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Sample records for alleviates indomethacin-induced gastric

  1. EP4 agonist alleviates indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promotes chronic gastric ulcer healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Liang Jiang; Wha Bin Im; Yariv Donde; Larry A Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate EP4-selective agonist effect on indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and on the spontaneous healing of chronic gastric ulcers. METHODS: In a mouse model of gastric bleeding with high dose of indomethacin (20 mg/kg), an EP4-selective agonist was administered orally. Stomach lesions and gastric mucous regeneration were monitored. In a mouse model of chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid, EP4 agonist effect on the healing of chronic gastric ulcer was evaluated in the presence or absence of low dose indomethacin (3 mg/kg). In cultured human gastric mucous cells, EP4 agonist effect on indomethacininduced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The EP4-selective agonist reduced high dose indomethacin-induced acute hemorrhagic damage and promoted mucous epithelial regeneration. Low-dose indomethacin aggravated ulcer bleeding and inflammation, and delayed the healing of the established chronic gastric ulcer. The EP4 agonist, when applied locally, not only offset indomethacin-induced gastric bleeding and inflammation, but also accelerated ulcer healing. In the absence of indomethacin, the EP4 agonist even accelerated chronic gastric ulcer healing and suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration in the granulation tissue. In vitro , the EP4 agonist protected human gastric mucous cells from indomethacin-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: EP4-selective agonist may prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promote healing of existing and indomethacin-aggravated gastric ulcers, via promoting proliferation and survival of mucous epithelial cells.

  2. The gastroprotective effect of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Chen, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hai-Ming; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yong-Zhuo; Fu, Lu-Di; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Xiao-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pogostemonis Herba, known as "Guang-Huo-Xiang" in Chinese, has been widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Pogostone is one of the major constituents of Pogostemonis Herba. The aim was to scientifically evaluate the possible gastroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of pogostone against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were orally treated with vehicle, lansoprazole (30 mg/kg) or pogostone (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. Gross evaluation, histological observation, gastric mucosal superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione content, catalase activity, malonaldehyde level and prostaglandin E2 production were performed. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein 70, B-cell lymphoma-2 and Bax were conducted. Results indicated that rats pretreated with pogostone showed remarkable protection from the gastric mucosa damage compared to vehicle-treated rats based on the ulcer index and inhibition percentage. Histologically, oral administration of pogostone resulted in observable improvement of gastric injury, characterized by reduction of necrotic lesion, flattening of gastric mucosa and alleviation of submucosal edema with hemorrhage. Pogostone pretreatment significantly raised the depressed activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase, while reduced the elevated malonaldehyde level compared with indomethacin-induced group. Pogostone-pretreated group induced a significant increase in gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level and obvious up-regulation of protein levels and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, antiapoptotic effect of pogostone was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated d

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric injury.

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    Pineda-Peña, Elizabeth Arlen; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Chávez-Piña, Aracely Evangelina

    2012-12-15

    Previous studies have shown gastroprotective effect of fish oil in several experimental models. However, the mechanisms and active compounds underlying this effect are not fully understood. Fish oil has several components; among them, one of the most studied is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. The aim of this study was to examine the gastroprotective effect of DHA as a pure compound in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric injury as well as elucidate some of the mechanism(s) behind DHA's gastroprotective effect. Indomethacin was orally administered to induce an acute gastric injury (3, 10 and 30mg/kg). Omeprazol (a proton pump inhibitor, 30mg/kg, p.o.) and DHA (3, 10, 30mg/kg, p.o.) were gavaged 30 and 120min, respectively, before indomethacin insult (30mg/kg p.o.). Three hours after indomethacin administration, rats were sacrificed, gastric injury was evaluated by determining the total damaged area. A sample of gastric tissue was harvested and processed to quantify prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Indomethacin produced gastric injury in dose-dependent manner. DHA protected against indomethacin-induced gastric damage, and this effect was comparable with omeprazol's gastroprotective effect. DHA did not reverse the indomethacin-induced reduction of PGE(2) gastric levels. In contrast, DHA partially prevented the indomethacin-induced increase in LTB(4) gastric levels. This is the first report demonstrating DHA's gastroprotective effect as a pure compound. Furthermore, the results reveal that the gastroprotective effect is mediated by a decrease in gastric LTB(4) levels in indomethacin-induced gastric damage.

  4. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

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    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18 mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8 mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-α, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect.

  5. Ellagic acid facilitates indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer healing via COX-2 up-regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananya Chatterjee; Sirshendu Chatterjee; Smita Das; Arpita Saha; Subrata Chattopadhyay; Sandip K. Bandyopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer healing by ellagic acid (EA) in experimental mice model is described in our study.Ulcer index (UI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the stomach tissues showed maximum ulceration on the third day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg,single dose) administration.Preliminary observation of UI and MPO activity suggests that EA possesses ulcer-healing activity.Other anti-ulcer parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin E2,cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes,anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4 and -5J,pro-angiogenic factors,e.g.vascular endothelial growth factor,hepatocyte growth factor (HGF),and endothelial growth factor (EGF) were down-regulated by indomethacin.EA (7 mg/kg/day) treatment for 3 days shifted the indomethacin-induced pro-inflammatory biochemical parameters to the healing side.These activities were correlated with the ability of EA to alter the COX-2-dependent healing pathways.The ulcer-healing activity of EA was,however,compromised by pre-administration of the specific COX-2 inhibitor,celecoxib,and NS-398.Taken together,these results suggested that the EA treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing IL-4,EGF/HGF levds and enhances COX-2 expression.

  6. [Effect of dexamethasone on indomethacin-induced gastric erosion formation upon duration of the hormonal action].

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    Podvigina, T T; Morozova, O Iu; Bagaeva, T R; Filaretova, L P

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to verify a dependence of dexamethasone effect on the gastric erosion formation upon duration of the hormonal action. Gastric erosions were induced by indometha cin (35 mg/kg, sc) in male rats after 24-hour fasting. The rats were given a single injection of dexamethasone at a dose of 1 mg/kg and they underwent the ulcerogenic stimulus (indomethacin) at va rious time points after the hormonal injection (1, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours as well as 3, 5, 7 days). The control rats were given dexamethasone vehicle. In 4 hours after indomethacin injection gastric erosions, corticosterone and blood glucose levels, as well as body and thymus weights were examined. The results obtained demonstrate a dependence ofdexamethasone effect on the gastric erosion formation upon duration of its action: dexamethasone attenuated or aggravated indomethacin-induced gastric erosions depending on the time of its injection. Gastroprotective action of dexamethasone was observed in the case of its injection 1, 6, and 12 hours before indomethacin. The further increase in the time interval caused transformation of gastroprotective action of dexamethasone against ulcerogenic effect. The data obtained suggest that a disturbance of carbohydrate regulation accompanied with the signs of catabolic effects of the glucocorticoid may be responsible for the ulcerogenic action of dexamethasone.

  7. Antioxidant effects of betaine against Indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats

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    M Alirezaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Betaine (trimethyl glycine is known as methyl group donor and antioxidant in previous reports. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effects of betaine in Indomethacin-induced gastric damages. Methods: Thirty-two adult male Sprague–Dawley rats in an experimental study were divided into four equal groups as follow: Control, Indomethacin, Betaine-indomethacin and Ascorbic acid-indomethacin. Control and indomethacin groups received normal saline and betaine and ascorbic acid-pretreated rats were administrated betaine (1.5% of the total diet and ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg body weight for 15 consecutive days, respectively. After 24 h fasting, all of the groups received indomethacin (48 mg/kg body weight and control group received distilled water. Results: Indomethacin administration increased gastric ulcer occurrence (% in comparison with control group and betaine pretreatment significantly decreased ulcer occurrence (% when compared to the other groups (P=0.0017. Gastric wall glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly lower in indomethacin group in comparison with the other groups (P=0.0012 while, betaine and ascorbic acid pretreatment increased GPx activity in comparison with indomethacin group (P=0.0012. Catalase activity was significantly higher in betaine-pretreated rats in comparison with indomethacin and ascorbic acid-indomethacin groups (P=0.0015. Lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in betaine and ascorbic acid pretreated groups (P=0.0013. Conclusion: These results showed beneficial antioxidant effects of betaine against gastric damages induced by indomethacin in rats.

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of candesartan on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Kamel, Rehab; El Morsy, Engy M; Awad, Azza S

    2012-12-01

    Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce gastric mucosal lesions in part by induction of oxidative stress as well as the activation of inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we examined the protective effect of candesartan (2 and 5 mg/kg) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosa damage. Pretreatment with candesartan for 10 days reduced significantly the ulcer index induced by indomethacin injection. The preventive index of 2 mg/kg (76.74%) was higher than that of 5 mg/kg (65.11%). Both doses of candesartan were able to reduce significantly the stomach malondialdehyde content compared to indomethacin-treated group. Myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant gastric levels were significantly reduced by 2 mg/kg of candesartan more than 5 mg/kg. The Th1 cytokine interferon γ was also significantly reduced by both doses of candesartan compared to indomethacin injected group. On the other hand, indomethacin significant decreased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 gastric level. Pretreatment with candesartan (2 and 5 mg/kg) reversed this effect. In conclusion, the present study indicates that pretreatment with candesartan, can protect against the stomach injury induced by indomethacin through its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

  9. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-α associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically.

  10. The Protective Effect of Testosterone on Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

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    U. Akpamu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer has shown association with changes in sex hormones, with impact exacerbated in males. Also, males are known to be more exposed to ulcer risk factors. This study investigates the effect of testosterone on indomethacin induced gastric ulcers in adult female rats. Eighteen female rats (225 ± 25 g body weight were randomly assigned to 3 groups under standard laboratory condition. After acclimatization, animals fasted for 40 hrs but were given water ad libitum. Group A served as control while group B served as the ulcer control, in which ulcer was induced without treatment using indomethacin (40 mg/kg single orally dose. Group C was pretreated with testosterone (1 mg/kg IM eight hours before ulcer induction. Eight hours after ulcer induction, animals were sacrificed and the stomach was harvested for analysis. Results showed a significant reduction in mucus content in groups C (0.79±0.11 g and B (0.87±0.02 g compared to A (1.11±0.03 g. Gastric mucus pH was significantly acidic in group B (4.40±0.55 compared to C (5.20±0.45 and A (5.80±0.45. There was a significantly higher ulcer index in group B (4.60±0.55 mm compared to C (3.60±0.89 mm and testosterone pretreatment resulted in a 21.74% ulcer inhibition. Although weak, the findings suggest that testosterone might protect the gastric mucosa against NSAIDs in females.

  11. Protective effect of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers and mechanism of action.

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    Pérez, Yohani; Oyárzabal, Ambar; Mas, Rosa; Molina, Vivian; Jiménez, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, produces gastroprotective and antioxidant effects. To investigate the gastroprotective effect of D-002 against indomethacin-induced ulcers, oxidative variables and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the rat gastric mucosa were examined. Rats were randomized into six groups: a negative vehicle control and five indomethacin (50 mg/kg) treated groups, comprising a positive control, three groups treated orally with D-002 (5, 25 and 100 mg/kg) and one group with omeprazole 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl groups (PCG), hydroxyl radical generation and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MPO enzyme activities in the rat gastric mucosa were assessed. Indomethacin increased the content of MDA and PCG, the generation of *OH radical and MPO enzyme activity, while it decreased the CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activities as compared to the negative controls. D-002 (5-100 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced indomethacin-induced ulceration to 75 %. Also, D-002 decreased the content of MDA and PCG, the generation of hydroxyl radicals and MPO activity as compared to the positive controls. The highest dose of D-002 (100 mg/kg) increased significantly GSH-PX and SOD activities, while all doses used increased CAT activities. Omeprazole 20 mg/kg, the reference drug, reduced significantly the ulcers (93 %), MDA and PCG, the generation of hydroxyl radicals and MPO activity, and increased the CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activities. D-002 treatment produced gastroprotective effects against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, which can be related to the reduction of hydroxyl radical generation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and MPO activity, and to the increase of the antioxidant enzymes activities in the rat gastric mucosa.

  12. Effect of roxatidine bismuth citrate (MX1) against acetylsalicylic acid- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

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    Marazova, K; Klouchek, E; Popov, A; Ivanov, C; Krushkov, I; Ichikawa, T; Ishihara, K; Hotta, K

    1998-10-01

    We have studied the effect of the newly synthesized agent, roxatidine bismuth citrate (N-[3-(3-(1-piperidinyl-methyl)phenoxy)propyl]-hydroxyacetamide-2- hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate-bismuth(3+) complex), code name MX1, against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Effects of MX1 (12.5, 50, 125, 184, 250 mg/kg) were compared to the effects of equimolar doses of roxatidine and bismuth subcitrate. Effect of MX1 (10(-6) M) on mucin biosynthesis measured by [3H] glucosamine incorporation in rat gastric corpus has been determined. MX1-pretreatment dose-dependently decreased the mean ulcer number and length in all doses used in an extent similar to that of roxatidine and more pronounced in comparison with bismuth subcitrate. The morphometrical results have been confirmed histomorphologically. The biosynthesis of mucin was found to be significantly enhanced after MX1 addition. The results of the present study suggest that MX1 has a gastroprotective effect against ASA- and indomethacin-induced ulcers which might be due both to its H2-blocking and mucus-stimulating activity.

  13. Gastroprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Lobaria pulmonaria and Its Metabolite Rhizonyl Alcohol on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer.

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    Atalay, Fadime; Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Halici, Mesut; Cakir, Ahmet; Cadirci, Elif; Aslan, Ali; Aydin Berktas, Ozlem; Kazaz, Cavit

    2015-11-01

    Two lichen metabolites, rhizonaldehyde (1) and rhizonyl alcohol (2), were isolated from the acetone extract of Lobaria pulmonaria by chromatographic methods, and their chemical structures were determined by UV/VIS, IR, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. The gastroprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of extracts of L. pulmonaria and its metabolites, 1 and 2, were investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer models in rats. The gastric lesions were significantly reduced by acetone, hexane, and CHCl3 extracts, with 75.3-41.5% inhibition. Rhizonyl alcohol (2) significantly reduced the gastric lesions with an inhibition rate of 84.6-42.8%, whereas rhizonaldehyde (1) significantly increased the gastric lesions. Antioxidant parameters and myeloperoxidase activities were also evaluated in the gastric tissues of the rats. Indomethacin caused oxidative stress, which resulted in lipid peroxidation in gastric tissues by decreasing the levels of the antioxidants as compared to healthy rat tissues. In contrast to indomethacin, all extracts and rhizonyl alcohol (2) caused a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels and an increase in antioxidant parameters, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione in gastric tissues. The administration of rhizonyl alcohol (2) also resulted in a decrease in gastric myeloperoxidase activity increased by indomethacin. The gastroprotective effect of rhizonyl alcohol (2) can be attributed to its antioxidant properties and its suppressing effect on neutrophil infiltration into gastric tissues.

  14. Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway

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    Ananya Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX- dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL. Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE2 synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio.

  15. Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway.

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    Chatterjee, Ananya; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Biswas, Angshuman; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

    2012-01-01

    The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE) of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla) against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX-) dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose) administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG) E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS) were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day) and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day) for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL). Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE(2) synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio.

  16. Gastroprotective effect of epoxy clerodane diterpene isolated from Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Guduchi) on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Dhanasekaran, Muniyappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Balthazar, Joseph Devadass; Agastian, Paul; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2014-06-15

    The present study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD), isolated from Tinospora cordifolia on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of indomethacin exhibits extreme levels of ulcer index (UI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Indomethacin down regulated PGE2, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) and pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF and EGF). The ECD pretreatment considerably increased the levels of PGE2, anti-inflammatory cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors. The ulcer-healing activity of ECD was inhibited by pre-administration of the specific COX-1 inhibitor (SC560) and nonspecific NOS inhibitor (L-NAME), which indicates the involvement of PGE2 and NOS in ECD induced ulcer healing activity. These findings suggest that ECD exerts its antiulcer activity by reinforcement of defensive elements and diminishing the offensive elements.

  17. Irsogladine maleate suppresses indomethacin-induced elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and gastric injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Koyuki Tajima; Kiyoto Kageyama; Takashi Kyoi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mucosal protective effect and the mechanisms of action of the anti-ulcer drug irsogladine maleate in gastric injury induced by indomethacin in rats.METHODS: Gastric mucosal injury was induced in male Hos:Donryu rats by oral administration of indomethacin at a dose of 48 mg/kg.One hour before indomethacin treatment,animals were orally pretreated with irsogladine maleate at doses of 1 mg/kg,3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg.Four hours after indomethacin administration,the animals were sacrificed and their stomachs were rapidly removed and processed for the evaluation of gastric mucosal damage and the determination of the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β),IL-8 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mucosal tissues.RESULTS: Linear hemorrhagic mucosal lesions were observed primarily in the glandular stomach 4 h after oral administration of indomethacin.Pretreatment with irsogladine maleate markedly reduced the number and severity of these lesions in a dosedependent manner.The mucosal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-β,IL-1β,and IL-8)and MPO,which indicates the degree of mucosal infiltration by neutrophils,increased concomitantly with the occurrence of gastric injury in the indomethacintreated rats.Pretreatment with irsogladine maleate significantly decreased the levels of these inflammatory factors in gastric tissue elicited by indomethacin.CONCLUSION: The mucosal protective effects afforded by irsogladine maleate on gastric injury induced by indomethacin are mediated by inhibition of mucosal proinflammatory cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration,leading to suppression of mucosal inflammation and subsequent tissue destruction.

  18. Protective effect of Cupressus sempervirens extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

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    Koriem Khaled M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens belongs to the family Cupressaceae. It is widspread in Northern Africa, Greece, Turkey, North America, Cyprus and Syria. Cupressuflavone is the major ingredient of the plant leave extract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract of C. sempervirens leaves in gastric ulcer tissues induced by indomethacin. The results of the present study revealed that indomethacin significantly decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione reductase (GR and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels, while it increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and protein carbonyl (PC levels in gastric tissue. Furthermore, indomethacin decreased p53 expression, while it increased bcl-2 expression in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with 5%, 10% & 20% of the LD50 of C. sempervirens and cupressuflavone of indomethacin-treated rats restored all the above parameters to approach normal values. C. sempervirens at the highest dose was more effective than the two lower doses. C. sempervirens proved more potent than cupressuflavone. In conclusion, C. sempervirens exerted antiulcerogenic activity and the effect was dose-dependent and related to the cupressuflavone ingredient of the plant leave extract.

  19. Protective effect of Cupressus sempervirens extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Koriem, Khaled M M; Gad, Islam B; Nasiry, Zayenab K

    2015-03-01

    Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) belongs to the family Cupressaceae. It is widspread in Northern Africa, Greece, Turkey, North America, Cyprus and Syria. Cupressuflavone is the major ingredient of the plant leave extract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract of C. sempervirens leaves in gastric ulcer tissues induced by indomethacin. The results of the present study revealed that indomethacin significantly decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, while it increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in gastric tissue. Furthermore, indomethacin decreased p53 expression, while it increased bcl-2 expression in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with 5%, 10% & 20% of the LD50 of C. sempervirens and cupressuflavone of indomethacin-treated rats restored all the above parameters to approach normal values. C. sempervirens at the highest dose was more effective than the two lower doses. C. sempervirens proved more potent than cupressuflavone. In conclusion, C. sempervirens exerted antiulcerogenic activity and the effect was dose-dependent and related to the cupressuflavone ingredient of the plant leave extract.

  20. Anti-ulcerogenic mechanism of magnesium in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Adewoye, E O; Salami, A T

    2013-12-20

    The gastric mucosa is continuously exposed to various agents like food condiments, spices, alcohol, acids and drugs, some of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer. Magnesium compounds commonly used as laxatives and antacids have been reported to prevent ulcer formation but the mechanisms underlying this potential is unknown. This study therefore seeks to evaluate the gastro-protective mechanism of magnesium in the stomach through its effect on the parietal and mucus cells. Thirty-six male albino rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were used. Group 1 was control, Group 2 was ulcer induced and untreated, Group 3 was treated with 500mg/kg b.w magnesium alone, Group 4 was pre-treated with 500mg/kg b.w magnesium before inducing ulcer, Group 5 was pre-treated with 500mg/kg b.w magnesium and 20mg/kg omeprazole 4 hours before inducing ulcer, Group 6 was treated with 20mg/kg omeprazole 4 hours before inducing ulcer. Animals were sacrificed 6 hours after ulcer induction and their stomachs were removed for ulcer scoring and histological analysis. A significant reduction was observed in the ulcer scoring of magnesium pre-treated ulcerated rats (9.4±0.8) compared with ulcerated untreated (20.8±0.9) groups. Parietal cell count of magnesium pre treated ulcerated group significantly decreased (169.7±18.9) compared with ulcerated untreated group (310.5±34.7). Mucous cell count of magnesium pre-treated ulcerated group (264.6±8.3) significantly increased compared with ulcerated untreated group (170.0±17.7). This study shows that magnesium possesses anti-ulcerogenic properties due to its ability to reduce the number of parietal cell and increase mucous cell counts.

  1. Suppression of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45alpha expression confers resistance to sulindac and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hodges, Amy; Hoa, Neil

    2010-09-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as sulindac and indomethacin are a major cause of gastric erosions and ulcers. Induction of apoptosis by NSAIDs is an important mechanism involved. Understanding how NSAIDs affect genes that regulate apoptosis is useful for designing therapeutic or preventive strategies and for evaluating the efficacy of safer drugs being developed. We investigated whether growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45alpha (GADD45alpha), a stress signal response gene involved in regulation of DNA repair and induction of apoptosis, plays a part in NSAID-induced gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis in vivo in mice and in vitro in cultured human AGS and rat RGM-1 gastric epithelial cells. Intraperitoneal administration of sulindac and indomethacin both resulted in up-regulation of GADD45alpha expression and induction of significant injury and apoptosis in gastric mucosa of wild-type mice. GADD45alpha(-/-) mice were markedly more resistant to both sulindac- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis than wild-type mice. Sulindac sulfide and indomethacin treatments also concentration-dependently increased GADD45alpha expression and apoptosis in AGS and RGM-1 cells. Antisense suppression of GADD45alpha expression significantly reduced sulindac and indomethacin-induced activation of caspase-9 and apoptosis in AGS cells. Pretreatments with exogenous prostaglandins and small interfering RNA suppression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 did not affect up-regulation of GADD45alpha by sulindac sulfide and indomethacin in AGS cells. These findings indicate that GADD45alpha up-regulation is a COX-independent mechanism that is required for induction of severe gastric mucosal apoptosis and injury by NSAIDs, probably via a capase-9-dependent pathway of programmed cell death.

  2. Comparison of the protective effects of various antiulcer agents alone or in combination on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats.

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    Izzettin, Fikret Vehbi; Sancar, Mesut; Okuyan, Betul; Apikoglu-Rabus, Sule; Cevikbas, Ugur

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study which was structured with the objective of determination of the optimum protective therapy against the long term NSAID therapy-induced ulcers was to compare the gastro-protective effects of various antiulcer drugs (ranitidine, omeprazole, bismuth and misoprostol) alone or in combination with each other in different doses on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. In this experimental study the protective effect of misoprostol (100 μg/kg/day and 10 μg/kg/day i.g.), omeprazole (5 mg/kg/day and 1.5 mg/kg/day i.p.), ranitidine (40 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day i.p.), bismuth (70 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/day i.g.), combinations of misoprostol (10 μg/kg/day i.g.) plus omeprazole (1.5mg/kg/day i.p.) and misoprostol (10 μg/kg/day i.g.) plus ranitidine (10 mg/kg/day i.p.) are investigated on indomethacin (50 mg/kg/day s.c.) induced gastric ulcers. Half an hour before indomethacin administration, each group received the above treatment regimens for 5 days. After 5-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed and histopathological and hematological examinations were performed. The following regimens were found to be effective in the prevention of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions: 100 μg/kg misoprostol, 10 μg/kg misoprostol, 5mg/kg omeprazole, combination of 10 μg/kg misoprostol plus 1.5 mg/kg omeprazole and 10 μg/kg misoprostol plus 10 mg/kg ranitidine. The prevention rates achieved by these treatments were 71.4%, 50%, 47.6%, 52.4% and 50%, respectively. As a result of this study, misoprostol and omeprazol were found to be effective in protection against NSAID-induced gastric problems; while, ranitidine and bismuth were not. Also, the combinations of these agents were not found to have additive or synergistic effects.

  3. A Direct Comparison of Anti-ulcer Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Rat: A Controlled Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indomethacin increases generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS which have a crucial role in the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Coenzyme Q10 has an antioxidant activity on mitochondria and cell membranes and protects lipids from oxidation and is essential for stabilizing biological membranes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD acts as one of the defense mechanisms against free radicals. When the generation of ROS overwhelms, the antioxidant defense, lipid peroxiation of cell membrane occurs and cause cell damage. Materials and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats were divided into A and B groups. The rats in group A were then further divided into three subgroups of 6 animals each and received one of the following treatments: Animals in the first subgroup received saline. Animals in the second subgroup received saline and indomethacin. Animals in the third subgroup received vitamin C and indomethacin. The rats in group B were also further divided into 3 subgroups of 6 rats each and treated with one of the following treatments: Animals in first subgroup received 1% Tween 80 as vehicle. Animals In second subgroup received 1% Tween 80 and indomethacin. Animals in third subgroup received CoQ10 and indomethacin. Four hours after the last treatment, animals were killed and the stomachs removed were cut and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Ulcer indexes were determined and SOD activity measured in plasma                                                             Results: Pretreatment with both vitamin C and coenzyme Q10 was associated with attenuation of ulcer index and increased SOD activity compared with animals treated with indomethacin alone (P

  4. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA) and cimetidine in indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer and control rats: inhibition of active renal secretion of AACA by cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Lee, U; Suh, J H; Kim, Y G; Lee, M; Oh, E; Lee, M G

    2011-05-01

    After both the intravenous and oral administration of zinc acexamate [ZAC; ion-pairing between zinc and ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA)] and cimetidine together, the areas under the curve (AUCs) of AACA were significantly greater [by 28.2 and 98.9% after the intravenous and oral administration, respectively, for control rats and 13.5 and 16.9% for indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer (IAGU) rats, respectively] than those of ZAC alone due to the significantly slower renal clearance (CL(R)). The significantly greater AUCs of AACA after both the intravenous and oral administration of ZAC and cimetidine together in control and IAGU rats could have been due to the inhibition of active renal tubular secretion of AACA by cimetidine. After the intravenous and oral administration of both drugs together, the AUCs of cimetidine in control and IAGU rats were not different compared with those with cimetidine alone.

  5. SCREENING THE EFFICACY OF FORTY MEDICINAL PLANTS NORTH EAST HIMALAYAS OF INDIAN SUBCONTINENT IN INDOMETHACIN INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN ALBINO RATS

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    PRASANTA KUMAR MITRA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know anti gastric ulcer effect, if any, of 40 medicinal plants. Method: Gastric ulcer was induced in rats by indomethacin and anti gastric ulcer activity of medicinal plants was evaluated. Result: Nine medicinal plants showed anti gastric ulcer activity under the experimental conditions. Conclusion: Active compounds of these planst may be included in future in the list of anti gastric ulcer drugs.

  6. Gastroprotective effects of goniothalamin against ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats: Role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and sulfhydryl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; Tinti, Sirlene Valério; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2014-12-01

    Goniothalamin (GTN), a styryl-lactone, is a secondary metabolite naturally found in its enantiomeric form (R) in plants of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae). The antiproliferative activity against human tumor cell lines reported in several studies suggest that the α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone moiety emerges as a key Michael acceptor for cysteine residues or other nucleophilic biological molecules. Our group reported on the in vivo activity of (R)- and (S)-GTN as well as its racemic form (rac-GTN) in both Ehrlich solid tumor and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, without side effects in the effective doses. Despite the rich body of data on the in vitro GTN biological activity, much less is known about its in vivo pharmacological action. Herein we describe the gastroprotective activity of rac-GTN on chemical-induced gastric ulcers models in rats. GTN has a potent gastroprotective effect on ethanol-induced ulcers (effective dose50=18mg/kg) and this activity is dependent on sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins generation, but independent of nitric oxide (NO), gastric secretion and mucus production. We hypothesize that goniothalamin may act as a mild irritant, inducing the production of sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins, in a process known as adaptive cytoprotection. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that Michael acceptors are the most potent inducers of antioxidant response (as activation of Nrf2 pathway) through generation of mild oxidative stress and that gastroprotective activity of goniothalamin is inhibited after pre-treatment with NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) and NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), highlighting the importance of sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins on GTN activity.

  7. Curcumin prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duangporn Thong-Ngam; Sakonwan Choochuai; Suthiluk Patumraj; Maneerat Chayanupatkul; Naruemon Klaikeaw

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of curcumin on gastric microcirculation and inflammation in rats with indomethacin-induced gastric damage.METHODS:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups.Group 1 (control group,n =5) was fed with olive oil and 5% NaHCO3-(vehicle).Group 2 [indomethacin (IMN) group,n =5] was fed with olive oil 30 min prior to indomethacin 150 mg/kg body weight (BW) dissolved in 5% NaHCO3-at time 0th and 4th h.Group 3 (IMN + Cur group,n =4) was fed with curcumin 200 mg/kg BW dissolved in olive oil 0.5 mL,30 min prior to indomethacin at 0th and 4th h.Leukocyte-endothelium interactions at postcapillary venules were recorded after acridine orange injection.Blood samples were determined for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method Finally,the stomach was removed for histopathological examination for gastric lesions and grading for neutrophil infiltration.RESULTS:In group 2,the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venules was significantly increased compared to the control group (6.40 ± 2.30 cells/frame vs 1.20 ± 0.83 cells/frame,P =0.001).Pretreatment with curcumin caused leukocyte adherence to postcapillary venule to decline (3.00 ± 0.81 cells/frame vs 6.40 ± 2.30 cells/frame,P =0.027).The levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α increased significantly in the indomethacintreated group compared with the control group (1106.50± 504.22 pg/mL vs 336.93 ± 224.82 pg/mL,P =0.011and 230.92 ± 114.47 pg/mL vs 47.13 ± 65.59 pg/mL,P =0.009 respectively).Pretreatment with curcumin significantly decreased the elevation of ICAM-1 and TNF-α levels compared to treatment with indomethacin alone (413.66 ± 147.74 pg/mL vs 1106.50 ± 504.22 pg/mL,P =0.019 and 58.27 ± 67.74 pg/mL vs 230.92 ± 114.47 pg/mL,P =0.013 respectively).The histological appearance of the stomach in the control group was normal.In the indomethacin-treated group,the stomachs showed a mild to

  8. Preventative Effects of Sodium Alginate on Indomethacin-induced Small-intestinal Injury in Mice.

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    Horibe, Sayo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Kawauchi, Shoji; Mizuno, Shigeto; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic technologies have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious mucosal injury in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (including the small intestine). A drug to treat NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury (SII) is lacking. Sodium alginate is a soluble dietary fiber extracted from brown seaweed and its solution has been used as a hemostatic agent to treat gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric ulcers. Whether sodium alginate has therapeutic effects on NSAID-induced SII and its mechanism of action are not known. Here, we investigated if administration of two forms (high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)) of sodium alginate could ameliorate indomethacin-induced SII. Pretreatment with HMW sodium alginate or LMW sodium alginate before indomethacin administration improved ulceration and the resultant intestinal shortening was associated with reduced histological severity of mucosal injury and ameliorated mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules in the small intestine. We found that mRNAs of secretory Muc2 and membrane-associated Muc1, Muc3 and Muc4 were expressed in the small intestine. mRNA expression of Muc1-4 was increased in indomethacin-induced SII, and these increases were prevented by sodium alginate. Thus, administration of sodium alginate could be a therapeutic approach to prevent indomethacin-induced SII.

  9. Protective effect of wheat peptides against indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides against Indomethacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in IEC-6 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells.

  11. Ligustrazine alleviates gastric mucosal injur y in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Chun Dang; Jian-Xin Zhang; Jian-Guo Qu; Xue-Qing Wang; Xin Fan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) leads to a systemic inlfammatory response characterized by widespread leukocyte activation and, as a consequence, distant organ injury. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between gastric microcirculatory impairment and inlfammatory mediators released in rats and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of ligustrazine extracted from Rhizoma ligusticum wallichii on gastric mucosa injury in a rat model of ANP. METHODS: Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (group C);ANP without treatment (group P); and ANP treated with ligustrazine (group T). The ANP model was induced by injection of 50 g/L sodium taurocholate under the pancreatic membrane (4 ml/kg). Group C was given isovolumetric injection of 9 g/L physiological saline by the same route. Group T was injected with ligustrazine (10 ml/kg) via the portal vein. The radioactive biomicrosphere technique was used to measure the blood lfow 2 and 12 hours after the induction of ANP. Samples of the pancreas and stomach were taken to assess pathological changes by a validated histology score;meanwhile, the levels of serum interleukin-1β(IL-1β) were determined. Gastric tissues were also used to measure the level of myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is expressed intracellularly in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils. RESULTS: Blood lfow in group P was signiifcantly lower than that in group C (P CONCLUSIONS: Decreased gastric blood lfow and increased inlfammatory mediators can be seen early in ANP, and both are important factors for gastric and mucosal injury. Ligustrazine can ameliorate microcirculatory disorder and alleviate the damage to the pancreas and stomach.

  12. Effect of hesperidin and neohesperidin from bittersweet orange (Citrus aurantium var. bigaradia) peel on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia I; Mahmoud, Mona F; Wink, Michael; El-Shazly, Assem M

    2014-05-01

    Hesperidin and neohesperidin are the major flavanones isolated from bittersweet orange. It was recently reported that they have potent anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory models. In the present study, the effects of hesperidin and neohesperidin on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats with a single dose of indomethacin. The effects of pretreatment with hesperidin and neohesperidin were assessed in comparison with omeprazole as reference standard. Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product, malondialdhyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in stomach were measured. Furthermore, gross and histopathological examination was performed. Our results indicated that both hesperidin and neohesperidin significantly aggravated gastric damage caused by indomethacin administration as evidenced by increased ulcer index and histopathological changes of stomach.

  13. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein O B Oloyede; Matthew C Adaja; Taofeek O Ajiboye; Musa O Salawu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. METHODS:Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A–F) of ifve rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distil ed water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. RESULTS:Carica papaya seed extract signiifcantly (P<0.05) increased gastric pH and percentage of ulcer inhibition relative to indomethacin-induced ulcer rats. The extract signiifcantly (P<0.05) decreased gastric acidity, gastric acid output, gastric pepsin secretion, ulcer index and gastric secretion volume relative to group B. These results were similar to that achieved by pretreatment with cimetidine. Speciifc activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the extract-treated groups (D, E and F) were increased signiifcantly over the group B (P<0.05). Pretreatment with the seed extract protected rats from the indomethacin-mediated decrease in enzyme function experienced by the group B. Similarly, indomethacin-mediated decrease in reduced glutathione level and indomethacin-mediated increase in malondialdehyde were reversed by Carica papaya extract. CONCLUSION:In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Healing property of the Piper betel phenol, allylpyrocatechol against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration and mechanism of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Bhattacharya; D Banerjee; AK Bauri; S Chattopadhyau; SK Bandyopadhyay

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective activity of allylpyrocatechol (APC), the major antioxidant constituent of Piper betel,against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in the rat model and correlates with its antioxidative and mucin protecting properties.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Normal control rats (group Ⅰ ) were given the vehicle oral dose of gum acacia in distilled water (1 mL per rat); ulcerated control and treated rats (groups Ⅱ-Ⅴ) were given a single dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body wt.); group Ⅱ rats were sacrificed 4 h after indomethacin administration; groups Ⅲ-Ⅴ rats were given the vehicle (1 mL per rat) or APC (2 mg/kg body wt.) or misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt.) once daily by oral intubation for 7 d starting from 4 h after the indomethacin administration. After 7 d, the stomach tissues were excised for histological examination and biochemical analysis.RESULTS: Treatment with APC (2 mg/kg body wt per day) and misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt per day) for 7 d could effectively heal the stomach ulceration as revealed from the ulcer index and histopathological studies. Compared to the zero day ulcerated group,treatment with APC and misoprostol reduced the ulcer index by 93.4% and 85.4% respectively (P<0.05). Both APC and misoprostol accelerated ulcer healing observed in natural recovery (P<0.05), their respective healing capacities not being significantly different. The healing capacities of APC and misoprostol could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to enhance the mucin content of the gastric tissues. Compared to the ulcerated untreated rats, those treated with APC and misoprostol showed near normal MDA levels, while the protein levels were 86% and 78% of the normal value respectively (P<0.05). Likewise, both APC and misoprostol increased the SOD, catalase, and mucin levels significantly (P<0.05), the effect of APC being better.CONCLUSION: APC can protect

  15. L-Theanine healed NSAID-induced gastric ulcer by modulating pro/antioxidant balance in gastric ulcer margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Chatterjee, Ananya; Roy, Surmi; Bera, Biswajit; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

    2014-10-01

    L-Theanine is a unique non-protein-forming amino acid present in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. In the present work, we evaluated the healing effect of L-theanine on NSAID (indomethacin)-induced gastric ulcer. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the third day after indomethacin administration (18 mg/kg, single dose p.o.) which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation; protein carbonylation; Th1 cytokine synthesis, and depletion of thiol, mucin, prostaglandin (PG) E, Th2 cytokine synthesis; and total antioxidant status in mice. L-Theanine healed gastric ulcer at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. but aggravated the ulcerated condition at a higher dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. At 10 mg/kg b.w., L-theanine significantly alleviated the adverse oxidative effect of indomethacin through enhanced synthesis of PGE2 by modulation of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and 2 [COX-1 and COX-2] expression, Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, and restoration of cellular antioxidant status at the gastric ulcer margin. The present study revealed for the first time the dose-dependent biphasic effect of a natural neuroprotective agent, L-theanine, on gastric ulcer disease.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of gastrointestinal protection by quercetin against indomethacin-induced damage: role of NF-κB and Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Castillo, Rodrigo L; Beltrán, Caroll; Miranda, Alfonso; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Gotteland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the gastrointestinal protection by quercetin against indomethacin-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, with specific interest in studying the underlying molecular mechanisms. We hypothesized that the quercetin-protective effect relies on its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Rats were pretreated with quercetin (50- or 100-mg/kg, ig single dose), 30 min before INDO administration (40-mg/kg ig single dose). Caco-2 cells were treated with INDO (250 and 500 μM) in the absence or presence of quercetin (10 μg/ml). Quercetin prevented the decrease in nuclear translocation of Nrf2, a key regulator of the antioxidant response, and the increase in reactive oxygen species levels induced by INDO by inhibiting the enhancement of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activities as well as the reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in gastric and ileal tissues. Quercetin also prevented INDO-induced ICAM-1 and P-selectin expressions and the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in gastric and ileal tissues and NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells. Quercetin did not affect the inhibition of TNFα-mediated production of prostaglandin E2 induced by INDO in Caco-2 cells. The protective effects of quercetin observed in the gastric and ileal mucosa of rats as well as in Caco-2 cells relied on the ability of this flavonol to prevent NF-κB activation and increase Nrf2 translocation. This study supports the concept that quercetin may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-associated side effects, without interfering with their therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Multiple indomethacin-induced jejunal ulcerations with perforation: a case report with histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risty, Gina M; Najarian, Melissa M; Shapiro, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    Gastric and duodenal inflammation and ulceration are well-known complications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) usage. However, small bowel ulceration and perforation secondary to NSAID use is uncommon and has rarely been reported in the literature. We describe a perforated jejunal ulcer that developed in a patient using indomethacin for treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. We performed a literature review of NSAID-induced small bowel injury and compared the histology of NSAID-related injury with more familiar causes of small bowel perforation.

