysis to estimate association between short-term mortality and air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Lepeule, Johanna; Rondeau, Virginie; Filleul, Laurent; Dartigues, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ecologic studies are commonly used to report associations between short-term air pollution and mortality. In such studies, the unit of observation is the day rather than the individual. Moreover, individual data on the subjects are rarely available, which limits the assessment of individual risk factors. These associations can also be investigated using case-crossover studies. However, by definition, individual risk factors are not studied, and such studies analyze only dead subje...

  18. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  19. Neurocognition, psychopathology, and subjective disturbances in schizophrenia: a comparison between short-term and remitted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Corigliano, Valentina; Romano, Silvia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Roberto; Tamorri, Stefano; Curto, Martina; Tatarelli, Roberto; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present deficits in multiple domains of cognition. The study of the relationship between cognitive performance and symptoms of schizophrenia has yielded heterogeneous results. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent of the relationship between psychopathologic symptoms, cognitive function, and subjective disturbances in a group of patients affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to compare short-term with remitted patients. Seventy-nine patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were assessed through the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire, and a neuropsychologic battery exploring the 7 Measurement and Treatment Research to improve Cognition in Schizophrenia cognitive domains (speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition) plus executive control. Neuropsychologic and psychopathologic variables were compared and correlated. Treatment groups did not differ in neuropsychologic and psychopathologic measures. The cognitive factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale correlated with worse performance on cognitive tasks and with higher scores on the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire 24 in the short-term, remitted, and combined groups. Subjective disturbances correlated with impaired executive control, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition but not during the short-term phase. Both "objective" and subjective psychopathology are intertwined with cognitive function, suggesting some common underlying neural bases. The condition of being in a short-term or a remitted phase of the illness influences this interrelationship, regardless of the type of antipsychotic medication taken. PMID:22444951

  20. Power System Short-Term Load Forecasting Based on Fuzzy Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Ge; Lei Wang; Hong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is an important operational function in both regulated power systems. This study is concerned with the problem of STLF. Considering the factors such as temperature, date type, weather status, etc, which influence the STLF, a model is set up by dynamic recurrent fuzzy neural network. The fuzzy inference function is realized easily by using a product operation in the network. Introducing local recurrent units to hidden layer, the proposed method can overcome t...

  1. Experimental Study of Short-term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-schoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Marine Houssa; Nathalie Nader-Grosbois; Emilie Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers’ social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47 pre-schoolers took part in a pretest session involving cognitive, socio-cognitive and social adjustment measures. The direct socio-cognitive measures involved...

  2. Advanced strategies for wind power trading in short-term electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bourry, Franck; Juban, Jérémie; Costa, Luis; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Independent power producers have the possibility to participate in short-term electricity markets to trade wind power energy in several countries in Europe. Under such market context, penalties may apply for differences between the contracted energy and the produced energy. The limited predictability of the wind resource may thus result to a reduction of the competitiveness of wind power generation. In this paper, we propose a risk-based decision approach for optimizing the benefits of an ene...

  3. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liebe S.; Hoerzer G.,; Logothetis N.K.; Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-un...

  4. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of th...

  5. The relationship between language production and verbal short-term memory: The role of stress grouping

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Jane; Edwards, Stephanie; Wheeldon, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of stress grouping on verbal short-term memory (STM). English speakers show a preference to combine syllables into trochaic groups, both lexically and in continuous speech. In two serial recall experiments, auditory lists of nonsense syllables were presented with either trochaic (STRONG-weak) or iambic (weak-STRONG) stress patterns, or in monotone. The acoustic correlates that carry stress were also manipulated in order to examine the relationship between...

  6. No Evidence of Short-Term Exchange of Meat for Sex among Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Gilby, Ian C.; Emery Thompson, M; Ruane, Jonathan D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The meat-for-sex hypothesis posits that male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) trade meat with estrous females in exchange for short-term mating access. This notion is widely cited in the anthropological literature and has been used to construct scenarios about human evolution. Here we review the theoretical and empirical basis for the meat-for-sex hypothesis. We argue that chimpanzee behavioral ecology does not favor the evolution of such exchanges because 1) female chimpanzees show low mate sel...