  18. Prevention by lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, of indomethacin -induced small intestinal ulceration in rats through induction of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Y; Amagase, K; Kato, S; Tokioka, S; Murano, M; Kakimoto, K; Nishio, H; Umegaki, E; Takeuchi, K; Higuchi, K

    2010-06-01

    The effect of lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), on indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration was examined in rats, particularly in relation to heme oxygenase (HO)-1. The animals were administered indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and killed 24 h later. Lansoprazole (30-100 mg/kg, p.o.) and omeprazole (30-100 mg/kg, p.o.) were given 30 min before the administration of indomethacin, while tin-protoporphyrin IX (SnPP: 30 mg/kg, i.v.), an inhibitor of HO-1, was injected 10 min before indomethacin or lansoprazole. Indomethacin produced hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, accompanied with an increase of mucosal invasion of enterobacteria, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the mucosa. Pretreatment with lansoprazole dose- dependently reduced the severity of the indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions, with suppression of the increased MPO activity, while omeprazole had no effect. Pretreatment with SnPP significantly exacerbated these intestinal lesions and almost totally abolished the protective effect of lansoprazole. The up-regulation of iNOS mRNA expression following indomethacin was suppressed by lansoprazole in a SnPP-inhibitable manner, although the enhanced enterobacterial invasion remained unaffected. The amount of HO-1 protein in the intestinal mucosa was significantly increased by lansoprazole but not by omeprazole. Prior administration of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2; 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the severity of these lesions and the enhancement of mucosal iNOS mRNA expression induced in the small intestine by indomethacin. These results suggest that lansoprazole prevents indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration, and this effect is associated with inhibition of iNOS expression, through up-regulation of HO-1/CO production in the mucosa.

  19. Dopamine D₂-receptor antagonists ameliorate indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration in mice by activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryoji; Hashimura, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Naoki; Iimori, Maho; Amagase, Kikuko; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that nicotine and the specific α7AChR agonist ameliorate indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions in mice by activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR). Dopamine D₂-receptor antagonists, such as domperidone and metoclopramide, enhance the release of ACh from vagal efferent nerves. The present study examined the effects of domperidone and metoclopramide on indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration in mice, focusing on the α7AChR. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c.) and sacrificed 24 h later. Domperidone (0.1-10 mg/kg) and metoclopramide (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) were administered i.p. twice, at 0.5 h before and 8 h after indomethacin treatment, while methyllycaconitine (a selective antagonist of α7nAChR, 30 mg/kg) was administered twice, at 0.5 h before each domperidone treatment. Indomethacin caused severe hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, mostly to the jejunum and ileum, with a concomitant increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Domperidone suppressed the severity of lesions and the increase in MPO activity at low doses (0.1-3 mg/kg), but not at a high dose (10 mg/kg). Similar effects were also observed by metoclopramide. The protective effects of domperidone and metoclopramide were totally abolished by prior administration of methyllycaconitine. Indomethacin treatment markedly enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase and chemokine mRNA expression in the small intestine, but these responses were all significantly attenuated by either domperidone or metoclopramide. These findings suggest that dopamine D₂-receptor antagonists ameliorate indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration through the activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways mediated by α7nAChR.

  20. Protective effect of melatonin against multistress condition induced lipid peroxidation via measurement of gastric mucosal lesion and plasma malondialdehyde levels in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Kiarostami; L Samini; M Ghazi-Khansari

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of a natural antioxidant, melatonin, against multistress condition induced lipid peroxidation via determination of gastric damage and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level by high performance liquid chromatography in rats.METHODS: We compared indomethacin-induced gastric damage and MDA plasma level in three groups of rats: unoperated, bile duct ligated and sham-operated and evaluated the role of the melatonin on gastric damage and plasma MDA level. Indomethacin and melatonin were injected intraperitoneally in doses of 50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Animals were killed 4 h after indomethacin injection.RESULTS: Indomethacin induced more severe gastric damage and plasma MDA level in bile duct ligated animals was significantly higher (3.1 ± 0.04 μmol/L) than sham (2.8 ± 0.04 μmol/L) and unoperated animals (1.4± 0.08 μmol/L). Pretreatment with melatonin reduced indomethacin-induced gastric damage and plasma MDA level.CONCLUSION: Considering the results of this study,we suggest that in multistress conditions the intensity of gastric damage and the plasma MDA level are great and melatonin reduces the negative effect of lipid peroxidation and cell damage by oxidative stress in multistress conditions due to its antioxidizing activity.

  1. Upregulation and activation of caspase-3 or caspase-8 and elevation of intracellular free calcium mediated apoptosis of indomethacin-induced K562 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广森; 周光飚; 戴崇文

    2004-01-01

    Background A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, has been shown to have anti-leukemic activity and induce leukemic cell opoptosis. This study was to elucidate the mechanism of indomethacin-induced K562 cell apoptosis.Methods K562 cells were grown in RPMI 1640 medium and treated with different doses of indomethacin (0 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L, 200 μmol/L, 400 μmol/L, 800 μmol/L) for 72 hours. The cells were harvested, and cell viability or apoptosis was analyzed using MTT assay and AO/EB stain, combining laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) technique separately. For the localization and distribution of intracellular caspase-3 or caspase-8 protein, immunofluorescence assay was carried out. To reveal the activation of caspase-3 or caspase-8 in indomethacin-treated cells, Western blot detection was used. The change in intracellular free calcium was determined by Fluo-3/ Am probe labeling combined with LSCM. Results Indomethacin could lead to K562 cell apoptosis and inhibit cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. An increased expression of intracellular caspase-3 or caspase-8 was observed at higher doses of indomethacin (400-800 μmol/L). Western blot results showed upregrulation and activation in both caspase-3 and caspase-8 protein. Under indomethacin intervention, the levels of intracellular free calcium showed a significant increase. Blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase did not abolish the effects of indomethacin on K562 cell apoptosis.Conclusions Activation and upregulation of caspase-3 or caspase-8 protein were responsible for Indomethacin-induced K562 cell apoptosis. Variation of intracellular free calcium might switch on the apoptotic pathway and the proapoptotic effect of indomethacin might be cyclooxygenase-independent.

  2. Doxycycline blocks gastric ulcer by regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laishram Pradeepkumar Singh; Amartya Mishra; Debjit Saha; Snehasikta Swarnakar

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of doxycycline on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and oxidative stress in gastric tissues of rats following gastric injury. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were generated in rats by administration of 70% ethanol, and activity of doxycycline was tested by administration 30 min prior to ethanol. Similarly, the effect of doxycycline was tested in an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model. The activities and expression of MMPs were examined by zymography and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Gastric injury in rats as judged by elevated ulcer indices following exposure to ulcerogen, either indomethacin or ethanol, was reversed significantly by doxycycline. Indomethacin-induced ulcerated gastric tissues exhibited about 12-fold higher proMMP-9 activity and about 5-fold higher proMMP-3 activity as compared to control tissues. Similarly, ethanol induced about 22-fold and about 6-fold higher proMMP-9 and proMMP-3 activities, respectively, in rat gastric tissues. Both proMMP-9 and MMP-3 activities were markedly decreased by doxycycline in ulcerogen treated rat gastric tissues. In contrast, the reduced MMP-2 activity in ulcerated tissues was increased by doxycycline during ulcer prevention. On the other hand, doxycycline inhibited significantly proMMP-9, -2 and -3 activities in vitro . In addition, doxycycline reduced oxidative load in gastric tissues and scavenged H2O2 in vitro . Our results suggest a novel regulatory role of doxycycline on MMP-2 activity in addition to inhibitory action on MMP-9 and MMP-3 during prevention of gastric ulcers. CONCLUSION: This is the first demonstration of dual action of doxycycline, that is, regulation of MMP activity and reduction of oxidative stress in arresting gastric injury.

  3. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alleviates hypertension and is associated with an increase in mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in morbid obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Taskiran, Mustafa; Damgaard, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine 24-h blood pressure (24BP), systemic haemodynamics and the effect of sodium intake on 24BP in obese patients before and after gastric bypass surgery [laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB)], and to determine whether weight loss from LRYGB might be related to an increase...... of high versus low sodium intake on 24BP was evaluated before and 12 months after LRYGB. RESULTS: Six weeks after LRYGB, the average weight loss was 20 kg, with a further 21 kg weight loss 1 year after surgery. In hypertensive patients, 24BP was significantly reduced at 6 weeks, but not 1 year after LRYGB...... in hypertensive patients and increased by 77% 1 year after the operation. In normotensive patients, preoperative concentrations were normal and increased only by 6%. High sodium intake induced plasma volume expansion, increased stroke volume and cardiac output, but no significant change in 24BP - neither before...

  4. Effect of centrally administered oxytocin on gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats%脑室注射催产素对大鼠胃和十二指肠溃疡的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed ASAD; Deepak Gopal; Kallasam KOUMARAVELOU; Benny K ABRAHAM; Sadashivam VASU; Subramanian RAMASWAMY

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of centrally administered oxytocin and its receptor antagonist, atosiban, on gasuic acid secretion and on experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers. METHODS: The acute gastric ulcer models, such as pylorus ligation, indomethacin-induced and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers were used. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced by acetic acid and duodenal ulcers by cysteamine HC1. RESULTS: In pylorus ligated rats, oxytocin ( 10 μg/kg, icv) showed signifi cant antisecretory and antiulcer activity (P<0.01 ). However, it aggravated the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and did not show any effect on indomethacin-induced gas tric ulcers. Oxytocin increased gastric ulcer healing in acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The effect of oxytocin was reversed by atosiban (10 μg/kg, icy), a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist. Atosiban when given alone increased gastric acid secretion and ulcer index in pylorus-ligated rats and also aggravated acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. It seems the antiul cer activity of oxytocin was due to its anti-secretory ef fect. CONCLUSION: Centrally administered oxytocin possesses gastric anti-secretory and anti-ulcer activity and oxytocin antagonist, atosiban, is pro-ulcerogenic in rats.

  5. Veronicastrum axillare Alleviates Ethanol-Induced Injury on Gastric Epithelial Cells via Downregulation of the NF-kB Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-shan; Chen, Gang; Guo, Yan; Wang, Dan-yi; Meng, Gui-bin

    2017-01-01

    We used human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) line in an ethanol-induced cell damage model to study the protective effect of Veronicastrum axillare and its modulation to NF-κB signal pathway. The goal was to probe the molecular mechanism of V. axillare decoction in the prevention of gastric ulcer and therefore provide guidance in the clinical application of V. axillare on treating injuries from chronic nephritis, pleural effusion, gastric ulcer, and other ailments. The effects of V. axillare-loaded serums on cell viability were detected by MTT assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Real-Time PCR methods were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, IκBα, and IKKβ. The results showed that V. axillare-loaded serum partially reversed the damaging effects of ethanol and NF-κB activator (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate: PMA) and increased cell viability. The protein and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, NF-κB, IκBα, and IKKβ were significantly upregulated by ethanol and PMA while they were downregulated by V. axillare-loaded serum. In summary, V. axillare-loaded serum has significantly protective effect on GES-1 against ethanol-induced injury. The protective effect was likely linked to downregulation of TNF-α based NF-κB signal pathway. PMID:28182096

  6. Protective Effect of Liriodendrin Isolated from Kalopanax pictus against Gastric Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Yoon Ah; Hwang, Seon A; Lee, Sun Yi; Hwang, In Young; Kim, Sun Whoe; Kim, So Yeon; Moon, Aree; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Keum Jee; Jeong, Choon Sik

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activities on gastritis and gastric ulcer using liriodendrin which is a constituent isolated from Kalopanax pictus. To elucidate its abilities to prevent gastric injury, we measured the quantity of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as the protective factor, and we assessed inhibition of activities related to excessive gastric acid be notorious for aggressive factor and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization known as a cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Liriodendrin exhibited higher PGE2 level than rebamipide used as a positive control group at the dose of 500 μM. It was also exhibited acid-neutralizing capacity (10.3%) and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition of 42.6% (500 μM). In pylorus-ligated rats, liriodendrin showed lower volume of gastric juice (4.38 ± 2.14 ml), slightly higher pH (1.53 ± 0.41), and smaller total acid output (0.47 ± 0.3 mEq/4 hrs) than the control group. Furthermore liriodendrin inhibited colonization of H. pylori effectively. In vivo test, liriodendrin significantly inhibited both of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis (46.9 %) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer (46.1%). From these results, we suggest that liriodendrin could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer.

  7. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, B; Montero, M J; Sevilla, M A; Román, L S

    1995-05-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity.

  8. Indomethacin promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through concomitant degradation of Survivin and Aurora B kinase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hoa, Neil; Hodges, Amy; Ge, Lishen; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-09-01

    Regular usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced incidence of a variety of cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these chemopreventive effects remain poorly understood. This current investigation showed that in gastric cancer cells: (1) Indomethacin treatment enhanced the degradation of chromosomal passenger proteins, Survivin and Aurora B kinase; (2) Indomethacin treatment down-regulated Aurora B kinase activity in a cell cycle-independent fashion; (3) siRNA knockdown of Survivin level promoted Aurora B kinase protein degradation, and vice versa; (4) ectopic overexpression of Survivin blocked reduction of Aurora B kinase level and activity by indomethacin treatment, and vice versa; (5) siRNA knockdown of Aurora B kinase level and AZD1152 inhibition of its activity induced apoptosis, and overexpression of Aurora B kinase inhibited indomethacin-induced apoptosis; (6) indomethacin treatment reduced Aurora B kinase level, coinciding with reduction of Survivin level and induction of apoptosis, in KATO III and HT-29 cells, and in mouse gastric mucosa. A role for Aurora B kinase function in NSAID-induced apoptosis was not previously explored. Thus this report provides better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NSAIDs by elucidating a significant role for Aurora B kinase in indomethacin-induced apoptosis.

  9. Effects of oral adenosine 5'-triphosphate and adenosine in enteric-coated capsules on indomethacin-induced permeability changes in the human small intestine: a randomized cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bours Martijn JL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well-known that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs can cause damage to the small bowel associated with disruption of mucosal barrier function. In healthy human volunteers, we showed previously that topical administration of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP by naso-intestinal tube attenuated a rise in small intestinal permeability induced by short-term challenge with the NSAID indomethacin. This finding suggested that ATP may be involved in the preservation of intestinal barrier function. Our current objective was to corroborate the favourable effect of ATP on indomethacin-induced permeability changes in healthy human volunteers when ATP is administered via enteric-coated capsules, which is a more practically feasible mode of administration. Since ATP effects may have been partly mediated through its breakdown to adenosine, effects of encapsulated adenosine were tested also. Methods By ingesting a test drink containing 5 g lactulose and 0.5 g L-rhamnose followed by five-hour collection of total urine, small intestinal permeability was assessed in 33 healthy human volunteers by measuring the urinary lactulose/rhamnose excretion ratio. Urinary excretion of lactulose and L-rhamnose was determined by fluorescent detection high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Basal permeability of the small intestine was assessed as a control condition (no indomethacin, no ATP/adenosine. As a model of increased small intestinal permeability, two dosages of indomethacin were ingested at 10 h (75 mg and 1 h (50 mg before ingesting the lactulose/rhamnose test drink. At 1.5 h before indomethacin ingestion, two dosages of placebo, ATP (2 g per dosage or adenosine (1 g per dosage were administered via enteric-coated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC capsules with Eudragit© L30D-55. Results Median urinary lactulose/rhamnose excretion ratio (g/g in the control condition was 0.032 (interquartile range: 0.022–0.044. Compared to the

  10. ε-Acetamidocaproic acid pharmacokinetics in rats with gastric ulcer or small bowel inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, U; Choi, Y H; Kim, Y G; Lee, B K; Oh, E; Lee, M G

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA) were evaluated after the intravenous and oral administration of an antiulcer agent, zinc acexamate (ZAC) at a dose of 20 mg kg⁻¹ (ion pairing between zinc and AACA) in rats with indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer (IAGU) or indomethacin-induced small bowel inflammation (ISBI). In IAGU rats, the area under the curves (AUCs) of AACA were significantly smaller after both the intravenous (551 versus 1270 μg min ml⁻¹) and oral (397 versus 562 μg min ml⁻¹) administration of ZAC than controls, possible due to the significantly faster CL(R) of AACA. In ISBI rats, however, the AUCs of AACA were comparable with controls after both the intravenous and oral administration of ZAC. In IAGU rats, the significantly smaller AUCs of AACA were due to the significantly faster CL(R) (due to the decreased urinary pH by indomethacin treatment) than controls. AACA has a basic secondary amine group. On the other hand, the comparable AUCs of AACA in ISBI rats were due to the comparable CL(R)s between ISBI and control rats. AACA was excreted in the urine via active renal tubular secretion in all rats studied.

  11. The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE M. SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Memora nodosa is popularly known as "caroba" and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN on the gastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model, the treatments of the animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In the gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg did not alter the gastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. did not alter glutathione levels (GSH, but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus.

  12. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2(+) cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5(+) stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5(+) stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2(+) cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2(+) cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program.

  13. Gastric anti-ulcerative and anti-inflammatory activity of metyrosine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Polat, Beyzagul; Cadirci, Elif; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet; Halici, Zekai; Gulapoglu, Mine; Albayrak, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative effects of metyrosine, a selective tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor, were investigated in rats. For ulcer experiments, indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer tests and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer tests were used. For these experiments, rats were fasted for 24 h. Different doses of metyrosine and 25 mg/kg doses of ranitidine were administered to rats, followed by indomethacin at 25 mg/kg for the indomethacin-induced ulcer test, or 50% ethanol for the ethanol-induced test. Results have shown that at all of the doses used (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), metyrosine had significant anti-ulcerative effects in both indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcer tests. Metyrosine doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (especially the 200 mg/kg dose) also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw inflammation even more effectively than indomethacin. In addition, to characterize the anti-inflammatory mechanism of metyrosine we investigated its effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in inflammatory tissue (rat paw). The results showed that all doses of metyrosine significantly inhibited high COX-2 activity. The degree of COX-2 inhibition correlated with the increase in anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, we found that metyrosine has more anti-inflammatory effects than indomethacin and that these effects can be attributed to the selective inhibition of COX-2 enzymes by metyrosine. We also found that adrenalin levels are reduced upon metyrosine treatment, which may be the cause of the observed gastro-protective effects of this compound.

  14. Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Najarnezhad, Vahid; Anassori, Ehsan; Mostafavi, Mostafa; Keshipour, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach. Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine. The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors.

  15. Gastroprotective activity of α-terpineol in two experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Batista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Several plant essential oils, as well as terpenes present in essential oils, have shown gastroprotective activity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of α-terpineol, a monoterpene alcohol which is present in essential oils of various plants. Methods: The gastroprotective activity of α-terpineol was evaluated in rats by assessing the changes in ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer scores and on gastric secretory volume and total acidity in pylorus-ligated rats. Alpha-terpineol was administrated orally at the doses of 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg one hour before administration of the ulcer inducing agents by the pylorus ligation procedure. The involvement of endogenous prostaglandins in the protective effect of α-terpineol in ethanol-induced gastric lesions test was assessed by administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c. 30 min before oral administration of α-terpineol at the dose of 50 mg/kg. Results: α-terpineol presented gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced ulcers at the doses of 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg. Epoxy-carvone at the dose of 10 mg/kg did not present gastroprotective activity against ulcer induced by indomethacin, but at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg it attenuated the gastric damages induced by this agent significantly. Pretreatment with indomethacin did not prevent the gastroprotective effect of α-terpineol on ethanol-induced ulcers. Alpha-terpineol also did not affect the gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Major conclusion: The results suggest that α-terpineol presents gastroprotective action which does not involve either an increase in the synthesis of endogenous prostaglandin or a decrease in the gastric acid secretion.

  16. Gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Gomceli; Baris Demiriz; Mesut Tez

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths.Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection,as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy,there are still 700 000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis.None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates:at present,the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%.Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation,injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia.It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating,sustaining and advancing tumor growth.It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic.Additional mutations can be acquired,and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype.Intestinalization of gastric units,which is called "intestinal metaplasia";phenotypic antralization of fundic units,which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis.Also,an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma.However,the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial.Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation,and our paper attempts to high-light recent progress in this field of cancer research.

  17. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  18. [Gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  19. Gastric lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 12-year-old-boy with gastric lipoma. Upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy with biopsy and abdominal computed tomogram (CT scan revealed the diagnosis. Open surgical excision of the mass with stomach preservation was done. The clinical presentation and management are discussed and the literature reviewed here. This is the sixth pediatric case reported in the English literature.

  20. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Gastric Sleeve Surgery Print A ... buying healthy food ) continue Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  1. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  3. Gastric lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravani Padala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent 5-20% of extra nodal lymphomas and mainly occur in the stomach and small intestine. Clinical findings are not specific, thus often determining a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging features at conventional and cross-sectional imaging must be known by the radiologist since he/she plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and disease assessment, thus assisting in the choice of the optimal treatment to patients. This review focuses on the wide variety of imaging presentation of esophageal, gastric, and small and large bowel lymphoma presenting their main imaging appearances at conventional and cross-sectional imaging, mainly focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, helping in the choice of the best imaging technique for the disease characterization and assessment and the recognition of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extra nodal site involved by lymphoma. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract .The most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2481-2486

  4. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  5. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  6. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  7. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  8. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  9. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  10. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... bypass surgery is not a quick fix for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. After this surgery, you must eat healthy foods, control portion sizes of ...

  11. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  13. Lansoprazole prevents experimental gastric injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through a reduction of mucosal oxidative damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corrado Blandizzi; Matteo Fornai; Rocchina Colucci; Gianfranco Natale; Valter Lubrano; Cristina Vassalle; Luca Antonioli; Gloria Lazzeri; Mario Del Tacca

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated the mechanisms of protection afforded by the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole against gastric injury induced by different non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with indomethacin (100 μmol/kg), diclofenac (60 μmol/kg),piroxicam (150 μmol/kg) or ketoprofen (150 μmol/kg).Thirty minutes before NSAIDs, animals were orally treated with lansoprazole 18 or 90 μmol/kg. Four hours after the end of treatments, the following parameters were assessed: gastric mucosal PGE2, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) or non-proteic sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) levels; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mucosal COX-2 mRNA; gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated animals; in vitro effects of lansoprazole (1-300 μmol/L) on the oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) induced by copper sulphate.RESULTS: All NSAIDs elicited mucosal necrotic lesions which were associated with neutrophil infiltration and reduction of PGE2 levels. Increments of MPO and MDA contents, as well as a decrease in GSH levels were detected in the gastric mucosa of indomethacin- or piroxicam-treated animals. Indomethacin enhanced mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 expression, while not affecting cyclooxygenase-1. At the oral dose of 18 μmol/kg lansoprazole partly counteracted diclofenac-induced mucosal damage, whereas at 90 μmol/kg it markedly prevented injuries evoked by all test NSAIDs. Lansoprazole at 90 μmol/kg reversed also the effects of NSAIDs on MPO, MDA and GSH mucosal contents, without interfering with the decrease in PGE2 levels or indomethacin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. However, both lansoprazole doses markedly inhibited acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Lansoprazole concentration-dependently reduced the oxidation of LDLs in vitro.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, besides the inhibition of acid secretion, lansoprazole protection against NSAID

  14. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes.

  15. Effect of Mica Monomer Powder on Chief and Parietal Cells as well as G and D Cells in Gastric Mucosa of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fang-shi; SI Jian-min; WANG Liang-jing; WANG Dong-fei; CHEN Ping

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the regulative action of mica monomer powder preparation on the chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in the gastric mucosa of the experimental atrophic gastritis(CAG)rats.Methods:Intervention therapy was given to the experimental CAG rats at three different doses of mica monomer powder preparation to evaluate the changes of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in the gastric mucosa and the histopathological changes of gastric mucosa.Results:Mica monomer powder preparation at three different doses could increase the amount of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in gastric mucosa of the experimental CAG rats and alleviate and control the inflammation of gastric mucosa and the atrophy of gastric mucosa glands.Especially,better effects were shown in the mid and high dose groups.Conclusion:Mica has the pharmacological action of protecting the gastric mucosa,promoting the regeneration of gastric glands,enhancing blood flow of the gastric mucosa,and consequently improving the inflammatory responses of the gastric mucosa.One of the mechanisms is associated with promoting the secretion of gastric acid and gastric pepsin and regulating the neuroendocrine mechanism including gut hormone secretion(gastrin and somatostatin)by increasing the number of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells.

  16. Familial gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of gastric cancer has pointed out to a possible hereditary and genetic factor involved in the carcinogenesis of this disease. The diffuse type gastric cancer patients are frequently younger and the tumor has locally infiltrative growth pattern early in its development. Observation of families with frequent early onset gastric cancer has led to the identification of a novel gene implicated in gastric cancer susceptibility: CDH1/E-cadherin. Diffuse familiar gastric cancer is defined as any family presenting: two first-degree relatives with diffuse gastric cancer, one of them with age under 50 years or at least 3 first-degree relatives irrespective age of onset. CASE REPORT: The family reported by us does not fit in any of the classification proposed. The precise identification of these families by clinical and molecular tools is of great importance. The case reported is an example of a family that probably is a form of hereditary gastric cancer not yet fully understood. CONCLUSION: Soon there will be new criteria, possibly including genetic and molecular characteristics.

  17. Gastric conduit perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  18. Gastric Duplication Cyst Causing Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Al Shehi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a newborn baby with gastric duplication cyst presented with non-bilious vomiting and upper abdominal distension. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and established by ultrasonography and computed tomography. The cyst was completely excised with uneventful recovery.

  19. Octreotide ameliorates gastric lesions in chronically mild stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noha N Nassar; Mona F Schaalan; Hala F Zaki; Dalaal M Abdallah

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) on the emergence of gastric ulcers and possible modulation by octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analogue. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to nine different unpredictable random stress procedures for 21 d, a multifactorial interactional animal model for CMS. Octreotide was administered daily for 21 d at two dose levels (50 and 90 μg/kg) before exposure to stress procedure. Macro-and microscopical assessments were made, in addition to quantification of plasma corticosterone and gastric mucosal inflammatory, oxidative stress, and apoptotic biomarkers. RESULTS: Exposure to CMS elevated plasma corticosterone (28.3 ± 0.6 μg/dL, P = 0.002), an event that was accompanied by gastric lesions (6.4 ± 0.16 mm,P = 0.01) and confirmed histopathologically. Moreover, the insult elevated gastric mucosal lipid peroxides (13 ± 0.5 nmol/g tissue, P = 0.001), tumor necrosis factor-α(3008.6 ± 78.18 pg/g tissue, P < 0.001), prostaglandin E2 (117.1 ± 4.31 pg/g tissue, P = 0.002), and caspase-3 activity (2.4 ± 0.14 OD/mg protein, P = 0.002). Conversely, CMS mitigated interleukin-10 (627.9 ± 12.82 pg/g tissue, P = 0.001). Furthermore, in animals exposed to CMS, octreotide restored plasma corticosterone (61% and 71% from CMS, P = 0.002) at both dose levels. These beneficial effects were associated with a remarkable suppression of gastric lesions (38% and 9% from CMS, P = 0.01) and reversal of derangements in gastric mucosa. CONCLUSION: The current investigation provides evidence that exposure to CMS induces gastric ulceration, which was alleviated by administration of octreotide possibly possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic actions.

  20. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects...

  1. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helps people who have a gastric band stay satisfied longer. This includes things like salad with grilled ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. Comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric and duodenal Strongyloides stercoralis infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, An Na; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Bae, Han-Ik

    2015-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis can cause systemic infection, termed strongyloidiasis, and gastrointestinal ulcer disease in immunocompromised patients. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and S. stercoralis infection. Here, we report a case of an 81-year-old Korean man who presented with S. stercoralis infection coexisting with early gastric adenocarcinoma (T1aN0M0). S. stercoralis eggs, rhabditiform larvae, and adult females were observed in normal gastric and duodenal crypts. They were also observed in atypical glands representative of adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Preliminary laboratory tests revealed mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic leukocytosis. A routine stool test failed to detect rhabditiform larvae in the patient's fecal sample; however, S. stercoralis was identified by PCR amplification and 18S rRNA sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent fever and was treated with albendazole for 7 days, which alleviated the fever. The patient was followed-up by monitoring and laboratory testing for 4 months postoperatively, and no abnormalities were observed thus far. The fact that S. stercoralis infection may be fatal in immunocompromised patients should be kept in mind when assessing high-risk patients.

  3. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  4. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  5. Efeito de um hidrolisado de proteínas de soro de leite e de seus peptídeos na proteção de lesões ulcerativas da mucosa gástrica de ratos Effects of a whey protein concentrate and it's peptides in the protection of ulcerative lesions at rat gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade do hidrolisado das proteínas de soro de leite bovino e uma fração de peptídeos de baixo peso molecular (peso molecular OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of bovine whey protein hydrolysate and its low molecular weight fraction (molecular weight <1kDa to protect the gastric mucosa of rats against ulcerative process induced by three different agents. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were subjected to the indomethacin-induced ulcer (30mg/kg body weigh, absolute ethanol (1ml/animal and immobilization and cold stress (4(0C/2h, models. RESULTS: Whey protein hydrolysate was obtained by treatment with pancreatin to a degree of hydrolysis of 20% and fractionated using a tangential flow membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1kDa to obtain the fraction containing low molecular weight peptides (<1kDa. In the ethanol-induced acute ulcer model (single dose, whey protein hydrolysate inhibited the gastric lesion index by 65.5% and the double dose resulted in a 77.4% inhibition. CONCLUSION: For the anti-inflammatory model, the cytoprotective effect of low molecular weight peptides was stronger than that of total hydrolysate (53.1 and 71.6%, ulcerative lesion index for single and double dose, respectively. No mucosa cytoprotective activity was found for whey protein concentrate, whey protein hydrolysate or WPHP in the immobilization and cold stress model.

  6. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  7. Elderly poverty alleviation through living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, M S; Speare, A

    1995-11-01

    "We estimate here the extent of United States elderly poverty alleviation through living with family. These estimates are motivated by public-policy concern about the well-being of the elderly, and by the relevance of the process for fertility under the old-age-security hypothesis. An inter-temporal poverty-measurement model is estimated with 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation income and wealth data. Without extended-family co-residence, and assuming no bequests, poverty rates would increase 42% over observed rates. Female elderly account for almost all the alleviated poverty. As a population, their impoverishment with age is effectively prevented by co-residence. Proportionately more black than white elderly are beneficiaries of poverty alleviation through living with family, but white elderly are more likely to be beneficiaries if at risk."

  8. Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-04-01

    For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ≥50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9.

  9. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  10. The gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Correa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidencein some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases beingdiagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is acomplex and multi-factored process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations.Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and, in a small percentage ofpatients, a family genetic component. More than 90% of stomach cancers are adenocarcinomas, which are classified intotwo major histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesionsknown as Correa´s cascade. According to the anatomical position, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originatingin the cardia and distal (originating in the body and antrum. This is a classification that recognizes two different clinicalentities. In general, the only possible cure for the disease is resection of the tumor in an early stage for which the identificationand monitoring of at-risk patients play a significant role. With the exception of Japan, no effective early detection programsexist. Anti-H. pylori has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer.

  11. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  12. ANTIGEN MG7 IN GASTRIC CANCER AND GASTRIC PRECANCEROUS LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬丽; 宁佩芳; 袁媛

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the dynamic change and its diagnostic significance of MG7 expression in the process of gastric cancer development. Methods: The expression level of antigen MG7 was determined by immunohistochemistry method in 406 cases of gastric mucosa. The classification of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was determined by histochemistry method in 82 cases. Results: The positive rate of MG7 expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of gastric mucosa and gastric cancer were increased gradually (P<0.01). The positive rate of MG7 expression in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer were increased on sequence (P<0.01). The positive rate of antigen MG7 expression in type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa had significant difference,compared with that in type Ⅰ an Ⅱ intestinal metaplasia (P<0.05). Conclusion: MG7 antigen had close relationship with gastric cancer. Type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and dysplasia should be followed up in order to improve the early detection of gastric cancer. MG7 antigen had great clinical value in the dynamic follow-up of gastric precursors.

  13. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  14. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danielle Queiroz Calcagno; Mariana Ferreira Leal; Paulo Pimentel Assumpcao; Marilia de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Rommel Rodriguez Burbano

    2008-01-01

    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications.

  15. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yang; Dian-Chun Fang; Qian-Wei Li; Nian-Xu Sun; Qing-Lin Long; Jian-Feng Sui; Lu Gan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To invertigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level.METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into:experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope-99m Tc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs.RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35±2.99 min to 79.42±l.91 min (P<0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64,94±l.75 min (P<0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCⅢ (interdigertive myoelectrical complex, IMCⅢ) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29±9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09±17,22 pg/ml; P<0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55±11.20 pg/ml; P<0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing.Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r=0.867, P<0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r=-0.733, P<0,04).CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve gastric emptying

  16. Gastric and non-gastric signals in electrogastrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiho, T; Shimoyama, I; Nakajima, Y; Ochiai, T

    2000-02-14

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is the cutaneous recording of gastric myoelectrical activity, and the dominant frequency reflects the rhythm of the gastric slow wave. Ambulatory EGG is contaminated with a large amount of motion artifacts, and it is unclear how much of the signals comprising the dominant frequency originates from non-gastric sources. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pattern of gastric and non-gastric signals in the dominant frequency histogram (DFH) obtained from long-term ambulatory EGG recordings. Ten normal controls and five post-gastrectomy patients participated in the present study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory EGG was recorded under normal daily conditions. The DFH of normal controls showed two distinctive peaks, and that of the post-gastrectomy patients, a single peak. The common peak at approximately 1.5 cpm was seen in both DFHs, and the peak at 3 cpm was seen only in the DFH of normal controls. Thus, the common peak was thought to be a product of non-gastric origin. In conclusion, the dominant frequency consists of gastric and non-gastric components which have a specific distribution pattern in the DFH. These findings quantified the contribution of gastric and non-gastric signals to the dominant frequencies in long-term ambulatory EGG.

  17. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  18. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions hereditary diffuse gastric cancer hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder that greatly increases ...

  20. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Maksimović Nataša; Knežević Anita; Kisić Darija

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consump...

  2. Gene therapy for gastric diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishi, Junya; Nakamura, Junzo; Nishida, Koyo

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy for gastric cancer and gastric ulcer is a rationalized strategy since various genes correlate with these diseases. Since gene expressions in non-target tissues/cells cause side effects, a selective gene delivery system targeted to the stomach and/or cancer must be developed. The route of vector transfer (direct injection, systemic, intraperitoneal, gastric serosal surface and oral administration) is an important issue which can determine efficacy and safety. Strategies for cancer...

  3. Intravenous phentolamine infusion alleviates the pain of abdominal visceral cancer, including pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Masako; Yasukawa, Ken'ichi; Kamiizumi, You; Yokoyama, Ryouji

    2007-01-01

    This case report series describes eight patients (four patients with pancreatic carcinoma, one patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, one patient with gastric and rectal carcinoma, one with sigmoid colon cancer, and one with rectal cancer), whose abdominal cancer pain was treated with intravenous phentolamine infusion at 80 mg x day(-1) for 2 days. All but one of the patients had already been treated with opioids. All eight patients complained of severe abdominal pain; in five patients the pain radiated to the back, and there was associated anal pain in two patients. Analgesia was achieved in three patients; pain alleviation was obtained in four patients, but was not sustained in two of these four patients; and the treatment in one patient could not be judged for efficacy because epidural morphine was used together with the phentolamine. Adverse effects of phentolamine were tachycardia and/or hypotension.

  4. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  5. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyo; Jun; Ahn; Dong; Soo; Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to theoccurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cag A and vac A are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

  6. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  7. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo La Vecchia; Silvia Franceschi

    2000-01-01

    The reasons for the worldwide decline in stomach cancer incidence and mortality rates are not fully understood, but dietary changes are clearly implicated. While the possible mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication remain open to debate, at least two practical recommendations – to increase fruit and vegetable intake, and to reduce consumption of salt – are already supported by epidemiological evidence. These dietary recommend...

  8. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  9. Chemotherapy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Sastre; Jose Angel García-Saenz; Eduardo Díaz-Rubio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer remains a non-curative disease.Palliative chemotherapy has been demonstrated to prolong survival without quality of life compromise. Many single-agents and combinations have been confirmed to be active in the treatment of metastatic disease. Objective response rates ranged from 10-30% for single-agent therapy and 30-60% for polychemotherapy. Results of phase Ⅱ and Ⅲ studies are reviewed in this paper as well as the potential efficacy of new drugs. For patients with localized disease, the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is discussed.Most studies on adjuvant chemotherapy failed to demonstrate a survival advantage, and therefore, it is not considered as standard treatment in most centres. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy has been developed fundamentally in Korea and Japan. A meta-analysis of phase Ⅲ trials with OK-432 suggested that immunochemotherapy may improve survival of patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Based on the results of US Intergroup 0116study, postoperative chemoradiation has been Accepted as standard care in patients with resected gastric cancer in North America. However, the results are somewhat confounded by the fact that patients underwent less than a recommended D1 lymph node dissection and the pattern of recurrence suggested a positive effect derived from local radiotherapy without any effect on micrometastatic disease.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy remains experimental, but several phase Ⅱstudies are showing promising results. Phase Ⅲ trials are needed.

  10. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meda Anderson R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.

  11. MYCOPLASMA HYORHINIS IN GASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加孚; 张霁; 寿成超; 王怡; 徐光炜

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in archived paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissue. Methods: The antigen recognized by anti-tumor monoclonal antibody PD4 was identified as P40 (a specific Mycoplasma hyorhinis protein). We constructed a tissue-microarray of high density containing 105 gastric cancer samples, 101 non-tumor margin samples and 62 benign gastric disease samples for detecting Mycoplasma hyorhinis using Immunohistochemistry. Results: The infection rate of M. hyorhinis was 54.1%(53/98) in gastric cancer samples, 51.7%(45/87) in non-tumor margin samples and 15.8%(9/57) in benign disease samples. The difference in infection rate between gastric cancer and benign gastric disease has statistical significance (P=0.001). Highly differentiated adenocarcinomas have a greater chance (84.6%) to be infected with M. hyorhinis than poorly differentiated ones (45.5%)(P<0.05. Conclusion: The infection rate of M. yorhinis was higher in gastric cancer than in other tastric diseases, which suggests the association between Mycoplasma infection and gastric cancer. Whether M. hyorhinis has oncogenic potential needs to be elucidated.

  12. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field.

  13. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, smoking, gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastrectomy, stomach polyposis, positive family history for gastric cancer, pernicious anemia and blood type A. Diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and reduced salt intake can prevent 65-75% of gastric cancer cases among nonsmokers. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection can also reduce the incidence of this malignant disease. .

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  15. Effect of Plantago australis leaves on different gastric ulcer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bürger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcerogenic effect of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE of Plantago australis leaves was tested against ethanol-, indomethacin-, and cold restrain-induced stress ulcers. The CEE (500 and 1000 mg/kg reduced the lesion index (LI and the ulcer index in ethanol-induced ulcers, and the dose of 1000 mg/kg increased the amount of mucous. The highest dose of the CEE reduced the LI of cold restraint-induced stress ulcers when compared to the control group. The indomethacin-induced ulcers were not affected by this extract.

  16. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma a

  17. Alleviating Media Bias Through Intelligent Agent Blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Aviles, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Consumers of mass media must have a comprehensive, balanced and plural selection of news to get an unbiased perspective; but achieving this goal can be very challenging, laborious and time consuming. News stories development over time, its (in)consistency, and different level of coverage across the media outlets are challenges that a conscientious reader has to overcome in order to alleviate bias. In this paper we present an intelligent agent framework currently facilitating analysis of the main sources of on-line news in El Salvador. We show how prior tools of text analysis and Web 2.0 technologies can be combined with minimal manual intervention to help individuals on their rational decision process, while holding media outlets accountable for their work.

  18. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  19. Post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantavasinkul, Prapimporn C; Torquati, Alfonso; Corsino, Leonor

    2016-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is a highly effective treatment for severe obesity, resulting in substantial weight loss and normalizing obesity-related comorbidities. However, long-term consequences can occur, such as postbariatric surgery hypoglycaemia. This is a challenging medical problem, and the number of patients presenting with it has been increasing. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most popular bariatric procedure, and it is the surgery most commonly associated with the development of postbariatric surgery hypoglycaemia. To date, the pathogenesis of this condition has not been completely established. However, various factors - particularly increased postprandial glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion - have been considered as crucial mediator. The mechanisms responsible for diabetic remission after bariatric surgery may be responsible for the development of hypoglycaemia, which typically occurs 1-3 h after a meal and is concurrent with inappropriate hyperinsulinaemia. Carbohydrate-rich foods usually provoke hypoglycaemic symptoms, which can typically be alleviated by strict dietary modifications, including carbohydrate restriction and avoidance of high glycaemic index foods and simple sugars. Few patients require further medical intervention, such as medications, but some patients have required a pancreatectomy. Because this option is not always successful, it is no longer routinely recommended. Clinical trials are needed to further determine the pathophysiology of this condition as well as the best diagnostic and treatment approaches for these patients.

  20. [Role of animal gastric Helicobacter species in human gastric pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeev, O K; Pozdeeva, A O; Pozdnyak, A O; Saifutdinov, R G

    2015-01-01

    Animal Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori are also able to cause human gastritis, gastric ulcers, and MALT lymphomas. Animal Helicobacter species are presented with typical spiral fastidious microorganisms colonizing the gastric mucosa of different animals. Bacteria initially received their provisional name Helicobacter heilmannii, and out of them at least five species colonizing the gastric mucosa of pigs, cats, and dogs were isolated later on. A high proportion of these diseases are shown to be zoonotic. Transmission of pathogens occurs by contact. The factors of bacterial pathogenicity remain little studied.

  1. Curcumin alleviates matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9 activities during eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in cultured cells and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Kundu

    Full Text Available Current therapy-regimens against Helicobacter pylori (Hp infections have considerable failure rates and adverse side effects that urge the quest for an effective alternative therapy. We have shown that curcumin is capable of eradicating Hp-infection in mice. Here we examine the mechanism by which curcumin protects Hp infection in cultured cells and mice. Since, MMP-3 and -9 are inflammatory molecules associated to the pathogenesis of Hp-infection, we investigated the role of curcumin on inflammatory MMPs as well as proinflammatory molecules. Curcumin dose dependently suppressed MMP-3 and -9 expression in Hp infected human gastric epithelial (AGS cells. Consistently, Hp-eradication by curcumin-therapy involved significant downregulation of MMP-3 and -9 activities and expression in both cytotoxic associated gene (cag(+ve and cag(-ve Hp-infected mouse gastric tissues. Moreover, we demonstrate that the conventional triple therapy (TT alleviated MMP-3 and -9 activities less efficiently than curcumin and curcumin's action on MMPs was linked to decreased pro-inflammatory molecules and activator protein-1 activation in Hp-infected gastric tissues. Although both curcumin and TT were associated with MMP-3 and -9 downregulation during Hp-eradication, but unlike TT, curcumin enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and inhibitor of kappa B-α. These data indicate that curcumin-mediated healing of Hp-infection involves regulation of MMP-3 and -9 activities.

  2. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  3. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  4. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  5. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  6. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking primary gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ji Kim; Ji Hyung Hong; Eun Su Park; Jae Ho Byun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma arerare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resemblesadvanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastricmetastasis especially when the histology of the primarylung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case ofgastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking Borrmann type Ⅳ primary gastric cancer.A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinomawith multiple bone metastases had been experiencingprogressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plasticalikelesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologicexamination revealed a moderately differentiatedadenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positiveimmunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcriptionfactor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed thatthe metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patienthad been treated with palliative chemotherapy for thelung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months afterthe diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should beaware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patientswith primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additionalimmunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1may help in differentiating its origin.

  7. Retrograde Jejuno-gastric Intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitoj Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde jejuno-gastric intussusception is a rare complication following gastric surgery. We present a case of retrograde jejuno-gastric intussusception in a 42-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, vomiting and swelling in left hypochondruim. Intussusception was suspected on ultrasound of the abdomen and later confirmed with computed tomography scan. At laparotomy, efferent loop was intussuscepting into stomach. This was reduced and fixed to the abdominal wall and transverse mesocolon. It should be suspected in a patient with the previous history of gastric surgery as it is a rare complication. Early diagnosis and management can prevent further complications like bowel gangrene and its associated morbidity and mortality.

  8. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Saunders; 2012:chap 3. Feldman M, Lee EL. Gastritis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  9. [Ocular metastasis heralding gastric adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekrine, T; Tawfiq, N; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2010-10-01

    Ocular metastasis is a rare presenting feature of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented with a decrease in visual acuity of the right eye leading to the discovery of an ocular metastasis. Diagnostic work-up identified a gastric adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases. She received four cycles of chemotherapy combining epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil. The patient died 6 months after the diagnosis of respiratory failure.

  10. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting.

  11. An Online Alternative to Alleviate Communication Apprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyit Ahmet Çapan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an affective factor commonly associated with one’s overall performance in a foreign language. As a component of foreign language anxiety, communication apprehension specifically correlates with successful oral production. A plethora of research (Bailey, Onwuegbuzie & Daley, 2003; Foss & Reitzel, 1988 has indicated that high levels of communication apprehension negatively affects one’s L2 communication abilities. Thus, this study intends to remedy negative effects of communication apprehension on EFL learners by virtual meetings held through computer-mediated communication. The participants (N: 18 in this study were selected through purposive sampling. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative techniques. To analyze the data collected, a non-parametric test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, was utilized. The results indicated that computer-mediated communication via voice over IP tools made a significant contribution to alleviate communication apprehension levels in the participants with varying degrees of apprehension levels. The study yielded the most drastic reduction in the high apprehension group, since the participants in this group made a significant progress and ended up with moderate levels of communication apprehension. Also, the participants’ self-reports revealed that computer-mediated communication yielded remarkably positive changes in their attitudes towards communicating in the target language. Moreover, the study revealed that computer-mediated communication helped to increase their intercultural awareness. Finally, participants provided a bunch of practical suggestions as possible solutions for reducing communication apprehension. Keywords: apprehension, communication, computer-mediated, attitudes

  12. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  13. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  14. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  15. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan GU; Xiao-xiao SUN; Ji-ming YE; Li HE; Shou-sheng YAN; Hao-hao ZHANG; Li-hong HU; Jun-ying YUAN; Qiang YU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG),a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae),against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established.Cell viability was measured using MTT assay.PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression.Silencing of the CaMKKβ,LKB1,and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi).An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels.Results:ATG (2.5,5,and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L).ATG (1,5,and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p7OS6K signaling and eEF2 activity,which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi.ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration.Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress.Furthermore,ATG (2.5 and 5μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells.Conclusion:ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator,which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK,thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinomas and gastric stump carcinomas: a late event in gastric carcinogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausen, A zur; Rees, van B.P.; Beek, van J.; Craanen, M.E.; Bloemena, E.; Offerhaus, GJ; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine at what stage during gastric carcinogenesis Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters the gastric epithelial cells, the presence of EBV was investigated in two pathogenetically related but distinct forms of adenocarcinoma of the stomach-gastric carcinoma of the intact stomach (GCIS) a

  17. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5-FU (Fluorouracil ...

  18. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  20. Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Sztefko; Krzysztof Fyderek; Andrzej Zając; Andrzej Wędrychowicz; Iwona Rogatko; Tomasik, Przemyslaw J

    2013-01-01

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), ...

  1. Multifactorial etiology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric cancer is associated with several factors including geographical location, diet, and genetic background of the host. However, it is evident that infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is crucial for the development of the disease. Virulence of the bacteria is also important in modulating the risk of the disease. After infection, H. pylori gains access to the gastric mucosa and triggers the production of cytokines that promote recruitment of inflammatory cells, probably involved in tissue damage. Once the infection is established, a cascade of inflammatory steps associated with changes in the gastric epithelia that may lead to cancer is triggered. H. pylori-induced gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastric cancer have been the focus of extensive research aiming to discover the underlying mechanisms of gastric tissue damage. This research has led to the association of host genetic components with the risk of the disease. Among these is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes, including cytokine genes, which are able to differentially modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines and then modulate the risk of gastric cancer. Interestingly, the frequency of some of these SNPs is different among populations and may serve as a predictive factor for gastric cancer risk within that specific population. However, the role played by other genetic modifications should not be minimized. Methylation of gene promoters has been recognized as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation without changing the primary structure of the DNA. Most DNA methylation occurs in cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotide, but it can also be found in other DNA bases. DNA methyltransferases add methyl groups to the CpG dinucleotide, and when this methylation level is too high, the gene expression is turned off. In H. pylori infection as well as in gastric cancer, hypermethylation of promoters of genes involved in cell cycle

  2. Embolotherapy for Gastric Variceal Bleeding from Pseudoaneurysm of Short Gastric Artery: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Han; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Dong Hyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The complications of pancreatitis, such as pseudocyst or abscesses, are well known to radiologists. Yet formation of a pseudoaneurysm of the short gastric artery is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis. It is also very rare for a psuedoaneurysm of the short gastric artery to cause splenic vein occlusion and the final result is gastric varices. We report here on a case that showed the dramatic effect of embolotherapy for a pseudoaneurysm of the short gastric artery that caused gastric variceal bleeding

  3. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  4. Gene therapy for gastric cancer: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhang; Zhan-Kui Liu

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is common in China, and its early diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In recent years great progress has been achieved in gene therapy, and a wide array of gene therapy systems for gastric cancer has been investigated. The present article deals with the general principles of gene therapy and then focuses on how these principles may be applied to gastric cancer.

  5. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenkman, Hylke Jf; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited

  6. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice [Hopital Lapeyronie, Department of Radiology, Montpellier (France); Guillon, Francoise [University Hospital of Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Montpellier (France)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  7. Gastroprotective effect of lupeol on ethanol-induced gastric damage and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Silvéria Regina de S; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Carvalho, Ana Carla S; Guedes, Marjorie M; de Morais, Talita C; de Souza, Antonia L; Trevisan, Maria Teresa S; Lima, Alana F; Chaves, Mariana H; Santos, Flávia A

    2009-08-01

    The effect of lupeol, a natural pentacyclic triterpene on ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice was evaluated. The gastroprotection was assessed by determination of changes in mean gastric lesion area, quantification of mucosal non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH), and characterized using drugs that influence the endogenous prostaglandins, alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, nitric oxide, K(ATP)-channels, and intracellular calcium. Orally administered lupeol (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the ethanol-induced gastric damage by 39-69%, whereas the positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 300 mg/kg, i.p.) afforded 32% protection. Both lupeol and NAC restored the NP-SH depleted by ethanol but the lupeol effect was only marginal. Lupeol gastroprotection was attenuated by indomethacin and L-NAME, the respective COX and NO-synthase inhibitors and was weakly sensitive to alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine and K(ATP)-channel blocker glibenclamide, but more profoundly to calcium blocker verapamil. These pharmacological effects of lupeol may synergistically contribute to alleviating the ethanol-associated gastric damage, which is multifactorial.

  8. The World Shares Chinese Experience of Poverty Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rengui

    2015-01-01

    As the 2nd China Poverty Alleviation Day and the 23rd International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is approaching,Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech at the 2015 Global Poverty Reduction and Development Forum in Beijing on October 16th and elaborated Chinese Government’s resolute measures on comprehensively promoting poverty alleviation campaign in the process of building a moderately prosperous society in an all suspects,showing China’s

  9. EFFECTS OF SILICON ON ALLEVIATING ARSENIC TOXICITY IN MAIZE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Airon José da Silva; Clístenes Williams Nascimento; Artur da Silva Gouveia Neto; Elias Arcanjo Silva Junior

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid highly toxic to plants and animals, causing reduced plant growth and various health problems for humans and animals. Silicon, however, has excelled in alleviating stress caused by toxic elements in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Si in alleviating As stress in maize plants grown in a nutrient solution and evaluate the potential of the spectral emission parameters and the red fluorescence (Fr) and far-red fluorescence (FFr) ratio obtained ...

  10. Entrepreneurship Development and Poverty Alleviation: An Empirical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Delwar Hussain; Rosni Bakar; Abul Bashar Bhuiyan

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to corroborate the relationship between entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation constructed on empirical reviews. In this study, we conducted general search to accumulate empirical literatures by the name of entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation in different online database sources such as Google Scholars, Springer Link, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, Emerald full text, Scopus, and EBSCO HOST etc. We found innovation, entrepreneursh...

  11. Gastric atrophy, diagnosing and staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hala MT El-Zimaity

    2006-01-01

    H pylori is now accepted as the cause of gastritis and gastritis-associated diseases, such as duodenal ulcer,gastric ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric MALT lymphoma. The natural history of H pylori gastritis includes inflammation progressing from the antrum into the adjacent corpus resulting in an atrophic front of advancing injury leading to a reduction in acid secretion and eventual loss of parietal cells and development of atrophy. Sub-typing intestinal metaplasia has no clinical value to the patient, the pathologist, or the endoscopist.The pattern, extent, and severity of atrophy, with or without intestinal metaplasia, is a far more important predictor than is intestinal metaplasia subtype. The challenge remains to identify a reliable marker that relates to pre-malignant potential.

  12. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-11-07

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  13. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  14. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In t...

  15. Vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic vesical tumors are rare, and constitute approximately 1% of all neoplasias affecting this organ. The authors report the case of a 63-year old woman with vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient presented signs of cachexia and complained of left lumbar pain and dysuria unresponsive to antibiotic therapy for approximately 5 months. She reported a previous partial gastrectomy due to ulcerative undifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma 1 year and 9 months before. Cystoscopy revealed an extensive vegetative lesion in bladder, occupying its entire mucosal surface. The biopsy revealed metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma.

  16. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients′ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor′s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related

  17. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  18. The psyche and gastric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.

  19. Gastric schwannoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfa Romdhane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are generally benign, slow growing tumors. They are rarely observed in the gastrointestinal tract with the most common site being the stomach. These tumors are usually asymptomatic. The preoperative diagnosis via endoscopy is a challenging issue due to the difficulty of differentiation from other submucosal tumors. A 54-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain persisting for the last 10 months. Upper endoscopy revealed an elevated submucosal mass of the gastric antrum. The overlying mucosa was normal. Biopsy specimens yielded only unspecific signs of mild inactive chronic inflammation. Endoscopic ultrasound examination noted a hypoechoic homogeneous mass lesion located in the gastric antrum. The mass appeared to arise from the muscularis propria, and there was no perigastric lymphadenopathy. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan identified a homogeneous round mass and arising from the antrum of the stomach. Submucosal tumor was suspected and surgical intervention was recommended. The patient underwent an elective laparoscopic partial gastrectomy. The histopathologic features and immunohistochemical-staining pattern were consistent with a benign gastric schwannoma. Our patient shows no recurrence with a follow-up of one year. The definitive diagnosis of gastric schwannomas requires immunohistochemical studies. Complete margin negative surgical resection, as in this case, is the curative treatment of choice. The clinical course is generally benign.

  20. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  1. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.;

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...

  2. Genetic Determinants of Gastric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractResults show that gastric cancer risk is increased by the inheritance of the variant alleles of the metabolic genes SULT1A1 and CYP2E1 *6, especially among smokers and drinkers, respectively. An additional increased risk is conferred by the inheritance of GSTT1 null variant, especially i

  3. Gastric asthma : a pathophysiological entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, FTM; Kleibeuker, JH; Postma, DS

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is manifested by typical reflux symptoms and atypical extra-oesophageal symptoms. Important in this respect are respiratory conditions. Gastric asthma is a prominent example of these extra-oesophageal manifestations of GORD. There is, however, muc

  4. Gastric emptying measured by ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ A number of different methods have been used to estimate gastric emptying in humans, and all have their advantages and disadvantages. The method of choice will depend on whether solid or liquid meals are studied, the level of precision required, the degree of invasiveness that the subject or patient will tolerate, ethical considerations, and not at least the facilities available.

  5. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  6. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasovean Silvia Cosmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  7. Gastrin and gastric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, P J; McGuigan, J E

    1976-01-01

    data are present. These differential tests are of value in identifying the Zollinger-Ellison patient who has borderline serum gastrin levels and in differentiation from the syndrome of the retained antrum. 6. In a patient with a recurrent ulcer following surgery in whom a drug-induced ulcer can be excluded and gastric outlet obstruction cannot be demonstrated, a serum gastrin level may be indicated. A serum gastrin value greater than 300 pg. per ml. (normal less than 200 pg. per ml.) in a fasting morning serum sample is significantly elevated, even after vagotomy, and warrants further investigation. Provocative testing of the gastrin response to calcium and secretin should elucidate the etiology of the recurrent ulceration in this type of patient.

  8. [Photodynamic therapy for gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, S; Narahara, H; Uehara, H; Otani, T; Okuda, S

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we first present our clinical data on PDT for the treatment of gastric cancer and make a comparison between a continuous wave laser and a pulsed laser. The reasons for PDT failure in certain cases are also discussed. In the fifteen years from 1981 to 1995, we have treated a total of 76 gastric cancer lesions (73 cases), which was consist of 69 early gastric cancer lesions (66 cases) and seven advanced gastric cancer lesions (seven cases) by PDT. From 1981 to 1990, we used an argon dye laser (ADL, Models 171-08 and 375-03, Spectra-Physics, Mountain View, Calif., US) as an excitation light source for PDT with HpD (Photofrin I), DHE (Photofrin II) or PHE (freeze-dried Photofrin II). From analysis of the results in terms of the depth of cancer invasion in these 44 lesions (41 cases), the rate of cure for mucosal carcinomas was 57% (13/23), that of submucosal carcinomas was 53% (10/19), and that of carcinomas invading more than the muscularis propria was 0% (0/2). These data can be interpreted to indicate that the ADL laser beam could not penetrate and supply sufficient energy to activate HpD not only in the submoucosal layer but also in the mucosal layer. In 1990, therefore, we investigated an excimer dye laser (EDL, Hamamatsu Photonics, Hamamatsu, Japan), because its pulsed beam with extremely high peak power was expected to be more efficient at exciting HpD than continuous wave lasers such as ADL and high frequency pulsed lasers such as cooper vapor dye laser (Cu VDL). From 1990 to 1995, twenty-seven early gastric cancer lesions (27 cases) and five advanced gastric cancer lesions (five cases) were treated by PDT with EDL and PHE. Of these 32 lesions, the rate of cure for mucosal carcinomas was 100% (15/15), that of submucosal carcinomas was 75% (9/12), and that of carcinomas invading more than the muscularis propria was 20% (1/5). For the purpose of determining how much energy was required for a complete cure in early gastric cancer, and to compare

  9. Research Progress of Tourism-oriented Poverty Alleviation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Pengfei; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Through systematic summary of domestic research documents about China’s tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in recent 10 years,it is found that researches mainly focus on 5 aspects:effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation,model and development strategy,benefit of poverty stricken people,practice of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in specific region,and other related problems.At present,academic circle mainly has weak points of research content,method,object and region in tourism-oriented poverty alleviation.Finally,it points out key research interests:(1)Strengthening combination of qualitative and quantitative researches;(2)Expanding research fields and scope and promoting in-depth researches;(3)Analyzing benefiting mechanism of poverty-stricken people participating in tourism development in depth with poverty-stricken people as research objects;(4)Increasing scale development of perception research on effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation and research on measurement testing,to make subsequent research have reliability and comparability.

  10. [Effective prevention of indomethacin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal lesions with roxatidine acetate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, H G; Wolf, N; Burkhardt, F

    1995-08-01

    In this randomized single-blind cross-over study the gastroduodenal damaging effect of indometacin 75 mg bid alone and in combination with roxatidine acetate (CAS 78628-28-1, Roxit) 75 mg nocte or 75 mg bid was evaluated in 12 healthy male volunteers. Prior to the start of the three therapeutic periods subjects underwent endoscopic examination to exclude gastroduodenal mucosa lesions. On days 7 and 14 of therapy 2 h after the application of the last indometacin dose subjects underwent endoscopy again. The 7- and 14-days administration of indometacin 75 mg bid, indometacin 75 mg bid plus roxatidine 75 mg nocte and indometacin 75 mg bid plus roxatidine 75 mg bid led to gastroduodenal mucosa lesion scores of 1.67 +/- 0.40 and 2.00 +/- 0.35, 1.33 +/- 0.28 and 1.50 +/- 0.29, 0.42 +/- 0.23 and 1.00 +/- 0.33 (mean +/- SEM), respectively. These differences were statistically significant when comparing indometacin 75 mg bid versus indometacin 75 mg bid plus roxatidine 75 mg bid (p roxatidine acetate represents an effective alternative in the prophylaxis of NSAID-induced gastroduodenal mucosa lesions.

  11. CT measurement of indomethacin-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes in the newborn piglet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek W.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2003-05-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a common condition among preterm infants, increases the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and death in afflicted individuals. Current clinical treatment of PDA relies on use of the drug indomethacin to close the ductus arteriosus. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral mean transit time (MTT) in newborn piglets using computed tomography (CT) perfusion. Twenty newborn piglets divided by age into two groups, less than 12 hours of age (n = 10) and greater than 12 hours of age (n = 10) were studied. Five piglets in each group received indomethacin treatment (0.2 mg/kg infused over 30 min) while remaining piglets served as controls. No significant changes in CBF were observed in control groups. In both indomethacin treated groups, average CBF decreased 32.3% and 34.3% (P > 0.05) below baseline immediately post infusion in piglets less than and greater than 12 hours of age respectively. Piglets less than 12hours of age treated with indomethacin also exhibited a delayed increase in CBF, maximum average increase of 41.7% (P > 0.05) above baseline at 210 min post infusion, a response not observed in the corresponding group of piglets greater than 12 hours of age. The observed age dependent response may be due to functional/anatomical closure of the PDA.

  12. Anti-plasticizing effect of amorphous indomethacin induced by specific intermolecular interactions with PVA copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Aikawa, Shohei; Kashima, Yousuke; Kikuchi, Junko; Ida, Yasuo; Tanino, Tadatsugu; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of how poly(vinyl alcohol-co-acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (PVA copolymer) stabilizes an amorphous drug was investigated. Solid dispersions of PVA copolymer, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA) with indomethacin (IMC) were prepared. The glass transition temperature (Tg)-proportion profiles were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). General Tg profiles decreasing with the IMC ratio were observed for IMC-PVP and IMC-PVPVA samples. An interesting antiplasticizing effect of IMC on PVA copolymer was observed; Tg increased up to 20% IMC ratio. Further addition of IMC caused moderate reduction with positive deviation from theoretical values. Specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between IMC and PVA copolymer were revealed by infrared spectra. The indole amide of IMC played an important role in hydrogen bonding with PVA copolymer, but not with PVP and PVPVA. X-ray diffraction findings and the endotherm on DSC profiles suggested that PVA copolymer could form a semicrystalline structure and a possibility of correlation of the crystallographic nature with its low hygroscopicity was suggested. PVA copolymer was able to prevent crystallization of amorphous IMC through both low hygroscopicity and the formation of a specific intermolecular interaction compared with that with PVP and PVPVA.

  13. Expression of ATP7B in human gastric cardiac carcinomas in comparison with distal gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Long Wu; Hui-Xing Yi; Feng-Ying Sui; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Xiao-Ming Jiang; Ying-Ying Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze expression of ATP7B in gastric cardiac adenocarcinomas, its clinicopathologic significance, in comparison with distal gastric adenocarcinomas.METHODS: Immunohistochemical avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was applied to detect the expression of ATP7B in 49 cases of cardiac carcinomas,the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium and 55 cases of distal gastric carcinomas.RESULTS: The proportion of ATP7B positive samples in gastric cardiac carcinomas (51.0%, 25 of 49) was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium (22.4%, 11 of 49)(P = 0.003). ATP7B expression in poorly differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas was significantly higher than that in well/moderately differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.030). ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas was independent of age, tumor size, nodal stage and metastasis status. ATP7B protein was detected in 30.9% (17/55 cases) of distal gastric carcinomas, markedly lower than that in gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.037).CONCLUSION: ATP7B protein is frequently overexpressed in gastric cardiac carcinomas, and correlated with the differentiation of cardiac carcinoma. ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas is significantly higher than that in distal gastric carcinomas, which might partially explain the difference of chemotherapy response and prognosis between these two gastric carcinomas.

  14. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  15. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  16. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  17. Sensor comparison study for load alleviating wind turbine pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    measurement types yield similar load reductions, but for varying inflow conditions, the LiDAR sensor-based controller yields larger load reductions than the two others. The results also show that the performance of the LiDAR sensor-based controller is very sensitive to uncertainties relating to the inflow......As the size of wind turbines increases, the load alleviating capabilities of the turbine controller are becoming increasingly important. Load alleviating control schemes have traditionally been based on feedback from load sensor; however, recent developments of measurement technologies have enabled...... root loads. In many existing studies, the performance of an advanced controller is compared with the performance of a simpler controller. In this study, the effect of three measurement types on the load alleviating performance of the same cyclic pitch control design is studied. By using a baseline...

  18. Redifferentiation of Human Gastric Cancer Cells Induced by Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Selenite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects and mechanisms of ascorbic acid (AA) and sodium selenite (SS) on growth inhibition and redifferentiation in human gastric cancer cells. Methods In the present study, trypan blue dye exclusion method was used to determine the cell growth curve and mitotic index, cell electrophoresis and colonogenic potential were used as the indexes of redifferentiation. In order to find out the mechanisms of redifferentiation, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were assayed, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 were evaluated. Results After treatment with AA 3 mol/L + SS 2μmol/L, the growth rate and mitotic index of human gastric cancer cells (MGc-803) decreased remarkably. The indexes related with cell malignancy were alleviated. For example, cell surface charge was obviously decreased, the electrophoresis rate was dropped from 2.21 to 1.15μm@s-1@V-1@cm-1. The indexes related with cell redifferentiation were promoted. For example, the colonogenic potential was decreased to 93.5%. These results indicated that redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells was successfully induced by AA + SS. The activities of SOD and GPX were significantly higher, while the activity of CAT was slower in treated group than that in the control. The content of MDA was slightly decreased, GSH was sharply decreased, and H2O2 content was dramatically increased. Conclusion These results indicated that combination of ascorbic acid and sodium selenite may induce the redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells and inhibit cell growth by virtue of enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes and inducing the formation of H2O2, and altering the cell redox status. Combination of ascorbic acid and sodium selenite may be a potent anticancer agent for human gastric cancer.

  19. Comparison of nuclear matrix proteins between gastric cancer and normal gastric tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Xian Zhang; Yi Ding; Zhuo Li; Xiao-Ping Le; Wei Zhang; Ling Sun; Hui-Rong Shi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alteration of nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) in gastric cancer.METHODS: The NMPs extracted from 22 cases of gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues were investigated by SDS-PAGE technique and the data were analyzed using Genetools analysis software.RESULTS: Compared with normal gastric tissue, the expression of 30 ku and 28 ku NMPs in gastric cancer decreased significantly (P=0.002, P=0.001, P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the expression of the two NMPs between the various differentiated grades (P=0.947, P=0.356) and clinical stages of gastric cancer (P=0.920, P=0.243, P>0.05).CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the alteration of NMPs in gastric cancer occurred at the early stage of gastric cancer development.

  20. [A Case of Gastro-Gastric Intussusception Secondary to Primary Gastric Lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeong Ho; Kang, Sun Mi; Kim, Si Hye; Ra, Moni; Park, Byeong Kyu; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Kim, Ho Gak; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Kang, Ung Rae

    2016-07-25

    In adults, most intussusceptions develop from a lesion, usually a benign or malignant neoplasm, and can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusception in the proximal gastrointestinal tract is uncommon, and gastro-gastric intussusception is extremely rare. We present a case of gastro-gastric intussusception secondary to a primary gastric lymphoma. An 82-year-old female patient presented with acute onset chest pain and vomiting. Abdominal CT revealed a gastro-gastric intussusception. We performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, revealing a large gastric mass invaginated into the gastric lumen and distorting the distal stomach. Uncomplicated gastric reposition was achieved with endoscopy of the distal stomach. Histological evaluation of the gastric mass revealed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma that was treated with chemotherapy.

  1. Dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for aircraft gust alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Wan, Xiaopeng; Li, Aijun

    2008-10-01

    A dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for MIMO system is presented in this paper. The dynamic inversion method is used to decouple the multivariable system. The nonlinear control method is used to overcome the poor decoupling effect when the system model is inaccurate. The nonlinear control method has correcting function and is expressed in analytic form, it is easy to adjust the parameters of the controller and optimize the design of the control system. The method is used to design vertical transition mode of active control aircraft for gust alleviation. Simulation results show that the designed vertical transition mode improves the gust alleviation effect about 34% comparing with the normal aircraft.

  2. Poverty alleviation committee considers population among major issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a meeting of the Committee on Socioeconomic Measures in Poverty Alleviation, whose main purpose is to review and analyze global and regional trends and developments concerning poverty and to recommend policy options and program strategies to improve the situation. The Committee urged the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) secretariat to play a catalytic role in formulating approaches to the alleviation of poverty by conducting research, collecting information, providing training, organizing workshops, and maintaining professional and institutional networks. They also encouraged ESCAP to continue helping countries formulate and implement their population and development programs, including those related to reproductive health.

  3. Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Contribute to Gastric Immune Regulation by Providing Retinoic Acid to Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bimczok, Diane; John Y. Kao; Zhang, Min; Cochrun, Steven; Mannon, Peter; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, Charles M.; Mönkemüller, Klaus E; Harris, Paul R.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Smith, Phillip D.; Smythies, Lesley E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule, retinol, and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA res...

  4. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  5. Correlation of Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difference of opinion about the prevalence of H. pylori association with gastric cancer exists in the literature. AIMS: To study the correlation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori to gastric carcinoma. METHODS: 50 proved cases of gastric cancer were studied by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and ELISA test for H. pylori IgG. RESULTS: 68% of cases of gastric cancer were found to be positive for H. pylori infection as compared to 74% of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in our patients of gastric cancer was lower than in the control population though statistically not significant, suggesting that H. pylori may not be responsible for gastric carcinogenesis in this population.

  6. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and esophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and esophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, esophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and esophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and esophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight.

  7. [Intra-gastric penetration of an adjustable gastric band].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablassmaier, B; Opitz, I; Jacobi, C A; Müller, J M

    2001-07-01

    Between November 1995 and August 2000 we performed adjustable silicone gastric banding laparoscopically in 252 patients. The body mass index varied from 37 to 86 kg/m2. We report on a 38-year-old woman who was operated on in 1997 with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 (167 cm, 132 kg). The postoperative follow-up was uneventful until January 2000. The patient lost weight until she weighed 78 kg. Then she complained of diffuse epigastric pain. Gastroscopy revealed gastritis. Omeprazol was prescribed. No amelioration occurred. Endoscopic control showed partial intragastric migration of the band. After laparoscopic removal of the band, the patient was free of symptoms. Band erosion is a possible complication of adjustable gastric banding. As is known from intragastric penetration of the Angelchik prosthesis, the clinical symptoms of this complication may be mild. Since the follow-up of most patients with gastric banding is less than 5 years, more complications similar to that one described may be diagnosed in the future.

  8. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N.A. Milne; R. Carvalho; F.M. Morsink; A.R. Musler; W.W.J. de Leng; A. Ristimaki; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2006-01-01

    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (<= 45 years old) and conventional gastric cancers. Expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in g

  9. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore...... be considered in gastric evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems....

  10. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  11. Gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan İnce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric schwannoma is a benign neoplasm that originates from sheet of nerve cell in stomach. Differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, (GISTs which have malign potential, than these tumors, which definite diagnosis is determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods have clinical significance due to gastric schwannomas have excellent progress after surgical resection. We presented a case of gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation with guide of literature in this study.

  12. Gastric Osteoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Kye, J. S. Park, S. K. Ku1, S. H. Yun, T. H. Oh, K.W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight year old female dog was referred with anorexia, nervousness and emaciation. At the point of time, severe lifelessness was the only symptom. Then euthanasia was done according to the owner’s decision. As a result of postmortem examination, thin white matters were found on the gastric mucosa of the greater curvature and there were no other significant gross findings. Tissue specimens were collected from the gastric wall, esophagus, gall bladder, aorta, heart, kidneys, liver, mesenteric lymph node, lungs, urinary bladder and spleen and processed for histopathology. Microscopically, the masses of stomach were consisted of well-differentiated osteoid tissues, the compact bone-osteocytes and the matured lamellated bone with Haversian system. It was diagnosed as osteoma of the stomach. Other organs were free on such histological findings.

  13. Lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer: Contentious issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Kumar Garg; Ashish Jakhetiya; Jyoti Sharma; Mukur Dipi Ray; Durgatosh Pandey

    2016-01-01

    The stomach is the sixth most common cause of cancer worldwide. Surgery is an important component of the multi-modality treatment of the gastric cancer. The extent of lymphadenectomy has been a controversial issue in the surgical management of gastric cancer. The East-Asian surgeons believe that quality-controlled extended lymphadenectomy resulting in better locoregional control leads to survival benefit in the gastric cancer; contrary to that, many western surgeons believe that extended lymphadenectomy adds to only postoperative morbidity and mortality without significantly enhancing the overall survival. We present a comprehensive review of the lymphadenectomy in the gastric cancer based on the previously published randomized controlled trials.

  14. Gastric blow-out: komplikation efter fedmekirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrens, Ayoe Sabrina; Born, Pernille Wolder; Naver, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric bypass is the most common type of surgery for morbid obesity in Denmark. The most frequent late complications after gastric bypass are ulcer, internal hernia and stenosis. Two cases of stenosis of the bileopancreatic limb with gastric blow-out are described. Urgent diagnosis...... with computed tomography and acute surgical treatment is vital as the complication can lead to gastric necrosis, pancreatitis, biliary stasis, sepsis and multi-organ failure within a very short time. Prompt contact to specialized surgeons is advocated. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Nov...

  15. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Daher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.

  16. Cross-sectional imaging of gastric neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargunani, R. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rikin@doctors.org.uk; Maclachlan, J. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Kaniyur, S. [Lister Hospital, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Power, N. [Barts and The London NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Pereira, S.P. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Malhotra, A. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The detection of gastric neoplasia has traditionally been limited to barium examination and direct visualization at endoscopy. The rapid development of techniques such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has resulted in more accurate diagnosis and staging of gastric neoplasia. In this review we describe the normal anatomy of the stomach with multi-modality illustrations and review the imaging manifestations of gastric neoplasia, including adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine and gastro-intestinal stromal tumours. We also describe the optimal techniques for up-to-date and accurate gastric imaging, outlining the role of MDCT and EUS.

  17. D2 Lymphadenectomy in Gastric Cancer Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyu Deng; Han Liang

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Surgery is the most widely utilized treatment for resectable gastric cancer. Evidence indicates that lymph node involvement and depth of invasion of the primary tumor are the most important prognostic factors for gastric cancer patients. Therefore, lymph node clearance is deemed a key procedure in gastric cancer surgery for the prognostic value to patients. Although the appropriate lymphadenectomy during gastrectomy for cancer still remains controversial, extended lymph node dissection (D2 lymphadenectomy) should be recommended in high volume hospitals.