  7. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  8. Technique and short-term outcomes of single-port surgery for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, O; Aslak, K K; Rosenstock, S

    2013-01-01

    Although conventional laparoscopic surgery is less traumatic than open surgery, it does cause tissue trauma and multiple scar formation. The size and number of ports determine the extent of the trauma. Single-port laparoscopic surgery is assumed to minimize and perhaps eliminate the potential...... adverse effects of conventional laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to examine short-term outcomes of single-port laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer....

  9. OLFACTION AS A MODEL SYSTEM FOR THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF MAMMALIAN SHORT-TERM HABITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Donald A Wilson

    2008-01-01

    Olfaction represents an ideal model system for the study of mammalian habituation given that it is an anatomically relatively simple system with strong reciprocal connections to the limbic system, driving both reflexive and non-reflexive (motivated) behaviors that are easily quantifiable. Data are reviewed here demonstrating short-term habituation of the odor-evoked heart-rate orienting reflex described according to the criteria for habituation outlined by Thompson and Spencer in 1966. A nece...

  10. Prognostic value of systolic short-term blood pressure variability in systolic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Matthieu; Lairez, Olivier; Fourcade, Joelle; Roncalli, Jérôme; Carrié, Didier; Pathak, Atul; Chamontin, Bernard; Galinier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the general population are usually correlated to a better prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Most of the studies show that blood pressure variability (BPV) has noxious effect on general population but data are missing for patients with systolic HF. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) in systolic HF. Methods and results We retrospectively studied 288 pa...

  11. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iseki, Toshio; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2014-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated from the view point of cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data are required for stable spectral analysis. However, the phase angle of the cross-spectra has not been discus...... concludes that the variability influences the accuracy of the wave buoy analogy....

  12. Nutritional and Protein Deficiencies in the Short Term following Both Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Aron-Wisnewsky; Verger, Eric O.; Carine Bounaix; Maria Carlota Dao; Jean-Michel Oppert; Jean-Luc Bouillot; Jean-Marc Chevallier; Karine Clément

    2016-01-01

    International audience BackgroundThe number of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) has increased dramatically in recent years. Therefore, monitoring food intake and its consequences in terms of nutritional status is necessary to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of food restriction on nutritional parameters in the short-term (≤3 months) period after BS in morbid obesity.MethodIn a prospective study, we followed 22 obese ...

  13. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Rossanti; Dida Akhmad Gurnida; Eddy Fadlyana

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative,...

  14. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Rossanti; Dida Akhmad Gurnida; Eddy Fadlyana

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This com...

  15. Analysis of the risk factors for the short-term prognosis of acute ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jin; Liu, Wenbo; Sun, Jianping; Gu, Xinyi; MA, QIANG; Tong, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the risk factors for the short-term prognosis of acute ischemic stroke to provide a scientific evidence for improving prevention and treatment. A total of 2557 cases of acute ischemic stroke were included in the study. We collected the data on demographic characteristics, life style-related risk factors, clinical feature, and other clinical characteristics for all the participants. The outcomes were assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRs) on day 14 or at dischar...

  16. Short-Term Solar Irradiance Forecasting Model Based on Artificial Neural Network Using Statistical Feature Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hongshan Zhao; Shi Su; Zengqiang Mi; Fei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Short-term solar irradiance forecasting (STSIF) is of great significance for the optimal operation and power predication of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants. However, STSIF is very complex to handle due to the random and nonlinear characteristics of solar irradiance under changeable weather conditions. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is suitable for STSIF modeling and many research works on this topic are presented, but the conciseness and robustness of the existing models still need t...

  17. Short-Term Forecasting Models for Photovoltaic Plants: Analytical versus Soft-Computing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Claudio; Fernandez-Jimenez, L. Alfredo; Ignacio J. Ramirez-Rosado; Muñoz-Jimenez, Andres; Lara-Santillan, Pedro M.

    2013-01-01

    We present and compare two short-term statistical forecasting models for hourly average electric power production forecasts of photovoltaic (PV) plants: the analytical PV power forecasting model (APVF) and the multiplayer perceptron PV forecasting model (MPVF). Both models use forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP) tools at the location of the PV plant as well as the past recorded values of PV hourly electric power production. The APVF model consists of an original modeling for adj...