  18. Gastric emptying: a comparison of three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Henning; Bluhme, Henrik; Villadsen, Gerda Elisabeth;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the clinical relevance of delayed gastric emptying (e.g. in diabetes) requires a simple, easily accessible and inexpensive method for measuring it. Two "new" methods for measuring gastric emptying of liquids (the paracetamol absorption test and the 13C......-acetate breath test) are compared with the gold standard (gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three techniques were used simultaneously in 10 healthy subjects. A gastric emptying time-retention curve was drawn for each technique and the results were compared at the 75%, 50% and 25...

  19. Gene therapy in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-tai; Guo Xue-gang; Pan Bo-rong

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction We have reviewed the gene therapy in gastrointestinal diseases[1]. Gastric cancer is common in China[2~20] ,and its early diagnosis andtreatment are still difficult up to now[13~36]. The expression of anexogenous gene introduced by gene therapy into patients with gliomascan be monitored non- invasively by positron- emission tomography[4]. In recent years, gene study in cancer is a hotspot, and great progress hasbeen achieved[33~41].

  20. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  1. A congestion alleviated scheme in optical burst switching network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wang; Hongxiang Wang; Yuefeng Ji

    2008-01-01

    An optical burst switching (OBS) network platform is established with a ring topology of three nodes. A congestion alleviated scheme using advanced token protocol and wavelength tunable receivers is demonstrated to optimize the network platform. Experimental results testify that this scheme can resist collision at the level of 0.1% congestion rate.

  2. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  3. The Role of NGOsin Poverty Alleviation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Editor's Note: CAFIU's Secretary-General Ni Jian took part in the UN Sustainable Development Conference (Rio+20) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from June 16 to 21. During the Conference, he also attended and addressed a side meeting of "Poverty-Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Chinese NGOs in Action" hosted by China NGO Network for International Exchanges.

  4. Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickels, John W.; Dobbs, Rhonda R.

    2007-01-01

    This study, Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistics Classes, investigated whether undergraduate students' anxiety about statistics changed when statistics is taught using computers compared to the traditional method. Two groups of students were questioned concerning their anxiety about statistics. One group was taught…

  5. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  6. Alleviation Effects of Rare Earth on Cd Stress to Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建军; 张淑侠; 朱京涛; 吴贺平

    2004-01-01

    Using rapes as test materials, the fastness expression and alleviation effect of rapes were studied under Cd stress condition, as the rapeseeds were dipped in the single element(La, Ce, Nd, Pr)and mixed rare earth(RE). The results indicate that, under Cd stress, the dry and fresh weight are increased by both the single element and mixed rare earth treatment, and the fastness of rape is improved.The single element of rare earth decreases the Cd content in rape roots and transmits Cd to the edible parts above the ground in which the alleviation effect of Ce is most significant.La treatment takes the second place, so that the poisonous effect of heavy metal Cd is eased.The mixed rare earth doesn't alleviate the assimilation of Cd in rape roots, but accelerates the transfer of Cd to the parts above the ground. The research puts forward that the alleviation of rare earth on Cd stress has connection with the decrease of Ca content.

  7. Urban agriculture and urban poverty alleviation: South African debates

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. Rogerson

    1998-01-01

    Growing international attention has focussed on the potential role of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. The aim in this paper is to analyse the existing challenge of urban poverty in South Africa and examine the potential role of urban agriculture as a component of a pro-poor urban development strategy.

  8. Rare causes of gastric outlet obstruction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiexiong; Gu, Weizhong; Li, Minju; Yuan, Jiyan; Weng, Yizhen; Wei, Minfa; Zhou, Xuefeng

    2005-08-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) presenting beyond the newborn period is a relatively rare condition, when infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is excluded. This report describes the clinical features, evaluation and management of 18 patients with GOO which was not caused by IHPS. The sex, age, and main presenting features were recorded on admission. Hemoglobin estimation, serum chemistry and blood gas analysis were also assessed in these patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with gastrointestinal barium, B ultrasound, gastroscopy, or at surgery. Some of them underwent gastroscopy with biopsy sampling for rapid urease test or histologic examination with Giemsa stains for Helicobacter pylori. Thirteen patients had peptic ulcer disease, of which six were successfully treated with medications. While the other seven needed operative management which included Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, gastroduodenostomy or gastrojejunostomy, respectively. All the patients who had Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty or gastrojejunostomy developed bile reflux gastritis that could be alleviated with omeprazol. None of the patients developed dumping syndrome, failing to thrive, or anemia. Three children with antral diaphragm recovered without any complications by diaphragm excision with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty. The pylorus was compressed by fibrotic band in one 30-month boy, and he recovered uneventfully with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty during 10-year follow-up. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to ingestion of sulfuric acid was noted in one patient, and he was successfully treated with gastroduodenostomy. Our data suggests that the satisfactory results could be expected in children with GOO with different therapeutic modalities based on the specific cause and degree of obstruction.

  9. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  10. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is associated with gastric dysplasia but is inversely correlated with esophageal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Justin M; Patrie, James T; Bleibel, Wissam; Frye, Jeanetta W; Sauer, Bryan G; Shami, Vanessa M; Stelow, Edward B; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Wang, Andrew Y

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine which clinical factors might be associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a North American population. METHODS Pathology and endoscopy databases at an academic medical center were reviewed to identify patients with and without gastric IM on biopsies for a retrospective cohort study. Patient demographics, insurance status, and other clinical factors were reviewed. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-eight patients with gastric IM (mean age: 61.0 years ± 14.4 years, 55.5% female) and 171 without gastric IM (mean age: 48.8 years ± 20.8 years, 55.0% female) were compared. The endoscopic appearance of atrophic gastritis correlated with finding gastric IM on histopathology (OR = 2.05, P = 0.051). Gastric IM was associated with histologic findings of chronic gastritis (OR = 2.56, P gastritis are more likely to have gastric IM and should have screening gastric biopsies during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients with gastric IM are at increased risk for having gastric dysplasia and cancer, and surveillance EGD with gastric biopsies in these patients might be reasonable. PMID:28250898

  11. NERP-2 regulates gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying via the orexin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Cherl; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ueta, Yoichi; Kim, Min-Seon; Minamino, Naoto; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-16

    Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of NERP-2 to rats increased gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying, whereas peripheral administration did not affect gastric function. NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying were blocked by an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB334867. NERP-2 also induced Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus and the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus X, which are key sites in the central nervous system for regulation of gastric function. Atropine, a blocker of vagal efferent signal transduction, completely blocked NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion. These results demonstrate that central administration of NERP-2 activates the orexin pathway, resulting in elevated gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying.

  12. Gastric Adenocarcinoma after Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwel Capsy Boga Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenocarcinoma after gastric bypass for morbid obesity is rare but has been described. The diet restriction, weight loss, and difficult assessment of the bypassed stomach, after this procedure, hinder and delay its diagnosis. We present a 52-year-old man who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass 2 years ago and whose previous upper digestive endoscopy was considered normal. He presented with weight loss, attributed to the procedure, and progressive dysphagia. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed stenosing tumor in gastric pouch whose biopsy showed diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma. He underwent total gastrectomy, left lobectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, segmental colectomy, and bowel resection with esophagojejunal anastomosis. The histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of gastric pouch adenocarcinoma is discussed with a literature review.

  13. Dynamic expression of pepsinogen C in gastric cancer, precancerous lesions and Helicobacter pylori associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Fang Ning; Hui-Jie Liu; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the expression of pepsinogen C (PGC) and gastric cancer, precancerous diseases, and Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection. METHODS: The expression of PGC was determined by immunohistochemistry method in 430 cases of gastric mucosa. H pylori infection was determined by HE staining, PCR and ELISA in 318 specimens.RESULTS: The positive rate of PGC expression in 54 cases of normal gastric mucosa was 100%. The positive rates of PGC expression in superficial gastritis or gastric ulcer or erosion, atrophic gastritis or gastric dysplasia and gastric cancer decreased significantly in sequence (P<0.05;100%/89.2% vs 14.3%/15.2% vs 2.4%). The overexpression rate of PGC in group of superficial gastritis with H pylori infection was higher than that in group without H pylori infection (P<0.05; χ2= 0.032 28/33 vs 15/25).The positive rate of PGC expression in group of atrophic gastritis with H pylori infection was lower than that in group without H pylori infection (P<0.01; χ2 = 0.003 4/61vs 9/30), and in dysplasia and gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: The level of PGC expression has a close relationship with the degree of malignancy of gastric mucosa and development of gastric lesions. There is a relationship between H pylori infection and expression of antigen PGC in gastric mucosa, the positive rate of PGC expression increases in early stage of gastric lesions with H pylori infection such as gastric inflammation and decreases during the late stage such as precancerous diseases and gastric cancer. PGC-negative cases with H pylori-positive gastric lesions should be given special attention.

  14. Gastric Strongyloidiasis in a Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak ERSÖZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a common parasitic infection. Gastric location of the parasite is quite rare. Patients at risk are those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, individuals with malignant hematologic disorders, transplantations, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, chronic renal failure, chronic alcohol consumption, patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and elderly people. We report an atypical presentation of strongyloidiasis with gastric involvement in a diabetic patient.

  15. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  16. The journey of personalizing gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the fourth most prevalent malignancy yet it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Every year, gastric cancer adds nearly 1 million new cancer cases, and 723,000 or 10%of cancer deaths to the global cancer burden. Approximately, 405,000 or 43%of the new cases and 325,000 or 45%of the deaths are in China, mak-ing gastric cancer a particularly challenging malignancy. This thematic series discusses the molecular classiifcations of gastric cancer by the Cancer Genome Atlas ( TCGA) and the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) as well as the implications in personalized therapeutic choices;discusses the evolution of gastric surgery and presents perspectives on surgical techniques in treating gastric cancer;and reviews current and emerging targeted agents as well as immu-notherapies in treating gastric cancer. With these advancements in molecular characterization, surgical intervention, and targeted and immunotherapies, gastric cancer will enter a personalized medicine era in the next 5 years.

  17. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θYC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  18. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  19. Laparoscopic gastric band removal complicated by splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gregory; Schoucair, Ramy; Shimlati, Rasha; Rached, Linda; Khoury, George

    2016-08-01

    In any patient, the occurrence of postsplenectomy splenosis can complicate the planning of further surgeries. In our case, the gastric sleeve procedure was aborted, as it would have put the patient's life in danger. Therefore, only the gastric band was removed, eliminating future erosion.

  20. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  1. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens;

    2004-01-01

    . Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...... and one-way ANOVA. During the infusion, GIP rose to steady-state concentrations of 159 +/- 15 pmol/l for total and 34 +/- 4 pmol/l for intact GIP (P

  2. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  3. Cate's Story: Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is thought to be responsible for about 10% of cancer-related deaths across the globe. A small proportion of all gastric cancers arise because of a known hereditary syndrome, the most common of which is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer at a young age. The gene responsible for HDGC is CDH1, also known as E-cadherin, a germline mutation conferring an 80% risk of developing gastric cancer during the lifetime of the carrier. Females with germline CDH1 mutations face an additional risk of developing lobular breast cancer, with a reported cumulative risk of 60% by the age of 80 years.
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  4. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer.

  5. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  6. The Role of Forests in Poverty Alleviation: Dealing with Multiple Millennium Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A.F.

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief summarises the present state of scientific understanding of the potential contribution of tropical forests to poverty alleviation and highlights the implications of this knowledge for forest-based poverty alleviation policies

  7. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major cause of poverty is law enforcements that do not support fishermen and overfishing. While Lamongan more due to low fish prices and capital problems. While in Tuban fishermen due to limited infrastructure and lazy and extravagant lifestyle of the fishermen. These differences lead to different coping strategies so that later can form a concept model of poverty alleviation North Coast fishermen in East Java.

  8. Alleviating alpha quenching by solar wind and meridional flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Tavakol, Reza; Brandenburg, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic $\\alpha$-quenching in mean field dynamos in two--dimensional spherical wedge domains. Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider $\\alpha^2\\Omega$ mean field models with a dynamical $\\alpha$ quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow (``solar wind'') and meridional circulation. We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  9. Alleviating α quenching by solar wind and meridional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Moss, D.; Tavakol, R.; Brandenburg, A.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic α-quenching in mean field dynamos in two-dimensional spherical wedge domains. Methods: Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider α^2Ω mean field models with a dynamical α quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow ("solar wind") and meridional circulation. Results: We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  10. Focused grooming networks and stress alleviation in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Lehmann, Julia; Whitten, Patricia L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2008-06-01

    We examine the relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) levels and grooming behavior in wild female baboons during a period of instability in the alpha male rank position. All females' GC levels rose significantly at the onset of the unstable period, though levels in females who were at lower risk of infanticide began to decrease sooner in the following weeks. Three factors suggest that females relied on a focused grooming network as a coping mechanism to alleviate stress. First, all females' grooming networks became less diverse in the weeks following the initial upheaval. Second, females whose grooming had already focused on a few predictable partners showed a less dramatic rise in GC levels than females whose grooming network had been more diverse. Third, females who contracted their grooming network the most experienced a greater decrease in GC levels in the following week. We conclude that close bonds with a few preferred partners allow female baboons to alleviate the stress associated with social instability.

  11. Islamic Microfinance: an Interest free Microfinance Model for Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chakrabarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper deals with Islamic microfinance and its rationality in Indian context as a panacea of Muslim poverty. Conventional microfinance system is very effective to alleviate poverty of developing countries. But it could not touch all community of people because of ‘interest’ component in debt and high degree of interest. Muslims dislike that microfinance which is based on ‘interest’ as it is strictly prohibited in Islam. Therefore the motto of financial inclusion is out of reach through conventional microfinance. An alternative interest free microfinance model has been developed in some part of world to include all Muslim poor people within the banking system. India is yet to adopt Islamic microfinance though 20% of total population is Muslim. The author strongly opines that India should adopt Islamic microfinance as a tool for poverty alleviation of Muslims as well as other communities.

  12. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking.

  13. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    , oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses......%. The increased insulin responses after the operation, one of the important mechanisms whereby these operations cause diabetes remission, is clearly due to a combination of the increased glucose absorption rates and the exaggerated GLP-1 secretion. The hormonal changes are therefore very important...

  14. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati; Mu'minatus Sholichah

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major...

  15. Non-farm wages and poverty alleviation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jatta, Sylvester

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about rural non-farm income and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa and the determinants of differentials access to rural non-farm incomes, with an overview of trends in the magnitude, and location of rural poverty. It also offers evidence that advances our understanding of rural poverty, by presenting quantitative analysis of the determinants of rural income from farm and non-farm sources, drawing on data from Rural Income Generating Activities data b...

  16. Staircase effect alleviation based on multiscale analysis of Laplacian Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjie; Ye, Yutang; Huang, Yonglin

    2012-01-01

    Image denoising with second order partial differential equations (PDEs) often leads to undesirable staircase effect, namely, the transformation of smooth regions into piecewise constant regions. In this paper, staircase effect is analyzed in spatial frequency domain which is different from previous studies. A method of nonlinear diffusion based on Laplacian Pyramid is proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed method alleviates the staircase effect and leads to more natural restored images.

  17. Application of Active Flow Control Technique for Gust Load Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaoping; ZHU Xiaoping; ZHOU Zhou; FAN Ruijun

    2011-01-01

    A new gust load alleviation technique is presented in this paper based on active flow control.Numerical studies are conducted to investigate the beneficial effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil using arrays of jets during the gust process.Based on unsteady Navier-Stokes equations,the grid-velocity method is introduced to simulate the gust influence,and dynamic response in vertical gust flow perturbation is investigated for the airfoil as well.An unsteady surface transpiration boundary condition is enforced over a user specified portion of the airfoil's surface to emulate the time dependent velocity boundary conditions.Firstly,after applying this method to simulate typical NACA0006 airfoil gust response to a step change in the angle of attack,it shows that the indicial responses of the airfoil make good agreement with the exact theoretical values and the calculated values in references.Furthermore,gust response characteristic for the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil is analyzed.Five kinds of flow control techniques are introduced as steady blowing,steady suction,unsteady blowing,unsteady suction and synthetic jets.The physical analysis of the influence on the effects of gust load alleviation is proposed to provide some guidelines for practice.Numerical results have indicated that active flow control technique,as a new technology of gust load alleviation,can affect and suppress the fluid disturbances caused by gust so as to achieve the purpose of gust load alleviation.

  18. EFFECTS OF SILICON ON ALLEVIATING ARSENIC TOXICITY IN MAIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airon José da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid highly toxic to plants and animals, causing reduced plant growth and various health problems for humans and animals. Silicon, however, has excelled in alleviating stress caused by toxic elements in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Si in alleviating As stress in maize plants grown in a nutrient solution and evaluate the potential of the spectral emission parameters and the red fluorescence (Fr and far-red fluorescence (FFr ratio obtained in analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in determination of this interaction. An experiment was carried out in a nutrient solution containing a toxic rate of As (68 μmol L-1 and six increasing rates of Si (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mmol L-1. Dry matter production and concentrations of As, Si, and photosynthetic pigments were then evaluated. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also measured throughout plant growth. Si has positive effects in alleviating As stress in maize plants, evidenced by the increase in photosynthetic pigments. Silicon application resulted in higher As levels in plant tissue; therefore, using Si for soil phytoremediation may be a promising choice. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis proved to be a sensitive tool, and it can be successfully used in the study of the ameliorating effects of Si in plant protection, with the Fr/FFr ratio as the variable recommended for identification of temporal changes in plants.

  19. B vitamins alleviate indices of neuropathic pain in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Mizisin, Leah M; Nelson, Austin; Cunha, Joice M; Ramos, Khara M; Bonke, Dieter; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2009-06-10

    There are sporadic reports that assorted combinations of B vitamins can alleviate pain in diabetic patients, but there is neither agreement on the relative efficacy of individual B vitamins nor understanding of the mechanisms involved. We therefore investigated the efficacy of a cocktail of the vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in alleviating behavioral indices of sensory dysfunction such as allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats and also the relative contribution of individual components of the cocktail. Repeated daily treatment with the cocktail of B vitamins for 7-9 days ameliorated tactile allodynia and formalin-evoked hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner and also improved sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. Investigation of the contribution of individual B vitamins suggested that all three participated with variable efficacy in the alleviation of allodynia after protracted, but not single dose treatment. Only vitamin B6 improved sensory nerve conduction velocity slowing in diabetic rats when given alone. To address potential mechanisms of action, we measured markers of oxidative stress (lipid and protein oxidation) and inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and TNFalpha protein) in the nerve but treatment with the vitamin B cocktail did not significantly affect any of these parameters. The positive effects of B vitamins on functional and behavioral disorders of diabetic rats suggest a potential for use in treating painful diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Poverty alleviation programmes in India: a social audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Yesudian, C A

    2007-10-01

    The review highlights the poverty alleviation programmes of the government in the post-economic reform era to evaluate the contribution of these programmes towards reducing poverty in the country. The poverty alleviation programmes are classified into (i) self-employment programmes; (ii) wage employment programmes; (iii) food security programmes; (iv) social security programmes; and (v) urban poverty alleviation programmes. The parameter used for evaluation included utilization of allocated funds, change in poverty level, employment generation and number or proportion of beneficiaries. The paper attempts to go beyond the economic benefit of the programmes and analyzes the social impact of these programmes on the communities where the poor live, and concludes that too much of government involvement is actually an impediment. On the other hand, involvement of the community, especially the poor has led to better achievement of the goals of the programmes. Such endeavours not only reduced poverty but also empowered the poor to find their own solutions to their economic problems. There is a need for decentralization of the programmes by strengthening the panchayat raj institutions as poverty is not merely economic deprivation but also social marginalization that affects the poor most.

  1. Effective alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity by manure-derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Hu, Dingfei

    2013-03-19

    The alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity to wheat plants in a hydroponic system through the amendment of biochar is investigated to explore the possibility of applying biochar in acidic soil amelioration. Biochar derived from cattle manure pyrolyzed at 400 °C (CM400) and the CM400 biochar washed with distilled-deionized water to remove alkalinity (WCM400) were prepared to determine the roles of the liming effect and adsorption during the alleviation of Al toxicity. Upon addition of 0.02% (W/V) CM400 to the exposure solution, the inhibition of plant growth by Al was significantly reduced while the toxic threshold was extended from 3 to 95 μmol/L Al(3+). Due to the biochar liming effect, the aluminum species were converted to Al(OH)(2+) and Al(OH)2(+) monomers, which were strongly adsorbed by biochar; furthermore, the highly toxic Al(3+) evolved to less toxic Al(OH)3 and Al(OH)4(-) species. Adsorption of Al by the biochar is dominated by surface complexation of the carboxyl groups with Al(OH)(2+)/Al(OH)2(+) rather than through electrostatic attraction of Al(3+) with negatively charged sites. Compared to the liming effect, the adsorption by biochar exhibited a sustainable effect on the alleviation of Al toxicity. Therefore, the biochar amendment appears to be a novel approach for aluminum detoxification in acidic soils.

  2. Alleviation of chromium toxicity by hydrogen sulfide in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafaqat; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Abbasi, G H; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to examine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in alleviating chromium (Cr) stress in barley. A 2-factorial design with 6 replications was selected, including 3 levels of NaHS (0 μM, 100 μM, and 200 μM) and 2 levels of Cr (0 μM and 100 μM) as treatments. The results showed that NaHS addition enhances plant growth and photosynthesis slightly compared with the control. Moreover, NaHS alleviated the inhibition in plant growth and photosynthesis by Cr stress. Higher levels of NaHS exhibited more pronounced effects in reducing Cr concentrations in roots, shoots, and leaves. Ultrastructural examination of plant cells supported the facts by indication of visible alleviation of cell disorders in both root and leaf with exogenous application of NaHS. An increased number of plastoglobuli, disintegration, and disappearance of thylakoid membranes and starch granules were visualized inside the chloroplast of Cr-stressed plants. Starch accumulation in the chloroplasts was also noticed in the Cr-treated cells, with the effect being much less in Cr + NaHS-treated plants. Hence, it is concluded that H2 S produced from NaHS can improve plant tolerance under Cr stress.

  3. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  4. Mechanism of Ascorbic Acid-induced Reversion Against Malignant Phenotype in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YA-XUAN SUN; QIU-SHENG ZHENG; GANG LI; DE-AN GUO; ZI-REN WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To find out the mechanisms of redifferentiation and reversion of malignant human gastric cancer cells induced by ascorbic acid. Methods Human gastric cancer cells grown in the laboratory were used. The Trypan blue dye exclusion method was used to determine the cell doubling time. The electrophoresis rate and colonogenic potential were the indices used to measure the rate of redifferentiation. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured using the thiobarbituric acid(TBA) method. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the content of H2O2 were evaluated by spectrophotography. Results Six mmol/L ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Human gastric cancer cells were treated with 75 μm hydrogen peroxide, which alleviated many of the malignant characteristics. For example, the cell surface charge obviously decreased and the electrophoresis rate dropped from 2.21 to 1.10 μm·s-1·V-1·cm-1. The colonogenic potential, a measure of cell differentiation, decreased 90.2%. After treatment with ascorbic acid, there was a concentration- and time-dependent increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, the activity of catalase (CAT) resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent decrease. SOD and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) exhibited some effects, but there were statistically significant differences between the SOD and AT group and the H2O2 group. Conclusions Ascorbic acid induces growth inhibition and redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells through the production of hydrogen peroxide.

  5. Protective activity of salidroside against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer via the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiayun; Luo, Fen; Jiang, Wenjiao; Zhu, Lingpeng; Gao, Jin; He, He; Wei, Tingting; Gong, Shilin; Yan, Tianhua

    2015-09-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Sal on ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer and H2O2-induced gastric epithelial cell damage. 0.2 ml ethanol and 400 μM H2O2 were applied to establish a gastric ulcer model in vivo and in vitro respectively. The production of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was analyzed, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). MTT assay was used to detect cell viability. In addition, MAPK/NF-κB signal pathway-related proteins p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, p-IκBα and p-NF-κBp65 were analyzed to determine the underlying protective mechanism. Downstream genes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotrienes B4 (LTB4) were also measured. Obtained data indicated that Sal inhibited the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced antioxidant activity. Collectively, it is assumed that Sal could alleviate ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer and H2O2-induced gastric epithelial cell damage through the MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

  6. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptom...

  7. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  8. Gastric cancer and related epigenetic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Trupti N; Roy, Soumyadipta; Ravi, Revathi

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a malignant and highly proliferative condition, has significantly affected a large population around the globe and is known to be caused by various factors including genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Though the global trend of these cancers is declining, an increase in its frequency is still a threat because of changing lifestyles and dietary habits. However, genetic and epigenetic alterations related to gastric cancers also have an equivalent contribution towards carcinogenic development. DNA methylation is one of the major forms of epigenetic modification which plays a significant role in gastric carcinogenesis. Methylation leads to inactivation of some of the most important genes like DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators, apoptotic genes, transcriptional regulators, and signalling pathway regulators; which subsequently cause uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Mutations in these genes can be used as suitable prognostic markers for early diagnosis of the disease, since late diagnosis of gastric cancers has a huge negative impact on overall patient survival. In this review, we focus on the important epigenetic mutations that contribute to the development of gastric cancer and the molecular pathogenesis underlying each of them. Methylation, acetylation, and histone modifications play an integral role in the onset of genomic instability, one of the many contributory factors to gastric cancer. This article also covers the constraints of incomplete knowledge of epigenetic factors influencing gastric cancer, thus throwing light on our understanding of the disease. PMID:28144288

  9. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  10. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial. The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H. pylori infection. About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H. pylori infection. Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H. pylori infection are under way. Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H. pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer; however, a population-based H. pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora. Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  11. Chemoprevention of gastric cancer: current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The development of gastric cancer is a multi-factor process. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors including smoking, low gastric acidity, excessive intake of salt or salty food and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables all contribute to the development of gastric cancer. Of particular interest, epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is causally linked to gastric cancer. Most studies using micronutrient supplementation have failed to demonstrate any preventive effect against the development of gastric cancer. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been consistently observed to protect against the development of gastric cancer. Recently, eradication of H. pylori infection by a chemopreventative approach is being studied in a number of trials. Studies using precancerous lesions as an end point of the treatment have produced conflicting and mostly negative results. Trials using cancer as an end point are being cautiously carried out in high-risk populations, and will provide the definitive answer to this important question. In the end, vaccination may be proven to be the optimal strategy in human for the management of H. pylori infection and prevention of gastric cancer.

  12. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopicsubmucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy andendoscopy cooperative surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells inthe gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rarecase of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating fromthe heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) thatwas safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopycooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old manunderwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected asubmucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on thelesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumorcould not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopicultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Localresection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis.Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal welldifferentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negativelateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanesetreatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximalgastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a lessinvasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT,even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating fromthe HSG.

  13. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  14. Gene expression profile differences in gastric cancer, pericancerous epithelium and normal gastric mucosa by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Ding Yu; Shen-Hua Xu; Hang-Zhou Mou; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Chi-Hong Zhu; Xiang-Lin Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T), pericancerous epithelium (P) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen an associated novel gene in early gastric carcinogenesis by oligonudeotide microarray.METHODS: U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T, P and C, respectively. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS: When gastric cancer was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 766 genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 766 genes,530 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR]>2), and 236 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). When pericancerous epithelium was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 64genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 64 genes, 50 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 14 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). Compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 143 genes with a difference in expression levels (more than four times, either in cancer or in pericancerous epithelium) were found in gastric cancer (T) and pericancerous epithelium (P). Of the 143 genes, 108 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 35were down-regulated (SLR<-2).CONCLUSION: To apply a gene chip could find 143 genes associated with the genes of gastric cancer in pericancerous epithelium, although there were no pathological changes in the tissue slices. More interesting, six genes of pericancerous epithelium were up-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer and three genes were down-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer. It is suggested that these genes may be related to the carcinogenesis and development of early gastric cancer.

  15. Activating GNAS and KRAS mutations in gastric foveolar metaplasia, gastric heterotopia, and adenocarcinoma of the duodenum

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubara, A.; Ogawa, R; Suzuki, H; Oda, I.; Taniguchi, H; Kanai, Y.; Kushima, R; Sekine, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterotopic gastric-type epithelium, including gastric foveolar metaplasia (GFM) and gastric heterotopia (GH), is a common finding in duodenal biopsy specimens; however, there is still controversy regarding their histogenetic backgrounds. Methods: We analysed a total of 177 duodenal lesions, including 66 GFM lesions, 81 GH lesions, and 30 adenocarcinomas, for the presence of GNAS, KRAS, and BRAF mutations. Results: Activating GNAS mutations were identified in 27 GFM lesions (41%) ...

  16. Features of gastritis predisposing to gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meining, A; Riedl, B; Stolte, M

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...

  17. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  18. Gastric carcinoma: when is palliative gastrectomy justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Scheidbach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is frequently diagnosed with an advanced stage of non-curable tumor growth characterized by infiltration of the gastric serosa, peritoneal tumor spread and/or metastases within lymph nodes and liver. Currently, there is a controversy on the value of palliative resection with regard to the safety and benefit to the patient outcome. Based on the available literature, this overview summarizes the various aspects and interprets the limited data on the palliative resection of gastric carcinoma. It turns out that the available study results may indicate potential for an improved quality of life and a prolongation of survival if an acceptable morbidity and mortality are present.

  19. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy Gallo; Charles Cha

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers.However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors,and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers.

  20. Gastric rupture after the Heimlich maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, M; Cogbill, T H

    1996-01-01

    Since 1975, the Heimlich maneuver has been widely applied to relieve upper airway obstruction caused by aspirated material. Life-threatening complications have been documented following this simple procedure. We report two cases of gastric rupture after use of the Heimlich maneuver. Both patients experienced pulmonary and abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by the demonstration of free intraperitoneal air on an upright chest roentgenogram. Full-thickness gastric rupture along the lesser curvature of the stomach was repaired in both patients; one patient died. Abdominal pain or persistent abdominal distention despite nasogastric suction after the Heimlich maneuver should prompt evaluation for possible gastric rupture.

  1. Extraintestinal heterotopic gastric tissue simulating acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Bender; Steven P Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old otherwise healthy male who presented to our emergency room with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. Exploratory surgery revealed a normal appendix. Further examination revealed an enlarged lymph node-like mass of tissue near the appendix, in the ileocecal mesentery. This mass was removed and was found to be inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue. Although reports of heterotopic gastric tissue in the literature are common, we believe that this case represents the first report of inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue simulating appendicitis.

  2. Gastric Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie On-On Chan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the world. However, in the past 10 decades, the view of gastric cancer has been changing. This includes the unexplained decline in the incidence of the cancer, the proximal shift of the cancer in the stomach, the identification of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent, rapid development in molecular tumour biology, new treatment modalities and the adoption of mass screening for prevention. This article reviews the changing views of gastric cancer and the latest developments.

  3. Seatbelt syndrome with gastric mucosal breaks and intra-gastric wall air leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Chiyo, Taiga; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    As numerous reports were published regarding the so-called seatbelt syndrome involved in car crashes, most of them were mentioned about small intestine, duodenum and colon perforations and solid organ bleeding. No reports have been published regarding multiple gastric mucosal tears with intra-gastric wall air leakage with massive bleeding. A 65-year-old woman was admitted after a motor vehicle crash. She vomited massive fresh blood. Gastric mucosal breaks, approximately 5 cm in length, were observed. Computed tomography imaging revealed multiple gastric mucosal breaks. We report a rare case wherein a traffic accident caused a serious condition associated with massive digestive bleeding.

  4. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Andersen, D

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous catecholam......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  5. A p53 genetic polymorphism of gastric cancer: Difference between early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Young Yi; Woon Jung Lee

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 in early gastric cancer (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) in Korean patients.METHODS:DNA was extracted from blood samples of gastric cancer patients (n = 291) and controls (n=216).tn the p53 codon 72 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: Patients with gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency of the homozygous proline (Pro) allele than the control (P=0.032). Patients with AGC had a significantly higher frequency of the Arg/Arg (arginine)allele (P=0.038) than EGC and a similar Pro/Pro allele.The signet ring cell type had a higher frequency of the Pro/Pro allele than other types (P=0.031). The Pro/Pro genotype carries a 3.9-fold increased risk of developing gastric cancer (95% CI,1.3-15.4,P=0.039)when compared to Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro genotypes and to develop EGC is a 5.25 fold increased risk (95% CI,1.8-19.6,P=0.021).CONCLUSION: The Pro/Pro genotype of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism carries a higher risk for gastric cancer in general and is also associated with a much higher risk for EGC than AGC.

  6. A microarray-based gastric carcinoma prewarning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Xiang Cui; Jin-Rong Zhao; Fen-Chan Han; Ju Zhang; Jia-Le Hu; Dai-Ming Fan; Hua-Jian Gao; Li Zhang; Xiao-Jun Yan; Ling-Xia Zhang; Jun-Rong Xu; Yan-Hai Guo; Gui-Qiu Jin; Giovani Gomez; Ding Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop a microarray-based prewarning system consisting of gastric cancer chip, prewarning data and analysissoftware for early detection of gastric cancer and pre-cancerous lesions.METHODS: Two high-density chips with 8 464 human cDNA sites were used to primarily identify potential genes specific for normal gastric mucosa, pre-cancerous lesion and gastric cancer. The low-density chips, composed of selected genes associated with normal gastric mucosa,precancerous lesion and gastric cancer, were fabricated and used to screen 150 specimens including 60 specimens of gastric cancer, 60 of pre-cancerous tissues and 30 of normal gastric mucosa. CAD software was used to screen out the relevant genes and their critical threshold values of expression levels distinguishing normal mucosa from pre-cancerous lesion and cancer. All data were stored in a computer database to establish a prewarning data library for gastric cancer. Two potential markers brcaa1 and ndr1were identified by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: A total of 412 genes associated with three stages of gastric cancer development were identified.There were 216 genes displaying higher expression in gastric cancer, 85 genes displaying higher expression in pre-cancerous lesion and 88 genes displaying higher expression in normal gastric mucosa. Also 15 genes associated with metastasis of gastric cancer and 8 genes associated with risk factors were screened out for target genes of diagnosis chip of early gastric cancer. The threshold values of 412 selected genes to distinguish gastric cancer, pre-cancerous lesion from normal gastric mucosa were defined as 6.01±2.40, 4.86±1.94 and 5.42±2.17, respectively. These selected 412 genes and critical threshold values were compiled into an analysis software, which can automatically provide reports by analyzing the results of 412 genes obtained by examining gastric tissues. All data were compiled into a prewarning database for gastric cancer by CGO

  7. Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: The Role of Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries are facing dilemmas such as un-sustainability, and poverty, (especially rural poverty. Poor people are often seen as compelled to exploit their surrounding for short-term survival and are assumed to be the ones most exposed to natural resources degradation. In order that at the first; we review the extensive theoretical literature on social capital, poverty and sustainability and demonstrate the nuanced treatment these concepts have received in this literature. Problem Statement: Current research and observations indicate that (these dilemmas un-sustainability and rural poverty are linked. The only feasible way out of current crisis is to integrate resources. The linkage among environment/agriculture, poverty and social capital are complex and in many cases, poorly understood. The developing countries have been criticized for their inability to reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable agricultural development. Approach: there is a need for improving of social capital to integrate environment and people to alleviate poverty and receive to sustainable development. Social capital has come to be defined in a variety of ways, all of which have been linked to collective norms, values and relationships reflecting the involvement of human individuals in a common life based on family and community. Results: This study argue that social capital as a concept has over the last decade or more been gaining significance in relation to a number of linked fields of analyses, including the identification of factors influencing educational attainment, explanations of differing levels of participation, rural development and poverty alleviation. Conclusions/Recommendations: social capital enhancement appears to have direct links with farmer education in that community development is generally defined as a social learning process which serves to empower people and to involve them as citizens in collective activities aimed at socio- economic

  8. Mice lacking neurofibromin develop gastric hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Chen, Jian; Richardson, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms are among many manifestations of the genetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, the physiological and pathological functions of the Nf1 gene in the GI system have not been fully studied, possibly because of a lack of mouse models. In this study, we generated conditional knockout mice with Nf1 deficiency in the GI tract. These mice develop gastric epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation together with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. The gastric phenotypes observed in these mutant mice seem to be the consequence of loss of Nf1 in gastric fibroblasts, resulting in paracrine hyperactivation of the ERK pathway in the gastric epithelium. These mice provide a useful model to study the pathogenesis of GI lesions in a subset of patients with NF1 and to investigate the role of the Nf1 gene in the development of GI neoplasms. PMID:19661150

  9. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  10. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  11. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  12. Gastric varicella: two cases in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta María Sastre-Lozano

    Full Text Available Gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus is an uncommon clinical condition where early suspicion and diagnosis are important to prevent the consequences deriving from its high morbidity and mortality, which in immunocompromised patients oscillate between 9% and 41% according to the various series. Two cases of gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV in two patients with blood cancer are reported below. Gastric lesions are usually preceded by typical papulovesicular skin lesions. When gastric involvement is the first symptom of the disease its diagnosis and management may be delayed, which may entail severe consequences for immunocompromised patients. It is therefore that we suggest its inclusion in the algorithm for immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and ulcer-like endoscopic lesions.

  13. [Gastric carcinoma in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannella, A; Laboranti, F; Guardamagna, A; Di Ninno, N; Fossa, M

    1989-08-31

    After examining the literature on the subject, all patients aged over 60 and admitted to the Surgical Pathology Department of Pavia University from 1-1-1974 to 31-12-1985, suffering from gastric carcinoma have been considered. From the results obtained it is concluded that stomach cancer is a disease that preferentially affects the IIIrd age, usually occurring with atypical symptomatology that leads the patient to underestimate the seriousness of the disease, and impeding early diagnosis that would be effective for therapeutic purposes. It is therefore essential for the necessary examination to be carried out at the first warning symptoms. Further, the general state of these patients has to be controlled and appropriate treatment sought to treat the various accompanying conditions and so prepare the patient for operation.