  18. Short-Term Power Generation Energy Forecasting Model for Small Hydropower Stations Using GA-SVM

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gang; Sun, Yongjun; He, Yong; Li, Xiufeng; Tu, Qiyu

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and reliable power generation energy forecasting of small hydropower (SHP) is essential for hydropower management and scheduling. Due to nonperson supervision for a long time, there are not enough historical power generation records, so the forecasting model is difficult to be developed. In this paper, the support vector machine (SVM) is chosen as a method for short-term power generation energy prediction because it shows many unique advantages in solving small sample, nonlinear, and...

  19. Short-Term Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Mortality: An Analysis within the APHEA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith,; Košnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea; Schwartz, Joel David

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. Methods: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two stages. In the first stage, data from each city were analyzed separately, whereas in the second stage the city-specific air pollution estimates were regressed on city-specific covariates to obtain ov...

  20. Attention Supports Verbal Short-Term Memory via Competition between Dorsal and Ventral Attention Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Degueldre, Christian; Fias, W.; Maquet, Pierre; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Stawarczyk, David; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and ...

  1. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments c...

  2. Comparison of short term effects of risperidone and paliperidone on serum prolactin levels in female patients

    OpenAIRE

    Albayrak, Yakup; UNSAL, Cuneyt; Beyazyuz, Murat; Kuloglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hyperprolactinemia is an adverse effect, which is related with the use of antipsychotics. All typical antipsychotics are considered to increase serum prolactin levels. Compared with typical antipsychotics, most of the atypical antipsychotics have a reduced tendency for increasing serum prolactin levels. However, effects of all atypical antipsychotics on serum prolactin levels are not always similar. In the present study, we aimed to compare short-term effects of risperidone and pal...

  3. Evaluation of a short-term medical mission to Syrian refugee camps in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Alghothani, Nora; Alghothani, Yousef; Atassi, Bassel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The escalating political and humanitarian crisis in Syria has left thousands detained, killed or displaced in neighboring countries. Given the permission and co-operation of the Turkish health authorities, a short-term medical mission to the Syrian refugee camps in the Hatay province was arranged. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess this mission's impact and potential expansion to serve other more emergently inflicted areas both inside and outside the Syrian borders, an evaluation wa...

  4. An investigation of the genetic toxicology of irradiated foodstuffs using short-term test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a programme of short-term tests used to detect possible genetic toxicity in irradiated foodstuffs, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to extracts and digests of irradiated and unirradiated dates, fish and chicken and subjected to tests for cytotoxicity, sister chromatid exchange induction and mutation to thioguanine resistance. The results showed no evidence of genetic toxicity induced in food by irradiation. The general applicability of cell culture tests to the detection of mutagens in food is discussed. (author)

  5. Short-term Treatment of Daumone Improves Hepatic Inflammation in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong Hee; Ha, Hunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been proposed as one of the main molecular mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases. Although evidence in humans is limited, short-term calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in aged experimental animals. We reported on the long-term treatment of daumone, a synthetic pheromone secreted by Caenorhabditis elegans in an energy deficient environment, extends the life-span and attenuates liver injury in aged mice. The present study ex...

  6. Modeling circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on short-term interval timing

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Späti; Andrea Hans Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Short-term interval timing i.e., perception and action relating to durations in the seconds range, has been suggested to display time-of-day as well as wake dependent fluctuations due to circadian and sleep-homeostatic changes to the rate at which an underlying pacemaker emits pulses; pertinent human data being relatively sparse and lacking in consistency however, the phenomenon remains elusive and its mechanism poorly understood. To better characterize the putative circadian and sleep-homeos...

  7. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions: High resolution path-integral calculation of short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ingber; P.L. Nunez

    2000-01-01

    We present high-resolution path-integral calculations of a previously developed model of short-term memory in neocortex. These calculations, made possible with supercomputer resources, supplant similar calculations made in L. Ingber, Phys. Rev. E 49, 4652 (1994), and support coarser estimates made in L. Ingber, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3346 (1984). We also present a current experimental context for the relevance of these calculations using the approach of statistical mechanics of neocortical interact...

  8. Economic Efficiency of Short-Term Versus Long-Term Water Rights Buyouts

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Erin A.; Golden, Bill B.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production functions for the major crops in the Texas Panhandle. The production functions are incorporated into optimal temporal allocation models that project annual producer behavior, crop choices, water u...

  9. Glycemic control of type 2 diabetic patients after short-term zinc supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hyun-Mee; Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether a short-term zinc supplementation contributes to beneficial changes in glycemic control among type 2 diabetic patients. Seventy-six diabetic subjects and 72 normal adults participated in this study. Subjects were divided into supplemented and control groups. Forty-four diabetic patients and 34 normal subjects were supplemented with 50 mg zinc daily as zinc gluconate for 4 weeks. Zinc status was assessed from fasting plasma levels and urinary exc...

  10. Short Term Administration of L-Carnitine can be Detrimental to the Ischemic Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Moslem Najafi; Alireza Garjani

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that L-carnitine (LC) supplementation may exert a cardioprotective effect in cardiomyopathy, prevent arrhythmias in myocardial infarction and increase exercise tolerance in angina. Interestingly, we demonstrated that short term preischemic administration of LC can be detrimental to ischemic heart. In isolated rat hearts treated with LC for 10 min before ischemia, a marked and concentration dependent arrhythmogenic activity were produced during both ischemia and rep...

  11. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  12. Effect of Short-term Exercise on Appetite, Energy Intake and Energy-regulating Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Ebrahimi; Farhad Rahmani- Nia; Arsalan Damirchi; Bahman Mirzaie; Sepide Asghar Pur

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of short-term aerobic exercise on energy intake, appetite and energy-regulating hormones in free-living men and women.   Materials and Methods: Sixteen (eight men, eight women) sedentary young normal weight subjects participated in two experimental conditions with two days apart: five days control with no exercise, and five days exercise (55% MHRR for 45 min/day). Subjects recorded dietary intake using a...

  13. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; S. Medina; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; THELOT, B; Monteil, C; LAMELOISE,P; Pirard, P.; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  14. Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and mortality in London 1992-4

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Atkinson, R W; McMichael, A.J.; Strachan, D. P.; Bland, J. M.; Bower, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A previous study of the short term effects of air pollution in London from April 1987 to March 1992 found associations between all cause mortality and black smoke and ozone, but no clear evidence of specificity for cardiorespiratory deaths. London data from 1992 to 1994 were analysed to examine the consistency of results over time and to include particles with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns (PM10) and carbon monoxide. METHODS: Poisson regression was used of daily ...

  15. Scenario for a Short-Term Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in Chiayi, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Han Chan; Yih-Min Wu; Chin-Tung Cheng; Po-Shen Lin; and Yuan-Chieh Wu

    2013-01-01

    Using seismic activity and the Meishan earthquake sequence that occurred from 1904 to 1906, a scenario for short-term probabilistic seismic hazards in the Chiayi region of Taiwan is assessed. The long-term earthquake occurrence rate in Taiwan was evaluated using a smoothing kernel. The highest seismicity rate was calculated around the Chiayi region. To consider earthquake interactions, the rate-and-state friction model was introduced to estimate the seismicity rate evolution due to the Coulom...

  16. Protein Aggregation in E. coli : Short Term and Long Term Effects of Nutrient Density

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Ulfat I.; Bhadbhade, Bharati J.; Mariyam, Dincy; Watve, Milind G

    2014-01-01

    During exponential growth some cells of E. coli undergo senescence mediated by asymmetric segregation of damaged components, particularly protein aggregates. We showed previously that functional cell division asymmetry in E. coli was responsive to the nutritional environment. Short term exposure as well as long term selection in low calorie environments led to greater cell division symmetry and decreased frequency of senescent cells as compared to high calorie environments. We show here that ...

  17. Short term variability in FEV1 and bronchodilator responsiveness in patients with obstructive ventilatory defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Tweeddale, P M; Alexander, F.; McHardy, G J

    1987-01-01

    Short term variability in FEV1 and responsiveness to inhaled bronchodilator were measured in 150 patients with obstructive ventilatory defects. The range of initial FEV1 was 0.5-4.71 and the natural variability over a 20 minute period when expressed in absolute terms was similar over the entire range, and differed insignificantly from that found in normal subjects. The increase in FEV1 and vital capacity (VC) required to exclude natural variability with 95% confidence in these patients was 16...