  14. A CASE OF GASTRIC SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Deepak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A 65 years old lady from Nagamapal, Imphal, India pre sented with pain in upper abdomen off and on for about 1 year duration and hi story of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and melena occasionally for which blood transfusion was required. Routine haematological investigations were normal, liver function test and kidney function test were within normal limits. EGD shows fundal polypoid growth of about 5cm diameter with areas of ulceration at places. Biopsy o f EGD specimen shows inflammatory cells with marked fibroblastic proliferation and no eviden ce of malignancy. CT of whole abdomen shows features suggestive of large gastric polyp in f undus of stomach. Laparotomy was done and surgical resection of the polypoid mass from fun dus of stomach was performed. HPE revealed schwannoma with degenerative changes.

  15. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Sandor

    2014-12-01

    Although Andre Robert's historic article on "gastric cytoprotection" in 1979 introduced this new name and concept, gastroprotective drugs (e.g. sofalcone, sucralfate), which prevent and/or accelerate healing of gastric ulcers without inhibiting acid secretion, were known in Japan before or around that time. But since Robert's studies were solely focused on prostaglandins (PG), they became the center of gastrointestinal research for more than 30 years. As endogenous products, PG were implicated in mediating the gastroprotective effect of other drugs such as sofalcone and sucralfate, despite that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin diminished but never abolished gastroprotection by other drugs. Another group of endogenous substances, that is, sulfhydryls (SH), investigated in parallel with PG, also seem to play a mechanistic role in gastroprotection, especially since SH alkylators like N-ethylmaleimide counteract virtually any form of gastroprotection. In Robert's terms of "prevention of chemically induced acute mucosal lesions," so far no single mechanism could explain the beneficial effects of diverse protective agents, but I argue that these two endogenous substances (i.e. PG, SH), in addition to histamine, are the main mechanistic mediators of acute gastroprotection: PG and histamine, because as mediators of acute inflammation, they increase vascular permeability (VP), and SH scavenge free radicals. This is contrary to the search for a single mechanism of action, long focused on enhanced secretion of mucus and/or bicarbonate that may contribute but cannot explain all forms of gastroprotection. Nevertheless, based on research work of the last 30 years, in part from our lab, a new mechanistic explanation of gastroprotection may be formulated: it's a complex but orderly and evolution-based physiologic response of the gastric mucosa under pathologic conditions. Namely, one of the first physiologic defense responses of any organ is inflammation that starts with

  16. Alleviating stress in the workplace: advice for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kerri

    Stress is an inherent and arguably essential aspect of the nurse's role, with ongoing challenges associated with providing care for patients and their families. However, the level of stress currently being experienced in health care exceeds the capacity of many nurses, resulting in ill health and burnout. This stress can undermine the care and compassion nurses are able to give, a vital concern in health care which was highlighted by the Francis inquiry. This article explores the factors that contribute to stress and the strategies that can be used to alleviate the stresses inherent in nursing.

  17. Pathological characteristics of gastric leiomyoblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Huang; Chun-Mei Wang; Bo-Rong Pan; Xiao-Wen Dai; Li Fang; Jia-Ji Yang; Hua Yu; Jun Ren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the pathological characteristics of gastric leiomyoblastoma.METHODS: All tissues were obtained during surgery or gastroscopy. Tissue specimens for examination by light microscope were 1 cm×1 cm×1 cm in size, fixed in 40 g/L neutral buffered formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The fresh tissues obtained for electron microscopy were 1 mm×1 mm×1 mm in size,and fixed in phosphate buffered 30 g/L glutaraldehyde,postfixed in 10 g/L osmium tetroxide and dehydrated in graded alcohol, embebbed in Epon 812. Ultrathin sections of 50 nm were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined under a JEM-2000 EX transmission electron microscope.RESULTS: The most important histopathological feature of leiomyoblastoma was the predominance of large, rounded or polygonal cells with characteristic perinuclear clear zone in cytoplasms. The tumor cells arranged in patch, cell junction or junctional complex could be found occasionally between cells under electron microscope. Most of the neoplastic cytoplasms were filled with myofilaments, dense bodies, and dense patches. Rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatated as lakes, and large quantities of protein secretions of intermediate electron density were found in the dilated cisternae. Intracisternal segregation could also be found.The nuclei were round or oval, and anomalous nuclei were found in part of cells.CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of gastric leiomyoblastoma can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The clear appearance of tumor cells is due to the dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, not fat droplets, glycogens or mucus in cytoplasm.

  18. The relationship between gastric motility and nausea: gastric prokinetic agents as treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Gareth J; Broad, John; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-09-05

    Nausea is one of a cluster of symptoms described subjectively by patients with delayed gastric emptying. The mechanisms and treatments are unclear (anti-emetic drugs are not fully effective against nausea). Can nausea be relieved by stimulating gastric emptying? Physostigmine (together with atropine) has been shown experimentally to stimulate gastric motility, relieve nausea and restore normal gastric motility. Is this mimicked by gastric prokinetic drugs? The answer is complicated by mixed pharmacology. Metoclopramide increases gastric motility by activating myenteric 5-HT4 receptors but also directly inhibits vomiting via D2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism; relationships between increased gastric motility and relief from nausea are therefore unclear. Similarly, the D2 receptor antagonist domperidone has direct anti-emetic activity. Nevertheless, more selective 5-HT4 and motilin receptor agonists (erythromycin, directly stimulating gastric motility) inhibit vomiting in animals; low doses of erythromycin can also relieve symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility and appetite mostly via vagus-dependent pathways, and inhibits vomiting in animals. To date, ghrelin receptor activation has failed to consistently improve gastric emptying or symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. We conclude that nausea can be relieved by gastric prokinetic drugs, but more clinical studies are needed using drugs with selective activity. Other mechanisms (e.g. ghrelin, vagal and central pathways, influencing a mechanistic continuum between appetite and nausea) also require exploration. These and other issues will be further explored in a forthcoming special issue of the European Journal of Pharmacology, which focusses on mechanisms of nausea and vomiting.

  19. Gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Casella; Camillo Di Bella; Antonino Roberto Cambareri; Carmelo Antonio Buda; Gianluigi Corti; Filippo Magri; Stefano Crippa; Vittorio Baldini

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. We describe a case of gastric metastasis due to primary lung cancer, revealed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haematogenous metastases to the stomach are a rare event. To our knowledge, only 55 cases have been described in the international literature. In these patients, the prognosis is very poor. We report herein a case of gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma,with a review of the literature about this rare entity.

  20. [Gastric heterotopia of rectum: a rare entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jamira; Cabezuelo, Lourdes; Rodrigues, Adriano; Costa, Nascimento; Cipriano, Maria Augusta

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa is an extremely rare condition; in the anorectal region only a very few cases were described up to now. The authors report a case of a 46-year-old woman, asymptomatic, to whom a massive recess was discovered in the rectum, at 12 cm of the anal verge; a bottom flat lesion with 1.5 cm of diameter revealed a focus of normal appearing fundic-type gastric mucosa at histology.

  1. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relativelynew research field, with convincing results mostlystemming from Asian countries. The use of the roboticsurgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure,which is also easier to learn, sets the background fora wider spread of minimally invasive technique in thetreatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover theliterature published so far, analyzing the pros and consof robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining studyquestions.

  2. Gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Giovanni; Bella, Camillo Di; Cambareri, Antonino Roberto; Buda, Carmelo Antonio; Corti, Gianluigi; Magri, Filippo; Crippa, Stefano; Baldini, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. We describe a case of gastric metastasis due to primary lung cancer, revealed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haematogenous metastases to the stomach are a rare event. To our knowledge, only 55 cases have been described in the international literature. In these patients, the prognosis is very poor. We report herein a case of gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma, with a review of the literature about this rare entity. PMID:16810769

  3. Expression of gastric cancer—associated MG7 antigen in gastric cancer,precancerous lesions and H.pylori—associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-LiGuo; MingDong; LanWang; Li-PingSun; YuanYuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between the antigen MG7 antigen expression and gastric cancer as well as precancerous condition;to study the relationship between the MG7 antigen expression and H.pyiori infection in benign gastric lesions in order to find out the effect of H.pylori infection on the process of gastric cancer development.

  4. A Rare Complication of Hyperplastic Gastric Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Nayudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps are incidentally diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are known to cause gastric outlet obstruction and chronic blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, hyperplastic gastric polyp presenting as acute severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been two cases of hyperplastic gastric polyps presenting as acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the medical literature. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman who was admitted to our hospital with symptomatic anemia and sepsis. The patient developed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during her hospital stay. She underwent emergent endoscopy, but bleeding could not be controlled. She underwent emergent laparotomy and wedge resection to control the bleeding. Biopsy of surgical specimen was reported as hyperplastic gastric polyp. We recommend that physicians should be aware of this rare serious complication of hyperplastic gastric polyps as endoscopic polypectomy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in preventing future complications including bleeding.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishikawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  6. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirko Muroni; Francesco D'Angelo; Massimo Pezzatini; Simone Sebastiani; Samantha Noto; Emanuela Pilozzi; Giovanni Ramacciato

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between gastric and pancreatic carcinoma is a relatively rare condition. In gastric carcinoma patients, the prevalence of second tumors varies 2.8% to 6.8% according to the reported statistics. Gastric cancer associated with pancreatic cancer is uncommon. METHODS: We report a case of a 73-year-old patient hospitalized for vomiting and weight loss. Esophagogastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated an ulcerative lesion of the gastric antrum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance showed a gastric thickening in the antral and pyloric portion and a nodular mass (3×1.7 cm) in the uncinate portion of the pancreas. RESULTS: The patient underwent pancreaticoduoden-ectomy according to Whipple regional typeⅠFortner. Histological examination of the specimen demonstrated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and a poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. CONCLUSIONS: Long survival is rare in patients with associated gastric and pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment.

  7. Current practice of gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon Young Choi; Ji Yeong An; Hyung-Il Kim; Jae-Ho Cheong; Woo Jin Hyung; Sung Hoon Noh

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to overview the current practice of gastric cancer treatment including surgery and other adjuvant modalities.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and main guidelines in the East and West.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Although varied adjuvant modalities have been proved to be benefit for treating gastric cancer,surgery is still the most important treatment strategy against gastric cancer.Actively adapting to new technology is important but it should be balanced with an effort to establish sound scientific rationale that adheres to oncologic principles.Conclusions Future treatment of gastric cancer will be focused on tailored,personalized therapy.For achieving it,collaboration across disciplines is essential.Also the philosophy of caring for the patients with gastric cancer should be rooted in the realization of true patient benefit regardless of who is providing the care.With these philosophies,we can shift the scientific and technological advances toward triumph over gastric cancer.

  8. Clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Huo, Teh-Ia; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Li, Chung-Pin; Lin, Han-Chieh; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2012-11-15

    Clopidogrel is not safe enough for the gastric mucosa in patients with high risk of peptic ulcer. This study aimed to explore if clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing and elucidate the involved mechanisms. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats and the ulcer size, mucosal epithelial cell proliferation of the ulcer margin, expression of growth factors [epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor] and their receptors, and signal transduction pathways for cell proliferation were measured and compared between the clopidogrel-treated group and untreated controls. For the in vitro part, rat gastric mucosal epithelial cell line (RGM-1 cells) was used to establish EGF receptor over-expressed cells. Cell proliferation and molecular change under EGF treatment (10ng/ml) with and without clopidogrel (10(-6)M) were demonstrated. Ulcer size was significantly larger in the clopidogrel-treated group compared to the control and mucosal epithelial cell proliferation of the ulcer margin was significantly decreased in the clopidogrel-treated group (Pulcer-induced gastric epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer-stimulated expressions of EGF receptor and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (PERK) at the ulcer margin (Pgastric ulcer healing in rats via inhibiting gastric epithelial cell proliferation, at least by inhibition of the EGF receptor-ERK signal transduction pathway.

  9. Quality of life in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ad A. Kaptein; Satoshi Morita; Junichi Sakamoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the empirical research on assessing quality of life (QOL) in patients with gastric carcinoma. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in MedLine from 1966 to February 2004. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were identified. QOL was used as an outcome measure in virtually all identified studies, such as those examining the effects of gastric cancer and various medical or surgical treatments in the patients. QOL was assessed mainly with generic measures; the social dimensions of QOL were largely neglected. The lack of gastric cancer-specific QOL measures hampers QOL research up to now. The gastric cancer-specific EORTCQLQ-STO22 and the FACT-Ga are important additions to the arsenal of disease-specific QOL measures. In most of the studies, the label QOL is used for questionnaires, which only assess symptoms or performance status, or are physician-reported rather than patient-reported outcomes. CONCLUSION: QOL in patients with gastric cancer deserves more systematic studies, especially as one of the outcome measures in randomized clinical trials. Results of studies that include QOL in patients with gastric cancer should be applied in clinical care, which aims at improving QOL of these patients.

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Jun, E-mail: junnis@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi [Department of Microbiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enyacho, Izumo City, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro [Department of Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Oga, Atsunori [Department of Pathology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yanai, Hideo [Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kanmon Medical Center, 1-1 Sotoura, Chofu, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 752-8510 (Japan); Sakaida, Isao [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  11. Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-In; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of G. procumbens extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was 0.092±0.018 and 0.084±0.027 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting that the α-amylase inhibition activity of the G. procumbens extract was more effective than that of the positive control, acarbose (IC50=0.164 mg/mL). The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly alleviated in the G. procumbens extract group than in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the curve significantly decreased with G. procumbens extract administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that G. procumbens extract may help alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes. PMID:27752493

  12. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  13. Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  14. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  15. Role of magnesium in alleviation of aluminium toxicity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Rengel, Zed

    2011-04-01

    Magnesium is pivotal for activating a large number of enzymes; hence, magnesium plays an important role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes affecting plant growth and development. Magnesium can also ameliorate aluminium phytotoxicity, but literature reports on the dynamics of magnesium homeostasis upon exposure to aluminium are rare. Herein existing knowledge on the magnesium transport mechanisms and homeostasis maintenance in plant cells is critically reviewed. Even though overexpression of magnesium transporters can alleviate aluminium toxicity in plants, the mechanisms governing such alleviation remain obscure. Possible magnesium-dependent mechanisms include (i) better carbon partitioning from shoots to roots; (ii) increased synthesis and exudation of organic acid anions; (iii) enhanced acid phosphatase activity; (iv) maintenance of proton-ATPase activity and cytoplasmic pH regulation; (v) protection against an aluminium-induced cytosolic calcium increase; and (vi) protection against reactive oxygen species. Future research should concentrate on assessing aluminium toxicity and tolerance in plants with overexpressed or antisense magnesium transporters to increase understanding of the aluminium-magnesium interaction.

  16. Adrenergic influence on gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric fistula dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F;

    1984-01-01

    by an initial increase in mucosal blood flow and in the last two periods a decrease in blood flow. alpha-Blockade (phentolamine) reduced the pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal blood flow but the ratio between blood flow and acid secretion was increased, indicating a relatively...

  17. Effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F; Bech, K;

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of a beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist on gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs with gastric fistula. Isoprenaline, a beta 1- and beta 2-agonist was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 2- and beta 1-receptors. Isoprenaline...

  18. Massive gastric dilatation and anuria resolved with naso-gastric tube decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Vega, Cristina; Peces, Carlos; Trébol, Julio; González, Juan A

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time a case of acute kidney injury associated with severe gastric distention after a laparoscopic Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication of the stomach for hiatal hernia. An abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to intra-abdominal hypertension was suspected. Naso-gastric tube decompression resulted in immediate resaturation of the diuresis and progressive recovery of renal function.

  19. Alterations in Gastric Microbiota After H. Pylori Eradication and in Different Histological Stages of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tung Hiu; Qin, Youwen; Sham, Pak Chung; Lau, K.S.; Chu, Kent-Man; Leung, Wai K.

    2017-01-01

    The role of bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the stomach remains elusive. We characterized the gastric microbiota in individuals with different histological stages of gastric carcinogenesis and after receiving HP eradication therapy. Endoscopic gastric biopsies were obtained from subjects with HP gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM), gastric cancer (GC) and HP negative controls. Gastric microbiota was characterized by Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the 16 S rDNA. Apart from dominant H. pylori, we observed other Proteobacteria including Haemophilus, Serratia, Neisseria and Stenotrophomonas as the major components of the human gastric microbiota. Although samples were largely converged according to the relative abundance of HP, a clear separation of GC and other samples was recovered. Whilst there was a strong inverse association between HP relative abundance and bacterial diversity, this association was weak in GC samples which tended to have lower bacterial diversity compared with other samples with similar HP levels. Eradication of HP resulted in an increase in bacterial diversity and restoration of the relative abundance of other bacteria to levels similar to individuals without HP. In conclusion, HP colonization results in alterations of gastric microbiota and reduction in bacterial diversity, which could be restored by antibiotic treatment. PMID:28322295

  20. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features. Methods A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs) diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored. Results The majority of EGCs (63/64) were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, Pgastric ulcers. Conclusions Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27706195

  1. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    2009-01-01

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Sixte

  2. Synchronous and metachronous occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma: A review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhan Hamaloglu; Serdar Topaloglu; Arif Ozdemir; Ahmet Ozenc

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of both primary gastric lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma in the same patient is a rare entity. The possible causative factors of synchronous or metachronous occurrence of both malignancies and varieties in the treatment modalities are reviewed according to published cases in English language medical literature.

  3. Acute gastric ulcer perforation in a 35 weeks' nulliparous patient with gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Offer; Maymon, Eli; Mazor, Moshe

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of a primiparous patient at 35 weeks' gestation who had had laparoscopic gastric banding, and who presented to labor and delivery with protracted vomiting followed by an acute abdomen and fetal distress. An emergency surgery revealed acute gastric ulcer perforation. This complication, although rare, should be considered.

  4. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility with regard to both frequency and strength. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  5. Effect of isoprenaline on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of isoprenaline on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility for both frequency and strength. Isoprenaline, a beta 1...

  6. Helicobacter pyloriin gastric corpus of patients 20 years after partial gastric resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Kirsch; Ahmed Madisch; Petja Piehler; Ekkehard Bayerd(o)rffer; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis in patients after partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer, and to compare the severity of H pylori-positive gastritis in the corpus mucosa between partial gastrectomy patients and matched controls.METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 57 patients after partial gastric resection for histological examination using hematoxylin/eosin and Warthin-Starry staining. Gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Severity of corpus gastritis was compared between H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients and H pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients matched for age and gender.RESULTS: In partial gastrectomy patients, surgery was performed 20 years (median) prior to evaluation. In 25 patients (43.8%) H pylori was detected histologically in the gastric remnant. Gastric atrophy was more common in H pylori-positive compared to H pylori-negative partial gastrectomy patients (P<0.05). The severity of corpus gastritis was significantly lower in H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in the activity of gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The long-term prevalence of H pylorigastritis in the gastric corpus of patients who underwent partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer disease is comparable to the general population. The expression of H pylori gastritis in the gastric remnant does not resemble the gastric cancer phenotype.

  7. Gastric bezoar after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Ismail; Tardum Tardu, Ali; Tolan, Kerem; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Karagul, Servet; Kirmizi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to present a patient with gastric pouch bezoar after having a bariatric surgery. Presentation of case Sixty-three years old morbid obese female had a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 14 months ago. She has lost 88% of her excess body mass index; but started to suffer from nausea, abdominal distention and vomiting lately, especially for the last two months. The initial evaluation by endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and an upper gastrointestinal contrast series overlooked the pathology in the gastric pouch and did not display any abnormality. However, a second endoscopy revealed a 5 cm in diameter phytobezoar in the gastric pouch which was later endoscopically removed. After the bezoar removal, her complaints relieved completely. Discussion The gastric bezoars may be confused with the other pathologies because of the dyspeptic complaints of these patients. The patients that had a bariatric surgery; are more prone to bezoar formation due to their potential eating disorders and because of the gastro-enterostomy made to a small gastric pouch after the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Conclusion Possibility of a bezoar formation should be kept in mind in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who has nausea and vomiting complaints. Removal of the bezoar provides a dramatic improvement in the complaints of these patients. PMID:27107501

  8. Hedgehog signaling pathway and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2005-10-01

    Hedgehog, WNT, FGF and BMP signaling pathways network together during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling pathway leads to pathological consequences in a variety of human tumors, such as gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), surgical gastrectomy and chemotherapy are therapeutic options for gastric cancer; however, prognosis of advanced gastric cancer patient is still poor. Here, Hedgehog signaling pathway in human gastric cancer and its clinical applications will be reviewed. Human SHH, IHH, DHH (Hedgehog homologs), HHAT (Hedgehog acyltransferase), HHIP (Hedgehog-interacting protein), DISP1, DISP2, DISP3 (Dispatched homologs), PTCH1, PTCH2 (Patched homologs), SMO (Smoothened homolog), KIF27, KIF7 (Costal-2 homologs), STK36 (Fused homolog), SUFU (SuFu homolog), DZIP1 (Iguana homolog), GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 (Cubitus interruptus homologs) are implicated in the Hedgehog signaling. PTCH1, FOXM1 and CCND2 are direct transcriptional targets of Hedgehog signaling. Hedgehog signaling activation leads to cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation. SHH regulates growth and differentiation within gastric mucosa through autocrine loop and FOXL1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. SHH is implicated in stem/progenitor cell restitution of damaged gastric mucosa during chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori. SHH up-regulation, IHH upregulation and HHIP down-regulation lead to aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling through PTCH1 to GLI1 in gastric cancer. Small molecule compounds targeted to SMO (KADD-cyclopamine, SANT1-4, Cur61414) as well as humanized anti-SHH antibodies are potent anti-cancer drugs for gastric cancer. Cocktail of Hedgehog inhibitors would be developed as novel therapeutics for gastric cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of Hedgehog signaling genes would be utilized

  9. Adrenergic influence on pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C; Bech, K; Gottrup, F;

    1984-01-01

    . The inhibitory effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion showed the characteristics of competitive type and on bethanechol stimulated acid secretion of non competitive type. An increasing and dose-dependent stimulation of bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine...... 1, 5 and 10 micrograms/kg/min. Dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min.) exerted an inhibitory effect on pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion mediated, via the beta 1-receptors. The stimulatory effect of low doses of dopamine during bethanechol stimulation could not be defined...... as an effect via beta-receptors. This dual response, the weak inhibitory effects and the potent decreasing effect on antral gastric motility indicate that dopamine has no physiologic relevant effect on gastric acid secretion. One may conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-receptors may exert an influence on gastric...

  10. Diagnoses of gastric cancer and other gastric diseases by serum pepsinogen I and Ⅱ levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoZhi-Jian; ChengZhao-Ming; 等

    1998-01-01

    Serum pepsinogens I and Ⅱ(PGI,PGⅡ) levels were determined by PGI and PGⅡ-RIA kits in 84 healthy controls and 128 patients of gastric diseases including 42 patients with gastric cancer.The results showed peptic ulcer cases had elevated PGI and PGⅡ levels.The atrophic gastritis cases had low PGI levels and the gastric cancer cases had low PGI and low PGI/PGⅡ ratio.Using the cut-off values of PGI<35μg/L and PGI/PGⅡ<1.5 for clinical purpose,the sensitivity andspecificity of the test for gastric cancer was 73% and 78%,respectively.Combined with endoscope examination,the serum PGI and PGⅡ levels are valuable for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  11. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  12. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  13. Spontaneous rupture of giant gastric stromal tumor into gastric lumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Puneet S

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST constitute a large majority of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, which express the c-kit proto-oncogene protein, a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. GI stromal tumors of the stomach are usually associated with bleeding, abdominal pain or a palpable mass. Case presentation A 75-year-old male presented with upper abdominal pain and palpable mass. Computed tomographic (CT scan of the abdomen showed a large mass arising in the posterior aspect of fundus, body, and greater curvature of the stomach. Second day after the admission, there was significant reduction in the size of the tumor, clinically as well as radiologically. Endoscopic biopsy showed large bulge in fundus and corpus of the stomach posteriorly with an opening in the posterior part of the corpus, and biopsy from the edge of the opening reveled GIST. Patient underwent curative resection. Conclusion Spontaneous ruptured of giant gastric stromal tumor is very rare presentation of stomach GIST. Thorough clinical examination and timely investigation can diagnose rare complication.

  14. Duodenal stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction:Prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Guimar(a)es Hourneaux Moura; Flávio Coelho Ferreira; Spencer Cheng; Diogo Turiani Hourneaux Moura; Paulo Sakai; Bruno Zilberstain

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the results of duodenal stenting for palliation of gastroduodenal malignant obstruction by using a gastric outlet obstruction score (GOOS).METHODS:A prospective,non-randomized study was performed at a tertiary center between August 2005 and April 2010.Patients were eligible if they had malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and were not candidates for surgical treatment.Medical history and patient demographics were collected at baseline.Scheduled interviews were made on the day of the procedure and 15,30,90 and 180 d later or unscheduled as necessary.RESULTS:Fifteen patients (6 male,9 female; median age 61 years) with GOO who had undergone duodenal stenting were evaluated.Ten patients had metastasis at baseline (66.6%) and 14 were unable to accept oral intake (93.33%),including 7 patients who were using a feeding tube.Laboratory data showed biliary obstruction in eight cases (53.33%); all were submitted to biliary drainage.Two patients developed obstructive symptoms due to tumor ingrowth after 30 d and another due to tumor overgrowth after 180 d.Two cases of stent migration occurred.A good response to treatment was observed,with a mean time of approximately 1 d (19 h) until toleration of a liquid diet and slightly more than 2 d for both soft solids (51 h) and a solid food/normal diet (55 h).The mean time to first failure to maintain liquid intake (GOOS ≥ 1) was 93 d.During follow-up,the mean time to first failure to maintain the previously achieved GOOS of 2-3 (solid/semi-solid food),considered technical failure,was 71 d.On the basis of oral intake a GOOS is defined:0 for no oral intake; 1 for liquids only; 2 for soft solids only; 3 for lowresidue or full diet.CONCLUSION:Enteral stenting to alleviate gastroduodenal malignant obstruction improves quality of life in patients with limited life expectancy,which can be evaluated by using a GOO scoring system.

  15. Quantitative assessment model for gastric cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Wei-Ping Yu; Liang Song; Yi-Min Zhu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer.METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food,etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD).RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively.According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%.Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory.It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer.

  16. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Li-Ya Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial.The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H.pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect.Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015.Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic.Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H.pylori infection.About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H.pylori infection.Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H.pylori infection are under way.Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H.pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer;however, a population-based H.pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora.Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  17. Evaluation of Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanlong Qin; Chaohong Lin; Xiulong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the proper sites and doses of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for gastric carcinoma and the effects of this treatment.METHODS A total of 106 cases of stage Ⅰ- Ⅳ gastric carcinoma who received a D2 or D3 radical resection operation combined with IORT were analyzed. Sixty-seven patients with gastric cancer of the antrum and body received distal gastrectomy. The sites of irradiation were at the celiac artery and hepatoduodenal ligament area. Another 39 patients with carcinoma of the cardia and upper part of the gastric body and whole stomach received proximal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy. The sites of irradiation for this group were the upper margin of the pancreas and the regional paraaorta.The therapeutic effects (including survival and complications) of these 106cases who received a combined operation IORT (IORT group) were compared with 441 cases treated during the same time period by a radical resection operation alone (operation group).RESULTS The radiation dose below 30 Gy was safe. The therapeutic method of the operation combined with IORT did not prolong the survival time of patients with stage Ⅱ and Ⅳ gastric cancer, but the 5-year survival rates of patients with stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ gastric cancers were significantly improved.While the 5-year survival rates of the stage Ⅲ cancer patients receiving D2 resection combined with IORT had marked improvement, for those receiving a D3 radical resection, only the postoperative survival rates at 3 and 4 years of those cases in stages Ⅲ cancers were improved (P<0.005-0.001). The 5-year survival rate for those patients was raised only 4.7%(P>0.05).CONCLUSION The 5-year survival rates of patients with stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ gastric carcinoma who received a D2 lymphadenectomy combined with IORT were improved and had no influence on the postoperative complications and mortality.

  18. Erythropoietin-induced proliferation of gastric mucosal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuro Itoh; Masato Higuchi; Fumio Ishihata; Yushi Sudoh; Soichiro Miura; Yoshio Sawasaki; Kyoko Takeuchi; Shingo Kato; Nobuhiro Imai; Yoichiro Kato; Noriyuki Shibata; Makio Kobayashi; Yoshiyuki Moriguchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the localization of erythropoietin receptor on gastric specimens and characterize the effects of erythropoietin on the normal gastric epithelial proliferation using a porcine gastric epithelial cell culture model.METHODS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochermistry.Growth stimulation effects of erythropoietin on cultured gastric mucosal cells were determined by ELISA using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU).RESULTS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected on cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells.Erythropoietin receptor was also detected histochemically at the base of gastric mucosal epithelium. BrdU assay demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in growth potential of cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells by administration of erythropoietin, as well as these effects were inhibited by administration of antierythropoietin antibody (P< 0.01).CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that erythropoietin has a potential to proliferate gastric mucosal epithelium via erythropoietin receptor.

  19. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Avdyl-Selmon; Hoxha, Faton-Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik-Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin-Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa-Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik-Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije-Hasan

    2008-10-14

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed.

  20. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avdyl Selmon Krasniqi; Faton Tatil Hoxha; Besnik Xhafer Bicaj; Shemsedin Isuf Hashani; Shpresa Mehmet Hasimja; Sadik Mal Kelmendi; Lumturije Hasan Gashi-Luci

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed.

  1. A Case Report of One-Point Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing Song; Qiang Wang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction Carcinoma of the stomach is the most common malignant tumor in China. Due to advanced endoscopic techniques and equipment, the detection of early gastric carcinoma (EGC) has increased worldwide.Yet gastric one-point cancer is rarely detected.

  2. Expression and Clinical Significance of REGy in Gastric Cancer Tissue and Variously Differentiated Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Tian Tian; Xiaoyi Wang; Fan Li; Guosheng Ren

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the REGy expression in gastric cancer tissue and gastric cancer cell lines of various differentiation levels and its clinical significance.METHODS Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of REGy protein in 70 specimens of gastric cancer and 30 specimens of normal gastric mucosa. The relationship between the expression of REGy protein and the biological behaviors of gastric cancer was analyzed. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA level and the protein expression of REGγ in normal gastric cell line GES-1, well differentiated gastric cancer cell line MKN-28, moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line BGC-823.RESULTS The expression rate of REGγprotein in gastric cancer tissue (52/70, 74.29%) was significantly higher than that in normal gastric tissue (12/30, 40%) (P<0.01). The expression rate of REGywas correlated with tumor size (P<0.01), lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), differentiation degree (P<0.01), infiltration depth (P<0.01)and distant metastasis (P<0.05). RT-PCR analysis showed that theexpression of REGγ mRNA was 0.459±0.079 in the normal gastric mucosa cell line, 0.588±0.118 in the well differentiated gastric cancer cell line, 0.715±0.066 in the moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line, and 0.873±0.099 in the poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line, showing a negative correla- tion between REGγmRNA expression and differentiation level (P <0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the expression of REGy protein was 0.712±0.065 in the normal gastric mucosa cell line, 1.176±0.185 in the well differentiated gastric cancer cell line, 1.533 ±0.127 in the moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line, and 2.061±0.398 in the poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line, showing a negative correlation between REGγprotein expression and differentiation level (P<0.05).CONCLUSION REGγ is expressed in gastric cancer

  3. -------------Gastric malignancy : Clinicopathologic spectrum and relationship to helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satti Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper gastrointestinal cancer particularly of stomach is a relatively frequent form of cancer. Gastric H pylori infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Gastric carcinoma has been addressed by many articles in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and the Middle East, while only a few addressed gastric lymphoma. Aim of the study: To investigate the relative frequency of gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma and their association with H pylori infection in endoscoped patients. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of patients endoscoped at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA during the period 1983-1999 was performed. Endoscopy and pathology records were retrieved and reviewed. The histopathology slides were re-examined, applying immunohistochemical techniques on corresponding paraffin sections to classify the various tumors. H pylori were identified on routine histology and by utilizing Giemsa stain. Results: During the study period of 17 years (1983-1999, a total of 94 endoscopically-diagnosed, histologically-confirmed cases of gastric malignancy were identified. Of these, there were 55 gastric adenocarcinoma and 39 gastric lymphoma. H pylori was identified in the adjacent gastric mucosa in 18 of all cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and in 27 of the 39 cases of lymphoma. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the comparatively high frequency of gastric lymphoma in this population and confirms the intimate association of H-pylori infection to both gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT-lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric malignancy and the use of immunohistochemistry is essential for the differential diagnosis of some of these tumors

  4. Gastric Cancer in Korean Americans: Risks and Reductions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Karen E

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leadings cause of cancer worldwide. However, Koreans have the highest reported incidence of this deadly disease. Risk factors predisposing to the formation of gastric cancer include a combination of environmental risks, such as diet and infection (Helicobacter pylori), and, in some cases, genetic predisposition. Early screening and detection is essential to reduce gastric cancer mortality. The low prevalence and late onset of gastric cancer in Americans, compared ...

  5. Enhanced gastric mucosal haemostasis after upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, M C; Fullarton, G M; Brown, I.L.; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1991-01-01

    An endoscopic technique for the measurement of gastric mucosal bleeding time has been developed to study gastric haemostasis in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The relation of gastric mucosal bleeding time to skin bleeding time and nonsterodial anti-inflammatory drug usage was examined in 61 control patients and in 47 patients presenting with bleeding peptic ulcers or erosions. Gastric mucosal bleeding time was shorter in patients with haemorrhage (median 2 minutes, ra...

  6. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. Methods We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of M...

  7. Practical Approach to Endoscopic Management for Bleeding Gastric Varices

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    Lim, Young Suk [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Bleeding from gastric varices is generally more severe than bleeding from esophageal varices, although it occurs less frequently. Recently, new endoscopic treatment options and interventional radiological procedures have broadened the therapeutic armamentarium for gastric varices. This review provides an overview of the classification and pathophysiology of gastric varices, an introduction to current endoscopic and interventional radiological management options for gastric varices, and details of a practical approach to endoscopic variceal obturation using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.

  8. Significant alleviation of Darier's disease with fractional CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmously, Rym; Litaiem, Noureddine; Hammami, Houda; Badri, Talel; Fenniche, Samy

    2015-04-01

    Darier's disease (DD) is a dominantly inherited genodermatosis with highly variable expression. It is characterized by symmetrical hyperkeratotic papules affecting seborrheic areas and extremities. The existence of unsightly lesions could lead to discomfort and social handicap. Conventional treatment consists of topical and systemic steroids and/or retinoids alleviating DD. Ablative lasers also have been used to treat these conditions with variable results and side effects. To the best of our knowledge, fractional CO2 laser has never been used to treat DD. We present a case of a 36-year-old woman with verrucous and hyperkeratotic plaques of the forehead significantly improved after two sessions of fractional CO2 laser treatment. Neither scars nor pigmentary disorders were noted.

  9. Gust Load Alleviation with Robust Control for a Flexible Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for gust alleviation of aircraft are mostly proposed based on a specific flight condition. In this paper, robust control laws are designed for a large flexible wing with uncertainty in Mach number and dynamic pressure. To accurately describe the aeroelastic model over a large flight envelope, a nonlinear parameter-varying model is developed which is a function of both Mach number and dynamic pressure. Then a linear fractional transformation is established accordingly and a modified model order reduction technique is applied to reduce the size of the uncertainty block. The developed model, in which the statistic nature of the gust is considered by using the Dryden power spectral density function, enables the use of μ-synthesis procedures for controller design. The simulations show that the μ controller can always effectively reduce the wing root shear force and bending moment at a given range of Mach number and dynamic pressure.

  10. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  11. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  12. Endoscopic retrieval of gastric trichophytobezoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiu-ling; Zhao, Wei-chuan; Wang, Yu-shui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Trichophytobezoars, which are composed of hair and plant fibers, are usually located in the stomach. They are often associated with trichophagia and trichotillomania. The most commonly reported methods of trichophytobezoar treatment are open surgery and laparoscopic retrieval; there are few reports of endoscopic removal of trichophytobezoars. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: Twelve-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of increasing upper abdominal pain, anorexia, and postprandial emesis. She had a 3-year history of pulling out and eating her own hair. Endoscopic examination showed a large intragastric trichophytobezoar measuring 10.5 cm × 3.5 cm in size, with extension of a few hairs through the pylorus. Interventions and Outcomes: The trichophytobezoar was packed with hair fibers and contained a hard core of mixed hair and vegetable fibers. After the core was cut, the trichophytobezoar was fragmented into pieces with the alternating use of a polypectomy snare and argon plasma coagulation. A small amount of hair and nondigestible food fibers was removed with grasping forceps during the initial procedure. The remaining hairball was loosened with biopsy forceps and was injected with sodium bicarbonate solution. The trichophytobezoar was removed completely at repeat endoscopy 5 days later. After 6 months of psychological intervention, the patient had no recurrence of trichophagia or trichophytobezoar. Lessons: Endoscopy with sodium bicarbonate injection is an effective and minimally invasive method of retrieving a gastric trichophytobezoar. PMID:28099364

  13. Gastric Cancer Regional Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Berkan; Hardalaç, Fırat; Serhatlioğlu, Selami; İlhan, Mustafa Necmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel system was created to localize cancerous regions for stomach images which were taken with computed tomography(CT). The aim was to determine the coordinates of cancerous regions which spread in the stomach area in the color space with using this system. Also, to limit these areas with a high accuracy ratio and to feedback to the user of this system were the other objectives. This integration was performed with using energy mapping, analysis methods and multiple image processing methods and the system which was consisted from these advanced algorithms was appeared. For this work, in the range of 25-40 years and when gender discrimination was insignificant, 30 volunteer patients were chosen. During the formation of the system, to exalt the accuracy to the maximum level, 2 main stages were followed up. First, in the system, advanced image processing methods were processed between each other and obtained data were studied. Second, in the system, FFT and Log transformations were used respectively for the first two cases, then these transformations were used together for the third case. For totally three cases, energy distribution and DC energy intensity analysis were done and the performance of this system was investigated. Finally, with using the system's unique algorithms, a non-invasive method was achieved to detect the gastric cancer and when FFT and Log transformation were used together, the maximum success rate was obtained and this rate was calculated as 83,3119 %.

  14. Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Sztefko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10, the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14 and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14. Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005 and the control group (p < 0.005. Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003 and the HPG group (p < 0.01. We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  15. Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zając, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2013-07-29

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  16. Giant gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-09-01

    A 57-year-old man developed haematemesis and was referred to our institution. His discomfort had begun 3 weeks earlier and localised to the upper abdomen. Abdominal CT showed a defect of gastric mucosa and gastric wall thickening. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that he had an active gastric ulcer, 40 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature in the upper third of the corpus and the presence of a pancreatic body at the ulcer base, penetration to the pancreas. Open gastrectomy was performed with a preoperative diagnosis of localised peritonitis caused by penetration of the stomach into the pancreas. Histopathology of resected specimens showed a benign peptic ulcer, 40×40 mm in size, was found on the lesser curvature in the antrum, and this had penetrated through the pancreas. The most serious complications of PUD include haemorrhage, perforation, penetration, and gastric outlet obstruction. Approximately 7% of patients experience perforation, which occurs when an ulcer erodes through the wall and leaks air and digestive contents into the peritoneal cavity. Antral and duodenal ulcers can penetrate into the pancreas. We report a case of gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

  17. Statins alleviate experimental nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang Qun; Lim, Tony K Y; Lee, Seunghwan; Zhao, Yuan Qing; Zhang, Ji

    2011-05-01

    The statins are a well-established class of drugs that lower plasma cholesterol levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase. They are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the prevention of coronary heart disease. Recent studies suggest that statins have anti-inflammatory effects beyond their lipid-lowering properties. We sought to investigate whether statins could affect neuropathic pain by mediating nerve injury-associated inflammatory responses. The effects of hydrophilic rosuvastatin and lipophilic simvastatin were examined in the mouse partial sciatic nerve ligation model. Systemic daily administration of either statin from days 0 to 14 completely prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. When administered from days 8 to 14 after injury, both statins dose-dependently reduced established hypersensitivity. After treatment, the effects of the statins were washed out within 2 to 7 days, depending on dose. Effects of both statins in alleviating mechanical allodynia were further confirmed in a different injury-associated neuropathic pain model, mental nerve chronic constriction, in rats. Both statins were able to abolish interleukin-1β expression in sciatic nerve triggered by nerve ligation. Additionally, quantitative analysis with Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acid protein immunoreactivity demonstrated that rosuvastatin and simvastatin significantly reduced the spinal microglial and astrocyte activation produced by sciatic nerve injury. The increase of interleukin-1β mRNA in the ipsilateral side of spinal cords was also reduced by the treatment of either statin. We identified a potential new application of statins in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The pain-alleviating effects of statins are likely attributable to their immunomodulatory effects.

  18. Wake vortex alleviation using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalanis, Claude G.

    All bodies that generate lift also generate circulation. The circulation generated by large commercial aircraft remains in their wake in the form of trailing vortices. These vortices can be hazardous to following aircraft due to their strength and persistence. To account for this, airports abide by spacing rules which govern the frequency with which aircraft can use their runways when operating in instrument flight rules. These spacing rules are the limiting factor on increasing airport capacity. We conducted an experimental and computational study to assess the potential for using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTEs), for active wake vortex alleviation. Wind tunnel tests were performed on a half-span model NACA 0012 wing equipped with an array of 13 independent MITE pairs. The chord-based Reynolds number was around 350,000. Each MiTE could extend 0.015 chord lengths perpendicular to the freestream on the pressure side of the wing. Pressure profiles and a five-hole probe survey in the near wake were used to examine the influence that the MiTEs had upon the wing aerodynamics and the vortex rollup process. Particle image velocimetry was used to measure the static and time-dependent response of the vortex in the intermediate wake to various MiTE actuation schemes. These results were used to form complete initial conditions for vortex filament computations of the far wake evolution. Results from these computations showed that the perturbations created by MiTEs could be used to excite a variety of three-dimensional inviscid vortex instabilities. Finally, the research performed on MiTEs led to the invention of a more practical wake alleviation device: the spanwise actuating Gurney flap. Prototype tests showed that this device could produce similar perturbations to the MiTEs.

  19. Familial gastric cancer : guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Plukker, John T.; de Jong, Daphne; van Krieken, J. Han; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Bleiker, Eveline; Cats, Anemieke

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a relatively rare disorder, with a mutated CDH1 gene as the only known cause. Carriers of a germline mutation in CDH1 have a lifetime risk of > 80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting earl

  20. [Familial gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R.H.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Vasen, H.F.; Cats, A.

    2011-01-01

    The only known genetic causes of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are germline mutations in the CDH1 gene.- CDH1 mutation carriers have a lifetime risk of 70-80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early stages of HDGC, prop

  1. Molecular and pro-inflammatory genetic profile in gastric carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a result from the combination of environmental factors and an accumulation of specific genetic alterations, and affects mainly the older population. It is known that genetic factors play a more important role in early onset gastric cancers than in conventional gastric cancer patien

  2. Expression of periostin and its clinicopathological relevance in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and localization of periostin in gastric cancer and its clinical relevance.METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure periostin mRNA expression. Western blotting was carried out to detect periostin protein expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize and quantify the expression of periostin in benign gastric diseases and gastric cancer,and immunostaining results were correlated with gastric cancer pathological stages.RESULTS: Periostin expression was low at both mRNA and protein levels in normal gastric tissues,but was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues.Immunohistochemical staining revealed that periostin was overexpressed in primary gastric cancer, as well as in metastatic lymph nodes, but only faint staining was found in benign gastric ulcers. By quantitative analysis of the immunostaining results, periostin expression was increased 2.5-4-fold in gastric cancer, compared to that in benign gastric disease, and there was a trend toward increasing periostin expression with tumor stage.CONCLUSION: This observation demonstrated that periostin was overexpressed in gastric cancer and lymph node metastasis, which suggests that periostin plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer.

  3. Unilateral Pulmonary Agenesis and Gastric Duplication Cyst: A Rare Association

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Halilbasic; Fahrija Skokic; Nesad Hotic; Edin Husaric; Gordana Radoja; Selma Muratovic; Nermina Dedic; Meliha Halilbasic

    2013-01-01

    Lung agenesis and gastric duplication cysts are both rare congenital anomalies. Gastric duplication cysts can present with nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, or vague abdominal pain. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis can present with respiratory distress which usually occurs due to retention of bronchial secretions and inflammations. We report the unique case of right pulmonary agenesis associated with gastric duplication cyst.

  4. Unilateral Pulmonary Agenesis and Gastric Duplication Cyst: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Halilbasic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung agenesis and gastric duplication cysts are both rare congenital anomalies. Gastric duplication cysts can present with nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, or vague abdominal pain. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis can present with respiratory distress which usually occurs due to retention of bronchial secretions and inflammations. We report the unique case of right pulmonary agenesis associated with gastric duplication cyst.

  5. Direct gastroscopy for detecting gastric cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子其; 万军; 朱成; 王孟薇; 赵东海; 付永和; 张建萍; 王亚红; 吴本俨

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of direct gastroscopy for detecting gastric cancer. Methods Clinical screening by direct gastroscopy was performed for gastric cancer (GC) from September 1985 to July 1998. 3048 elderly people were screened. Their age ranged from 60 to 93 years, and 2034 of the 3084 were followed up. Results Ninety-two patients with gastric cancer were discovered by gastroscopy, representing 3.02% of the screened population. The rate of early gastric cancer (EGC) was 63.04% (58/92) of all gastric cancers detected. The rate was up to 79.59% (39/49) on follow-up, and was 74.14% (43/51) in asymptomatic patients with gastric cancer. The excision rate was 88.89% for patients with gastric cancer, and 100% for patients with early gastric cancer. The 5-year survival rate was 91.89% for patients with gastric cancer, and 96.30% for patients with early gastric cancer. Conclusion Clinical screening and follow-up by direct gastroscopy in persons over 60 years of age are a safe and effective method for raising the 5-year survival and detection rate of gastric cancer, especially early gastric cancer.

  6. Expression of Telomerase Activity in Gastric Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between telomerase activity and biological behavior in human gastric cells and appraise the clinical significance of detecting telomerase activity. Methods The telomerase activity in 47 gastric cancer tissue samples,their matched nomal tissues,7 gastric ulcer and 2 gastric cancer cell lines was detected using a PCR-based non-radioisotopic telomeric repeat amplification protocol(TRAP) assay. Results None of the 47 samples from normal gastric tissues expressed telomerase activity.The 41 of 47 cases of gastric cancer presented telomerase activity with an 87.2% positive rate (P<0.001). 2/2 gastric cancer cell lines and 0/7 gastric ulcer line were also positive for telmerase activity.The activity of telomerase was associated with the pathological differentiation of gastric cancer. Conclusion Telomerase activity may be related to the biological behavior of gastric cancer and can help in assessing the malignant poten-tial of gastric cancer.Telomerase activity will be a good diagnostic marker for the detection of gastric cancer.

  7. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  8. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Lee Won

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  9. Cytotoxic T Cells in H. pylori-Related Gastric Autoimmunity and Gastric Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs P. Bergman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastroduodenal pathologies, but only a minority of infected patients develop gastric B-cell lymphoma, gastric autoimmunity, or other life threatening diseases, as gastric cancer or peptic ulcer. The type of host immune response against H. pylori, particularly the cytolytic effector functions of T cells, is crucial for the outcome of the infection. T cells are potentially able to kill a target via different mechanisms, such as perforins or Fas-Fas ligand interaction. In H. pylori-infected patients with gastric autoimmunity cytolytic T cells, that cross-recognize different epitopes of H. pylori proteins and H+K+-ATPase autoantigen, infiltrate the gastric mucosa and lead to gastric atrophy via long-lasting activation of Fas ligand-mediated appotosis and perforin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, gastric T cells from MALT lymphoma exhibit defective perforin- and Fas-Fas ligand-mediated killing of B cells, with consequent abnormal help for B-cell proliferation, suggesting that deregulated and exhaustive H. pylori-induced T cell-dependent B-cell activation can support both the onset and the promotion of low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

  10. Control study of arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer in treatment of advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the differences in effect of arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods:A total of 86 cases of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated in our hospital were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received arterial interventional chemotherapy combined with radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, control group received simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, and then differences in prognosis-associated factors, MMP and Leptin contents as well as tumor marker and telomerase activity levels of two groups were compared.Results:Serum HER-2/neu ECD level of observation group was lower than that of control group, and serum DKK-1, TS and TP levels were higher than those of control group; at each point in time after treatment, serum CA72-4 and CA50 contents of observation group were lower than those of control group; intraoperative MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and Leptin levels in gastric cancer tissue of observation group were lower than those of control group; telomerase activity value in gastric cancer tissue of observation group after treatment was lower than that of control group, and both PGⅠ positive expression rate and PGⅠ/ PGⅡ ratio were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer can lower tumor malignancy, promote the curative effect of radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and improve long-term prognosis.

  11. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang, E-mail: lvguoqiangwuxivip@163.com

    2015-08-07

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity.

  12. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  13. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer--An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Orlowska, Janina; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Kadar, Zoltan; Turdean, Sabin; Bara, Tivadar

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer varies by up to ten fold throughout the world, and the geographic distribution of hereditary cases is not well explored. Familial clustering is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of all gastric cancers develop due to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In this review, the characteristics of HDGC are presented according to molecular particularities, geographic distribution, and other parameters. Based on our experience and the data from the literature, we discuss the possibility of applying a mutation signature (spectrum) study and adductomic approaches to a comparative carcinogenesis of HDGC. We also provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review of genetic counseling and criteria for screening and surveillance of eligible families.

  14. Laparoscopic Resection of Symptomatic Gastric Diverticula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelisko, Andrea; Rodriguez, John; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Gastric diverticula are rare and usually asymptomatic. This report, however, describes two examples of symptomatic gastric diverticula successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Both patients were male and in their sixth decade of life. One patient was relatively healthy with no past medical history, whereas the other patient had chronic pain issues and at presentation was also undergoing evaluation for hyperaldosteronism. The patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, and change in bowel function. In both cases, a gastric diverticulum was identified by CT scan, and precise anatomic position was determined by upper endoscopy. After discussion with the treating teams, including a gastroenterologist and surgeon, surgical treatment and resection was elected. Successful laparoscopic removal was accomplished in both patients, and they were discharged home after tolerating liquid diets. Both patients reported resolution of their abdominal symptoms at follow-up. PMID:24680154

  15. Gastric mucormycosis: Diagnosis by imprint cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathe, Shilpa P; Dani, Aarti A; Chawhan, Sanjay M; Meshram, Saroj A; Randale, Archana A; Raut, Waman K

    2016-10-01

    The fungi in the order of Mucorales commonly target diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts, producing fatal respiratory and or CNS infections. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is uncommon and seldom diagnosed in living patients due to nonspecific clinical manifestations. We report a case of gastric mucormycosis in an immmunocompetent male patient, diagnosed by imprint cytology-a rare site and a rare setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of gastric mucormycosis being diagnosed on cytology. As the disease is rapidly progressive and often fatal, early diagnosis is critical to the patient survival. Imprint cytology or brush cytology is extremely useful for the rapid diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis as these organisms are morphologically distinct. Familiarity with the cytomorphology of these organisms assists in the correct diagnosis of this disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:820-822. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrup, H J

    1979-05-10

    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  17. Does gastric atrophy exist in children?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georges Dimitrov; Frédéric Gottrand

    2006-01-01

    Several clinical reports confirmed that gastric atrophy is a pathology not only limited to adult patients. In pediatrics, it is most often described in association with a Hpylori infection but this bacteria does not seem to be the only etiological factor of this preneoplastic state in children. The frequency of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in children are unknown because they are not systematically sought during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The lack of specific histological classification of children's gastropathies makes their diagnosis difficult for pathologists. Based on our knowledge to date, we think that it is necessary to describe, in detail, the natural course of this lesion during childhood. A close and prolonged clinical and endoscopic follow-up is important for children with gastric atrophy.

  18. Conversion to Gastric Bypass in Patients with Unsuccessful Weight Loss after Gastric Banding May Depend on Mental Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Zijlstra, H.; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A low quality of life has been regarded a cue to action. Some patients with unsuccessful weight loss after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) undergo a conversion of gastric banding to gastric bypass. This study examines whether patients who did or did not undergo conversion

  19. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegels, Juul J W; De Maat, Michiel F G; Hulsewé, Karel W E; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stoot, Jan H M B

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain.

  20. HER2 testing in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Luca; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Molecular therapies targeting HER2 are part of the established drug armamentarium in breast carcinoma. Now the ToGA trial, an international multicenter phase III clinical study, involving 24 countries globally, has shown that the anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab is effective in prolonging survival in HER2-positive carcinoma of the stomach and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Similarly to breast carcinoma, >20% of gastric cancers show HER2 overexpression and/or amplification, and this percentage increases to 33% in GEJ tumors. Thus, as in breast carcinoma, pathologists are now asked to evaluate HER2 status in gastric carcinoma samples. As validated in the ToGA trial, the HER2 testing criteria that must be used in evaluating both gastric carcinoma biopsies and surgical specimens significantly differ from those routinely applied in breast carcinoma. The main variations with regard to the pattern of reactivity in HER2-expressing cells are as follows: the completeness of membrane staining is not a "conditio sine qua non" and the number of stained cells necessary to consider a case as positive is different. We must also take note of the much more frequent heterogeneity of HER2 positivity in gastric cancer compared with breast carcinoma and the less stringent correlation between HER2 amplification and protein overexpression that is observed in gastric carcinoma, where more than 20% of cases may carry HER2 amplification, although of low level, without HER2 expression. In these patients, in the ToGA trial, there was no apparent benefit from adding Trastuzumab to chemotherapy: for this reason the European Medicines Agency, while approving usage of Trastuzumab for metastatic adenocarcinoma treatment, indicated HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry as first evaluation assay, followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 2+ equivocal cases. HER2 testing in gastric carcinoma is a new field, opening several opportunities: for patients with gastric cancer

  1. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilsa Mizrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancy is rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement was unsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapy was given after assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the first report of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI.

  2. E-cadherin in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annie On On Chan

    2006-01-01

    Cadherin is an adhesion molecule and a superfamily of calcium-mediated membrane glycoproteins. E-cadherin is the prototype of the class E-cadherin that links to catenins to form the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence has shown that E-cadherin not only acts as an adhesive, but also plays important roles in growth development and carcinogenesis. It has been recently viewed as an invasion as well as a growth suppressor gene. This review summarizes the recent discoveries on E-cadherin and its role in gastric cancer. In particular, our work on E-cadherin in gastric cancer, including its relation with Helicobacter pylori and clinical applications, are described in detail.

  3. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The litera......This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines...

  4. Brain neuropeptides in gastric mucosal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2014-12-01

    The centrally induced gastroprotective effect of neuropeptides has been intensively studied. Besides many similarities, however, differences can also be observed in their gastroprotective actions. The gastroprotective dose-response curve proved to be either sigmoid, or bell-shaped. Additional gastrointestinal effects of neuropeptides can contribute to their mucosal protective effect. Part of the neuropeptides induces gastroprotection by peripheral administration as well. Besides vagal nerve the sympathetic nervous system may also be involved in conveying the central effect to the periphery. Better understanding of the complex mechanism of the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity may result in the development of new strategy to enhance gastric mucosal resistance against injury.

  5. Helicobacter pylori and gastric acid: an intimate and reciprocal relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L.; Kleveland, Per M.; Sørdal, Øystein F.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. There are still unanswered questions related to the interaction between Hp and man, like what determines the susceptibility for the initial infection and the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effect. The initial infection seems to require a temporal gastric hypoacidity. For Hp to survive in the gastric mucous layer, some acidity is necessary. Hp itself is probably not directly carcinogenic. Only when inducing oxyntic mucosal inflammation and atrophy with hypoacidity, Hp predisposes for gastric cancer. Gastrin most likely plays a central role in the Hp pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer.

  6. Gastric lipoma: an unusual cause of dyspeptic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasa, Mukesh; Choksey, Ajay; Phadke, Aniruddha; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-06-22

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumours accounting for 2-3% of all benign gastric tumours. These are usually submucosal in origin but in rare cases may be subserosal in origin. Although a majority of gastric lipomas are asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally, occasionally these can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination and haemorrhages. In the literature, only 200 cases of gastric lipomas have been reported so far. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with a submucosal symptomatic gastric lipoma presenting with disabling dyspeptic symptoms.

  7. Coexpression of cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor and gastrin gene in human gastric tissues and gastric cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jiang Zhou; Man-Ling Chen; Qun-Zhou Zhang; Jian-Kun Hu; Wen-Ling Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the expression patterns of cholecystokininB (CCK-B)/gastrin receptor genes in matched human gastric carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with gastric cancer, inflammatory gastric mucosa from patients with gastritis, normal stomachs from 2 autopsied patients and a gastric carcinoma cell line (SGC-7901), and to explore their relationship with progression to malignancy of human gastric carcinomas.METHODS: RT-PCR and sequencing were employed to detect the mRNA expression levels of CCK-B receptor and gastrin gene in specimens from 30 patients with gastric carcinoma and healthy bordering non-cancerous mucosa, 10 gastritis patients and normal stomachs from 2 autopsied patients as well as SGC-7901. The results were semi-quantified by normalizing it to the mRNA level of β-actin gene using Lab Image software. The sequences were analyzed by BLAST program. RESULTS: CCK-B receptor transcripts were detected in all of human gastric tissues in this study, including normal, inflammatory and malignant tissues and SGC-7901. However, the expression levels of CCK-B receptor in normal gastric tissues were higher than those in other groups (P<0.05),and its expressions did not correlate with the differentiation and metastasis of gastric cancer (P>0.05). On the other hand, gastrin mRNA was detected in SGC-7901 and in specimens obtained from gastric cancer patients (22/30) but not in other gastric tissues, and its expression was highly correlated with the metastases of gastric cancer (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Human gastric carcinomas and gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 cells coexpress CCK-B receptor and gastrin mRNA. Gastrin/CCK-B receptor autocrine or paracrine pathway may possibly play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer.

  8. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    by high dopamine doses could be explained by a beta 1 stimulation. Dopamine (10 micrograms/kg/min) was found to increase the bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow. Phentolamine (alpha blackade) increased this dopamine-elevated blood flow further, with a significant increase in the ratio...

  9. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate ...

  10. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  11. [Matrix metalloproteases as molecular markers in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara L; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-02-06

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Prognosis in patients with gastric cancer is difficult to establish because it is commonly diagnosed when gastric wall invasion and metastasis have occurred. Currently, some members of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases have been identified, whose expression in gastric tumor tissue is significantly elevated compared to healthy gastric tissue. Matrix metalloproteinases are 24 zinc-dependent endopeptidases that catalyze the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. This degradation allows the cancer cells invade the surrounding stroma and trigger metastasis. Upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis and elevated invasive capacity. This review compiles evidence about the genetic expression of matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer and their role in tumour invasion and metastasis, emphasizing their potential as molecular markers of prognosis.

  12. The Thyro-Gastric syndrome: from thyroid autoimmunity to neuroendocrine gastric tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    THE THYRO-GASTRIC SYNDROME: FROM THYROID AUTOIMMUNITY TO NEUROENDOCRINE GASTRIC TUMORS. In 1849, Prof Addison described a fatal case of anemia, or anemia perniciosa. Dr Biermer expanded this original description in 1872. Nowadays, this pathological condition associating a megaloglastic anemia associated with a metabolic polyneuropathy is recognized as Biermer disease. Biermer anemia or anemia perniciosa and its associated polyneuropathy are the consequence of vitamine B12 malabsorpti...

  13. Borrmann Type 4 Advanced Gastric Cancer: Focus on the Development of Scirrhous Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Seun Ja

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Borrmann type 4 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is very important for improving the prognosis of AGC patients. Because there is no definite mass in most cases of Borrmann type 4 AGC, its accurate diagnosis via endoscopy requires an understanding of its pathogenesis and developmental process. Moreover, many people confuse linitis plastica (LP) type gastric cancer (GC), scirrhous GC, and Borrmann type 4 AGC. To distinguish each of these cancers, knowledge of their endoscopic an...

  14. Cure of peptic gastric ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Finnish Gastric Ulcer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, K; Pikkarainen, P.; Sipponen, P.; Kivilaakso, E.; Gormsen, M H

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on ulcer healing and the relapse rate were investigated in a multicentre trial of 239 gastric ulcer patients. Patients with H pylori positive gastric ulcer were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (A) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole and eight weeks' treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) (84 patients); (B) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole placebo and eight weeks with CBS (73 patients); or (C) ranitidine (82 patients). A...

  15. Mucin phenotype of gastric cancer and clinicopathology of gastric-type differentiated adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu; Namikawa; Kazuhiro; Hanazaki

    2010-01-01

    Differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach is classified into gastric or intestinal phenotypes based on mucus expression. Recent advances in mucin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have highlighted the importance of such a distinction, and it is important clinically to distinguish between gastricand intestinal-type differentiated adenocarcinoma. However, a clinical and pathological diagnosis of this type is often difficult in early gastric cancer because of histological similarities between a hyperp...

  16. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushira Abdulaziz Enani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  17. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Alharthi, Bandar N; Dewanjee, Nancy; Bhat, Nadeem A; Fagih, Mosa

    2014-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  18. Krukenberg tumor after gastric bypass for morbid obesity: Bariatric surgery and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Menéndez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric by-pass is one of the most performed surgical procedure in bariatric surgery. Neoplasm within gastric remnant is a slightly frequent complication (only six cases have been described but with important survival consequences. We present a case of a patient who developed an adenocarcinoma in excluded stomach, after three years of bariatric surgery; the tumor was incidentally discovered after a gynecological surgery for uterine myomas. Different diagnostic modalities for the excluded stomach were analyzed.

  19. Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer in Wuwei City an Endemic Region of Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denghai Mi; Chengyu Su; Haozeng Luo; Jilin Yi; Tianzhong Jing; Qing Xu; Wangsheng Yang; Guoquan Yang; Shuzhen Wang; Gonghan Liu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies have shown that risk factors of gastric cancer include living habits, eating moldy pickled food, dystrophy, lack of nutrients, and genetics, etc. This study explores the prevalence of these factors in Wuwei, a city in northwest China with a high incidence of gastric cancer.METHODS Family histories of the residents in Wuwei City were investigated with a case-control method. Segregation ratio and heredity degree of gastric cancer were calculated using theLi-Mantel-Cart and Falconer's regression methods. Chronic gastritis patients were followed-up by home visits, gastroscopy, and pathology. Carcinogenic fungi and volatilile N-nitroso compounds were noted in the residents' meals. Helicobactor pylori (Hp) was assessed in their gastric mucosa and the total content of serum vitamin C in 293 healthy adults was determined.RESULTS In Wuwei City, the segregation ratio of gastric cancer was 0.077. The heredity degree of first-degree relatives was 22.91%. The incidence rate of cancer per year in people in an atrophic gastritis group was 1.09%. Eight kinds of nitrosamines and 14 kinds of carcinogenic fungi were detected in the residents' food. Total average vitamin C in the serum of the 293 healthy adults in the summer was 5.74±2.79 mg/L. The positive rate of Hp in gastric mucosa of the residents was 67%.CONCLUSION The majorextrinsic factors include infection of Hp, atrophic gastritis (especially atrophic hyperplasia), and genetic susceptibility.

  20. Gene Expression Profile Differences in Gastric Cancer and Normal Gastric Mucosa by Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanding Yu; Shenhua Xu; HangZhou Mou; Zhiming Jiang; Chihong Zhu; Xianglin Liu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen for associated novel genes in gastric cancers by oligonucleotide microarrays.METHODS U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T and C. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS When gastric cancers were compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 270 genes were found with a difference of more than 9times in expression levels. Of the 270 genes, 157 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR] ≥3), and 113 were down-regulated (SLR ≤-3).Using a classification of function, the highest number of gene expression differences related to enzymes and their regulatory genes (67, 24.8%),followed by signal-transduction genes (43,15.9%). The third were nucleic acid binding genes (17, 6.3%), fourth were transporter genes (15, 5.5%)and fifth were protein binding genes (12, 4.4%). In addition there were 50genes of unknown function, accounting for 18.5%. The five above mentioned groups made up 56.9% of the total gene number.CONCLUSION The 5 gene groups (enzymes and their regulatory proteins, signal transduction proteins, nucleic acid binding proteins, transporter and protein binding) were abnormally expressed and are important genes for further study in gastric cancers.

  1. Dynamic changes of body mass in patients with morbid obesity in the remote terms after gastric banding and gastric bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Nikolaevich Egiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2005 till December 2013 655 patients with morbid obesity were operated on, 457 (69,7% from which, had gastric banding with using different models of regulating bandages: AMI (AMI, Austria, SAGB (Ethicon, USA, Lap Band (ALLEGRAN, USA. Gastric bypass was made to 198 patients, that made 30,3%. The degree of lowering of overweight in general is more after gastric bypass, than after gastric banding. At the same time during the period of 1–1,5 year the degree of lowering of overweight with women is the same after both the operation. The degree of lowering of overweight with men after gastric bypass is a little higher. In the period of 2–4 years the degree of lowering of overweight both with men and women after gastric bypass is higher. In 5 years men after gastric bypass actually lose weight better than after gastric banding. The men older than 40 years having BMI more than 40 kg/m2 after gastric banding lose weight worst of all. In the period of more than 5 years the women in the age group of 30–39 years having BMI more than 40 kg/m2 had better results after gastric bypass. The women older than 50 years having BMI more than 40 kg/m2 after gastric banding had the worst results.

  2. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  3. Probucol alleviates atherosclerosis and improves high density lipoprotein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Jian-Kai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probucol is a unique hypolipidemic agent that decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. However, it is not definite that whether probucol hinders the progression of atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. Methods Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into the control, atherosclerosis and probucol groups. Control group were fed a regular diet; the atherosclerosis group received a high fat diet, and the probucol group received the high fat diet plus probucol. Hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages were isolated for [3H] labeled cholesterol efflux rates and expression of ABCA1 and SR-B1 at gene and protein levels; venous blood was collected for serum paraoxonase 1, myeloperoxidase activity and lipid analysis. Aorta were prepared for morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis after 12 weeks. Results Compared to the atherosclerosis group, the paraoxonase 1 activity, cholesterol efflux rates, expression of ABCA1 and SR-BI in hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and the level of ABCA1 and SR-BI in aortic lesions were remarkably improved in the probucol group, But the serum HDL cholesterol concentration, myeloperoxidase activity, the IMT and the percentage plaque area of aorta were significantly decreased. Conclusion Probucol alleviated atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. The mechanisms include accelerating the process of reverse cholesterol transport, improving the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions.

  4. Effectiveness of Zakah Targeting in Alleviating Poverty in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatina A Kasri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zakah is a unique Islamic institution targeted to eight groups of recipients with the aim to redistribute income, reduce poverty and achieve social welfare. However, the impacts and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty is rarely measured. This is the main objective of the study. To achieve it, a survey was conducted to collect primary data from zakah recipients in Greater Jakarta Indonesia. The data were subsequently analysed by using descriptive and poverty index analyses. The main results suggest that the incidence, depth and severity of poverty amongst the recipients have decreased due to the contributions from zakah organizations. There are also indications that zakah has been distributed to the most disadvantaged people such as the uneducated and unemployed. The findings provide empirical evidence regarding positive contribution and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty in Indonesia. Some policy implications of the findings are also highlighted to enrich discourses on the role of zakah in alleviating poverty in Muslim societies.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.3005

  5. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Ambuj D. E-mail: ambuj_sagar@harvard.edu

    2005-07-01

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  6. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies.

  7. Alleviating bias leads to accurate and personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Recommendation bias towards objects has been found to have an impact on personalized recommendation, since objects present heterogeneous characteristics in some network-based recommender systems. In this article, based on a biased heat conduction recommendation algorithm (BHC) which considers the heterogeneity of the target objects, we propose a heterogeneous heat conduction algorithm (HHC), by further taking the heterogeneity of the source objects into account. Tested on three real datasets, the Netflix, RYM and MovieLens, the HHC algorithm is found to present better recommendation in both the accuracy and diversity than two benchmark algorithms, i.e., the original BHC and a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), while not requiring any other accessorial information or parameter. Moreover, the HHC algorithm also elevates the recommendation accuracy on cold objects, referring to the so-called cold-start problem. Eigenvalue analyses show that, the HHC algorithm effectively alleviates the recommendation bias towards objects with different level of popularity, which is beneficial to solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma.

  8. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  9. 扶贫研究概述%On Poverty Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立新

    2011-01-01

    贫困是一个伴随着人类生存和发展的历史性问题;同时,贫困也是一个存在于发达国家和发展中国家的世界性问题。2011年起,我国对农村低收入人口全面实施扶贫政策,实行新的扶贫标准,新标准提高到人均1500元,扶贫对象覆盖9000万人左右,标志着我国扶贫开发进入一个新阶段。但这也意味着我国扶贫工作的长期性、艰巨性。为此,作者对贫困、扶贫的国内外研究现状进行梳理,以期为相关的研究和扶贫实践提供理论借鉴和实践借鉴。%Poverty is a historical problem that accompanied by survival and development of humankind.Meanwhile,poverty is also a world-wide problem that exists in developed and developing countries.Since 2011,China has carried out policies of poverty alleviation on

  10. Methylene blue alleviates nuclear and mitochondrial abnormalities in progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Choi, Ji Young; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Haoyue; Tariq, Zeshan; Wu, Di; Ko, Eunae; LaDana, Christina; Sesaki, Hiromi; Cao, Kan

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a fatal premature aging disease, is caused by a single-nucleotide mutation in the LMNA gene. Previous reports have focused on nuclear phenotypes in HGPS cells, yet the potential contribution of the mitochondria, a key player in normal aging, remains unclear. Using high-resolution microscopy analysis, we demonstrated a significantly increased fraction of swollen and fragmented mitochondria and a marked reduction in mitochondrial mobility in HGPS fibroblast cells. Notably, the expression of PGC-1α, a central regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was inhibited by progerin. To rescue mitochondrial defects, we treated HGPS cells with a mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant methylene blue (MB). Our analysis indicated that MB treatment not only alleviated the mitochondrial defects but also rescued the hallmark nuclear abnormalities in HGPS cells. Additional analysis suggested that MB treatment released progerin from the nuclear membrane, rescued perinuclear heterochromatin loss and corrected misregulated gene expression in HGPS cells. Together, these results demonstrate a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in developing the premature aging phenotypes in HGPS cells and suggest MB as a promising therapeutic approach for HGPS.

  11. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Bo; Wu Zhigang; Yang Chao

    2016-01-01

    Gust load alleviation (GLA) tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and veri-fied. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compen-sating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude sat-urations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  12. Gust alleviation of highly flexible UAVs with artificial hair sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Reich, Gregory W.

    2015-04-01

    Artificial hair sensors (AHS) have been recently developed in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using carbon nanotube (CNT). The deformation of CNT in air flow causes voltage and current changes in the circuit, which can be used to quantify the dynamic pressure and aerodynamic load along the wing surface. AFRL has done a lot of essential work in design, manufacturing, and measurement of AHSs. The work in this paper is to bridge the current AFRL's work on AHSs and their feasible applications in flight dynamics and control (e.g., the gust alleviation) of highly flexible aircraft. A highly flexible vehicle is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with finite-state inflow aerodynamics. A feedback control algorithm for the rejection of gust perturbations will be developed. A simplified Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller will be implemented based on the state-space representation of the linearized system. All AHS measurements will be used as the control input, i.e., wing sectional aerodynamic loads will be defined as the control output for designing the feedback gain. Once the controller is designed, closed-loop aeroelastic simulations will be performed to evaluate the performance of different controllers with the force feedback and be compared to traditional controller designs with the state feedback. From the study, the feasibility of AHSs in flight control will be assessed. The whole study will facilitate in building a fly-by-feel simulation environment for autonomous vehicles.

  13. Alleviating the tension at low multipole through Axion Monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Meerburg, P Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There exists some tension on large scales between the Planck data and the LCDM concordance model of the Universe, which has been amplified by the recently claimed discovery of non-zero tensor to scalar ratio $r$. At the same time, the current best-fit value of $r$ suggests large field inflation delta phi>M_p, which requires a UV complete description of inflation. A very promising working example that predicts large tensor modes and can be UV completed is axion monodromy inflation. This realization of inflation naturally produces oscillating features, as consequence of a broken shift symmetry. We analyse a combination of Planck, ACT, SPT, WMAP low l polarization and BICEP2 data, and show a long wavelength feature from a periodic potential can alleviate the tension at low multipoles with an improvement delta chi^2 ~2.5-4 per degree of freedom, depending on the level of foreground subtraction. As with an introduction of running, one expects that any scale dependence should lead to a worsened fit at high multipol...

  14. Effects of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for oesophago-gastric cancer on neuro-muscular gastric function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, E Z H; Arasaradnam, R P; Jarvie, E M; James, S; Goodyear, S J; Borman, R A; Snead, D; Sanger, G J; Nwokolo, C U

    2012-12-01

    Delayed gastric emptying symptoms are often reported after chemotherapy. This study aims to characterise the effects of chemotherapy on gastric neuro-muscular function. Patients undergoing elective surgery for oesophago-gastric cancer were recruited. Acetylcholinesterase, nNOS, ghrelin receptor and motilin expressions were studied in gastric sections from patients receiving no chemotherapy (n = 3) or oesophageal (n = 2) or gastric (n = 2) chemotherapy. A scoring system quantified staining intensity (0-3; no staining to strong). Stomach sections were separately suspended in tissue baths for electrical field stimulation (EFS) and exposure to erythromycin or carbachol; three patients had no chemotherapy; four completed cisplatin-based chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to surgery. AChE expression was markedly decreased after chemotherapy (scores 2.3 ± 0.7, 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0 ± 0 in non-chemotherapy, oesophageal- and gastric-chemotherapy groups (p gastric function.

  15. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  16. PIVKA-II-producing advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shigetsugu; Honda, Ichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Soda, Hiroaki; Nagata, Matsuo; Hoshino, Isamu; Takenouchi, Toshinao; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man with primary advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach, who displayed extremely high plasma levels of protein induced by vitamin K antagonist (PIVKA)-II (15 600 mAU/ml) and normal levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP) (4 ng/ml). Ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography ruled out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastasis. After preoperative chemotherapy, pancreatico-spleno total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. Postoperatively, plasma levels of PIVKA-II returned to within the normal range (29 mAU/ml). Microscopic examination revealed stomach adenocarcinoma showing various histological types, such as moderately to poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma, but hepatoid differentiation of gastric adenocarcinoma was not detected. Localization of PIVKA-II and AFP within tumor cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that tumor cells from gastric cancer may produce PIVKA-II. Some cases of PIVKA-II- and AFP-producing advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis have been reported, but this is the first report of gastric cancer without liver metastasis producing PIVKA-II alone.

  17. Multiple early gastric cancer with duodenal invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okino Tetsuya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early gastric cancers with duodenal invasion are rare, and no previous case of multiple early gastric cancer, one invading the duodenal bulb, has been reported. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman was investigated for upper abdominal discomfort. Endoscopic examination revealed an irregular nodulated lesion in the antrum area, and a reddish aggregated-type semi-circumferential nodulated lesion extending from the prepyloric area to the duodenal bulb through the normal mucosa with the antrum lesion. Biopsy revealed a tubular adenoma for the antrum lesion and a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma for the prepyloric lesion. Distal gastrectomy with sufficient duodenal resection was performed. Microscopically, the antrum lesion appeared as a papillary adenocarcinoma, and the prepyloric lesion as a mainly papillary adenocarcinoma which partially invaded the submucosa without any sequential elongation for endoscopic findings. The lesion extended into the duodenal bulb, and was 12 mm in length from the oral end of Brunner's gland's area and limited within the duodenal mucosa. Conclusion Here, we present an unusual case of multiple early gastric cancer, one of which invaded the duodenum with relative wide mucosal spreading. This case illustrates that even early stage cancers located in the gastric antrum, particularly in the prepyloric area can invade the duodenum directly.

  18. Ultradian rhythms in walking gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, J F; Kripke, D F

    1975-01-01

    Ninety to 120 min ultradian rhythms have been described in physiologic and behavioral functions relating to biologic drives. Gastric contractility rhythms were examined in isolated fasting volunteers to supplement behavioral observations of "oral" drives. A clear ultradian rhythms was observed, indicating inherent physiologic oscillation in stomach contractions.