  18. A Neural Network Model of the Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a neural network model of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) is presented. The model links closely with Bundesen’s (1990) well-established mathematical theory of visual attention. We evaluate the model’s ability to fit experimental data from a classical whole and partial report study...... dependent phenomena like the attentional blink effect, lag-1 sparing, and attentional dwell-time....

  19. Futures Price Volatility in Commodities Markets: The Role of Short Term vs Long Term Speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Matteo; Nicolini, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates how different types of speculation affect the volatility of commodities’ futures prices. We adopt four indexes of speculation: Working’s T, the market share of non-commercial traders, the percentage of net long speculators over total open interest in future markets, which proxy for long term speculation, and scalping, which proxies for short term speculation. We consider four energy commodities (light sweet crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and seven non-e...

  20. Futures price volatility in commodities markets: The role of short term vs long term speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Manera; Marcella Nicolini; Ilaria Vignati

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates how different types of speculation affect the volatility of commodities’ futures prices. We adopt four indexes of speculation: Working’s T, the market share of non-commercial traders, the percentage of net long speculators over total open interest in future markets, which proxy for long term speculation, and scalping, which proxies for short term speculation. We consider four energy commodities (light sweet crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and seven non-e...

  1. Is frailty associated with short-term outcomes for elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Lin; Zhang, Shu-Yang; Zhu, Wen-ling; Pang, Hai-Yu; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Ming-Lei; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Yong-tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Frailty is a new prognostic factor in cardiovascular medicine due to the aging and increasingly complex nature of elderly patients. It is useful and meaningful to prospectively analyze the manner in which frailty predicts short-term outcomes for elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Patients aged ≥ 65 years, with diagnosis of ACS from cardiology department and geriatrics department were included from single-center. Clinical data including geriatrics syndromes...

  2. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zarshenas; Parsa Houshvar; Ali Tahmasebi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, n = 41) or control group (waiting list, n = 41) and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ), respectively. The experimental group received four-week aero...

  3. The Relationship Between Thyroxine Level and Short Term Clinical Outcome Among Sick Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Kadivar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and critically sick infants frequently experience several interventions, including blood transfusions, parentral nutrition, and prescriptions during hospitalization that could affect the result of thyroid function test. This study aims to investigate the correlation between thyroxine level and clinical short term outcome among the newborn infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. We assessed serum levels of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone of 99 neonates who were admitted in the NICU from September 1st 2004 to March 30th 2005. Number of patients with low thyroxin level (less than 6.5 µg/dl was determined and the relation between serum total thyroxine level and birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and final outcome was investigated. Short term outcome was considered as duration of hospitalization and discharge alive from hospital. Prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was 26 percent. Later assessment of thyroxine level within 3 weeks revealed normal level of this parameter (8.12 µg/dl ±1.36. Patients with lower gestational age and lower birth weight had lower thyroxine level (7.15 µg/dl ±2.56, and P=0.03, 6.72 µg/dl ±3.03, and P=0.08. Low thyroxine level was not associated with adverse short-term clinical outcome (mortality rates; 3(11% and 9(12%, and duration of hospitalization among 17.7±9.8 vs 16.7± 13.0 in patients with hypothyroxinemia and low thyroxine level respectively. Hypothyroxinemia has considerable prevalence in neonatal intensive care setting and is related with lower birth weight and gestational age. Whether thyroxin levels are a marker or mediator of short term clinical outcome remains to be determined by further studies.

  4. Time-consistent calibration of short-term regional wind power ensemble forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Späth; Lueder von Bremen; Constantin Junk; Detlev Heinemann

    2015-01-01

    With increasing wind power capacity, accurate uncertainty forecasts get more and more important for grid integration. The uncertainty of forecasts can be quantified by ensemble forecasts. We use ensemble forecasts from the COSMO-DE EPS to generate short-term ensemble forecasts of regionally aggregated wind power. The wind power forecasts are generated by an optimised regional power curve model that is based on minimum score estimation and leads to wind power forecasts with small deterministic...