  19. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  20. Gastric electromechanical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygowska-Wajs, A; Lorens, K; Thor, P; Szczudlik, A; Konturek, S

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gastric myoelectrical and mechanical activities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients. Twenty patients with IPD (14 male and 6 female, mean age 42 +/- 9 years) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group A--early stage of disease (no. = 6) and group B--advanced IPD (no. = 14). Electrogastrography (EGG) was performed in fasting and postprandial conditions (Synectics system). The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured by sonography (Hitachi EUB-240). The antral area in fasting conditions was 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 cm2 and gastric emptying was 75 +/- 5 and 125 +/- 12 min in groups A and B respectively. EGG showed dysrhythmias (range 1-6 cycles per minute) in about 75% of both groups of IPD patients without increase in signal amplitude after a meal. Our results suggest that gastric motility is particularly impaired in patients with advanced IPD. It may be caused by the primary degenerative process in the autonomic nervous system of the gut.

  1. [Volumes of lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniavskiĭ, A A; Lavrov, N A

    2015-01-01

    It is summarized an experience of 1528 resections for gastric cancer supplemented by D1-, D2-, D2,5- and D3-lymphadenectomy in 751, 241, 359 and 177 patients resrectively. Unconventional type D2.5 means D2-lymphodis section with additional lymphadenectomy along hepatoduodenal ligament and superior retropancreatic nodes as well as omental bursa removal with lymphodis section of esophageal opening crura. Analysis of immediate and remote results is presented. It is concluded that D3-lymphadenectomy is minimally preferred over D2.5-type in gastric cancer staging. D3-lymphodis section has the largest number of especially purulent and pancreatogenic postoperative complications. D2.5-lymphadenectomy significantly increases 5-year survival in comparison with D2-lymphodis section (from 51.2 ± 4.9 to 64.0 ± 4.1%; p<0.001) and may be chosen for any radical surgery for gastric cancer including early forms. Localized proximal tumors which are in distinctive for metastasis into hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes are exception. D3-lymphodis section did not impact on survival in comparison with D2,5-lymphadenectomy. Only patients with antral cancer after distal subtotal gastric resection had 5-year survival increasing on 8 % (from 60.6 ± 7.5 to 68.5 ± 6.3%).

  2. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepek Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT for gastric cancer. Methods Patients with gastroesophageal (GE junction (Siewert type II and III or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS, local control (LC and disease-free survival (DFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73% had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75% underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated.

  3. Invasive mucormycosis in benign gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rikabi, A C; Al-Dohayan, A D; Al-Boukai, A A

    2000-03-01

    Fungal elements are frequently noted overlying the base of chronic peptic ulcers of the stomach and it has been suggested that the fungi enhance the degree of necrosis and that these cases have protracted disease and deeper ulcers with more perforations. It has also been postulated that the number of fungal elements might be increased in the stomach of patients who are receiving potent medications such as H2-receptor antagonists to reduce gastric acidity, but there have not been adequate control studies, and the deleterious effects from the presence of the fungi in these cases have not been substantiated. We present a very rare case of invasive mucormycosis (phycomycosis) occurring in the base of a chronic gastric ulcer in a 55 years old diabetic male. This case was clinically and radiologically been mistaken for a gastric carcinoma. In addition, the ulcer was complicated by perforation and fungal septicemia with subsequent fatal outcome. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features are described together with a literature review of other reported fungal gastric ulcers.

  4. Cellular and molecular aspects of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm G Smith; Georgina L Hold; Eiichi Tahara; Emad M El-Omar

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a global killer with a shifting burden from the developed to the developing world.The cancer develops along a multistage process that is defined by distinct histological and pathophysiological phases. Several genetic and epigenetic alterations mediate the transition from one stage to another and these include mutations in oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and cell cycle and mismatch repair genes. The most significant advance in the fight against gastric caner came with the recognition of the role of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) as the most important acquired aetiological agent for this cancer. Recent work has focussed on elucidating the complex host/microbial interactions that underlie the neoplastic process. There is now considerable insight into the pathogenesis of this cancer and the prospect of preventing and eradicating the disease has become a reality. Perhaps more importantly, the study of H pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis offers a paradigm for understanding more complex human cancers. In this review, we examine the molecular and cellular events that underlie H pyloriinduced gastric cancer.

  5. Determining gastric cancer resectability by dynamic MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zilai; Zhang, Huan; Du, Lianjun; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Huang, Baisong; Chen, Kemin [Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Yan, Chao [Jiaotong University, Department of Surgery, Shanghai (China)

    2010-03-15

    Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) has been widely used to detect primary lesions and to evaluate TNM staging. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of dynamic MDCT in the preoperative determination of the resectability of gastric cancer. MDCT was used to image 350 cases of gastric cancer diagnosed by biopsy before surgery. MDCT findings regarding TNM staging and resectability were correlated with surgical and pathological findings. The accuracy of MDCT for staging gastric cancer was high, especially for tumour stage T1 (94.3%), lymph node stage N2 (87.3%), and for predicting distant metastases (>96.6%). When resectability was considered to be the outcome, the total accuracy of MDCT was 87.4%, sensitivity was 89.7% and specificity was 76.7%. Results showed high sensitivity for identifying peritoneal seeding (90.0%) and for predicting liver metastasis (80.0%). Dynamic enhanced MDCT is useful for TNM staging of gastric cancers and for predicting tumour respectability preoperatively. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of magnetic polybutylcyanoacrylate nanospheres encapsulated with aclacinomycin A and its effect on gastric tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Gao; Ji-Yao Wang; Xi-Zhong Shen; Yong-Hui Deng; Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of aclacinomycin A-loaded magnetic polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles on gastric tumor growth in vivo and in vitro.METHODS: Magnetic polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA)nanospheres encapsulated with aclacinomycin A (MPNSACM) were prepared by interfacial polymerization. Particle size, shape and drug content were examined. Female BABL/c nude mice were implanted with MKN-45 gastric carcinoma tissues subcutaneously to establish human gastric carcinoma model. The mice were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 each: ACM group (8 mg/kg bm); group of high dosage of MPNS-ACM (8 mg/kg bm); group of low dosage of MPNS-ACM (1.6 mg/kg bm); group of magnetic PBCA nanosphere (MPNS) and control group (normal saline). Magnets (2.5 T) were implanted into the tumor masses in all of the mice one day before the therapy.Above-mentioned drugs were administered intravenously to the mice of every group on the first day and sixth day.When the mice were sacrificed, tumor weight was measured, and the assay of granulocyte- macrophage colony forming-unit (CFU-GM) was performed on semisolid culture. White blood cell, alanine aminotransferase and creatine were examined. 3-[4-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to examine the viability of MKN-45 cells after incubation with different concentrations of ACM, MPNS and MPNS-ACM suspension respectively for 48 h.RESULTS: Content of ACM in MPNS-ACM was 12.0% and the average diameter of the particles was 210 nm. The inhibitory rates of ACM (8 mg/kg bm), high dosage of MPNSACM (8 mg/kg bm), low dosage of MPNS-ACM (1.6 mg/kg bm)and MPNS on human gastric carcinoma in nude mice were 22.63%, 52.55%, 30.66% and 10.22%, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the number of CFU-GM of bone marrow in ACM group compared with control group,whereas no obvious change was observed in that of the nanosphere groups. The values of 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of ACM, MPNS and MPNS-ACM were 0.09, 97

  7. Upregulation of Leukotriene Receptors in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venerito, Marino [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Kuester, Doerthe [Institute of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Harms, Caroline [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Schubert, Daniel [Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Wex, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wex@med.ovgu.de; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany)

    2011-08-08

    Leukotrienes (LT) mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2) and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91). Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97%) and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%). An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test). No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  8. Upregulation of Leukotriene Receptors in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schubert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukotrienes (LT mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC. Methods: The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2 and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Results: Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91. Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97% and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%. An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test. No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test. Conclusions: LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  9. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth López-Carrillo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of alcohol consumption, including the popular Mexican liquor tequila, in relation to the incidence of gastric cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Mexico City, with 220 gastric cancer cases and 752 population-based controls. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure consumption of alcohol and other dietary items. Grams of ethanol were estimated by the Food Intake Analysis System 3.0 software. After adjustment for known risk factors, wine consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer (OR = 2.93; CI 95% 1.27-6.75 in the highest category of wine consumption, corresponding to at least 10 glasses of wine per month, with a significant trend (p = 0.005. This association remained among intestinal (OR = 2.16; CI 95% 0.68-6.92, p-value for trend = 0.031 and diffuse (OR = 4.48; CI 95% 1.44-13.94, p-value for trend = 0.018 gastric cancer cases. A borderline significant trend between GC risk and total ethanol intake was observed (p = 0.068. Consumption of beer and distilled alcoholic beverages including brandy, rum, and tequila was not associated with GC risk. The results indicate the need to focus on the study of the potential effects of different types of wine, with emphasis on components other than ethanol regarding the incidence of gastric cancer, even among populations with moderate to low levels of alcohol consumption.

  10. EXPRESSION OF GALECTIN-3 IN GASTRIC CARCINOMA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春生; 董卫国; 罗和生; 余保平

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of Galectin-3 in gastric cancerous tissues and the relationship between Galectin-3 expression and biological behave of gastric carcinoma. Methods: S-P immunohistochemistry method was used to examine Galectin-3 expression in 64 primary gastric cancerous tissues and 10 normal gastric mucosa as control. The expression of Galectin-3 was examined by HPIAS- 2000 image analysis software. Results: Positive Gaiectin-3 expression was observed in 85.9% of the gastric cancer cases. In gastric cancerous tissues, about 46% of cases showed strong nuclear immunoreactivity. The degree of enhancement of immunoreactivity was different in various histopathological subtypes in cancerous tissues. The readings of average absorbency of Galectin-3 in well, moderate and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma tissues were 0.1713(0.02147, 0.1873(0.0313 and 0.2538(0.1216 respectively. A stronger expression of Galectin-3 in cancerous tissues was observed. When Galectin-3 expression in gastric cancerous tissues was compared with that in normal gastric tissues, there was a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion: A significantly stronger expression of Galectin-3 in gastric cancerous tissues was observed. Galectin-3 might be a useful tumor marker for gastric carcinomas with respects to tumor metastasis, proliferation, cancer progression, and tumor cell adhesion.

  11. Asymmetric dimethylarginine: A novel biomarker of gastric mucosal injury?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Zhang; Yi-You Zou; Fu-Jun Li; Chang-Ping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO),a multifunctional endogenous gas molecule,is metabolized from L-arginine by enzymatic reaction in the presence of nitric oxide synthase. NO,an important gas signaling molecule,is a gastric mucosa protective factor that contributes significantly to maintain normal gastric mucosa integrity. NO increases gastric mucosa blood flow,regulates the secretion of mucus and bicarbonate,and inhibits the secretion of gastric juice. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been identified as the major endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The function of ADMA is to decrease NO production via inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity. Besides inhibiting NO synthesis,ADMA also directly induces oxidative stress and cell apoptosis,and participates in inflammation reaction. Its systemic accumulation was observed in conjunction with several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. ADMA also mediates gastric ulcer injury induced by ethanol,stress,helicobacter pylori and indomethacin. The mechanism of ADMA directly producing adverse effect in gastric mucosa is incompletely understood. It is widely accepted that NO bioavailability decrease is the majority reason. Promotion of apoptosis and aggravation of inflammation may be other important mechanisms of ADMA-induced gastric injury. ADMA might be a novel clinical and experimental biomarker related to gastric mucosa disorder. Although therapeutic tool targeting to ADMA is available in multiple cardiovascular diseases,it is unknown in gastrointestinal disease. The strategy to inhibit ADMA is beneficial to gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. Thus,ADMA might be a candidate of therapeutic target in gastric mucosa damage.

  12. Gastric sensitivity and reflexes: basic mechanisms underlying clinical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Grundy, David; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Both reflex and sensory mechanisms control the function of the stomach, and disturbances in these mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of disorders of gastric function. The objective of this report is to perform a literature-based critical analysis of new, relevant or conflicting information on gastric sensitivity and reflexes, with particular emphasis on the comprehensive integration of basic and clinical research data. The stomach exerts both phasic and tonic muscular (contractile and relaxatory) activity. Gastric tone determines the capacity of the stomach and mediates both gastric accommodation to a meal as well as gastric emptying, by partial relaxation or progressive recontraction, respectively. Perception and reflex afferent pathways from the stomach are activated independently by specific stimuli, suggesting that the terminal nerve endings operate as specialized receptors. Particularly, perception appears to be related to stimulation of tension receptors, while the existence of volume receptors in the stomach is uncertain. Reliable techniques have been developed to measure gastric perception and reflexes both in experimental and clinical conditions, and have facilitated the identification of abnormal responses in patients with gastric disorders. Gastroparesis is characterised by impaired gastric tone and contractility, whereas patients with functional dyspepsia have impaired accommodation, associated with antral distention and increased gastric sensitivity. An integrated view of fragmented knowledge allows the design of pathophysiological models in an attempt to explain disorders of gastric function, and may facilitate the development of mechanistically orientated treatments.

  13. Correlation between Fas and FasL proteins expression in normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Czyżewska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study’s objective was to assess the expressions of Fas and FasL proteins in gastric cancer in correlation with chosen clinicohistological parameters. Fas and FasL expression was analyzed in 68 patients with gastric cancer, using the immunohistochemical method. The expression of Fas was found to be lower in gastric cancer cells than in healthy mucosa, both in the lining epithelium and in glandular tubes (28% vs. 48% and 44%; p < 0.001. The expression of FasL was also markedly lower in cancer cells than in glandular tubes, yet higher than in the lining epithelium (51% vs. 73% and 14%; p < 0.01. Positive expressions of FasL and Fas were lower in less advanced gastric cancer cells (T1, T2, than in more advanced tumors (T3, T4, but only in the case of FasL was this difference statistically significant (p < 0.05. Our findings seem to confirm the theory of the impact of apoptotic disorders at the level of Fas receptor and FasL protein in the process of gastric cancer formation and growth, which is manifested in the varied expressions of these proteins in gastric cancer and in the normal lining and glandular epithelium of the stomach. However, the lack of significant differences in the expressions of Fas and FasL in correlation to other clinicohistological parameters indicates the existence of mechanisms that have a greater impact on the process of differentiation of gastric cancers. This in our opinion eliminates these proteins as prognostic factors. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 142–147

  14. Relationship between trefoil factor 1 expression and gastric rnucosa injuries and gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Ren; Jin-Yan Luo; Ya-Pi Lu; Lin Wang; Hua-Xiu Shi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is associated with mucosa healing and carcinoma suppression, we assess the expression of trefoil factor 1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa.METHODS: TFF1 in normal and pathologic gastric mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical method, and the average positive A was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software.RESULTS: Increased TFF1 was detected in gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer compared with normal mucosa. The same result could be seen in multiple and compound ulcer compared with simple ulcer. There was no significant difference between gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis and simple ulcer respectively. Increased TFF1 was detected in the peripheral mucosa of the gastric adenocarcinoma compared with normalmucosa. The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma, the weaker the expression of TFF1. There was no TFF1 expressed in low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in middle and highly differentiated adenocarcinoma was a little lower than that in normal mucosa. But there was no significant difference. No TFF1 was assessed in esophageal squamous carcinoma and peripheral tissue. There was no significant difference between male and female.CONCLUSION: The expression of TFF1 was higher in gastritis and peptic ulcer than that in normal mucosa, and was also higher in multiple and compound ulcer than in simple ulcer. It seems that TFF1 plays a role in gastric mucosa protection and epithelial restitution. Increased expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue suggests that TFFLis associated with mechanism of carcinoma suppression and differentiation. Decreased expression of TFF1 in carcinoma and its relativity to the differentiation suggests that TFF1 is related to gland and cell destruction of carcinoma.

  15. PARP-1 inhibition alleviates diabetic cardiac complications in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Esraa M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F; Ali, Abdelmoneim A

    2016-11-15

    Cardiovascular complications are the major causes of mortality among diabetic population. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 enzyme (PARP-1) is activated by oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. We investigated the implication of PARP-1 in diabetic cardiac complications. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by high fructose-high fat diet and low streptozotocin dose. PARP inhibitor 4-aminobenzamide (4-AB) was administered daily for ten weeks after diabetes induction. At the end of study, surface ECG, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were studied. PARP-1 activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite contents were assessed in heart muscle. Fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured in serum. Finally, histological examination and collagen deposition detection in rat ventricular and aortic sections were carried out. Hearts isolated from diabetic animals showed increased PARP-1 enzyme activity compared to control animals while significantly reduced by 4-AB administration. PARP-1 inhibition by 4-AB alleviated cardiac ischemia in diabetic animals as indicated by ECG changes. PARP-1 inhibition also reduced cardiac inflammation in diabetic animals as evidenced by histopathological changes. In addition, 4-AB administration improved the elevated blood pressure and the associated exaggerated vascular contractility, endothelial destruction and vascular inflammation seen in diabetic animals. Moreover, PARP-1 inhibition decreased serum levels of TNF-α and cardiac nitrite but increased cardiac GSH contents in diabetic animals. However, PARP-1 inhibition did not significantly affect the developed hyperglycemia. Our findings prove that PARP-1 enzyme plays an important role in diabetic cardiac complications through combining inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis mechanisms.

  16. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, Keith [2430 Shenandoah St., Vienna, VA 22180 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  17. Towards a virtual observatory for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Cuesta, F.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions, which is commonly referred to as the establishment of a virtual observatory, is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. In this study, we present three natural resources management cases in the Andes and the Amazon basin, and investigate how "virtual observatory" technology can improve ecosystem management. Each of these case studies present scientific challenges in terms of model coupling, real-time data assimilation and visualisation for management purposes. The first project deals with water resources management in the Peruvian Andes. Using a rainfall-runoff model, novel visualisations are used to give farmers insight in the water production and regulation capacity of their catchments, which can then be linked to land management practices such as conservation agriculture, wetland protection and grazing density control. In a project in the Amazonian floodplains, optimal allocation of the nesting availability and quality of the giant freshwater turtle are determined using a combined hydraulic model and weather forecasts. Finally, in the rainforest of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, biodiversity models are used to

  18. INTRATHYMIC INOCULATION OF LIVER SPECIFIC ANTIGEN ALLEVIATES LIVER TRANSPLANT REJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长库; 郑树森; 朱有法

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of liver specific antigen (LSA) on liver allotransplantation rejection. Methods Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in this study. Group Ⅰ: syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ: acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar). Group Ⅲ: thymic inoculation of SD rat LSA day 7 before transplantation. The observation of general condition and survival time, rejection grades and the NF-κB activity of splenocytes were used to analyze severity of acute rejection and immune state of animals in different groups. Results The general condition of group Ⅰ was fair post transplantation with no sign of rejection. All recipients of group Ⅱ died within days 9 to 13 post transplantation with median survival time of 10.7 ±1.37 days. As for group Ⅲ, 5 out of 6 recipients survived for a long period with remarkably better general condition than that of group Ⅱ. Its rejection grades were significantly lower than group Ⅱ (P< 0.05).NF-κB activity was only detected in group Ⅰ between days 5 and 7 after transplantation, whereas high activity of NF-κB was detected at all points in group Ⅱ and low NF-κB activity was detected in group Ⅲ which was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). Conclusions LSA is an important transplantation antigen directly involved in the immunorejection of liver transplantation. Intrathymic inoculation of LSA can alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation,grafts survive for a period of time thereby, allowing a novel way to liver transplantation immunotolerance.

  19. Nesfatin-1 alleviates extrahepatic cholestatic damage of liver in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Solmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive jaundice (OJ can be defined as cessation of bile flow into the small intestine due to benign or malignant changes. Nesfatin-1, recently discovered anorexigenic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 in hypothalamic nuclei, was shown to have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. This study is aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nesfatin-1 on OJ in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham (n = 8, control (n = 8, and nesfatin (n = 8. After bile duct ligation, the study groups were treated with saline or nesfatin-1, for 10 days. Afterward, blood and liver tissue samples were obtained for biochemical analyses, measurement of cytokines, determination of the oxidative DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, and histopathologic analyses. Alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were decreased after the nesfatin treatment; however, these drops were statistically non-significant compared to control group (p = 0.345, p = 0.114. Malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in nesfatin group compared to control group (p = 0.032. Decreases in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels from the liver tissue samples were not statistically significant in nesfatin group compared to control group. The level of oxidative DNA damage was lower in nesfatin group, however this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.75. DNA fragmentation results of all groups were similar. Histopathological examination revealed that there was less neutrophil infiltration, edema, bile duct proliferation, hepatocyte necrosis, basement membrane damage, and parenchymal necrosis in nesfatin compared to control group. The nesfatin-1 treatment could alleviate cholestatic liver damage caused by OJ due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  20. Alleviation of podophyllotoxin toxicity using coexisting flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Podophyllotoxin (POD is a lignan-type toxin existing in many herbs used in folk medicine. Until now, no effective strategy is available for the management of POD intoxication. This study aims to determine the protective effects of flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol on POD-induced toxicity. In Vero cells, both flavonoids protected POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering alleviating G2/M arrest, decreasing ROS generation and changes of membrane potential, and recovering microtubule structure. In Swiss mice, the group given both POD and flavonoids group had significantly lower mortality rate and showed less damages in the liver and kidney than the group given POD alone. As compared to the POD group, the POD plus flavonoids group exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde levels, and increases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. Histological examination of the liver and kidney showed less pathological changes in the treatment of POD plus flavonoids group. The protective mechanisms were due to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids against the oxidative stress induced by POD and the competitive binding of flavonoids against POD for the same colchicines-binding sites. The latter binding was confirmed by the tubulin assembly assay in combination with molecular docking analyses. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that the coexisting flavonoids have great protective effects against the POD toxicity, and results of this study highlighted the great potential of searching for effective antidotes against toxins based on the pharmacological clues.

  1. Stratification requirements for seed dormancy alleviation in a wetland weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Louis G; Bradford, Kent J; Fischer, Albert J

    2013-01-01

    Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon) is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (Ψ) and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base Ψ and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR), which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at Ψ = 0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that Ψ contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence.

  2. Cellular recycling of proteins in seed dormancy alleviation and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Oracz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant’s photosynthetic tissues have been well characterized since many years, but in nonphotosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is

  3. Fostering Informed Choice: Alleviating the Trauma of Genetic Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Bret D

    2015-01-01

    Each year, thousands of pregnant women learn of fetal abnormalities through prenatal genetic analysis. This discovery--made after a woman has initially declined to exercise her right to abort an unwanted pregnancy—raises the difficult and heart-wrenching question of whether to terminate on genetic grounds. Women considering a genetic abortion rely on information and support from health care providers to assist them in making their choice. Though intended to be objective and nondirective, the support women receive frequently provides them within complete and incomprehensible information having the effect of encouraging them to abort genetically anomalous fetuses. As a result, genetic terminations--which cause severe and long-standing psychological impacts such as pathological grief, depression and post-traumatic stress—are often the result of something other than a fully informed choice.Congress and eleven states have recognized the importance of better informing choice by passing legislation aimed at providing clearer and more balanced information to expectant mothers learning of fetal genetic abnormalities. But existing legislative remedies do not adequately address this problem, and this inadequacy will become more pronounced in future years as increases in access to prenatal genetic analysis further stretch the capabilities of the available support services.This Article describes the unique characteristics of terminations for a fetal abnormality, their troubling and persistent psychological impacts,and the reasons why they will become more common in future years. It then offers proposals for how to reconfigure the prenatal genetic counseling landscape in order to reduce the incidence of genetic terminations based on incomplete or misleading information, thereby alleviating their distinct psychological costs. Its overall objective is to ensure that women learning of prenatal genetic abnormalities have access to complete and comprehensible information prior to

  4. Expression of Pepsinogen C in Gastric Cancer and Precancerous Diseases and its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeifangNing; UpingSun; HuijieLiu; YuanYuan

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the active expression of pepsinogen C (PGC) and its value in detection of precancerous diseases and gastric cancer.METHODS Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of pepsinogen C in 424 specimens of gastric mucosa collected by gastroscopy.RIFSULTS The positive rate of PGC expression in 54 cases of normal gastric mucosa was 100 % and 2.4% in 124 cases of gastric cancer. The positive rate of PGC expression in superficial gastritis, gastric ulcer or erosion, atrophic gastritis or gastric dysplasia and gastric cancer decreased significantly in the sequence indicated (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The expression of PGC is negatively correlated with the degree of malignancy of gastric mucosa and with development of gastric lesions. PGC expression has a high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of precancerous diseases which can lead to gastric cancer and may be a good indicator for screening and diagnosis of gastric cancer and precursors of gastric cancer.

  5. The Approaches of Islamic and Conventional Microfinancing for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Livelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Bashar Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the main illness for sustainable livelihood because it destroyed human basic rights for surviving with minimum opportunities especially political, social stability and economic processes, literature and environment. The aims of this study are to discuss about existing approaches of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood. The study found throughout the discussion of the theoretical sources i.e., participatory approaches have determined as a good way of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood especially zakat based Islamic mode of financing and Qard-al-Hasan on the basis of spiritual values as an alternative model for poverty alleviation and ensuring sustainable livelihood."

  6. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis,gastric ulcer.METHODS: The biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus and upper angulus of all the patients.Giemsa staining, improved toluidine-blue staining, and H pylori-specific antibody immune staining were performed as appropriate for the histological diagnosis of H pylori infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for the histological diagnosis of gastric mucosa inflammation, gastric glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and scored into four grades according to the Updated Sydney System.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection in superficial gastritis was 28.7%, in erosive gastritis 57.7%,in gastric erosion 63.3%, in gastric ulcer 80.8%, in early gastric cancer 52.4%. There was significant difference (P<0.05), except for the difference between early gastric cancer and erosive gastritis. H pylori infection rate in antrum, corpus, angulus of patients with superficial gastritis was 25.9%, 26.2%, 25.2%, respectively; in patients with erosive gastritis 46.9%, 53.5%, 49.0%,respectively; in patients with gastric erosion 52.4%, 61.5%,52.4%, respectively; in patients with gastric ulcer 52.4%,61.5%, 52.4%, respectively; in patients with early gastric cancer 35.0%, 50.7%, 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference was found among the different site biopsies in superficial gastritis, but in the other diseases the detected rates were higher in corpus biopsy (P<0.05). The grades of mononuclear cell infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, in early gastric cancer patients, were significantly higher than that in superficial gastritis patients, lower than that in gastric erosion and gastric ulcer patients (P<0.01);however, there was no significant difference compared with erosive gastritis. The grades

  8. EXPRESSION OF p16, CYCLIN D1 AND RB PROTEIN IN GASTRIC CARCINOMA AND PREMALIGNANT LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪林; 赵志泉; 季国忠; 范志宁; 金宁; 刘政; 张平; 程铁华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb protein in gastric carcinoma and premalignant lesions including dysplastic gastric mucosa and intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa. Methods: Using SP immunohistochemical methods, the expression of pl6, cyclin D1 and Rb proteins was detected in 10 specimens of normal gastric mucosa, 15 specimens of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 15 specimens of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 30 specimens of gastric carcinoma. The clinical characteristics of the 30 patients with gastric carcinoma were analysed to explore the relationship between the parameter detected and biological action of gastric cancer. Results: Expression of p16 protein was detected in 90% of normal gastric mucosa, 86.67% of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 86.67% of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 36.67% of gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of p16 protein expression in gastric carcinoma is significantly lower than that in normal gastric mucosa and gastric premalignant lesions mucosa (P<0.01). Expression of cyclin D1 protein was detected in 10% of normal gastric mucosa, 20% of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 20% of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 53.33% of gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of cyclin D1, protein expression in gastric carcinoma is significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa and gastric premalignant lesions mucosa (P<0.05). Expression of Rb protein was detected in 90% of normal gastric mucosa, 80% of dysplastic gastric mucosa, 80% of intestinal metaplasia gastric mucosa, 50% of gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of Rb protein expression in gastric carcinoma is significantly lower than that in normal gastric mucosa (P<0.05). The expression of p16, cyclin D1 gene were associated with the degree of differentiation of gastric carcinoma, lymphnodes metastasis and distant metastasis. Conclusion: p16, Cyclin D1 and Rb gene play important role in gastric carcinoma genesis. The expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb gene

  9. Effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation with trains of pulses on gastric motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Xiao-Hua Hou; Geng-Qing Song; Jin-Song Liu; Jiande DZ Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation (GES) with trains of pulses on gastric emptying and slow waves. METHODS: Seven dogs implanted with four pairs of electrodes and equipped with a duodenal cannula were involved in this study. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment included a series of sessions in the fasting state with trains of short or long pulses, each lasted 10 min. A 5-min recording without pacing was made between two sessions. The second experiment was performed in three sessions (control, single-channel GES, and two-channel GES). The stimulus was applied via the 1st pair of electrodes for single-channel GES (GES via one pair of electrodes located at 14 cm above the pylorus), and simultaneously via the 1st and 3rd channels for two-channel GES (GES via two pairs of electrodes located at 6 and 14 cm above the pylorus). Gastric liquid emptying was collected every 15 min via the cannula for 90 min. RESULTS: GES with trains of pulses at a pulse width of 4 ms or higher was able to entrain gastric slow waves. Two-channel GES was about 50% more efficient than single-channel GES in entraining gastric slow waves. Two channel but not single-channel GES with trains of pulses was capable of accelerating gastric emptying in healthy dogs. Compared with the control session, two-channel GES significantly increased gastric emptying of liquids at 15 min (79.0% ± 6.4% vs 61.3% ± 6.1%, P < 0.01), 30 min (83.2% ± 6.3 % vs 68.2% ± 6.9%, P < 0.01),60 min (86.9% ± 5.5 % vs 74.1% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01),and 90 min (91.0% ± 3.4% vs 76.5% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Two-channel GES with trains of pulses accelerates gastric emptying in healthy dogs and may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric motility disorders.

  10. Molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Ren; Jin-Yan Luo; Ya-Pi Lu; Lin Wang; Hua-Xiu Shi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the molecular forms of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) in normal gastric mucosa and its expression in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) and the role of TFF1 in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric carcinoma and its molecular biological mechanism underlying gastric mucosa protection.METHODS: The molecular forms of TFF1 in normal gastric mucosa were observed by Western blot. The expression of TFF1 in normal and abnormal gastric tissues (gastric carcinoma, atypical hyperplasia and intestinalized gastric mucosa) was also assayed by immunohistochemical method. The average positive AO was estimated by Motic Images Advanced 3.0 software.RESULTS: Three patterns of TFF1 were found in normal gastric mucosa: monomer, dimmer, and TFF1 compound whose molecular weight is about 21 kDa.The concentration of TFF1 compound was the highest among these three patterns. TFF1 was expressed mainly in epithelial cytoplasm of the mucosa in gastric body and antrum, especially around the nuclei. The closer the TFF1 to the lumen, the higher the expression of TFF1.The expression of TFF1 in peripheral tissue of gastric carcinoma (0.51 ± 0.07) was higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (0.44 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). The expression of TFF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma was positively related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma. The lower the differentiation of adenocarcinoma was, the weaker the expression of TFF1. No TFF1 was expressed in poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma. The expression of TFF1 in moderately-well differentiated adenocarcinoma (0.45± 0.07) was a little lower than that in normal mucosa (P > 0.05). The expression of TFF1 in gastric mucosa with atypical hyperplasia (0.57 ± 0.03) was significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.001).No TFF1 was expressed in intestinalized gastric mucosa.There was no statistically significant difference between the expressions of

  11. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  12. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-05-07

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer.

  13. The Clinical Study of Telomerase Activity in Gastric Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Weihong; NI Xiaoqian; SHEN Yuqin; HUANG Qinmei

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase activity was detected with both telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) - silver stain and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - enzyme linked immuno - sorbent assay (ELISA). We have studied the telomerase activity in the 68 gastric tumors and their neighboring tissues,25 gastric ulcer, and 3 tumor cell colonies. The positive rate of telomerase activity in gastric tumors was 86.8% (59/68) and which was obviously higher than 7.3% (5/68) in the normal tissues adjacent to the tumors and 4% (1/25) in gastric ulcer. The telomerase activity was 100% (3/3) in the tumor colonies. It allowed to be seen that higher telomerase activity was associated with the origin and development of the gastric tumor. We believe that telomerase activity may be a useful clinical diagnostic marker for the gastric tumor.

  14. Diet, microbial virulence, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Timothy L; Peek, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the strongest known risk factors for this malignancy. H. pylori strains exhibit a high level of genetic diversity, and the risk of gastric cancer is higher in persons carrying certain strain types (for example, those that contain a cag pathogenicity island or type s1 vacA alleles) than in persons carrying other strain types. Additional risk factors for gastric cancer include specific human genetic polymorphisms and specific dietary preferences (for example, a high-salt diet or a diet deficient in fruits and vegetables). Finally, iron-deficiency anemia is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Recent studies have provided evidence that several dietary risk factors for gastric cancer directly impact H. pylori virulence. In this review article, we discuss mechanisms by which diet can modulate H. pylori virulence and thereby influence gastric cancer risk.

  15. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  16. Using gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 as a novel type of biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunben; Shao, Yongfu; Zhu, Mengying; Li, Qier; Yang, Fang; Lu, Xuwen; Xu, Chunjing; Xiao, Bingxiu; Sun, Yanke; Guo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in tumorigenesis. However, the diagnostic values of most lncRNAs are largely unknown. To investigate whether gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 can be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer, 173 tissue samples and 130 gastric juice from benign lesion, gastric dysplasia, gastric premalignant lesions, and gastric cancer were collected. ABHD11-AS1 levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between ABHD11-AS1 levels and clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were investigated. The results showed that ABHD11-AS1 levels in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in other tissues. Its levels in gastric juice from gastric cancer patients were not only significantly higher than those from cases of normal mucosa or minimal gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and gastric ulcers but also associated with gender, tumor size, tumor stage, Lauren type, and blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. More importantly, when using gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 as a marker, the positive detection rate of early gastric cancer patients was reached to 71.4 %. Thanks to the special origin of gastric juice, these results indicate that gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 may be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

  17. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions are altered after subtotal gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Hung; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ho, Hsiu J; Lai, Zi-Lun; Wang, Chang-Bi; Tang, Sen-Lin; Wu, Chun-Ying

    2016-02-10

    Subtotal gastrectomy (i.e., partial removal of the stomach), a surgical treatment for early-stage distal gastric cancer, is usually accompanied by highly selective vagotomy and Billroth II reconstruction, leading to dramatic changes in the gastric environment. Based on accumulating evidence of a strong link between human gut microbiota and host health, a 2-year follow-up study was conducted to characterize the effects of subtotal gastrectomy. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequencing were analyzed before and after surgery. The results demonstrated that gastric microbiota is significantly more diverse after surgery. Ralstonia and Helicobacter were the top two genera of discriminant abundance in the cancerous stomach before surgery, while Streptococcus and Prevotella were the two most abundant genera after tumor excision. Furthermore, N-nitrosation genes were prevalent before surgery, whereas bile salt hydrolase, NO and N2O reductase were prevalent afterward. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document changes in gastric microbiota before and after surgical treatment of stomach cancer.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma with gastric metastasis treated by simultaneous hepatic and gastric resection: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Koichiro; Misawa, Takeyuki; Gocho, Takeshi; Saito, Ryota; Shiba, Hiroaki; Akiba, Tadashi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with gastric metastasis is extremely rare. There have been few reports on curative surgical resection for gastric metastasis of HCC. We herein report such a case successfully treated by simultaneous surgical resection. A 73-year-old male was admitted for evaluation and treatment of a liver tumor. Computed tomography showed an exophytic tumor of 170 mm in diameter located in the left lobe of the liver with poor delineation to the gastric wall. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with ulceration in the antrum of the stomach. With a diagnosis of HCC with invasion to the gastric wall, an en bloc resection was planned, and the patient underwent laparotomy. The patients underwent left hemihepatectomy with partial resection of the stomach for adhesion and distal gastrectomy for the tumor. Pathological examination of the liver tumor revealed poorly differentiated HCC, and pathological diagnosis of the tumor in the submucosal and muscular layer of the stomach was compatible with metastasis from HCC, which was separate from the liver tumor. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as HCC with hematogenous gastric metastasis. The patient remains well with no evidence of tumor recurrence as of 13 months after resection.

  19. Treatment of gastric outlet obstruction that results fromunresectable gastric cancer: Current evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a commoncondition that results from locally advanced malignanciesin the upper gastrointestinal tract, such aspancreatic, gastric, and other carcinomas. Two typesof procedures for malignant GOO, namely, gastrojejunostomy(GJ) with laparotomy or a laparoscopicapproach and endoscopic stenting (ES), are currentlyavailable. Although numerous previous reports haveclarified the benefits and drawbacks of each procedure,whether GJ or ES should be used in patients with GOOthat results from gastric cancer who may have a longerlife expectancy than patients with other malignancieshas not been determined. In this review, which focuseson gastric cancer-induced GOO, we analyzed the twosystematic reviews and a meta-analysis that comparedGJ and ES and outlined the current status of GOOtreatment. We also provide an updated review thatincludes laparoscopic GJ. Various data from 13 studiesin one review and 6 studies in another review wereanalyzed. Although the main results of the presentreview indicated that both GJ and ES were efficacioustreatments in patients with GOO that resulted fromgastric cancer, current evidence suggests that GJ maybe the preferable procedure given its good performancestatus and improved prognosis in gastric cancer patients.

  20. Gastric neo-adenocarcinoma arising in a gastric tube after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Faisal; Kerr, Joana; Going, James J; Fullarton, Grant

    2015-05-01

    A 69-year-old man, seven years post Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, was diagnosed to have a moderately differentiated 4 cm, malignant ulcer within the gastric tube remnant on an endoscopic biopsy. His original presentation was with a T1N0 oesophageal adenocarcinoma, histologically intestinal in type with inflammatory features. He presented with anaemia and melena due to a malignant ulcer in the mid body of his gastric tube on an endoscopy which was confirmed to be a gastric neo-adenocarcinoma on biopsy. He underwent right posterolateral thoracotomy and a wedge resection of the gastric tube including the tumour. Pathology confirmed a T3 N0 (0/7 lymph nodes) with clear margins moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of intestinal phenotype with papillary features and was reported to be a histopathologically new tumour. Proposed surgical treatments in such patients are dependent on patient's fitness for major resection and may vary from Endoscopic Mucosal Resection to partial resection with preservation of right gastroepiploic vessels or total gastrectomy with intestinal interposition via a retromediastinal route. We suggest that regular endoscopic surveillance may be indicated in such post-oesophagectomy patients as the number of patients developing gastric tube cancers may increase with improve survival of those patients.

  1. Expression of gastric cancer-associated MG7 antigen in gastric cancer, precancerous lesions and H. pylori-associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Li Guo; Ming Dong; Lan Wang; Li-Ping Sun; Yuan Yuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the antigen MG7 antigen expression and gastric cancer as well as precancerous condition; to study the relationship between the MG7 antigen expression and H. pyloriinfection in benign gastric lesions in order to find out the effect of H. pylori infection on the process of gastric cancer development.METHODS: The level of MG7 antigen expression was determined by immunohistochemical method in 383 gastric biopsied materials. The intestinal metaplasia was determined by histochemistry method. The H. pyloriinfection was determined by HE stain, PCR and ELISA in 291 specimens, among which only 34 cases of H. pylori-associated gastric lesions were followed up.RESULTS: The positive rate of MG7 expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric cancer increased gradually in ascending order (P<0.01). The positive rate of MG7 antigen expression in type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was higher than that of type Ⅰand Ⅱ intestinal metaplasia, being highly significant (P<0.05).The positive rate of MG7 antigen expression in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer increased gradually (11.9 %, 64.8 %, 91.2 %, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between H.pylori-negative and H. pyloripositive intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and dysplasia of gastric epithelium in the positive rate of MG7 antigen expression. There was no expression of MG7 antigen in H. pylori-negative superficial gastritis. The positive rate of MG7 expression in H. pylori-positive superficial gastritis was 20.5 %, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.05). During following up, one of the three H. pylori negative cases turned positive again, and its MG7 antigen expression turned to be stronger correspondingly. 3 of 31 H. pyloripositive cases were detected as early gastric cancer, among which one with "+++" MG7 antigen expression was diminished after H. pylori

  2. Gastroscopic evaluation of gastric ulcer syndrome in sport horses with poor performance

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNKAYA, Mehmet Alper; DEMİRUTKU, Alper; KAYA, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulceration is common in performance horses. More than 90% of thoroughbred horses in the training season and approximately 60% of racing horses from other disciplines have gastric ulcers. Excessive secretion of gastric acid, impairment of gastric mucosal blood flow, weakening of prostaglandin E or the gastric mucus/bicarbonate layer, and gastric emptying disorders are important factors in the onset of ulceration. In this study, 12 horses with poor performance were evaluated using gastr...

  3. Familial gastric cancer: detection of a hereditary cause helps to understand its etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelaar Ingrid P; van der Post Rachel S; Bisseling Tanya M; van Krieken J Han JM; Ligtenberg Marjolijn JL; Hoogerbrugge Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide, gastric cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer, with a high morbidity and mortality. Several environmental factors predispose to the development of gastric cancer, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and smoking. Familial clustering of gastric cancer is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of gastric cancer cases arise in the setting of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In families with HDGC, gastric cancer presents at relatively young age. ...

  4. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  5. Clinicopathological analysis of patients with gastric cancer in 1200 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xin Niu; Xin Yu Qin; Han Liu; Cheng Pei Wang

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION Gastric cancer is one of the most common fatal malignancies in the world. The prognosis is generally poor in advanced gastric cancer .The low survival is related to delayed diagnosis, metastasis and recurrence after operation .The aim of this paper was to find correlation between clinical factors was to find correlation between clinical factors and biologic behavior of gastric cancer in a series of 1200 patients undergoing surgical resection.

  6. Intraoperative Gastric Suctioning and Postoperative Nausea, Retching, and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    than atropine ( Baraka , 1977; Salem, 1976). Antacids are used to decrease gastric acidity (Taylor, 1966) but at the same time add to gastric volume...aspiration. Placement of a gastric tube postoperatively is rarely indicated for the treatment of vomiting. The primary means of treatment for nausea...strength of the field experiment since the very realism of the setting often makes the findings more generalizable and meaningful .-.-. The greatest

  7. The Characteristics of Gastrin Receptor Expression in Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGGuangjian; ZHANGYanling; LEZhuqin; YUFen; ZHANGGuangming; DENShouzhen; NIQuanxing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics and significance of gastrin receptor (GR) expression in gastric cancer. Methods: The content and affinity of GR were determined in 34 specimens of gastric cancer using radioligand binding assay. The correlation was analyzed between GR expression in tumors and tumor sites, stages, grades, DNA of gastric cancer cells, GR of adjacent normal gastric mucosa, survival time. Results: Among the 34 cases of gastric cancer, 16 patients (47.1%) had positive GR in specimens of gastric cancer, with high-affinity GR in 14 cases (41.2%) and low-affinity GR in 2 cases. Of high-affinity GR, 9 cases had cancers with GR>10 fmol/mg.protein (39.5±14.4 fmol/mg.protein), 5 cases with GR≤10fmol/mg.protein (6.0±2.8 fmol/mg.protein). High-affinity GR was easier to be expressed in cancers ofgastric body (7/9) and cardia (3/6) than in gastric antrum (4/19). The expression of GR in gastric cancer accorded well with that in normal gastric mucosa at the same sites, but with more high-special binding sites than the latter (39.5±14.4 vs 26.1±16.6 fmol/mg.protein). A significantly greater proportion of patients withⅢ+Ⅳ stages (13/24) had high-affinity GR compared with I+II stages (1/10) of gastric cancers. During a follow-up of 23-61 months, 11 of 13 cases with high-affinity GR were dead, whereas 4 of 11 cases with low-affinity or negative GR were dead in Ⅲ+Ⅳ stages of gastric cancer. Conclusion: GR is an important factor in the autocrine growth of gastric cancer cells, and helpful in the prediction of prognosis and guidance of treatment with GR antagonists.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, C.; Seruca, R.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  9. Detection and location of Helicobacter pylori in human gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Lian Tang; Run-Liang Gan; Bi-Hua Dong; Ri-Chen Jiang; Rong-Jun Tang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To define the infection status of Helicobacter pylori in 109 patients with gastric cancers and Hpylorilocalization in gastric carcinoma tissues in South China.METHODS: The incidence of Hpyloriinfection in gastric carcinomas was estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), simultaneously; both morphological features and the localization of H pylori in gastric carcinomas were demonstrated by Warthin-Starry (WS) staining. The relationships between Hpylori infection and the clinicalpathologic factors of gastric carcinomas were analyzed by software SPSS10.0.RESULTS: Hpyloriwas found in 42 (39.03%) and 58(53.21%) cases of 109 patients with gastric carcinomas by PCRand WS, respectively. H pyloriinfection rate detected in gastric carcinomas by WS was higher than that by PCR (x2 = 9.735,P<0.005<0.01). WS stain showed that H pylori existed in the gastric antrum mucus, mucosal gland of normal tissues adjacent to gastric carcinomas and the gland, mucus pool of cancer tissues. The positive rate of H pyloriin normal tissues adjacent to carcinomas was higher than that in cancer tissues (x2 = 15.750, P<0.005<0.01). No significant differences in age, sex, site,histological types and lymph node metastasis were found between H pylorFpositive gastric carcinomas and H pylorinegative cases by both methods, but there were statistically significant differences of H pylori positive rate between early and advanced stage of gastric carcinomas (x2=4.548or 5.922, P = 0.033 or 0.015<0.05).CONCLUSION: These results suggested that H pylori infection might play a certain role in the early stage of carcinogenesis of human gastric mucosa epithelia.

  10. Association between oral health and gastric precancerous lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Christian R.; Francois, Fritz; Li, Yihong; Corby, Patricia; Hays, Rosemary; Leung, Celine; Bedi, Sukhleen; Segers, Stephanie; Queiroz, Erica; SUN, JINGHUA; Wang, Beverly; Ho, Hao; Craig, Ronald; Cruz, Gustavo D.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent studies have suggested that tooth loss is positively related to the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, the underlying oral health conditions potentially responsible for the association remain unknown. We investigated whether clinical and behavioral measures of oral health are associated with the risk of gastric precancerous lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 131 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Cases were defined as those with gastric precanc...

  11. Multidisciplinary approach to understand the pathogenesis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shang; AS Pe(n)a

    2005-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma remains a common disease worldwide with a dismal prognosis. Therefore, it represents a very important health problem. It occurs with a high incidence in Asia and is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Although the incidence and mortality of gastric carcinoma are decreasing in many countries,gastric cancer still represents the second most frequent malignancies in the world and the fourth in Europe. The 5-year survival rate of gastric carcinoma is low. The etiology and pathogenesis are not yet fully known. The study of gastric cancer is important in clinical medicine as well as in public health. Over the past 15 years,integrated research in molecular pathology has clarified the details of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of cancer-related genes in the course of the development and progression of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer, as all cancers, is the end result of the interplay of many risk factors as well as protective factors. Although epidemiological evidence indicates that environmental factors play a major role in gastric carcinogenesis, the role of immunological, genetic, and immunogenetic factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma. Among the environmental factors,diet and Helicobacter pylori are more amenable to intervention aimed at the prevention of gastric cancer.The aim of the present paper is to review and include the most recent published evidence to demonstrate that only a multidisciplinary approach will lead to the advancement of the pathogenesis and prevention of gastric cancer. On the immunogenetic research it is clear that evidence is accumulating to suggest that a genetic profile favoring the proinflammatory response increases the risk of gastric carcinoma.

  12. Recent advances in molecular biology of gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧树东; 冉志华

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major health care problem and the second most common fatal cancer worldwide. In the last decade, better insight has been gained into the molecular basis underlying the neoplasitc transformation of stomach. The dramatic variation in the incidence of gastric cancer in different geographical areas and from one generation to the next have led to the hypothesis that the incidence of gastric cancer is determined largely by environmental rather than genetic factors.

  13. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  14. Diet, microbial virulence, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cover, Timothy L.; Peek, Jr, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the strongest known risk factors for this malignancy. H. pylori strains exhibit a high level of genetic diversity, and the risk of gastric cancer is higher in persons carrying certain strain types (for example, those that contain a cag pathogenicity island or type s1 vacA alleles) than in persons carrying other strain types. Additional risk factors for gastric cancer includ...

  15. Early-onset gastric cancer: Learning lessons from the young

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, A. N.; Offerhaus, G J A

    2010-01-01

    There is by no means a clear-cut pattern of mutations contributing to gastric cancers, and gastric cancer research can be hampered by the diversity of factors that can induce gastric cancer, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, diet, ageing and other environmental factors. Tumours are unquestionably riddled with genetic changes yet we are faced with an unsolvable puzzle with respect to a temporal relationship. It is postulated that inherited genetic factors may be more important in early-on...

  16. Potential role of probiotics in the management of gastric ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    KHODER, GHALIA; Al-Menhali, Asma A.; AL-YASSIR, FARAH; Sherif M. Karam

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases characterized by a significant defect in the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the frequent long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are major factors involved in gastric ulcer development. Acid inhibitors and antibiotics are commonly used to treat gastric ulcer. However, in the last few decades, the accumulating evidence for resistance to antibiotics and the side effects of an...

  17. Coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, esophageal and gastric cardia carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xu-Dong; Shi, Quan; Jia, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma are distinct neoplasms originating from different cell layers; therefore, simultaneous development of such carcinomas is relatively rare. Auxiliary examinations revealed coexistence of esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma with lymph node metastasis in a 77-year-old man. Intraoperatively, an extraluminal tumor (about 6.0 cm × 5.0 cm × 6.0 cm) at the posterior wall of the gastr...

  18. Evaluation of magnetic resonance angiography in detection of gastric varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Suga, Toshihiro [Sapporo Kosei General Hospital (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    We evaluated the detection of gastric varices, inflowing blood vessels to gastric varices, and outflowing blood vessels from gastric varices via magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in 31 patients with gastric varices. Twenty-four patients had F{sub 2} type varices and 7 had F{sub 3} type, classified according to the Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension. Seventeen patients had cardiofornical varices, and 14 had fundal varices. All patients were examined with an MR system operating at 1.5 T. MR angiography was performed using the two-dimensional time-of-flight method. With MR angiography, the imaging of gastric varices was clearly delineated in 28 of the 31 patients (90.3%). From the images of MR angiography, flow direction itself cannot be determined. The outflowing blood vessels of gastric varices were reported to be the gastro-renal shunt and the subphrenic vein, and angiographic findings have shown the inflowing blood vessels to be the left gastric vein (LGV), the short gastric vein (SGV), and the posterior gastric vein (PGV). In 25 of the 31 patients (80.7%), the outflowing blood vessels from gastric varices were detected (gastro-renal shunt in 24; subphrenic vein in 1). MR angiography provided clear images of the inflowing blood vessels to gastric varices in 18 of the 31 patients (58.1%). These inflowing vessels were categorized as SGV in 7 patients, LGV in 5, LGV and SGV in 4, and LGV and PGV in 2. We suggest that MR angiography be used as a routine method for detecting and diagnosing collateral veins in patients with gastric varices. (author)

  19. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  20. Analysis of Gastric Juice in Acid Peptic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad V. Khodke , , ,; Z. G. Badade; N. L. Vyas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease is an imbalance between offensive and defensive gastric factors. A bacterium called Helicobacter pylori has been considered a major causative agent for gastric and duodenal ulcers. This is a major cause of mortality in developing countries. Aims and Objectives:The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters in gastric juice of acid peptic disease patients (Study Group) and normal healthy individuals (Control Group) in ...

  1. High levels of aromatic amino acids in gastric juice during the early stages of gastric cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-stage gastric cancer is mostly asymptomatic and can easily be missed easily by conventional gastroscopy. Currently, there are no useful biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer, and their identification of biomarkers is urgently needed. METHODS: Gastric juice was obtained from 185 subjects that were divided into three groups: non-neoplastic gastric disease (NGD, advanced gastric cancer and early gastric cancer (EGC. The levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The median values (25th to 75th percentile of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were 3.8 (1.7-7.5 µg/ml, 5.3 (2.3-9.9 µg/ml and 1.0 (0.4-2.8 µg/ml in NGD; 19.4 (5.8-72.4 µg/ml, 24.6 (11.5-73.7 µg/ml and 8.3 (2.1-28.0 µg/ml in EGC. Higher levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were observed in individuals of EGC groups compared those of the NGD group (NGD vs. EGC, P<0.0001. For the detection of EGC, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs of each biomarker were as follows: tyrosine, 0.790 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.703-0.877]; phenylalanine, 0.831 (95% CI, 0.750-0.911; and tryptophan, 0.819 (95% CI, 0.739-0.900. The sensitivity and specificity of phenylalanine were 75.5% and 81.4%, respectively, for detection of EGC. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were associated with gastric cancer (adjusted β coefficients ranged from 1.801 to 4.414, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice samples were detected in the early phase of gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in gastric juice could be used as biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer. A gastric juice analysis is an efficient, economical and convenient method for

  2. Minimal invasive gastric surgery: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Bushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an alternate to open surgery, laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG is currently being performed in many centers, and has gained a wide clinical acceptance. The aim of this review article is to compare oncologic adequacy and safety of LG with open surgery for gastric adenocarcinomas with respect to lymphadenectomy, short-term outcomes (postoperative morbidity and mortality and long-term outcome (5 years overall survival and disease-free survival. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched using query “LG” for literature published in English from January 2000 to April 2014. A total of 875 entries were retrieved. These articles were screened and 59 manuscripts ultimately formed the basis of current review. Results: There is high-quality evidence to support short-term efficacy, safety and feasibility of LG for gastric adenocarcinomas, although accounts on long-term survivals are still infrequent.

  3. Diagnosis of perforated gastric ulcers by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstabe, L; Veitt, R; Körner, T

    2002-10-01

    Patients with a perforation of the gastrointestinal tract need fast confirmation of diagnosis and early treatment to improve outcome. Plain abdominal x-ray does not always prove the perforation particularly at early stage. We report about a 62 year-old woman complaining of consistent abdominal pain with sudden onset. Ultrasound was taken as first diagnostic measure, revealing a perforation. The leakage was located in the stomach. Radiography confirmed the pneumoperitoneum without indicating the perforated location. During operation the perforated gastric ulcer was found and sutured. This case report points out the reliability of ultrasound in diagnosing a pneumoperitoneum. Additionally it provides a summary of ultrasound signs seen in perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers and a review of literature.

  4. [Surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma: lymphadenectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucitti, F; Pacelli, F; Doglietto, G B; Crucitti, P; Alfieri, S; Caprino, P

    1997-01-01

    The review of the literature shows the improvement of outcome of patients with gastric cancer after resection and extended lymphadenectomy. Lymphadenectomy D2/D3 was performed in 206 out of 639 patients with gastric cancer: 5-year survival was 66.3% versus 41.5% of the 121 patients that underwent D1 resection (p < 0.0001). Univariate and multivariate analyses show that proximal location of the cancer, advanced stage and lymphadenectomy limited to perigastric stations are negative prognostic factors. Although there are still different opinions regarding D2 or D3 lymphadenectomies for the operative risks, pancreatic resection (preferring pancreas sparing techniques) and splenectomy is subtotal gastrectomy for antral carcinoma, extended lymphadenectomy remains an important point to improve survival.

  5. Consumption of Pistacia lentiscus foliage alleviates coccidiosis in young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y

    2012-05-25

    Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major

  6. Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jin Tak; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Dong Pil; Choi, Seung Hwa; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Park, Jun Kyu; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Yun Jung; Sung, Ye Gyu; Sul, Hae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp (IHP) is a rare gastric polyp characterized by the downward growth of hyperplastic mucosal components into the submucosal layer. Macroscopically, a gastric IHP resembles a subepithelial tumor (SET); as a result, accurately diagnosing gastric IHP is difficult. This issue has clinical significance because gastric IHP can be misdiagnosed as SET or as malignant neoplasm In addition, adenocarcinoma can accompany benign gastric IHP. Although in most cases, gastric IHPs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally, these polyps may cause anemia secondary to chronic bleeding. Here, we report one case involving gastric IHP accompanied by chronic iron deficiency anemia that was successfully managed using endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:27099452

  7. Genomic and genetic alterations influence the progression of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefania Nobili; Lorenzo Bruno; Ida Landini; Cristina Napoli; Paolo Bechi; Francesco Tonelli; Carlos A Rubio; Enrico Mini; Gabriella Nesi

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancerrelated deaths worldwide, although the incidence has gradually decreased in many Western countries. Twomain gastric cancer histotypes, intestinal and diffuse, are recognised. Although most of the described genetic alterations have been observed in both types, different genetic pathways have been hypothesized. Genetic and epigenetic events, including 1q loss of heterozygosity (LOH), microsatellite instability and hypermethylation, have mostly been reported in intestinal-type gastric carcinoma and its precursor lesions, whereas 17p LOH, mutation or loss of E-cadherin are more often implicated in the development of diffuse-type gastric cancer.

  8. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  9. The Impact of Gastric Atrophy on the Incidence of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tse-Ya; Wei, Jung-Nan; Kuo, Chun-Heng; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Mao-Shin; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hua, Cyue-Huei; Hsein, Yenh-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Mei-Kuei; Hsiao, Ching-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Gastric atrophy results in lower plasma ghrelin, higher gastrin secretion, a change in gut microbiota, and altered dietary nutrient absorption, which may be associated with the incidence of diabetes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major cause of gastric atrophy and is associated with diabetes in some reports. Since there is no study which investigates the impact of gastric atrophy on diabetes, we conduct a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and incident diabetes. In this study, subjects with gastric atrophy had a lower risk of incident diabetes, compared to those without gastric atrophy. The extent of gastric atrophy, measured by serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio, was correlated with age, H. pylori IgG titer, HOMA2-IR, and HOMA2%B. When gastric atrophy is more extensive, presented as a lower serum PG I/II ratio, the risk of incident diabetes is lower. On the other hand, there was no significant association between H. pylori infection and the incidence of diabetes. In conclusion, the presence and the extent of gastric atrophy, but not H. pylori infection, are associated with incident diabetes. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms and the potential applications of the findings to guide diabetes screening and treatment strategies. PMID:28045079

  10. Advanced endoscopic imaging in gastric neoplasia and preneoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W J; Lim, Lee Guan; Yeoh, Khay Guan

    2017-01-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy remains the current standard in routine clinical practice for early detection of gastric cancer. However, it may not accurately diagnose preneoplastic gastric lesions. The technological advancements in the field of endoscopic imaging for gastric lesions are fast growing. This article reviews currently available advanced endoscopic imaging modalities, in particular chromoendoscopy, narrow band imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy, and their corresponding evidence shown to improve diagnosis of preneoplastic gastric lesions. Raman spectrometry and polarimetry are also introduced as promising emerging technologies. PMID:28176895

  11. Phenotypic Classification of Well-Differentiated Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wu; Zhong-wu Li; Ji-you Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the genotypes of well-differentiated non-cardiac gastric adenocarcinoma and their clinicopathological significance.Methods: Sixty-four cases of well-differentiated non-cardiac gastric adenocarcinoma were included in this study. The expressions of intestinal phenotypic markers including CDX2, MUC2, Li-cadherin, CD10, Hepatocyte(Hep) and Villin, and gastric phenotypic markers including MUC5AC and pS2 were detected immunohistochemically. Based on the expressions of phenotypic markers, 64 cases can be divided into four phenotypes. Cases only expressing intestinal phenotypic markers were classified as intestinal phenotype; cases only expressing gastric phenotypic markers as gastric phenotype; cases expressing both intestinal and gastric phenotypic markers as gastrointestinal phenotype; and cases expressing neither intestinal nor gastric phenotypic marker as null phenotype. The association of phenotype and clinic-pathological parameters was analyzed. We also detected the expressions of markers related to the development and progression of cancer, including Rb, P53, c-Met, MIF, TGF-β-RII, β-catenin, CD44v6 and E-cadherin.Results: Of 64 cases, 33(51.6%) were intestinal type, 3(4.7%) were gastric type, 25(39.1%) were gastrointestinal type and 3(4.7%) were null type. Fifty-eight cases were either intestinal or gastrointestinal type, which accounted for 90.6% of all the cases. In addition, there was an association between phenotype and biological behaviors (invasion or metastasis). The biological behaviors of intestinal and gastrointestinal type were better than gastric type. Compared with intestinal, gastric and gastrointestinal types, the biological behaviors of null type were the most aggressive. The biological behaviors of gastric carcinoma tended to be better as the number of expression of intestinal markers increased. Expression of markers related to the development and progression of cancer was not significantly correlated with phenotypes

  12. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  13. Decreased expression of DICER1 in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-hong; SUN Xiu-ju; FU Wei-neng; GUAN Yi; GAO Feng; WANG Ying; SUN Kai-lai

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of epigenetics in gene expression regulation and development significantly enhances our understanding of carcinogenesis.All the tumor related genes may be the target of epigenetical or genetic regulation.We selected some epigenetically regulated genes for cDNA array analysis and observed variability in the expression of the DICER1 gene in distinct stages of gastric cancer.The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the expression of DICER1,an epigenetically regulated gene,and gastric cancer.Methods To detect the expression of 506 tumor-associated genes,including DICER1,in the matched cancerous mucosa,pre-malignant lesion (adjacent mucosa),non-cancerous gastric mucosa and distant lymphocyte metastatic lesion in 3 cases of gastric cancers using cDNA array.DICER1 mRNA expression and DICER1 protein expression were further analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot in 32 cases of progressive gastric cancer.DICER1 protein expression was also detected in 33 early and 30 progressive gastric cancers by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method.Results In 3 cases of gastric cancer cDNA array showed dramatically decreased expression of DICER1 in pre-malignant Iesion,cancerous mucosa and distant lymphocyte metastatic lesions compared with matched noncancerous gastric mucosa,pre-malignant lesion and cancerous mucosa.Real-time PCR results showed that the expression level of DICER1 mRNA in gastric cancer was significantly down-regulated compared to normal gastric tissue (P<0.05).The IHC assay also showed that the expression of DICER1 was significantly decreased in progressive gastric cancer.Among the 63 cases of gastric cancers,13/33 early(39.4%)and 19/30(63.3%)progressive cancers showed negative expression of DICER1(50.8%).The difference in expression of DICER1 between early and progressive gastric cancers was significant(P<0.01).The result of Western blotting showed that DICER1 protein was down-regulated significantly in advanced gastric cancer

  14. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  15. Alterations of serum cholinesterase in patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Zhi Gu; Xin-Han Zhao; Ping Quan; Sheng-Bin Li; Bo-Rong Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To understand the correlation of serum cholinesterase (CHE) activity with gastric cancer and to assess their clinical significance.METHODS: The velocity method was adopted to detect the activity of serum CHE in patients with gastric cancer and in patients with non-malignant tumor as controls.RESULTS: The serum CHE activity in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group with a very significant difference between the two groups (83.3:113.1,P = 0.0003). Age was significantly associated with the incidence of gastric caner.CONCLUSION: Serum CHE activity has a close relation with the incidence of gastric cancer.

  16. A Case of Safe Endoscopic Removal of a Gastric Bezoar

    OpenAIRE

    Tanioka, Yukari; Yanai, Hideo; Nakamura, Youhei; Okamoto, Takeshi; Saiki, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Okita, Kiwamu; Murashige, Takeyosi

    2004-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are relativery uncommon and have a reported incidence of 0.4%. Because of complications such as gastric ulcers, intestinal obstruction, and perforation, gastric bezoars need to be removed in some cases. We experienced a patient with a 5 x 6cm gastric bezoar. We could easily and safely break and remove it using standard endoscopic techniques. It was throught to a persimmon bezoar as the infrared (IR) spectrum was similar to that of tannic acid, which is a main component of the ...

  17. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  18. Influence of astragaloside on gastric mucosa of stress ulcer rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-wu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of astragaloside (AST) on the gastric mucosal injury of water immersion restraint stress ulcer rat. Methods The stress ulcer model was made by water immersion and restraint. The gastric mucosal injury index was observed. The SOD activity, the MDA contents and the gene expression of melatonin receptor 1 and 2 were detected in gastric mucosa. Results Compared with the normal group, the model group showed mucous edema, hyperemia and even ulcer damage. The injury index and the MDA content of gastric mucosa in model group were significantly increased (P<0.05), the SOD activity of gastric obviously depressed(P<0.01), and the melatonin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA expressions of damaged gastric mucosa were also lower. After administration of AST, the gastric mucosal ulcer index and MDA contents relieved obviously (P<0.01, P<0.05), the SOD activity and the expressions of melatonin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA raised up (P<0.01, P<0.05).Conclusions AST could prevent the gastric mucosal damage of rat in stress ulcer. And the mechanism of the gastric mucosal protection should be concerned with regulating the melatonin receptor and lessening the injury of oxygen free radical.

  19. Treatment of Rare Gastric Variceal Bleeding in Acute Pancreatitis Using Embolization of the Splenic Artery Combined with Short Gastric Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the acute stage of pancreatitis, sinistral portal hypertension is a rare reason for gastric variceal bleeding. Here we report a 20-year-old female patient with massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage 7 days after an episode of severe acute pancreatitis. Computed tomography showed gastric varices caused by splenic venous thrombosis. Emergency endoscopic examination was performed, however tissue adhesive utilized to restrain the bleeding was not successful. Although interventional therapy was controversial to treat the gastric variceal hemorrhage resulting from sinistral portal hypertension, the bleeding was successfully treated by embolization of the splenic artery combined with short gastric vein. Two weeks after the interventional the patient was discharged from our hospital without recurrence of bleeding. Embolization of the splenic artery combined with short gastric vein proved to be an effective emergency therapeutic method for gastric variceal bleeding caused by sinistral portal hypertension in the acute stage of pancreatitis.

  20. Predictive Gust Load Alleviation Control Using Leading Edge Stagnation Point Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc proposes an R&D effort to develop a Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) control system using a novel Leading Edge Stagnation Point (LESP) sensor...

  1. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this project is to develop and validate means to alert, constrain and thereby alleviate loss of control (LOC) associated with unfavorable pilot-vehicle...

  2. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improvements to aviation safety will be made by the development and validation of means to alleviate, alert, and inhibit loss of control associated with unfavorable...

  3. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  4. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; Westera, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011, 20-21 October). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. Presentation at 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Athens, Greece.

  5. Can we eradicate gastric MALT-lymphoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Zullo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of primary gastric lymphoma in Italy is considerably higher than that observed in the rest of Europe. It is widely accepted that gastric B-cell, low-grade mucosalassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is caused by specific host-bacterial interactions that occur during Helicobacter pylori infection. This review examines recent findings on the origins, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of gastric MALT lymphomas. Clinical and endoscopic findings at diagnosis vary widely. In a substantial number of cases, the patient presents only vague dyspeptic symptoms or poorly defined abdominal pain with no macroscopic lesions on the gastric mucosa. Review of data from 32 trials in which a total of 1,387 MALT-lymphoma patients of the stomach were treated solely with H. pylori eradication revealed high remission rates when the disease is treated early (stage I-II1. Neoplasia confined to the submucosa, antral localization of tumors, and negativity for the API2-MALT1 translocation were associated with a high probability of remission following H. pylori eradication. When the latter approach is not sufficient, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery are associated with high success rates; data on the efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy (rituximab are still limited. Five-year survival rates are higher than 90%. Patients whose tumors have been eliminated require close, long-term endoscopic follow-up since recurrence has been reported in some cases. Broader clinical follow-up is also advisable because the incidence of other solid tumors and of cardiovascular events is reportedly increased in these patients.

  6. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  7. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface MM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Megan M Boniface,1 Sachin B Wani,2 Tracey E Schefter,3 Phillip J Koo,4 Cheryl Meguid,1 Stephen Leong,5 Jeffrey B Kaplan,6 Lisa J Wingrove,7 Martin D McCarter1 1Section of Surgical Oncology, Division of GI, Tumor and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Therapeutic and Interventional Endoscopy, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, 4Division of Radiology-Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, 5Division of Medical Oncology, 6Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Denver, 7Department of Food and Nutrition Services, University of Colorado Hospital Cancer Center, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical, and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. Keywords: tumor board, upper gastrointestinal malignancies, patient centered

  8. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh P Dikshit; Garima Mathur; Sharayu Mhatre; Yeole, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer...

  9. Rare Case of Immature Gastric Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivascu M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are rare and complex tumors with components from more than one of the three germ cell layers. Teratomas range from benign, well-differentiated (mature cystic lesions to those that are solid and malignant (immature. The incidence of all teratomas is estimated at 1:10,000-1:20,000 newborns. Gastric teratomas represent only 1-2% of all teratomas.

  10. Giant gastric trichobezoar in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuowo, Abdulrazaq Akin; Saad, Anwar; Okonkwo, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions of undigested matter in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), most commonly in the stomach. The main predispositions to bezoar formation are, altered GIT anatomy or disordered GIT motility/physiology. Clinically, bezoars are classified according to their predominant component. Trichobezoars (composed mainly of hair) as a clinical entity are almost always associated with an underlying psychiatric disorder. We present below a case of giant gastric trichobezoar in a young female which was treated by gastrostomy and excision of the mass.

  11. Clinicopathologial features of gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma

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    Cheng-Yu Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma (GHA, a rare type of primary gastric cancer, is characterized by hepatocellular carcinoma-like histology. As details of this disease remain unknown, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of GHA. Methods: From January 2001 to December 2010, 4563 patients were diagnosed with primary gastric cancer at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center. Ten (0.22% of these patients were diagnosed with GHA. The clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were collected retrospectively. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 65.5 years, and six patients (60% were male. Seven patients had lymph node metastasis and five had distant metastasis, with the liver as the most common site (four cases. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels were elevated in seven of eight patients (median: 359.2 ng/ml; range: 4.3-6535.6 ng/ml. Endoscopically, six tumors were classified as Borrmann's type III cancer with the appearance of fungating mass lesion with a purple, berry-like surface. Of the five patients without distant metastasis, all received curative-intent surgery and four received adjuvant chemotherapy. Four patients with distant metastasis received either palliative operation or chemotherapy, and one patient received neither operation nor chemotherapy due to a poor performance status. The median survival time was 7.2 months (range: 0.7-131.8 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 20%. There was survival benefit in the chemotherapy groups. Conclusions: GHA is a rare subtype of gastric cancer which is prone to lymph node and liver metastasis. Most GHAs appear as Borrmann's type III fungating mass lesion with a purple, berry-like surface. Although the prognosis of advanced stage GHA is poor, chemotherapy might provide some benefit.

  12. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with multiple gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otowa, Yasunori; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Urade, Takeshi; Chono, Teruhiro; Morimoto, Haruki; Yokoyama, Kunio; Hirata, Kenro; Kawamura, Shiro; Shimada, Etsuji; Fujita, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an inflammation of the digestive tract that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. There are no specific symptoms, and are related to the layer in which eosinophilic infiltration is observed. A 69-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of general malaise, diarrhea, and dysgeusia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed reddish elevated lesions that were edematous all over the gastric mucosa. In addition, three tumors were also observed. The biopsies of the reddish elevated mucosa revealed eosinophilic infiltration and tubular adenocarcinoma from the tumors. Colonoscopy showed abnormal reddish elevated mucosa. The biopsies from the reddish elevated mucosa showed eosinophilic infiltration. From the abdominal contrast computed tomography scan, tumor stain was seen in the anterior wall of the gastric body. No ascites, intestinal wall thickening, or lymph node swelling were found. A slight elevation in the serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), 480 IU/ml, was found from the laboratory test results; other laboratory results were within normal limits including the number of peripheral eosinophils. No specific allergen was found from the multiple antigen simultaneous test and from the skin patch test. The parasitic immunodiagnosis was negative. He was diagnosed with EG associated with gastric cancer and underwent total gastrectomy, regional lymph node dissection with reconstruction by a Roux-en-Y method. He was prescribed prednisolone after the operation and showed a good clinical response. There are many case reports on EG, but none of them were associated with cancer. We encountered a case of EG associated with multiple gastric cancer; the patient underwent total gastrectomy.

  13. Gastric varices: Classification, endoscopic and ultrasonographic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices (GV are responsible for 10-30% of all variceal hemorrhage. However, they tend to bleed more severely with higher mortality. Around 35-90% rebleed after spontaneous hemostasis. Approximately 50% of patients with cirrhosis of liver harbor gastroesophageal varices. In this review, new treatment modalities in the form of endoscopic treatment options and interventional radiological procedures have been discussed besides discussion on classification and pathophysiology of GV.

  14. A case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a Shih Tzu dog: successful treatment of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Chun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jee, Cho-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Moon, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Cho, Kyu-Woan; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Ha, Jeongim; Jung, Dong-In

    2014-07-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu dog was referred to us, because of chronic vomiting. The patient's hematological, radiographic, ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological examinations were evaluated for diagnosis. Hematologic analysis indicated moderate anemia and azotemia. Based on the imaging studies, an oval-shaped mass was identified in the gastric pylorus area. A proliferative mass was found on endoscopic examination, and we performed biopsy using grasping forceps. The histopathological findings of the biopsy specimens indicated hypertrophic gastritis, and Y-U pyloroplasty was performed. However, histopathological examination of the surgically resected mass revealed tubular adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Then, carboplatin chemotherapy was performed 4 times for 13 weeks. Clinical signs, such as vomiting, were resolved gradually after surgery and chemotherapy, and the patient's condition was managed favorably until recently (30 months after surgery). This case report describes clinical features, imaging studies, endoscopic characteristics and histopathological and immunohistochemical features of gastric tubular adenocarcinoma as early gastric cancer in a dog.

  15. Expression of MTLC gene in gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Bin Qiu; Li-Guo Gong; Dong-Mei Hao; Zhi-Hong Zhen; Kai-Lai Sun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of c-myc target from laryngeal cancer cells (MTLC) gene in gastric carcinoma (GC)tissues and the effect of MTLC over-expression on gastric carcinoma cell line BGC823.METHODS: RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of MTLC mRNA in GC and matched control tissues.BGC823 cells were transfected with an expression vector pcDNA3.1-MTLC by liposome and screened by G418. Growth of cells expressing MTLC was observed daily by manual counting. Apoptotic cells were determined by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay.RESULTS: The expression of MTLC mRNAs was downregulated in 9(60%) of 15 cases of GC tissues. The growth rates of the BGC823 cells expressing MTLC were indistinguishable from that of control cells. A marked acceleration of apoptosis was observed in MTLC-expressing cells.CONCLUSION: MTLC was down-regulated in the majority of GC tissues and could promote apoptosis of GC cell lines,which suggests that MTLC may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

  16. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young; Penny, Robert; Gardner, Johanna; Kemkes, Ariane; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Curley, Erin; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Engel, Jay; Bartlett, John; Albert, Monique; Park, Do-Youn; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Landreneau, Rodney; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; Cho, Eunjung; Ladanyi, Marc; Tang, Laura; McCall, Shannon J.; Park, Young S.; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Ajani, Jaffer; Camargo, M. Constanza; Alonso, Shelley; Ayala, Brenda; Jensen, Mark A.; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Walton, Jessica; Wan, Yunhu; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Sheth, Margi; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Davidsen, Tanja; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Burton, Robert; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  17. Current Concepts on Gastric Carcinoid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Nikou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoid tumors (GCs are rare lesions representing less than 10% of carcinoid tumors and less than 1% of all stomach neoplasms. There are three distinct types of gastric carcinoids; type I includes the vast majority (70–85% of these neoplasms that are closely linked to chronic atrophic gastritis. Type II which accounts for 5–10 %, is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and often occurs in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Type III, finally, represents 15–25% of gastric carcinoids and is characterized by a far more aggressive course. The optimal clinical approach to GCs remains to be elucidated, depending upon type, size, and number of carcinoids. While there is universal agreement about the surgical treatment of type III GCs, current options for type I and II include simple surveillance, endoscopic polypectomy, surgical excision associated with or without surgical antrectomy, or total gastrectomy. Moreover, the introduction of somatostatin analogues could represent another therapeutic option.

  18. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisei Sako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.

  19. Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora C Botwinick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying (DGE are common after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Our aim was to investigate a potential relationship between atrial fibrillation and DGE, which we defined as failure to tolerate a regular diet by the 7(th postoperative day. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 249 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at our institution between 2000 and 2009. Data was analyzed with Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U or unpaired T-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the 249 patients included in the analysis experienced at least one episode of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Median age of patients with atrial fibrillation was 74 years, compared with 66 years in patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0005. Patients with atrial fibrillation were more likely to have a history of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03. 92% of the patients with atrial fibrillation suffered from DGE, compared to 46% of patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0007. This association held true when controlling for age. CONCLUSION: Patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation are more likely to experience delayed gastric emptying. Interventions to manage delayed gastric function might be prudent in patients at high risk for postoperative atrial fibrillation.

  20. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.