  5. Dimensional assessment of behavioral changes in the cuprizone short-term exposure model for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mari A; Fukudome, Daisuke; Smith, Dani R; Gallagher, Michela; Kamiya, Atsushi; Sawa, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested a role for immune/inflammatory responses in the pathophysiology of psychosis. However, a mechanistic understanding of this process and its application for drug discovery is underdeveloped. Here we assessed our recently developed cuprizone short-term exposure (CSE) mouse model across behavioral domains targeting neurocognitive and neuroaffective systems. We propose that the CSE model may be useful for understanding the mechanism associating inflammation and psychosis, with applications for drug discovery in that context. PMID:26869217

  6. Short-term Migration and Intergenerational Persistence of Industry in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Tushar Kanti; Kar, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    One of the well-known barriers to development is persistence of disadvantage among communities. The lack of occupational and therefore upward social mobility continues to restrain households from achieving socially desirable outcomes. This paper studies the effect of short-term internal migration experience on the intergenerational persistence of industry upon a migrant's return to native place. We develop an occupational choice model of a return migrant to study the relationship between the ...

  7. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    position that this long-term approach is about securing the longevity of tourism as an economic and social force by focusing on policy synergies to improve aspects such as destination resilience and competitiveness, environmental sustainability, industry innovation and strategic improvements to......Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus...

  8. White matter integrity and visual short-term memory binding in familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkila, Heini

    2011-01-01

    The asymptomatic phase of familial Alzheimer’s disease caused by E280A mutation in presenilin-1 gene is characterized by intact performance in traditional neuropsychological tasks including memory, language, and executive functions. However, asymptomatic mutation carriers are already impaired in tasks that require visual short-term memory binding. Meanwhile, neuropathological changes in white matter integrity take place during the course of familial Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated ...

  9. Visual short-term memory deficits associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zokaei, Nahid; McNeill, Alisdair; Proukakis, Christos; Beavan, Michelle; Jarman, Paul; Korlipara, Prasad; Hughes, Derralynn; Mehta, Atul; Hu, Michele T.M.; Schapira, Anthony H. V.; Husain, Masud

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mutation in the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are at significantly high risk of developing Parkinson’s disease with cognitive deficit. We examined whether visual short-term memory impairments, long associated with patients with Parkinson’s disease, are also present in GBA-positive individuals—both with and without Parkinson’s disease. Precision of visual working memory was measured using a serial order task in which participants observed four bars, each of a ...

  10. Short-term pulmonary side-effects following radiation therapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Pehr

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to study the short-term pulmonary sideeffects following adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer in terms of clinical pulmonary complications, loss of pulmonary function and radiological abnormalities, and the association to irradiated lung volume and dose. Furthermore, we wanted to estimate the influence of covariates, e.g. age, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen treatment, smoking habits, pretreatment functional level and prem...

  11. Short-term effects of an action video game on attention

    OpenAIRE

    Onstad, Malin Bjørklund

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine whether an action video game had short-term effects on selective attention and temporal attention, as measured by the Attentional blink, Simon task and Stroop task. The design was experimental in which the participants (N = 20) completed 1 hour of action video game playing or reading in a book on two occasions, separated by 7 days. All participants completed both conditions. The design was randomized, counterbalanced and with cross-over trials. A Kolmogor...

  12. Structure and Function of Methanogens along a Short-Term Restoration Chronosequence in the Florida Everglades▿

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jason M.; Castro, Hector; Ogram, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The removal of plants and soil to bedrock to eradicate exotic invasive plants within the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) region, part of the Everglades National Park (Florida), presented a unique opportunity to study the redevelopment of soil and the associated microbial communities in the context of short-term primary succession and ecosystem restoration. The goal of this study was to identify relationships between soil redevelopment and activity and composition of methanogenic assemblages in HID so...

  13. Short-term effects of an educational intervention on physical restraint use: a cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gulpers Math JM; Hamers Jan PH; Huizing Anna R; Berger Martijn PF

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical restraints are still frequently used in nursing home residents despite growing evidence for the ineffectiveness and negative consequences of these methods. Therefore, reduction in the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents is very important. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of an educational intervention on the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents. Methods A cluster rand...

  14. Deep Sentence Embedding Using Long Short-Term Memory Networks: Analysis and Application to Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Palangi, Hamid; Deng, Li; Shen, Yelong; Gao, Jianfeng; He, Xiaodong; Chen, Jianshu; Song, Xinying; Ward, Rabab

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a model that addresses sentence embedding, a hot topic in current natural language processing research, using recurrent neural networks with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) cells. Due to its ability to capture long term memory, the LSTM-RNN accumulates increasingly richer information as it goes through the sentence, and when it reaches the last word, the hidden layer of the network provides a semantic representation of the whole sentence. In this paper, the LSTM-RNN is train...

  15. Hyperdense basilar artery sign diagnoses acute posterior circulation stroke and predicts short-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoping [Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University at Shenyang, Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital, Shenyang (China); Guo, Yang [Shengjing Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenyang (China)

    2010-12-15

    It is well established that the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign is a specific marker for early ischemia in anterior circulation. However, little is known about the hyperdense basilar artery sign (HDBA) in posterior circulation. Our aim was to determine whether the HDBA sign has utility in early diagnosis of acute posterior circulation stroke and prediction of short-term outcome. Three-blinded readers examined unenhanced computed tomography scans for the HDBA sign, and materials were classified into two groups according to this sign. Vascular risk factors, admission and discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, short-term outcome, and radiological findings between the two groups were compared. One hundred and twenty-six cases of acute posterior circulation stroke (PCS) were included in the study. No statistically significant differences were found in risk factors of ischemic stroke, except atrial fibrillation (P = 0.025). Admission and discharge NIHSS scores for the positive HDBA group were significantly higher than scores for the negative HDBA group (P = 0.001, 0.002, respectively). The infarction territory for the positive HDBA group was mainly multi-region in nature (51.6%, P < 0.001), while the negative HDBA group showed mainly middle territory infarction. Significant independent predictors of short-term outcome included the HDBA sign (P < 0.001) and admission NIHSS scores (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the HDBA patients showed multi-region infarction and a serious neurological symptom. Based on our results, this sign might not only be helpful in early diagnosis of acute PCS but also be able to correlate with a poor short-term outcome. (orig.)

  16. Laparoscopic vs. Open Right Hemicolectomies: Short Term Outcomes within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Chanpreet Arhi

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Studies that recommend laparoscopic right hemicolectomies within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme are based on data from all types of colorectal procedures. This study compares short-term outcomes following right hemicolectomies within an ERAS setting. Methods: Retrospective analysis of elective right hemicolectomies carried out between October 2008 and April 2012. Exclusion criteria:- patients not managed with an ERAS programme; inflammatory bowel disease; ASA IV and...

  17. Surgical Margins and Short-Term Results of Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision for Low Rectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qingqiang; Xiu, Peng; Qi, Xiaolong; Yi, Guoping; Xu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The confines of the narrow bony pelvis make laparoscopic surgery more challenging in the treatment of low rectal cancer. Macroscopic evaluation of the completeness of the mesorectum provides detailed information about the quality of surgery. This study was performed to observe the short-term outcomes and evaluate the macroscopic quality of specimens acquired from laparoscopic total mesorectal excision versus open total mesorectal excision in patients with low rectal...

  18. On the need for optimization of the software development processes in short-term projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Moises Homero Sanchez; Fernandez-y-Fernandez, Carlos Alberto; Cisneros, Jorge Rafael Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, most of the software development projects in Mexico are short-term projects (micro and small projects); for this reason, in this paper we are presenting a research proposal with the goal of identifying the elements contributing to their success or failure. With this research, we are trying to identify and propose techniques and tools that would contribute in the successful outcome of these projects.

  19. Effects of short-term wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on refractive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    W. D. H. Gillan

    2012-01-01

    Contact lens wear is known to induce change in both the cornea and refractive state. Often a shift towards increased myopia is noted. Historically investigations into the effects of contact lenses onrefractive state have often been incomplete in terms of statistical analysis whereby nearest equivalent sphere is used or the spherical, cylindrical and axis components are analyzed in isolation. The aim ofthis study was to investigate the short-term effects of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on ...

  20. Binding of Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory in Williams Syndrome and Moderate Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Phillips, Caroline; Baddeley, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    A main aim of this study was to test the claim that individuals with Williams syndrome have selectively impaired memory for spatial as opposed to visual information. The performance of 16 individuals with Williams syndrome (six males, 10 females; mean age 18y 7mo [SD 7y 6mo], range 9y 1mo-30y 7mo) on tests of short-term memory for item and…